Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.Mannheimia haemolytica: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal: A chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of PIGS caused by MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE. Ninety percent of swine herds worldwide are infected with this economically costly disease that primarily affects animals aged two to six months old. The disease can be associated with porcine respiratory disease complex. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA is often found as a secondary infection.Pasteurellaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.Respiratory Tract DiseasesMycoplasma bovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.Pneumonia of Calves, Enzootic: Chronic endemic respiratory disease of dairy calves and an important component of bovine respiratory disease complex. It primarily affects calves up to six months of age and the etiology is multifactorial. Stress plus a primary viral infection is followed by a secondary bacterial infection. The latter is most commonly associated with PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA producing a purulent BRONCHOPNEUMONIA. Sometimes present are MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS and mycoplasma species.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Tylosin: Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.Carbofuran: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Thiamphenicol: A methylsulfonyl analog of CHLORAMPHENICOL. It is an antibiotic and immunosuppressive agent.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Bovine: A species of RESPIROVIRUS, subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, most often seen in conjunction with a secondary infection of MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA resulting in pneumonic pasteurellosis (PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC).Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine: A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis: A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
... are steers (castrated males) or heifers (females who have not dropped a calf) mature enough to be placed in a feedlot where they will be fattened prior to slaughter. Feeder calves are less than 1 year old; feeder yearlings are between 1 and 2 years old. Both types are often produced in a cow-calf operation. This article incorporates public domain material from the Congressional Research Service document "Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition" by Jasper Womach ...
... are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef. In beef production there are three main stages: cow-calf operations, backgrounding, and feedlot operations. When raised in a feedlot, cattle are known as feeder cattle. Many such feeder cattle are born in cow-calf operations specifically designed to produce beef calves. While the principal use of beef cattle is meat production, other uses include leather, and products used in shampoo and cosmetics. Besides breeding to meet the demand for beef production, owners also use selective breeding to attain specific traits in their beef cattle. An example of a desired trait could be leaner meat or resistance to illness. Breeds known as ...
... , 7 mi (11 km) west of Searchlight, Nevada in the Mojave Desert, was founded in 1931 by Rex Bell and Clara Bow as a working 400,000 acres (160,000 ha) ranch. The ranch covered 160 acres (65 ha) at the time it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 30, 2009. The ranch includes four buildings and is owned by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Over the years, Rex and Clara entertained many notable Hollywood figures, including Clark Gable, Carole Lombard, Errol Flynn, and Lionel Barrymore. The Walking Box Ranch was purchased by Bell from the Rock Springs Cattle Company. The company owned 1,000,000 acres (400,000 ha) in the Mojave Desert. The Nature Conservancy purchased 151,331 acres (61,241 ha) of land that surrounded the Walking Box Ranch in June 1994. The Walking Box Ranch was purchased by Las Vegas Gaming Investments in 2000 for $950,000. Listing on the National Register of Historic Places was one of the goals set out in April 2006 by the University ...
Sutherland, D.R., Abdullah, K.M., Cyopick, P. and Mellors, A. Cleavage of the cell-surface O-sialoglycoproteins CD34, CD 43, CD (1992). „44, and CD45 by a novel glycoprotease from Pasteurella haemolytica". J. Immunol. 148: 1458-1464. PMID 1371528 ...
... is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Bacteria from this family cause zoonotic infections in humans, which manifest themselves as skin or soft-tissue infections after an animal bite. It has been known to cause serious disease in immunocompromised patients. Pasteurella was first described around 1880 and thought to be associated with chicken cholera and hemorrhagic septicemia in animals. The genus was first cultured in 1885. In 1920, strains of Pasteurella were isolated and observed in human infections. "Micrococcus gallicidus" was the first scientific name used for these bacteria. For a short time, the bacteria were unofficially placed in different genera, such as Octopsis, Coccobacillus, and Eucystia. In 1887, genus "Pasteurella" was proposed to honor Louis Pasteur for his critical discoveries in the field of microbiology. Before molecular technology was available, species were often labeled based on ...
... ForMemRS (July 31, 1859 - December 10, 1934) was a pioneering epidemiologist and pathologist and is widely considered to be America's first internationally significant medical research scientist. Smith was born in Albany, New York, and received a Bachelor of Philosophy degree from Cornell University in 1881, followed by an MD from Albany Medical College in 1883. After his graduation from medical school, Smith held a variety of temporary positions which might broadly be considered under the modern heading of "medical laboratory technician". After some prodding by his former professors, Smith secured a new research lab assistant position with the Veterinary Division of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Washington, D.C., beginning his position there in December 1883. Smith became the Inspector of the newly created Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) in 1884. Established by Congress to combat a wide range of animal diseases-from infectious ...
... " non fu accolta positivamente dalla critica; solo in seguito fu riconosciuta come una canzone "cult". Stephen Thomas Erlewine di AllMusic scrisse che la canzone "brilla più di tutte" e va a coronare l'album che la contiene.[18] Heather Phares della stessa testata scrisse: "L'eisibizione della Dion a VH1 Divas, agli Oscar del 1998 (in cui indossava niente di meno che il "Cuore dell'oceano" del film), e il fatto che sia presente in Let's Talk About Love del '97 hanno fatto di "My Heart Will Go On" la quintessenza dello stile romantico della cantante".[19] Nonostante la grandissima popolarità del brano, Rolling Stone lo etichettò come la settima peggior canzone degli anni Novanta in una recensione del 2011, con la motivazione: "La canzone della Dion e il film sono invecchiati male... Ora [My Heart Will Go On] ci fa più storcere il naso che altro".[20] Yahoo.com descrisse la canzone come "una power ballad sentimentale che cattura perfettamente il romanticismo di ...
Musicalmente, si caratterizza come una delle poche canzoni blues mai composte dal pianista di Pinner, e proviene dall'album del 1981 The Fox. Nel pezzo spicca la chitarra, contrapposta, come in quasi tutto l'LP, agli arrangiamenti, opera di James Newton Howard (all'epoca tastierista di Elton). Il brano, classificabile nel blues rock, mette in evidenza speciali effetti elettronici (come dei phasers e il vocoder); il modo di cantare di Elton, inoltre, ricorda molto John Lennon[senza fonte]. Secondo AllMusic, la canzone segue lo stile di Stinker (proveniente dall'album del 1974 Caribou). Il testo di Osborne parla del rapporto che intercorreva all'epoca tra Elton e i mass media, le riviste, i giornalisti. Heart in the Right Place ha colpito positivamente buona parte della critica, così come tutto l'LP di provenienza[1]. ...
Lo filosòf grèc Aristòtel reconeis jà als vèrms de tèrra una activitat biologica essenciala, los nomenava los « intestins de la tèrra ». Charles Darwin es fòrça interessat al sòl coma supòrt de vida e produch de la vida. Foguèt un dels primièrs a reabilitar lo vèrm de tèrra, alara considerat coma noisible a l'agricultura. Darwin aviá observat que los rèstes arqueologics essent sovent protegits per lor aclapament pro rapid sota la tèrra producha a partir de la vegetacion mòrta e pes organismes del sòl. Contribuiguèt a far conéisser l'importança dels organismes escavaires coma lo vèrm de tèrra pels sòls[40]. Dins un obratge publicat lo 10 d'octobre de 1881 e titulat « The formation of vegetable mould through the action of worms with observations on their habits », « L'Origina des espècias »), tractèt de l'importança del trabalh de bioturbacion dels vèrms de tèrra sus la genèsi, l'erosion e la fertilitat del sòl. Un critica ne fa lo comentari seguent: « Al ...
... (NETs) are networks of extracellular fibers, primarily composed of DNA from neutrophils, which bind pathogens. Neutrophils are the immune system's first-line of defense against infection and have conventionally been thought to kill invading pathogens through two strategies: engulfment of microbes and secretion of anti-microbials. In 2004, a novel third function was identified: formation of NETs. NETs allow neutrophils to kill extracellular pathogens while minimizing damage to the host cells. Upon in vitro activation with the pharmacological agent phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), Interleukin 8 (IL-8) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), neutrophils release granule proteins and chromatin to form an extracellular fibril matrix known as NETs through an active process. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy has shown that NETs consist of stretches of DNA and globular protein domains with diameters of 15-17 nm and 25 nm, respectively. These aggregate into larger threads ...
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell". This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid (see extracellular matrix). The term is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). According to the Gene Ontology, the extracellular space is a cellular component defined as: "That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid. For multicellular organisms, the extracellular space refers to everything outside a cell, but still within the organism (excluding the extracellular matrix). Gene products from a multi-cellular organism that are secreted from a cell into the interstitial fluid or blood can therefore be annotated to this term".[1]. The composition of the extracellular space includes metabolites, ions, various proteins and non-protein substances (e.g. DNA, RNA, lipids, ...
In the mathematical discipline of general topology, a Polish space is a separable completely metrizable topological space; that is, a space homeomorphic to a complete metric space that has a countable dense subset. Polish spaces are so named because they were first extensively studied by Polish topologists and logicians-Sierpiński, Kuratowski, Tarski and others. However, Polish spaces are mostly studied today because they are the primary setting for descriptive set theory, including the study of Borel equivalence relations. Polish spaces are also a convenient setting for more advanced measure theory, in particular in probability theory. Common examples of Polish spaces are the real line, any separable Banach space, the Cantor space, and Baire space. Additionally, some spaces that are not complete metric spaces in the usual metric may be Polish; e.g., the open interval (0, 1) is Polish. Between any two uncountable Polish spaces, there is a Borel isomorphism; that is, a bijection that preserves ...
Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein family. SODs are antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of two superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. The product of this gene is thought to protect the brain, lungs, and other tissues from oxidative stress. The protein is secreted into the extracellular space and forms a glycosylated homotetramer that is anchored to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell surfaces through an interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycan and collagen. A fraction of the protein is cleaved near the C-terminus before secretion to generate circulating tetramers that do not interact with the ECM.[5] ...

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