Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Gravity Suits: Double-layered inflatable suits which, when inflated, exert pressure on the lower part of the wearer's body. The suits are used to improve or stabilize the circulatory state, i.e., to prevent hypotension, control hemorrhage, and regulate blood pressure. The suits are also used by pilots under positive acceleration.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Fluid Shifts: Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Flail Chest: A complication of multiple rib fractures, rib and sternum fractures, or thoracic surgery. A portion of the chest wall becomes isolated from the thoracic cage and exhibits paradoxical respiration.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.ManikinsHemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Lower Body Negative Pressure: External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Status Asthmaticus: A sudden intense and continuous aggravation of a state of asthma, marked by dyspnea to the point of exhaustion and collapse and not responding to the usual therapeutic efforts.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Noninvasive Ventilation: Techniques for administering artificial respiration without the need for INTRATRACHEAL INTUBATION.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.High-Frequency Ventilation: Ventilatory support system using frequencies from 60-900 cycles/min or more. Three types of systems have been distinguished on the basis of rates, volumes, and the system used. They are high frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV); HIGH-FREQUENCY JET VENTILATION; (HFJV); and high-frequency oscillation (HFO).Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Thoracoplasty: Surgical removal of ribs, allowing the chest wall to move inward and collapse a diseased lung. (Dorland, 28th ed)Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Bromodeoxycytidine: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxycytidine. Can be incorporated into DNA in the presence of DNA polymerase, replacing dCTP.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Thoracic Diseases: Disorders affecting the organs of the thorax.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Respiratory Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Polarography: An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Infant, Premature, DiseasesPhotosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 184.108.40.206.MalatesPosture: The position or attitude of the body.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Respiratory-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Arrhythmia, Sinus: Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Atractyloside: A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Tissues: Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
List of MeSH codes (E02)
... continuous positive airway pressure MeSH E02.880.820.790.520 --- intermittent positive pressure breathing MeSH E02.880.820.790. ... respiration, artificial MeSH E02.365.647.740 --- resuscitation orders MeSH E02.421.505.550 --- parenteral nutrition, home MeSH ... 550 --- Intermittent positive pressure ventilation MeSH E02.880.820.950 --- ventilator weaning MeSH E02.912.400.300 --- ... breathing exercises MeSH E02.190.525.217 --- hypnosis MeSH E02.190.525.217.100 --- autogenic training MeSH E02.190.525.217.771 ...
Spontaneous breathing trial
Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) less than 8 cm water "Minimal vent settings" e.g., ratio of arterial partial pressure ... The RSBI ("Riz-bee") is simply the ratio of respiratory frequency in respirations per minute to tidal volume in liters (f/Vt). ... Reduce pressure support to 5 cm water Reduce continuous positive airway pressure to 5 cm water Yang K, Tobin MJ, A prospective ... Trials of spontaneous breathing have been shown to accurately predict the success of spontaneous breathing. fraction of ...
Amphibians employ a positive pressure system to get air to their lungs, forcing air down into the lungs by buccal pumping. This ... In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes ... A rise in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and, to a lesser extent, a fall in the arterial partial pressure of ... Functional residual capacity cannot be measured by tests that rely on breathing out, as a person is only able to breathe a ...
Neonatal intensive care unit
... or even continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mechanical ventilation. Infant respiratory distress syndrome is the ... This is used for babies who can still breathe but need some respiratory support. Ventilator: This is a breathing machine that ... and blood pressure. Observation: Modern neonatal intensive care involves sophisticated measurement of temperature, respiration ... These include: Blood pressure monitor: The blood pressure monitor is a machine that's connected to a small cuff which wrapped ...
Intermittent mandatory ventilation
The ventilator varies the tidal volume and pressure based on the patients work of breathing, the amount it delivers is ... In this invention, the control algorithm computes the optimal rate of respiration to minimize the work rate of breathing. The ... Adaptive Support Ventilation is a positive pressure mode of mechanical ventilation that is closed-loop controlled. In this mode ... The lung mechanics data are used to adjust the depth and rate of breaths to minimize the work rate of breathing. In the ASV ...
... treatment and in hyperbaric oxygen therapy Patients who are unable to breathe on their own will require positive pressure to ... a basic pocket mask adjunct which can be used by a basically trained first aider to manually deliver artificial respiration ... In most cases, the oxygen will first pass through a pressure regulator, used to control the high pressure of oxygen delivered ... This lower pressure is then controlled by a flowmeter, which may be preset or selectable, and this controls the flow in a ...
... positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, ... and internal respiration. It may take the form of manually providing air for a person who is not breathing or is not making ... Artificial ventilation, also called artificial respiration is any means of assisting or stimulating respiration, a metabolic ... George Edward Fell's "Fell method" or "Fell Motor", consisting of a bellows and a breathing valve to pass air through a ...
Neonatal intensive care unit
Oxygenation, through oxygen supplementation by head hood or nasal cannula, or even continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ... Much was learned about feeding-frequent, tiny feeds seemed best-and breathing. Oxygen was given freely until the end of the ... Observation: Modern neonatal intensive care involves sophisticated measurement of temperature, respiration, cardiac function, ... Blood pressure monitor: The blood pressure monitor is a machine that's connected to a small cuff which wrapped around the arm ...
Respiration. Main article: Breathing. Respiration is the rhythmical process of breathing, in which air is drawn into the ... When the diaphragm relaxes, a positive pressure is generated in the thorax and air rushes out of the alveoli expelling the ... The diaphragm is also the main muscle of respiration involved in breathing, and is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system ... Air is breathed in through the nose or the mouth. In the nasal cavity, a layer of mucous membrane acts as a filter and traps ...
Conversely, inserting a tube that is too small can result in inability to achieve effective positive pressure ventilation due ... The tube is then secured to the face or neck and connected to a T-piece, anesthesia breathing circuit, bag valve mask device, ... 345-70 Booth, A. W. G.; Vidhani, K.; Lee, P. K.; Thomsett, C.-M. (2017-03-01). "SponTaneous Respiration using IntraVEnous ... Cricoid pressure is often confused with the "BURP" (Backwards Upwards Rightwards Pressure) maneuver. While both of these ...
John Haven Emerson
Respiration Without Breathing Branson, pp. 568-570 Rabinowitch, Eugene (1961). Robert Emmerson:A biographical Memoir (PDF). ... His final improvement was the addition of a transparent positive pressure dome, allowing ventilation when the chamber was ... web site Paralysis and Profits Transcript of a 1985 lecture by Emerson Respiration Without Breathing: The Thunberg Barospirator ... In 1928, he designed a Barcroft-Warburg apparatus for tissue respiration studies. In 1930, he designed a new type of ...
Vocal cord dysfunction
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation can be used if a patient's vocal cords adduct (close) during exhalation. Mild ... and upper body and bring attention to the flow of air during respiration. Diaphragm support during breathing decreases muscle ... The aim of Biofeedback is to educate the client on what happens to the vocal cords during breathing and to help them learn to ... These techniques are meant to move awareness away from the act of breathing in and focus on the auditory feedback provided by ...
Amphibians employ a positive pressure system to get air to their lungs, forcing air down into the lungs by buccal pumping. This ... In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes ... who use a breathing system driven by negative pressure where the lungs are inflated by expanding the rib cage. In buccal ... Functional residual capacity cannot be measured by tests that rely on breathing out, as a person is only able to breathe a ...
Positive end-expiratory pressure will generally improve oxygenation. Underwater diving portal Free-diving, for more on the ... The diver should breathe normally in preparation for a dive, and allow the normal breathing triggers to dictate the rate of ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration, another condition involving oxygen / carbon dioxide imbalance and which can affect healthy ... At the surface, the air in the lungs is under 1 atmosphere of pressure; at 10 metres, the water pressure doubles the pressure ...
These belts expand and contract upon breathing effort. However, this method of respiration may also produce false positives. ... CPAP is continuous positive airway pressure and is delivered via a mask to the patient's nose or the patient's nose and mouth ... This allows the clinician/researcher to measure the rate of respiration and identify interruptions in breathing. Respiratory ... Thus, the pressure transducer and thermocouple will detect this diminished airflow and the respiratory event may be falsely ...
... and test that the breathing loop is airtight for internal pressure lower and higher than the outside. The positive pressure ... In-water artificial respiration CPR on land or a boat Oxygen first aid on land or a boat General First aid More than one ... Barotrauma of ascent is caused by pressure differences between the decreasing ambient pressure and the internal pressure of gas ... Barotrauma of descent is caused by pressure differences between the increasing ambient pressure and the internal pressure of ...
While the less-severely ill patients preferred IPPV (intermittent positive pressure ventilation), IAPV was found to be best for ... Woollam, C. H. M. (1976). "The development of apparatus for intermittent negative pressure respiration". Anaesthesia. 31: 666- ... Paul in 1933 for patients unable to breathe for themselves due to illness. It was the first 'Intermittent Abdominal Pressure ... This method is now described as 'intermittent abdominal pressure ventilation', in contrast to negative pressure ventilators, ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The greatest reduction in air flow occurs when breathing out, as the pressure in the chest is compressing the airways at this ... 2 levels) non-invasive positive pressure ventilation decreases the probability of death or the need of intensive care admission ... "Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases. 85 (3): 179-92. doi:10.1159/000346525. PMID 23364286.. ... In COPD, breathing out may take longer than breathing in. Chest tightness may occur, but is not common and may be ...
Acute inhalation injury
Inexpensive positive-pressure devices that can be used easily in a mass casualty situation, and drugs to prevent inflammation ... Hydrogen sulfide is also a potent cellular toxin, blocking the cytochrome system and inhibiting cellular respiration. More ... right to left shunt and the work of breathing. In addition, lymphatic drainage of lung units appears to be curtailed-stunned by ... Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS to improve oxygenation. ...
In its simplest form, a modern positive pressure ventilator consists of a compressible air reservoir or turbine, air and oxygen ... forcing breathing gases into the patient's lungs. The inflation pressure could be varied by sliding the movable weight on top ... Geddes LA (2007). "The history of artificial respiration". IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine. 26 (6): 38-41. ... Noninvasive methods, such as Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and Non-invasive ventilation, which are adequate for ...
... over the nostrils that utilizes a person's own breathing to create positive airway pressure to prevent obstructed breathing.[71 ... In pure central sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes respiration, the brain's respiratory control centers are imbalanced during sleep. ... the most common treatment is the use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or automatic positive airway pressure ( ... "Randomized controlled trial of variable-pressure versus fixed-pressure continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for ...
Intermittent positive pressure respiration during the 1952 polio-epidemic in Copenhagen". https://web.archive.org/web/ ... or negative pressure cuirass ventilation. Humans, like most mammals, breathe by negative pressure breathing: the rib cage ... Positive pressure ventilation systems are now more common than negative pressure systems. Positive pressure ventilators work by ... has been almost entirely superseded by positive pressure ventilation (forcing air into the lungs with a pressure greater than 1 ...
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bi-level positive airway ... painful breathing or difficulty breathing) is commonly seen, and tolerance for exercise may be lowered. Rapid breathing and a ... People with signs of inadequate respiration or oxygenation may need to be intubated and mechanically ventilated. Mechanical ... Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), which delivers air at a given pressure at the end of the expiratory cycle, can reduce ...
Heated humidified high-flow therapy
Its mechanism of action is the application of mild positive airway pressure and lung volume recruitment. HFT, the clinician can ... High-flow therapy is useful in patients that are spontaneously breathing but have an increased work of breathing. Conditions ... Booth, A. W. G.; Vidhani, K.; Lee, P. K.; Thomsett, C.-M. (2017-03-01). "SponTaneous Respiration using IntraVEnous anaesthesia ... Even with quiet breathing, the inspiratory flow rate at the nares of an adult usually exceeds 12 liters a minute, and can ...
With positive outcomes following cardiac arrest unlikely, an effort has been spent in finding effective strategies to prevent ... Either a bag valve mask or an advanced airway may be used to help with breathing. High levels of oxygen are generally given ... This is most commonly the result of longstanding high blood pressure which has caused secondary damage to the wall of the main ... and even then that it should be viewed in conjunction with other indicators such as agonal respiration. Various other methods ...
These early respiratory care units utilized a negative and positive pressure unit called the "Iron Lung" to aid patients in ... and weakness of the muscles required to breathe (such as the diaphragm). Besides dealing with critical illness of the nervous ... Monitor respiration and respiratory assistance, if necessary to maintain hemodynamic stability . Tissue plasminogen activator: ... Bjørn Aage Ibsen, a physician in Denmark, "birthed the intensive care unit", when he used tracheostomy and positive pressure ...
In continuous positive airway pressure, constant pressure is maintained throughout cycles of respiration with no additional ... It assists patients who can spontaneously breathe. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation delivers end-expiratory pressure ... In bilevel positive airway pressure, both expiratory positive airway pressure and inspiratory positive airway pressure are set ... Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is the delivery of positive pressure ventilation through a tight-fitting mask that ...
Central sleep apnea
Cheyne-Stokes respiration is characterized by periodic breathing featuring recurrent episodes of apnea alternating with ... Devices tailored to this purpose are known as BiPAP ("bilevel positive airway pressure") devices. Both CPAP and BiPAP devices ... The sleeper stops breathing for up to two minutes and then starts again. There is no effort made to breathe during the pause in ... attempts to breathe and may even be correlated with more effortful breathing in an instinctive attempt to overcome the pressure ...
Outdoor Emergency Care
Positive-pressure ventilation using a bag valve mask device. Use of body substance isolation, assessing and maintaining scene ... OEC Technician training focuses primarily on assessing and treating immediate life threats to the patients' Airway, Breathing, ... respirations, eye and skin signs, and lung sounds through auscultation. Eye irrigation. Application of soft and rigid splints ... Relieving pressure from a subungual haemotoma. Maintaining manual, in-line stabilization of the spine, including long spine ...
Clinical review: liberation from mechanical ventilation. - PubMed - NCBI
Patente US3630196 - Manual positive pressure breathing device - Google Patentes
Bennett Respiration Products I. Pressure breathing therapy unit. US3301255 *. 18 Oct 1963. 31 Ene 1967. Thompson Harris A. ... 1. In a manual positive pressure breathing device adapted to be connected to a source of gas under pressure, a venturi assembly ... 3. In a manual positive pressure breathing device adapted to be connected to a source of gas under pressure, a venturi assembly ... 6. In a manual positive pressure breathing device adapted to be connected to the source of gas under pressure, a venturi ...
Mechanical work on the lungs and work of breathing with positive end-expiratory pressure and continuous positive airway pressure
... was compared with different methods of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in nine young healthy athletes (surfers) at ... The mechanical work on the lung required during spontaneous breathing with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ... Mechanical work on the lungs and work of breathing with positive end-expiratory pressure and continuous positive airway ... The mechanical work on the lung required during spontaneous breathing with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was compared ...
Influence of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and positive end-expiratory pressure on breathing pattern in rabbits with...
... on the control of breathing in rabbits with acute lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: Experimental lab ... Positive-Pressure Respiration. Rabbits. Respiration*. Respiration, Artificial / methods*. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult ... Influence of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and positive end-expiratory pressure on breathing pattern in rabbits with ... Four hours of breathing with NAVA restored breathing pattern and neural and mechanical breathing efforts to pre-lung injury ...
Preoperative intermittent positive pressure respiration as preparation for emergency valvular surgery for pulmonary edema.
Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing*. Male. Positive-Pressure Respiration*. Preoperative Care. Pulmonary Edema / etiology ... 340419 - Preoperative intermittent positive pressure respiration as preparation for emergency va.... 18325089 - Ability of ... advantageous in that it permits improvements of the patients condition by means of intermittent positive pressure respiration ... 9219119 - Determining blood pressure in pregnancy. positional hydrostatic effects.. 7916759 - Improvements on a design of ...
Patent US5540221 - Resuscitator - Google Patents
... the second leg being adapted for connection to a subject interface member such as a breathing mask. An oxygen reservoir bag ... Bennett Respiration Products I. Positive pressure breathing apparatus. US3009459 *. Sep 12, 1957. Nov 21, 1961. Henning Ruben. ... Automatic positive pressure breathing machine. US2834339 *. Dec 14, 1955. May 13, 1958. ... Hence, it cannot create either the negative pressure required to draw air into the inlet or the positive pressure to expel the ...
Cell respiration | definition of cell respiration by Medical dictionary
What is cell respiration? Meaning of cell respiration medical term. What does cell respiration mean? ... Looking for online definition of cell respiration in the Medical Dictionary? cell respiration explanation free. ... See also intermittent positive-pressure ventilation.. costal respiration. the respiratory movements are mostly carried out by ... artificial respiration see artificial respiration.. Biots respiration breathing characterized by irregular periods of apnea ...
Anerobic respiration | definition of Anerobic respiration by Medical dictionary
What is Anerobic respiration? Meaning of Anerobic respiration medical term. What does Anerobic respiration mean? ... Looking for online definition of Anerobic respiration in the Medical Dictionary? Anerobic respiration explanation free. ... See also intermittent positive-pressure ventilation.. costal respiration. the respiratory movements are mostly carried out by ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration. breathing characterized by rhythmic waxing and waning of respiration depth, with regularly recurring ...
Effect of different inspiratory rise time and cycling off criteria during pressure support ventilation in patients recovering...
... at 15 cm H2O of pressure support ventilation, the lowest cycling off criteria reduces the respiratory rate and increases the ... Our results suggest that in patients recovering from acute lung injury during pressure support ventilation, a) the shortest ... Positive-Pressure Respiration / methods* * Pulmonary Gas Exchange * Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / therapy* ... at 5 and 15 cm H2O of pressure support. Respiratory rate, tidal volume, and inspiratory and expiratory work of breathing (WOBI ...
Ventilation Management | Encyclopedia.com
... providing optimal mechanical ventilation in order to promote the patients recovery and to reestablish spontaneous breathing. ... Ventilator -Device used to provide assisted respiration and positive pressure breathing.. Vital capacity -Maximum volume of air ... Pressure support ventilation (PSV) augments the patients spontaneous inspiration with a positive pressure "boost." This ... the ventilator mode may be changed to constant positive airway pressure (CPAP) as a final trial of spontaneous breathing prior ...
Dr. James Andry, MD | San Antonio, TX | Healthgrades
Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Reducing Oxidative Stress in Individuals With Sleep Apnea - Full Text View -...
Sleep-Disordered Breathing. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Apnea. Cardiovascular Diseases. Sleep Apnea Syndromes. Respiration ... Device: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Participants will use the higher pressure CPAP, as determined by an in- ... Participants will receive continuous positive airway pressure for a 2 month period. The optimal treatment pressure will be ... Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Reducing Oxidative Stress in Individuals With Sleep Apnea (SASS). The safety ...
Canisius S[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Work of Breathing in Fixed and Pressure Relief Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (C-Flex™): A post hoc Analysis. ... Respiration. 2009;78(2):168-76. doi: 10.1159/000189210. Epub 2008 Dec 22. ... SRC3 Phosphorylation at Serine 543 Is a Positive Independent Prognostic Factor in ER-Positive Breast Cancer. ... Detection of sleep disordered breathing by automated ECG analysis.. Canisius S, Ploch T, Gross V, Jerrentrup A, Penzel T, ...
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and Acetazolamide to Treat Sleep Apnea Syndrome Patients at Altitude
... clinicaltrials.gov The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in ... Intermittent Positive-pressure Breathing. Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration. ... Positive-pressure Respiration, Intrinsic. Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients ... It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). ...
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and Cardiometabolic Risk - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Impact of Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing With Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) on Cardiometabolic Risk ... The BiPAP machine delivers two levels of pressure. Inspiratory Positive Airway Pressure (IPAP) is a high amount of pressure, ... Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and Cardiometabolic Risk. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... study is that children with sleep disordered breathing will benefit from treatment with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure ( ...
Patente US6182657 - Pressure control in CPAP treatment or assisted respiration - Google Patentes
The pressure of breathable gas exiting a flow generator (10) is controlled by adjusting the efficiency of the flow generator. ... Method and apparatus for providing proportional positive airway pressure to treat sleep disordered breathing. ... in which case a near zero positive pressure (or at least a very low positive pressure) occurs at the outlet 22. In practice, ... Pressure regulating valve for use in continuous positive airway pressure devices. US6820618. 3 Sep 2002. 23 Nov 2004. ...
47-4041.00 - Hazardous Materials Removal Workers
Respiration air supplying self contained breathing apparatus or accessories - Positive pressure self contained breathing ... Positive displacement pumps - Positive displacement vacuum equipment *Power grinders - Handheld concrete and coating removal ... Wear Specialized Protective or Safety Equipment such as Breathing Apparatus, Safety Harness, Full Protection Suits, or ... Hand sprayers - Chemical solution sprayers; High-pressure water sprayers *Hazardous material protective apparel - Chemical ...
US20020162553A1 - Portable gas powered positive pressure breathing apparatus and method - Google Patents
At least one manually adjustable back pressure regulator is connected to the pressure source and the reference chamber for ... and inlet to the breathing appliance) at a selected level above atmospheric pressure. ... A portable positive pressure breathing apparatus includes a demand valve with a supply inlet port adapted to be connected to a ... pressurized source of oxygen and an outlet port adapted to be connected to the inlet of a patients breathing appliance. The ...
Efficacy of Automated Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Children With Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in an Attended...
16 An apnea was defined as a cessation of respiration of any duration and was subdivided into central, mixed, and obstructive. ... SRBD, sleep-related breathing disorder, CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure, Auto-CPAP, automated CPAP, Sao2, arterial ... Efficacy of Automated Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Children With Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in an Attended ... Efficacy of Automated Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Children With Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in an Attended ...
Comparitive Anatomy Flashcards by sara sunflower | Brainscape
Exercise-Induced Asthma - Asthma, Exercise Induced Summary Report | CureHunter
Comparison of Pressure Support and Pressure Control Ventilation in Chronic Respiratory Failure
... clinicaltrials.gov This study is looking at whether there is a difference in outcomes using two different types of breathing ... Positive-pressure Respiration. A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas ... Pressure-support ventilation or T-piece spontaneous breathing trials for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - ... Intermittent Positive-pressure Ventilation. Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an ...
Ethylene Glycol | Medical Management Guidelines | Toxic Substance Portal | ATSDR
It is combustible and has a low vapor pressure. Ethylene glycol is a very useful industrial compound because of its low ... Positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) is recommended under these circumstances. ... Evaluate and support airway, breathing, and circulation. In cases of respiratory compromise secure airway and respiration via ... Skin contact with liquid ethylene glycol or breathing low levels of vapors in the air is generally not harmful or causes only ...
Sleep Disorders facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Sleep Disorders
The pressure to breathe builds up until the sleeper gasps for air. These episodes may occur hundreds of times a night and are ... A technique called continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) pushes air into the sleepers throat all night through a small ... condition is generally caused either by a physical obstruction of the upper airway or an impairment of the brains respiration ... The brain stem controls the basic functions of life, such as breathing and blood pressure.. Melatonin appears to be part of the ...
SimNewB® | Laerdal Medical
Breathing/Respirations. Spontaneous breathing, with variable rate. Bilateral and unilateral chest rise and fall with mechanical ... Positive-pressure ventilation. Right mainstem intubation. Suctioning. Variable lung resistance. Gastric tube insertion. ... lungs to succeed in assisting with first breaths by use of positive pressure airway devices and the placement of oral or nasal ... Breathing complications. Pneumothorax. Unilateral chest movement with mechanical ventilation. Unilateral breath sounds. ...
SimNewB | Laerdal Medical
Breathing/Respirations. Spontaneous breathing, with variable rate. Bilateral and unilateral chest rise and fall with mechanical ... Positive-pressure ventilation. Right mainstem intubation. Suctioning. Variable lung resistance. Gastric tube insertion. ... Breathing complications. Pneumothorax. Unilateral chest movement with mechanical ventilation. Unilateral breath sounds. ... Vocal: Grunt breathing, crying, hiccups and others. Lung: Normal, stridor, pneumonia and others. Heart: Normal, diastolic ...
Heptachlor/Heptachlor Epoxide | Medical Management Guidelines | Toxic Substance Portal | ATSDR
Respiratory Protection: Positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) is recommended in response situations that ... Heptachlor may suppress cellular respiration. Acute Exposure. Extremely limited data are available regarding heptachlor-induced ... Higher adult systolic pressures may necessitate lower perfusion rates. For children with compromised perfusion, administer a 20 ... For adults with systolic pressure less than 80 mm Hg, bolus perfusion of 1,000 mL/hour intravenous saline or lactated Ringers ...
Clinical Practice Guidelines : Major paediatric trauma - the primary survey
If breathing is inadequate, exclude a tension pneumothorax, use positive pressure ventilation with bag/valve/mask and consider ... the effectiveness of breathing (oxygen saturation, chest expansion, breath sounds). *the effects of inadequate respiration ( ... Breathing. *Apply oxygen 10 l/min by face mask.. *Assess the childs breathing by observing: *the work of breathing (recession ... the pulse rate, skin colour, capillary refill time, blood pressure. *the effects of an inadequate circulation (respiratory rate ...
CPAPVentilationApneaContinuousPulmonaryCheyne-Stokes RespSpontaneouslyWork of BreathingArtificialMechanicalLungsPatient'sOxygen saturationApparatusCutaneousObstructiveIntubated patientsIntrathoracic pressureChestSpontaneous respirationDecreaseAerobic respirationCellular respirationCarbon dioxideEtiologyPeriodicVentilatorAirway pressuresOccursBACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIONRespiratorExpiratory Positive Airway PExpirationAbnormalPEEPCardiacBiPAPVertebratesBreathAcute lung iDiaphragmMiddle AgedBlood pressureInterventionsInvention
- The mechanical work on the lung required during spontaneous breathing with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was compared with different methods of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in nine young healthy athletes (surfers) at levels of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, with methods of CPAP that maintained the airway pressure (Paw) constant, the total work per minute decreased by 45 per cent at a PEEP of 10 cm H2O and remained at this level with PEEP of 15 and 20 cm H2O. (nih.gov)
- This invention relates to apparatus and methods for the control of pressure in the administration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment or assisted respiration. (google.es)
- It has been postulated that CPAP treatment effectively acts as a pneumatic splint of a patient's upper airway by providing air or breathable gas at a pressure elevated above atmospheric pressure to the entrance of the patient's airway. (google.es)
- CPAP treatment can be in a number of forms, including (i) the maintenance of a constant treatment pressure level, (ii) alternating between two constant levels in synchronism with the inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration ("bi-level CPAP"), and (iii) having an autosetting level in accordance with a patient's therapeutic needs. (google.es)
- If the patient tolerates SIMV weaning, the ventilator mode may be changed to constant positive airway pressure (CPAP) as a final trial of spontaneous breathing prior to removing the endotracheal tube. (encyclopedia.com)
- CPAP maintains constant positive pressure in the airways, which facilitates gas exchange in the alveoli. (encyclopedia.com)
- PSV is often used with the CPAP mode to further decrease the work of breathing. (encyclopedia.com)
- It is believed that treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may reduce certain risk factors for heart disease, including markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- CPAP helps improve overnight breathing and quality of sleep and may, in turn, decrease oxidative stress and associated CVD risks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- During the first study visit, participants will undergo a CPAP titration study, which will involve appropriate CPAP mask fitting and an overnight sleep test to determine the best CPAP pressure, as well as a lower placebo pressure, for each participant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- After the titration study, participants will be asked to wear their fitted CPAP mask every night for the next 2 weeks, during which they will use the lower (placebo) pressure one week and use the higher pressure the other week. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Participants will then be randomly assigned to use either the higher pressure CPAP or the lower pressure CPAP for 8 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This fourth study visit will mark the completion of treatment for participants assigned to the lower pressure CPAP. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) commonly affects therapeutic response in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). (bioportfolio.com)
- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective treatment of severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but poor compliance is a major limitation. (bioportfolio.com)
- Efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and insulin resistance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (bioportfolio.com)
- The hypothesis for this study is that children with sleep disordered breathing will benefit from treatment with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) or Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) in terms of reduction in cardiovascular risk markers and insulin resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The CPAP machine delivers a predetermined level of pressure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of automated continuous positive airway pressure (Auto-CPAP) in children. (aappublications.org)
- We demonstrate that Auto-CPAP is able to detect abnormal breathing events during sleep in children and may provide the necessary pressure to correct these events. (aappublications.org)
- Auto-CPAP can be used safely for pressure titration in an attended setting. (aappublications.org)
- The variable pressure response of Auto-CPAP allows for treatment under different situations such as upper airway infections, different sleeping positions, and changes in weight. (aappublications.org)
- Auto-CPAP may be able to adjust to these changing pressure requirements. (aappublications.org)
- One application of such breathing masks is represented by so-called CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) respirators. (google.com)
- These breathing masks are usually designed as nose or mouth-and-nose masks, which are connected, for supplying the breathing mask, with flexible tubes, via which they are supplied from a CPAP respirator. (google.com)
- The putting on of the mask by means of a strap and the use of separate flexible tubes for feeding the breathing gas from the respirator or CPAP respirator to the breathing mask creates a highly technical mechanical impression. (google.com)
- The authors hypothesized that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves postoperative oxygenation and SDB and mitigates opioid-induced respiratory depression. (asahq.org)
- In a randomized crossover trial, patients after bariatric surgery received 30% oxygen in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) under two conditions: atmospheric pressure and CPAP (8 to 10 cm H 2 O). During 1 h of each treatment, breathing across cortical arousal states was analyzed using polysomnography and spirometry. (asahq.org)
- 2,3 If he or she passes the screen, you may consider adjusting the ventilator to provide no or reduced breathing support (less than 7 cmH 2 O inspiratory pressure), for example, via pressure support, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or ventilation with a T-piece. (medtronic.com)
- The device resembles CPAP machines (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) and uses the same masks, hoses, and attachments. (sleepassociation.org)
- While CPAP provides one continuous pressure, and BiPAP provides two pressures (on inhale and exhale), ASV adjusts the pressure based on an algorithm. (sleepassociation.org)
- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a treatment modality for pulmonary oxygenation difficulties. (springer.com)
- It differs from the CPAP device in that it provides different pressures: higher during inspiration, lower during expiration. (brainscape.com)
- Many EMS providers have recently started using Constant or Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy. (ems1.com)
- The Boussignac CPAP is a respiratory aid device for patients breathing spontaneously. (ems1.com)
- Pressure is generated by the injection of gases passing through micro-capillaries (located all around the CPAP device) increasing in speed and generating turbulence therefore creating a "virtual valve. (ems1.com)
- With a real CPAP machine, the airway pressures remain positive during both inspiration and expiration. (ems1.com)
- Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea includes the use of positive airway pressure with CPAP and BPAP, as well as weight loss and oral appliances. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Third, prevention of CSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may contribute to improved outcome in CHF. (ahajournals.org)
- Three patients required continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) support only, with no inotropics needed. (scielo.org.za)
- The application of stable continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) via the nose (nasal CPAP) has been the mainstay of treatment since the early 1980s. (ersjournals.com)
- To be effective, the level of nasal CPAP must exceed the critical closing pressure of the upper airway [ 2 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- This concept is crucial to the contention that titration of nasal CPAP should be carried out to determine the exact "dose" of pressure that will prevent upper airway obstruction in all sleep states and body postures [ 3 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- The authors concluded that predicted pressure constitutes a good starting point for CPAP titration, allowing the optimum pressure to be achieved with only a few incremental changes [ 6 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Auto-adjustable CPAP (A-CPAP) devices are designed to detect the presence (or absence) of respiratory disturbances and to adjust the pressure in response to the appearance (or disappearance) of certain respiratory events [ 7 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Many practitioners have abandoned the classical CPAP titration approach and prescribe A-CPAP using a pressure range between reasonable lower and upper pressure limits. (ersjournals.com)
- The aim of the present article is to review recent evidence with respect to the principles and practice of nasal CPAP therapy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). (ersjournals.com)
- Moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been documented in about 20% of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard for OSA treatment, but very few studies have investigated the effects of CPAP on quality of life, cardiac function, and outcome in HF-REF patients. (springermedizin.de)
- They had put something called CPAP (continuous-positive-airway-pressure) on her nose that gave some pressure when she exhaled, so that she wouldn't have to work so hard to breath in again. (oocities.org)
- The invention relates to a nebuliser system comprising a nebuliser for assisted breathing devices, such as continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices. (sumobrain.com)
- Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) and CPAP are used to enhance breathing parameters such as functional residual capacity (FRC) in patients. (rcjournal.com)
- Twenty healthy subjects breathed with 2 PEP devices, a PEP mask (flow resistor) and a PEP bottle (threshold resistor), and 2 CPAP devices, a flow resistor and a threshold resistor, in a randomized order. (rcjournal.com)
- CPAP means spontaneous breathing at an elevated pressure. (rcjournal.com)
- Unlike PEP, where airway pressure is negative during inhalation, breathing with CPAP keeps the airway pressure positive throughout the respiratory cycle. (rcjournal.com)
- 1 , 2 Regardless of the resistor, the velocity of air-flow delivered by a CPAP device to the patient needs to be higher than the patient's peak inspiratory air flow to minimize work of breathing. (rcjournal.com)
- FRC and inspiratory capacity (IC) comprise the total lung capacity (TLC), and theoretically, an increase in FRC in response to PEP or CPAP breathing would be reflected as a decrease in IC. (rcjournal.com)
- By getting help from CPAP machines and CPAP nasal masks (or CPAP nasal pillows ), you'll be able to regulate your breathing while you sleep, and you'll wake up feeling human again. (cpapclinic.ca)
- Without CPAP therapy, you may set yourself up for a host of grave health problems down the line, including cardiovascular problems, such as strain on the heart and high blood pressure. (cpapclinic.ca)
- With many mechanical ventilators, it is possible to modify the time to reach the selected airway pressure and the criteria for cycling off the inflation during pressure support ventilation. (nih.gov)
- At both levels of pressure support ventilation, the shortest inspiratory rise time significantly reduced the WOBI from 0.77 +/- 0.32 to 0.56 +/- 0.23 J/L and from 0.24 +/- 0.28 to 0.08 +/- 0.09 J/L without affecting respiratory rate or tidal volume. (nih.gov)
- At 15 cm H2O of pressure support ventilation, the lowest cycling off criteria significantly reduced respiratory rate from 24.9 +/- 12.1 to 21.5 +/- 12.7 beats/min and increased tidal volume from 0.51 +/- 0.17 to 0.60 +/- 0.26 L. At both levels of pressure support ventilation, the modification of cycling off criteria did not influence WOBI and WOBE. (nih.gov)
- and b) at 15 cm H2O of pressure support ventilation, the lowest cycling off criteria reduces the respiratory rate and increases the tidal volume without modifying the WOBI and WOBE. (nih.gov)
- Modifications of inspiratory rise time and cycling off criteria must be carefully adjusted during pressure support ventilation. (nih.gov)
- Ventilation management involves providing optimal mechanical ventilation in order to promote the patient's recovery and to reestablish spontaneous breathing. (encyclopedia.com)
- Mechanical ventilation is used when a patient is unable to breathe adequately on their own. (encyclopedia.com)
- The purpose of ventilation management is to "breathe for them" until they are sufficiently recovered to initiate respiration. (encyclopedia.com)
- These include T-piece, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure support ventilation. (encyclopedia.com)
- Pressure support ventilation (PSV) augments the patient's spontaneous inspiration with a positive pressure "boost. (encyclopedia.com)
- If breathing is inadequate, exclude a tension pneumothorax, use positive pressure ventilation with bag/valve/mask and consider intubation. (rch.org.au)
- We hypothesize that one type of breathing support: pressure support ventilation would be more comfortable for patients as it more closely matches a patient's own respiratory pattern and and so leads to improved adherence and consequent improvement in quality of life. (bioportfolio.com)
- Patients with respiratory failure will be randomly assigned to receive either pressure support ventilation or pressure control ventilation for the first 6 weeks and then cross-over to receive the mode not previously used for a further 6 weeks. (bioportfolio.com)
- In this study, we want to compare two different kinds of artificial ventilation to see if one encourages faster weaning from breathing support and if one provides better sleep quality. (bioportfolio.com)
- If patient is able to have spontaneous ventilation with maximum of 16 cm of H2O of pressure support, he could b. (bioportfolio.com)
- Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a closed loop ventilation mode that can act both as pressure support (PSV) and pressure controlled (PCV) ventilation. (bioportfolio.com)
- Pressure-support ventilation or T-piece spontaneous breathing trials for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - A randomized controlled trial. (bioportfolio.com)
- Randomized Feasibility Trial of a Low Tidal Volume-Airway Pressure Release Ventilation Protocol Compared With Traditional Airway Pressure Release Ventilation and Volume Control Ventilation Protocols. (bioportfolio.com)
- Airway management and ventilation during a tracheobronchial stenting procedure are challenging given that mandatory positive pressure ventilation cannot be fully achieved while using a rigid bronchosc. (bioportfolio.com)
- Patient-ventilator interaction with conventional and automated management of pressure support during difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. (bioportfolio.com)
- Optimizing pressure support ventilation (PSV) can improve patient-ventilator interaction. (bioportfolio.com)
- On September 17, the patient was placed on mechanical ventilation and rabies tests returned positive. (cdc.gov)
- We report the combined use of PETCO 2 monitoring, low positive pressure ventilation, and endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff inflation to achieve blind nasotracheal intubation of a patient with a difficult airway and midazolam-induced respiratory depression. (lww.com)
- Superior caval flow during positive pressure mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing was investigated by Doppler echocardiography in a neonate with a coexisting superior cavopulmonary shunt and an aortopulmonary shunt. (biomedsearch.com)
- During positive pressure ventilation, retrograde systolic flow in the superior vena cava was recorded, with low velocity anterograde flow. (biomedsearch.com)
- As excessive peak inspiratory pressures and high tidal volumes during manual ventilation can be detrimental to neonatal lungs, accurate feedback on ventilation pressure and volumes during training can greatly improve the quality of ventilation and ultimately patient outcomes. (laerdal.com)
- Fractional (inconsistent) ventilation - volumes and pressures. (laerdal.com)
- Respiratory muscle weakness in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to respiratory failure for which non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is an effective treatment. (bmj.com)
- Vital capacity (VC) 1 and respiratory endurance 2 start to decline in adolescence, and without non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) death occurs at an average age of 21.5 years. (bmj.com)
- Despite this strategy, at some stage it is no longer possible to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation and the arterial carbon dioxide pressure (Pa co 2 ) rises. (bmj.com)
- Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) may shorten time on mechanical ventilation and improve outcomes. (medtronic.com)
- Sedation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: Linking spontaneous awakening trials and spontaneous breathing trials to improve patient outcomes. (medtronic.com)
- 6 In conjunction with good sedation management, SBTs can help return your patients to unsupported breathing sooner, potentially reducing the risks and discomfort of prolonged mechanical ventilation. (medtronic.com)
- Together with sedation holidays, spontaneous breathing trials may help you to ensure safe, early liberation from mechanical ventilation and better outcomes for your patients. (medtronic.com)
- Adaptive Servo Ventilation (ASV) - is a medical technology that utilizes positive airway pressure ventilatory support that is adjusted based on the detection of apneas, or pauses in breathing, during sleep. (sleepassociation.org)
- A positive pressure ventilation device that consists of a bag with a non-rebreather valve and a mask. (brainscape.com)
- A form of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. (brainscape.com)
- Briefly move the tubing supply from the ventilator to continuous supply oxygen ("wall oxygen") Reduce pressure support to 5 cm water Reduce continuous positive airway pressure to 5 cm water Yang K, Tobin MJ, A prospective study of indexes predicting the outcome of weaning from mechanical ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
- A randomised crossover trial comparing volume assured and pressure preset noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD. (resmed.com)
- Volume assured versus pressure preset non-invasive ventilation for compensated ventilatory failure in COPD. (resmed.com)
- Randomized trial of 'intelligent' autotitrating ventilation versus standard pressure support non-invasive ventilation: Impact on adherence and physiological outcomes. (resmed.com)
- Minute ventilation during spontaneous breathing, high-intensity noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and intelligent volume assured pressure support in hypercapnic COPD. (resmed.com)
- Volume assured pressure support ventilation for chronic ventilatory failure in COPD Eur Respir J 2012;40:P2068. (resmed.com)
- Intermittent positive pressure ventilation was tried with AMBU bag but failed. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is invasive, time-consuming, often frustrating, and consumes tremendous resources, both financial and emotional. (vin.com)
- As criticalists, our job is to recognize the patients who will most benefit, and then to apply positive pressure ventilation in such a way as to minimize its adverse effects and therefore optimize patient outcome. (vin.com)
- General recommendations suggest that during positive pressure ventilation we should aim to achieve a peak airway pressure of 10-20 cm H 2 O. In animals with normal lungs, this is not a problem, as the low end of this airway pressure range will usually be achieved if the patient is ventilated with tidal volumes of 10-12 ml/kg. (vin.com)
- If the lung contains many abnormal alveoli, positive pressure ventilation with normal tidal volumes can result in very high peak airway pressures and over-distension of normal alveoli, which are relatively compliant, rather than the less compliant diseased alveoli, which may not open at all. (vin.com)
- Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) prolongs survival in ALS patients but may also have additional beneficial effects. (elsevier.com)
- Advancements in noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation technology have greatly reduced pulmonary morbidity in NMDs. (medscape.com)
- If the infant's heart rate is less than 100 beats per minute and/or the infant has apnea or gasping respiration, positive pressure ventilation via face mask should be initiated with 21 percent oxygen (room air) or blended oxygen using a self-inflating bag, flow-inflating bag, or T-piece device while monitoring the inflation pressure. (aafp.org)
- If the infant's heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute after adequate positive pressure ventilation and chest compressions, intravenous epinephrine at 0.01 to 0.03 mg per kg (1:10,000 solution) is recommended. (aafp.org)
- Ventilation with BVM is the commonly used technique to provide manual positive pressure ventilation to respiratory-failing patients. (hindawi.com)
- Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a condition in which a person experiences frequent breathing pauses during sleep, also known as sleep apnea. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- sleep related breathing disturbances in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome living at low altitude during a sojourn at moderate altitude. (bioportfolio.com)
- Surgical procedures are routinely performed as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). (bioportfolio.com)
- Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnea patients: The Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES). (bioportfolio.com)
- Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension, and short-term studies have demonstrated a modest reduction in blood pressure with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. (bioportfolio.com)
- Predictors of long-term adherence to continuous positive airway pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. (bioportfolio.com)
- Telemedicine Improves Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence in Stroke Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Randomized Trial. (bioportfolio.com)
- The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is very high in stroke patients, whereas the acceptance of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is low. (bioportfolio.com)
- Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a very common, yet undiagnosed, breathing disorder that has many more implications besides disrupted sleep. (bioportfolio.com)
- This air pressure prevents obstructive sleep apnea, which occurs as a result of narrowing of the airway due to the relaxation of upper respiratory tract muscles during sleep. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) include the clinical spectrum of symptomatic chronic snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea. (aappublications.org)
- A Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) is defined as a cessation of breathing of at least ten seconds duration in the absence of a ventilatory drive. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
- High Altitude Periodic Breathing: Characterized by periods of central apnea or hypopnea cycling with periods of hyperpnea during sleep on ascent to high altitudes, high altitude periodic breathing occurs in virtually everyone at altitudes higher than 7600 meters. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
- This may lead to a false indication of a high respiration rate or an undetected apnea condition. (manualslib.com)
- It is also used for complex sleep apnea, mixed sleep apnea, periodic breathing - Cheyne - Stokes respirations. (sleepassociation.org)
- By ventilating the patient appropriately during periods of hypopnea and apnea and reducing support during periods of hyperventilation and normal breathing,the ASV algorithm rapidly stabilizes breathing patterns and arterial blood gases and minimizes discomfort and arousals often associated with bilevel treatment. (sleepassociation.org)
- Droste DW, Ludemann P, Anders F, Kemeny V, Thomas M, Krauss JK, Ringelstein EB (1999) Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, end-tidal pCO 2 and blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and in healthy subjects during continuous positive airway pressure breathing. (springer.com)
- Sleep disordered breathing, also known as sleep apnea, occurs in two primary forms, obstructive sleep apnea where lax tissue in the pharynx leads to airway closure and significant negative intrathoracic pressure and central sleep apnea, where the respiratory control center in the brain fails to adequately regulate breathing during sleep, leading to cyclical hyperventilation and apnea known as Cheyne-Stokes respiration. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- One proposed mechanism of the development of central sleep apnea in heart failure is decreased cardiac output leading to a prolonged circulation time to the chemoreceptors in the brain that regulate respiration. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Successful treatment of obstructive sleep apnea has been demonstrated to decrease adrenergic activity and blood pressure even during the day, as well as decrease left ventricular hypertrophy and episodes of atrial fibrillation. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- In an experimental newborn model, animals subjected to asphyxia immediately develop primary apnea with bradycardia sustained blood pressure and normal pH. (frontiersin.org)
- Did you know that mouth breathing can significantly contribute to abnormal development of children's faces, crooked teeth, snoring, obstructive sleep apnea, poor concentration, ADHD, respiratory problems including asthma, hay fever and poor sports performance? (buteykoclinic.com)
- Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by upper airway collapse during inspiration and is accompanied by strenuous breathing efforts. (ahajournals.org)
- 2,3 Cheyne-Stokes respiration occurs during CSA and is a distinct pattern of periodic breathing with alternating crescendo-decrescendo sequences of hyperventilation and apnea (ie, complete breathing cessation). (ahajournals.org)
- Wilcox I et al (1993) Effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure during sleep on 24-hour blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnea. (springer.com)
- Becker HF et al (2003) Effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. (springer.com)
- Kaneko Y et al (2003) Cardiovascular effects of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. (springer.com)
- Campos-Rodriguez F et al (2005) Mortality in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea patients treated with positive airway pressure. (springer.com)
- Doherty LS et al (2005) Long-term effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in sleep apnea syndrome. (springer.com)
- abstract = "Congestive heart failure (HF), an exceedingly common and costly disease, is frequently seen in association with central sleep apnea (CSA), which often manifests as a periodic breathing rhythm referred to as Cheyne-Stokes respiration. (elsevier.com)
- It has also been reported that 26 percent of the American population is at high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a sleep breathing disorder (SBD), indicating as many as one in four Americans could benefit from an evaluation for OSA. (dentaltown.com)
- Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder, and its main symptoms are loud, intermittent snoring and stop-starts in breathing that last all through the nighttime hours. (cpapclinic.ca)
- The XT-Auto machine offers positive airway pressure that arrests the stop-start breathing problems that sleep apnea patients deal with every night. (cpapclinic.ca)
- Work of Breathing in Fixed and Pressure Relief Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (C-Flex™): A post hoc Analysis. (nih.gov)
- The investigators propose a multicentric controlled randomized trial whose goal is to evaluate the possibility of a prediction of the efficiency of APAP (automatic continuous positive airw. (bioportfolio.com)
- High-flow nasal cannula for children not compliant with continuous positive airway pressure. (bioportfolio.com)
- It releases a stream of compressed air through a hose to the nose mask and keeps the upper airway open under continuous air pressure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Bowie RA, O'Connor PJ, Hardman JG, Mahajan RP (2001) The effect of continuous positive airway pressure on cerebral blood flow velocity in awake volunteers. (springer.com)
- The BiPAP device delivers a continuous flow of air under pressure. (brainscape.com)
- At present, it is impossible to make any scientifically sound statement on the appropriateness of using automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices for the routine treatment of patients with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. (ersjournals.com)
- Bull Physiopath Resp 8:967.1981 - Sullivan CE, Issa FG, Berthon-Jones M, Eves L. Reversal of obstructive sleep apnoea by continuous positive airway pressure applied through the nares. (yumpu.com)
- Marin JM et al (2005) Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in men with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea with or without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure: an observational study. (springer.com)
- In light of the disappointing results from the first large trial assessing therapy with continuous positive airway pressure in patients with CSA and HF, further large-scale interventional trials will be needed to assess the role, if any, of CSA treatment on the outcomes of patients with HF. (elsevier.com)
- Preoperative intermittent positive pressure respiration as preparation for emergency valvular surgery for pulmonary edema. (biomedsearch.com)
- Competitive pulmonary flow in infancy: the effect of respiration. (biomedsearch.com)
- Low intrathoracic pressure plays an important role in maintaining anterograde pulmonary blood flow in patients with this physiology. (biomedsearch.com)
- Impact of intelligent volume-assured pressure support on sleep quality in stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a randomized crossover study. (resmed.com)
- On the other hand, CHF patients with CSA are characterized by lower exercise capacity and ejection fraction, increased left ventricular volumes, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and a higher prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias. (ahajournals.org)
- 1. Severe and relatively fast-onset acute lung injury with pulmonary shunts in excess of 50% and lung compliance in the region of 10 - 15 ml/cm H2O warranted high inspired oxygen concentrations and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings (in the order of 15 - 22 cm H 2 O). (scielo.org.za)
- 2. Acute and severe pulmonary hypertension, as is commonly found in acute lung injury (mean pulmonary artery pressures in the region of 40 - 45 mmHg), 1 appeared not overtly due to spasm, as sildenafil (by mouth) did not decrease the pressure or improve the right heart output. (scielo.org.za)
- 3. Acute (and predictable) right heart failure as measured by decreased stroke work despite raised effective pulmonary artery elastance often manifested with a raised central venous pressure. (scielo.org.za)
- In his patent application, he indicated that "the need for a comfortable, and yet tightly fitting mask is particularly pressing in cases involving pressure breathing, such as encountered in resuscitation, high altitude flying, and in positive and intermittent positive pressure breathing now being used clinically in oxygen therapy and in the treatment of pulmonary edema, asthma, cardiac conditions, and other types of respiratory depression or failure. (aarc.org)
- Necturus rarely breathes air, but the structures needed for pulmonary respiration are present. (murraystate.edu)
- Amphibians also complement pulmonary respiration with cutaneous respiration and eliminate most of their carbon dioxide through the skin. (murraystate.edu)
- Use of PEEP did not increase the functional residual capacity (FRC) in these spontaneously breathing subjects. (nih.gov)
- INTERVENTION: Spontaneously breathing rabbits with hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury were ventilated with NAVA and underwent changes in NAVA gain and PEEP (six nonvagotomized and five vagotomized). (biomedsearch.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Acute lung injury can cause a vagally mediated atypical diaphragm activation pattern in spontaneously breathing rabbits. (biomedsearch.com)
- A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (bioportfolio.com)
- In the first step of a study of the relation of nasal and oral breathing during moderate treadmill exercise to the onset of bronchoconstriction in young patients with perennial bronchial asthma, it was observed that most subjects spontaneously breathed with their mouths open when instructed to breathe "naturally. (buteykoclinic.com)
- The decision to initiate PPV is made based on the clinical condition of the animal and the degree of dyspnea, the arterial blood gas results and response to oxygen supplementation while spontaneously breathing, the prognosis, and the wishes of the owner. (vin.com)
Work of Breathing6
- This study evaluated the effect of different inspiratory rise time and cycling off criteria on breathing pattern and work of breathing. (nih.gov)
- Respiratory rate, tidal volume, and inspiratory and expiratory work of breathing (WOBI and WOBE) were measured. (nih.gov)
- This decreases the resistance created from breathing through ventilator tubing and is used with the SIMV mode to decrease the work of breathing. (encyclopedia.com)
- The combination of positive inspiratory and positive expiratory pressure can help reduce the work of breathing and improve alveolar gas exchange. (ems1.com)
- These findings suggest that atelectasis or increased alveolar surface forces are present in ALS patients and that these patients will have increased work of breathing. (elsevier.com)
- Some of the beneficial effects demonstrated with NPPV therapy may be through its effects on CL and the work of breathing. (elsevier.com)
- This can be referred to as artificial respiration. (powerwater.com.au)
- Sharon had become so tired that they had put her on artificial respiration. (oocities.org)
- If not breathing, administer artificial respiration. (europa.eu)
- Upon the patient's initiation of inhalation, the device would "assure the enforced delivery of life sustaining gas at a predetermined pressure and in predetermined volume to fill the patient's lungs without requiring any further effort on the patients part and without injury to his lungs and which when the period of artificial inhalation has terminated will permit normal exhalation by the patient. (aarc.org)
- Four hours of breathing with NAVA restored breathing pattern and neural and mechanical breathing efforts to pre-lung injury levels. (biomedsearch.com)
- In particular, sleep disordered breathing has been linked to worsening heart failure, decreased left ventricular function, and left ventricular hypertrophy both directly through its mechanical effects, as well as indirectly by its impact on the adrenergic nervous system and other risk factors. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Then there are the parts of the body that control the mechanical side of breathing. (foremostequipment.com)
- The lungs dispose of the carbon dioxide, left there by the red blood cells, in the process of breathing. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The airway allows for training in all aspects of newborn airway management, including the realistic feel of "wet or stiff" lungs to succeed in assisting with first breaths by use of positive pressure airway devices and the placement of oral or nasal ET tubes and LMAs. (laerdal.com)
- When the lungs are abnormal or diseased they become less compliant, and if 'normal' tidal volumes (10-15 ml/kg) are delivered to the airway, since the lungs are stiffer than normal, the airway pressures may reach values as high as 50 or 60 cm H 2 O. (vin.com)
- This creates a problem, however, as numerous experimental studies in multiple species have been published confirming adverse effects in the lungs if airway pressures exceed 30 cm H 2 O. These adverse effects include inflammatory changes within the alveoli, rupture of alveolar septae, emphysema and pneumothorax. (vin.com)
- Muscle contraction creates open space around the lungs that allow for positive pressure to form. (foremostequipment.com)
- Air rushes into the lungs due to this positive pressure and oxygen is distributed to the bloodstream. (foremostequipment.com)
- Then, muscles surrounding the lungs relax creating a negative pressure inside the lungs, pushing air out through the airway. (foremostequipment.com)
- Respiration Involves More Than Just Your Lungs. (foremostequipment.com)
- Most people think about breathing as being a function of the lungs. (foremostequipment.com)
- While these organs play a major role in the process, breathing begins in the brain , not the lungs. (foremostequipment.com)
- The diaphragm, a strong, flat muscle at the base of your chest cavity is essential for creating positive and negative pressure in the lungs. (foremostequipment.com)
- After the lungs are filled, the glottis is closed, and the air is held in the lungs at greater than atmospheric pressure. (murraystate.edu)
- When the glottis is opened, pressure in the lungs and recoil of the lungs drives out the air. (murraystate.edu)
- Delay of operation by several hours may prove advantageous in that it permits improvements of the patient's condition by means of intermittent positive pressure respiration with correction of acidosis and at the same time allows for treatment of the cardiac failure. (biomedsearch.com)
- B. Mitchell AttorneyFlehr, Hohbach, Test, Albritton & Herbert ABSTRACT: A manual positive pressure breathing device in which the mainstream gas flow is in axial alignment to provide a laminar flow and utilizing a nebulizer and a manually operated exhalation valve which is located adjacent to the patient's airway. (google.es)
- In all of these cases there must be control over the pressure of air or breathable gas supplied to the patient's airway. (google.es)
- The weaning process is highly dependent on the patient's pathology, but the final common pathway to ventilator independence always includes at least one trial of spontaneous breathing. (wikipedia.org)
- At this point the anesthetic gas is mixed with the patient's respiration and then passes out through a ball check valve to the gas outlet for scavenging. (harvardapparatus.co.uk)
- The positive pressure from the oxygen source and the patient's respiration lifts the precision ball valve for scavenging. (harvardapparatus.co.uk)
- For treatment to be effective, the pressure level must be fine-tuned to restore patency of the individual patient's upper airway. (ersjournals.com)
- A system for timing the maximum lengths of inspiration and expiration phases of the respiration cycles of a positive pressure breathing apparatus, the rate control system including a timing cylinder with a movable piston therein forming two mutually adjustable timing chambers, two conduits receiving. (google.com)
- and has particular reference to an improved system for controlling the maximum time intervals of the inspiration and expiration phases of a respiration apparatus for administering intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) therapy to a patient. (google.com)
- Normal workers and workers with perforated eardrums should be provided with positive pressure, supplied air, or self contained breathing apparatus with full face pieces. (cdc.gov)
- PPE: First responders entering an environment where airborne fentanyls are suspected or confirmed to be present, should wear a supplied-air respirator (SAR) or self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) to provide maximal protection. (cdc.gov)
- This COAX breathing device is a precisely machined apparatus which maintains the surgical plane. (harvardapparatus.co.uk)
- Protective equipment: Full protection by suitable clothing and positive pressure breathing apparatus. (europa.eu)
- 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein classifying the etiology comprises determining the periodic breathing to be predominantly central or obstructive in origin. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Positive airway pressure systems are widely used to treat patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. (ersjournals.com)
- A more sensitive way to measure respiratory efforts is by inserting an esophageal pressure probe during the polysomnography to measure intrathoracic pressure swings. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
- Mechanically, increased negative intrathoracic pressure during an apneic episode leads to increased afterload, myocardial wall stress and myocardial oxygen demand. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- The intercostal muscles, the muscles between the ribs, are also responsible for expanding the chest cavity, which is why trauma to the ribs makes breathing painful. (foremostequipment.com)
- SB has been linked to maintaining airway patency in OSA, 10 however the most recent research published in Chest 2015 demonstrates that respiratory-effort-related arousal may be the most likely cause (nasal obstruction or mouth breathing). (dentaltown.com)
- conversely, decrease of the P co 2 slows the rate of respiration. (thefreedictionary.com)
- All other patients had a decrease in the number of abnormal breathing events during sleep. (aappublications.org)
- After a gradual decrease in respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure, the patient died on October 9. (cdc.gov)
- Enforced oral breathing causes a decrease in lung function in mild asthmatic subjects at rest, initiating asthma symptoms in some. (buteykoclinic.com)
- Energy release in anaerobic and aerobic respiration. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The same reactions occur as in AEROBIC RESPIRATION , but in anaerobes the absence of oxygen prevents the two resulting molecules of reduced NAD from being oxidized via the ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM (ETS) in the MITOCHONDRIA . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Energy production from aerobic respiration requires oxygen and glucose and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product, creating a need for an efficient means of oxygen delivery to cells and excretion of carbon dioxide from cells. (wikidoc.org)
- In cellular respiration the blood cells release oxygen and pick up carbon dioxide. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 2. cellular respiration, the metabolic processes by which living cells break down carbohydrates, amino acids and fats to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). (thefreedictionary.com)
- 4. The method according to claim 3, wherein determining the periodic breathing comprises classifying the periodic breathing as predominantly central in origin if the pattern is symmetrical. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Rev Neurol 123: 267-8.1972 - Lugaresi E. Organizer Symposium: Hypersomnia with Periodic Breathing.Rimini, Italy, May 25-27. (yumpu.com)
- T-piece trials consist of alternating intervals of time on the ventilator with intervals of spontaneous breathing. (encyclopedia.com)
- To facilitate spontaneous breathing, the patient is removed from the ventilator and a T-shaped tube is attached to the endotracheal tube or tracheostomy tube. (encyclopedia.com)
- The patient on a T-piece doesn't have the ventilator as back-up if they can't breathe, so they must be monitored closely. (encyclopedia.com)
- In this mode, patients will breathe independently but have the benefit of the ventilator alarms if they have difficulty. (encyclopedia.com)
- Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (Awakening and Breathing Controlled trial): a randomised controlled trial. (medtronic.com)
- Automatic adjustment of noninvasive pressure support with a bilevel home ventilator in patients with acute respiratory failure: a feasibility study. (resmed.com)
- The most common clinical signs that a pneumothorax has developed are sudden desaturation, patient/ventilator dyssynchrony, and sometimes drops in blood pressure. (vin.com)
- When respiration becomes difficult, often times a ventilator is needed. (foremostequipment.com)
- In air-breathing vertebrates, respiration occurs in a series of steps. (wikidoc.org)
- by increasing volume and thus decreasing pressure, air flows into the airways down a pressure gradient, and by reducing volume and increasing pressure, the reverse occurs. (wikidoc.org)
- An important potential occupational route of exposure to opioids occurs by breathing air contaminated with airborne opioid particles. (cdc.gov)
- 1 , 2 To obtain air flow through a threshold resistor device, an airway pressure higher than the chosen PEP has to be established before exhalation occurs. (rcjournal.com)
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION2
- v INVENTORS Forrest [1V1 pBilrwd f Henry 0 ndor M f M Attorneys I BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Manual positive pressure breathing devices have heretofore been provided. (google.es)
- 19 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure RESPIRATION RATE CONTROL SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a respiration rate control system. (google.com)
- Chronic positive airways pressure respirator. (powerwater.com.au)
- NIOSH positive pressure supplied air respirator is recommended if exposure guidelines may be exceeded. (titebond.com)
- First prototype of Dr. Bird's magnetic respirator with manually selectable positive pressure developed in 1950. (aarc.org)
Expiratory Positive Airway P2
- Inspiratory Positive Airway Pressure (IPAP) is a high amount of pressure, applied when the patient inhales and a low Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure (EPAP) during exhalation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 3 PEP with a threshold resistor (a spring-loaded valve) is sometimes referred to as expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP). (rcjournal.com)
- The expired breathing air usually escapes through an expiration valve, which is frequently integrated within the mask. (google.com)
- Another problem in the acceptance of prior-art breathing masks is the nuisance associated with the generation of noise during expiration, which is due to the model of the breathing mask. (google.com)
- During normal breathing , expiration is passive and no muscles are contracted (the diaphragm relaxes). (wikidoc.org)
- The resistance increases airway pressure during the expiratory phase compared with normal expiration. (rcjournal.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the control of breathing in rabbits with acute lung injury. (biomedsearch.com)
- During the expiratory phase, the patient exhales against a resistance called Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP). (ems1.com)
- The PortO2 has an integrated PEEP mechanism with a pressure manometer for conveniently adjustable pressure therapy using a single control knob. (ems1.com)
- fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) less than 50% Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) less than 8 cm water "Minimal vent settings" e.g., ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to FIO2 (P/F ratio) in the vicinity of 400 In all of the methods below, the common endpoint measurement is a Rapid Shallow Breathing Index (Tobin Index) of less than or equal to 105. (wikipedia.org)
- automatically set higher to prevent the detection of cardiac overlay as respiration. (manualslib.com)
- In Manual Detection Mode: Cardiac overlay can in certain situations trigger the respiration counter. (manualslib.com)
- These influences can alter the physiological autonomic balance sometimes with positive consequences on the Cardiac frequency-breathing control, blood pressure adjustment depending on the position of the individual, on the status of blood volume, but sometimes deleterious with bad regulation of sinus cardiac activity and respiration rate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We studied two inspiratory rise time criteria (shortest and longest, 0% and 40% of the breath cycle time) and two cycling off criteria (lowest and highest, 5% and 40% of the peak inspiratory flow) at 5 and 15 cm H2O of pressure support. (nih.gov)
- breathing irregular or animal holding breath. (cueflash.com)
- Mouth breathing causes bad breath due to altered bacterial flora. (buteykoclinic.com)
- These sections determine how rapidly you need to breathe when you are exercising, how often you need to breathe to maintain consciousness and the rhythm of your breath that will maximize the levels of oxygen in your bloodstream. (foremostequipment.com)
- The measurement sequence consisted of 30 breaths with an IC measurement performed before and immediately after the 30th breath while the subjects were still connected to the breathing device. (rcjournal.com)
Acute lung i1
- MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We studied diaphragm electrical activity, respiratory pressures, and breathing pattern. (biomedsearch.com)
- Increasing the NAVA gain reduced phasic diaphragm electrical activity to almost half and abolished esophageal pressure swings. (biomedsearch.com)
- A #10 balloon acts as a diaphragm or breathing bag. (harvardapparatus.co.uk)
- Determining blood pressure in pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
- SDB is also associated with an increased risk of certain cardiovascular diseases, such as high blood pressure and heart disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Heart rate and blood pressure mildly decreased. (cueflash.com)
- Simultaneously, the surge of adrenergic activity leads to increased blood pressure and afterload, and lowers the threshold for arrhythmia and ischemia. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- In 1952, the only routinely used monitor in anesthesia was a blood pressure cuff. (prolekare.cz)
- Pathologists who examined COVID-19 victims were able to confirm that high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, kidney failure, liver cirrhosis and cardiovascular diseases are among the most dangerous preexisting conditions. (dw.com)
- Recovery of respirations follows basic interventions, i.e. stimulation coupled with reversal of asphyxia. (frontiersin.org)
- A complex set of abnormalities can be addressed with a variety of interventions, including evidence-based HF care, specific exercise, opioids, treatment of sleep-disordered breathing, and interventions to address patient and family perceptions of control over their illness. (onlinejacc.org)
- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION AND OBJECTS The manual positive pressure breathing device is adapted to be connected to a source of gas under positive pressure and consists of a venturi assembly, a nebulizer, a saddle and a patient adapter. (google.es)
- In general, it is an object of the present invention to provide a manual positive pressure breathing device in which the flow passages are axially aligned to the laminar flow of the gases through the device. (google.es)
- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a manual positive pressure breathing device incorporating the present invention and connected to a source of positive pressure. (google.es)
- The present invention pertains to a breathing mask with breathing gas supply through the strap. (google.com)