The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The absence of light.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of nematode worms in the superfamily Heterakoidea. A. galli and A. lineata are important intestinal parasites of domestic fowl.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in the treatment of motion sickness, vertigo, and nausea during pregnancy and radiation sickness.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Amides of salicylic acid.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The act of BREATHING in.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A species of SHEWANELLA noted for its ability to reduce iron and manganese anaerobically.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The name "prickly burweed" is sometimes used but causes confusion with AMSINCKIA.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.

Twelfth rib resection as an approach for portal vein cannulation in sheep. (1/3997)

A surgical technique involving resection of the twelfth rib was used to insert silastic cannulas into the portal veins of three sheep to study amino acid metabolism. Good exposure to the vein was achieved by this method although it required positive ventilation due to the penetration of the thoracic cavity. All cannulas were buried subcutaneously and exteriorized near the dorsal midline. This facilitated continuous infusion into the portal cannula without disturbing cannula placement.  (+info)

The impact of a multidisciplinary approach on caring for ventilator-dependent patients. (2/3997)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and financial outcomes of a highly structured multidisciplinary care model for patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. The structured model outcomes (protocol group) are compared with the preprotocol outcomes. DESIGN: Descriptive study with financial analysis. SETTING: A twelve-bed medical-surgical ICU in a non-teaching tertiary referral center in Ogden, Utah. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: During a 54 month period, 469 consecutive intensive care patients requiring mechanical ventilation for longer than 72 hours who did not meet exclusion criteria were studied. INTERVENTIONS: A multidisciplinary team was formed to coordinate the care of ventilator-dependent patients. Care was integrated by daily collaborative bedside rounds, monthly meetings, and implementation of numerous guidelines and protocols. Patients were followed from the time of ICU admission until the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were assigned APACHE II scores on admission to the ICU, and were divided into eight diagnostic categories. ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, costs, charges, reimbursement, and in-hospital mortality were measured. RESULTS: Mortality in the preprotocol and protocol group, after adjustment for APACHE II scores, remained statistically unchanged (21-23%). After we implemented the new care model, we demonstrated significant decreases in the mean survivor's ICU length of stay (19.8 days to 14.7 days, P= 0.001), hospital length of stay (34.6 days to 25.9 days, P=0.001), charges (US$102500 to US$78500, P=0.001), and costs (US$71900 to US$58000, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a structured multidisciplinary care model to care for a heterogeneous population of ventilator-dependent ICU patients was associated with significant reductions in ICU and hospital lengths of stay, charges, and costs. Mortality rates were unaffected.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (3/3997)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

Renal and hemodynamic effects of losartan in conscious dogs during controlled mechanical ventilation. (4/3997)

In 12 conscious dogs, we investigated whether the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist losartan increases renal sodium excretion and urine volume during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. In four experimental protocols, the dogs were extracellular volume (ECV) expanded (electrolyte solution, 0.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not and received losartan (100 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not. They breathed spontaneously during the 1st and 4th hour and received CMV with positive end-expiratory pressure (mean airway pressure 20 cmH2O) during the 2nd and 3rd hours. In the expansion group, dogs with losartan excreted approximately 18% more sodium (69 +/- 7 vs. 38 +/- 5 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and 15% more urine during the 2 h of CMV because of a higher glomerular filtration rate (5.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2 ml. min-1. kg-1) and the tubular effects of losartan. In the group without expansion, sodium excretion (2.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and glomerular filtration rate (3.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 ml. min-1. kg-1) did not change, and urine volume decreased similarly in both groups during CMV. Plasma vasopressin and aldosterone increased in both groups, and plasma renin activity increased from 4.9 +/- 0.7 to 7.8 +/- 1.3 ng ANG I. ml-1. h-1 during CMV in nonexpanded dogs without losartan. Mean arterial pressure decreased by 10 mmHg in nonexpanded dogs with losartan. In conclusion, losartan increases sodium excretion and urine volume during CMV if the ECV is expanded. If the ECV is not expanded, a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and/or an increase in aldosterone and vasopressin during CMV attenuates the renal effects of losartan.  (+info)

Outcome for cancer patients requiring mechanical ventilation. (5/3997)

PURPOSE: To describe hospital survival for cancer patients who require mechanical ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, multicenter observational study was performed at five academic tertiary care hospitals. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained on consecutive cancer patients at initiation of mechanical ventilation, and information on vital status at hospital discharge was acquired. RESULTS: Our analysis was based on 782 adult cancer patients who met predetermined inclusion criteria. The overall observed hospital mortality was 76%, with no statistically significant differences among the five study centers. Seven variables (intubation after 24 hours, leukemia, progression or recurrence of cancer, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, cardiac arrhythmias, presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation, and need for vasopressor therapy) were associated with an increased risk of death, whereas prior surgery with curative intent was protective. The predictive model based on these variables had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.736, with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics of 7.19; P = .52. CONCLUSION: This model can be used to estimate the probability of hospital survival for classes of adult cancer patients who require mechanical ventilation and can help to guide physicians, patients, and families in deciding goals and direction of treatment. Prospective independent validation in different medical settings is warranted.  (+info)

Continuous arterial P(O2) and P(CO2) measurements in swine during nitrous oxide and xenon elimination: prevention of diffusion hypoxia. (6/3997)

BACKGROUND: During nitrous oxide (N2O) elimination, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreases because of the phenomenon commonly called diffusive hypoxia. The authors questioned whether similar effects occur during xenon elimination. METHODS: Nineteen anesthetized and paralyzed pigs were mechanically ventilated randomly for 30 min using inspiratory gas mixtures of 30% oxygen and either 70% N2O or xenon. The inspiratory gas was replaced by a mixture of 70% nitrogen and 30% oxygen. PaO2 and carbon dioxide tensions were recorded continuously using an indwelling arterial sensor. RESULTS: The PaO2 decreased from 119+/-10 mm Hg to 102+/-12 mm Hg (mean+/-SD) during N2O washout (P<0.01) and from 116+/-9 mm Hg to 110+/-8 mm Hg during xenon elimination (P<0.01), with a significant difference (P<0.01) between baseline and minimum PaO2 values (deltaPaO2, 17+/-6 mm Hg during N2O washout and 6+/-3 mm Hg during xenon washout). The PaCO2 value also decreased (from 39.3+/-6.3 mm Hg to 37.6+/-5.8 mm Hg) during N2O washout (P<0.01) and during xenon elimination (from 35.4+/-1.6 mm Hg to 34.9+/-1.6 mm Hg; P< 0.01). The deltaPaCO2 was 1.7+/-0.9 mm Hg in the N2O group and 0.5+/-0.3 mm Hg in the xenon group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Diffusive hypoxia is unlikely to occur during recovery from xenon anesthesia, probably because of the low blood solubility of this gas.  (+info)

Early inhaled glucocorticoid therapy to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (7/3997)

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of inhaled glucocorticoid therapy for asthma stimulated its use in infants to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We tested the hypothesis that early therapy with inhaled glucocorticoids would decrease the frequency of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, multicenter trial of inhaled beclomethasone or placebo in 253 infants, 3 to 14 days old, born before 33 weeks of gestation and weighing 1250 g or less at birth, who required ventilation therapy. Beclomethasone was delivered in a decreasing dosage, from 40 to 5 microg per kilogram of body weight per day, for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 28 days of age. Secondary outcomes included bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age, the need for systemic glucocorticoid therapy, the need for bronchodilator therapy, the duration of respiratory support, and death. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three infants received beclomethasone, and 130 received placebo. The frequency of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was similar in the two groups: 43 percent in the beclomethasone group and 45 percent in the placebo group at 28 days of age, and 18 percent in the beclomethasone group and 20 percent in the placebo group at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. At 28 days of age, fewer infants in the beclomethasone group than in the placebo group were receiving systemic glucocorticoid therapy (relative risk, 0.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 1.0) and mechanical ventilation (relative risk, 0.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Early beclomethasone therapy did not prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia but was associated with lower rates of use of systemic glucocorticoid therapy and mechanical ventilation.  (+info)

An isolated perfused rat lung preparation. (8/3997)

An isolated perfused rat lung preparation (IPL) is described and its physiologic status is evaluated. The evaluation includes light and electron microscopy after perfusion and estimations of substrate utilization. ATP content, lactate production, and incorporation of glucose carbons into lipids and CO2. It is concluded that the IPL is useful for short-term metabolic and physiologic experiments and offers some unique advantages in evaluating effects of reactive gases upon lung function.  (+info)

IHM expert provide Intense care, artificial respiration, Home mechanical ventilation services, Munich, We provide observation and treatment care to seriously ill and mechanically ventilated humans on the highest level.
Three VDL companies are working hard on making hundreds of artificial respiration systems for our partner Demcon. Within three weeks, Demcon, with the help of VDL, managed to develop, manufacture and test a complete artificial respiration system in the Netherlands ...
BACKGROUND: During synchronised mechanical ventilation, positive airway pressure and spontaneous inspiration coincide. If synchronous ventilation is provoked, adequate gas exchange should be achieved at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing baro/volutrauma, air leak and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Synchronous ventilation can potentially be achieved by manipulation of rate and inspiratory time during conventional ventilation and employment of patient-triggered ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of:(i) synchronised mechanical ventilation, delivered as high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (HFPPV) or patient-triggered ventilation (assist control ventilation (ACV) and synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)), with conventional ventilation or high-frequency oscillation (HFO);(ii) different types of triggered ventilation (ACV, SIMV, pressure-regulated volume control ventilation (PRVCV), SIMV with pressure support (PS) and pressure support ventilation (PSV ...
It is given when there is respiratory failure.It can be given by mouth to mouth and the rate should be about 20 times per minute.This can also be given by Ambu beg.
As a prize winning detective novel, Artificial Respiration reaches through many levels of mystery to explore the forces that have been at play in Argentina throughout its violent history. The narrator, a writer named Renzi, begins to look for an uncle who has vanished, a man he knows only through a web of contradictory family stories and an exchange of letters. Through these letters he learns about his uncles research into the life of Enrique Ossario, secretary to the 19th-century Argentine dictator Rosas and spy for the dictators enemy. As Renzis search leads further into his uncles work and to conversations with his literary and chess-playing friends, the reader is led by Piglia to consider the nature of Argentine identity, its literature and history, and its relation, for example, to Europe, exile, and democracy. Finally, and made most vividly appreciable by the retelling of a story in which Kafka meets Hitler, it is the encounter between literature and history that is explored ...
Fundamental Medical and Engineering Investigations on Protective Artificial Respiration und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
Definition of artificial respiration written for English Language Learners from the Merriam-Webster Learners Dictionary with audio pronunciations, usage examples, and count/noncount noun labels.
Artificial respiration being taught in a Red Cross first aid class to State employees in the Wisconsin State Capitol Assembly Parlor, supervised by Arne Le...
BACKGROUND: Volume-controlled ventilation modes have been shown to reduce duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of chronic lung disease, failure of primary mode of ventilation, hypocarbia, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants when compared with pressure limited ventilation modes. Volume-guarantee (VG) ventilation is the most commonly used mode for volume-controlled ventilation. Assist control, pressure-support ventilation (PSV), and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) can be combined with VG; however, there is a lack of knowledge on the superiority of each regarding clinical outcomes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SIMV +VG and PSV+ VG on ventilatory parameters, pulmonary inflammation, morbidity, and mortality in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants who were born in our hospital between 24-32 weeks gestation and needed mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome were ...
Home Mechanical Ventilation in Europe started as tracheostomy ventilation in the late 1970s1; it remained under-utilized and restricted to specialized centres in France.. Due to the transition to non-invasive ventilator support, patients under Home Mechanical Ventilation (HMV) have grown worldwide.2. Indeed, HMV became widespread in Europe and a survey (Eurovent) presenting data from 2001 to 2002 in 16 European countries (including a total of 483 centres), showed a global prevalence of 6.6 per 100,000 with a wide variation between countries.3. In 2010, the European COPD audit (surveying 13 countries), showed that although a majority of centres offered invasive and noninvasive ventilation, 40.5% of centres declared not to have the capacity to ventilate at home all eligible patients.4. In fact, organization varies widely in Europe, in countries like Denmark, where patients are referred to only 2 respiratory care units (RCU)5 or Sweden where there are a wide number of outpatient clinics that take ...
This study is looking at whether there is a difference in outcomes using two different types of breathing support in those patients who have chronic respiratory failure (patients who under-breathe).. There is little data to demonstrate which mode of ventilation is better in terms of physiological outcomes and outcome data relating to patient symptoms.. We hypothesize that one type of breathing support: pressure support ventilation would be more comfortable for patients as it more closely matches a patients own respiratory pattern and and so leads to improved adherence and consequent improvement in quality of life.. Patients with respiratory failure will be randomly assigned to receive either pressure support ventilation or pressure control ventilation for the first 6 weeks and then cross-over to receive the mode not previously used for a further 6 weeks. They will have baseline data recorded and then be followed up after each 6 week block. ...
Mechanical ventilation can induce a cytokine response that may be attenuated by a strategy to minimize overdistention and recruitment/derecruitment of the lung. Whether these physiological improvements are associated with improvements in clinical end points should be determined in future studies.
Ventilator Management Pocket Guide-Your complete critical care bedside companion. Youll find everything you need on noninvasive and invasive ventilation strategies in this pocket guide. From initiation to management to weaning. Completely refreshed
Simulation training has been shown to be an effective method for medical education. But what about mechanical ventilation management specifically? A recent study at Summa Health System in Akron, Ohio, looked at the effectiveness of a mechanical ventilation boot camp for first year medical residents in surgery and emergency medicine.. The Summa Health study found that the boot camp was effective in increasing competency, knowledge, and confidence with ventilator management.. The three-day training incorporated hands-on scenarios using human patient manikins connected to IngMar Medicals ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator.. ...
The two chief volume pre-set modes of mechanical ventilation are assist-control and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV). In volume assist-control ventilation, the spontaneously breathing patient will trigger a ventilator-delivered pre-set tidal volume. The limit of the breath is set by the clinician; nevertheless, the presence of a demand valve permits the tidal volume to exceed the limit if so demanded by the patient. Inspiration ceases, as does the breath cycle, once the tidal volume limit has been exceeded.. The airway pressure is dependent on the patients mechanics (e.g. compliance). As a volume pre-set mode of ventilation, it is a flow-invariable mode in that the flow can not exceed the set flow rate. The inspiratory time is a by-product of the set flow rate, respiratory rate and tidal volume.. SIMV is a dual mode of ventilation capable of providing graded levels of support. Similar to assist-control, SIMV delivers a pre-set tidal volume when the ventilator detects the ...
2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland Cuffed tracheal tubes are increasingly used in paediatric anaesthetic practice. This study compared tidal volume and leakage around cuffed and uncuffed tracheal tubes in children who required standardised mechanical ventilation of their lungs in the operating theatre. Children (0-16 years) undergoing elective surgery requiring tracheal intubation were randomly assigned to receive either a cuffed or an uncuffed tracheal tube. Assessments were made at five different time-points: during volume-controlled ventilation 6 ml.kg -1 , PEEP 5 cmH 2 O and during pressure-controlled ventilation 10 cmH 2 O/ PEEP 5 cmH 2 O. The pressure-controlled ventilation measurement time-points were: just before a standardised recruitment manoeuvre; just after recruitment manoeuvre; 10 min; and 30 min after the recruitment manoeuvre. Problems and complications were recorded. During volume-controlled ventilation, leakage was significantly less with cuffed ...
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient-ventilator trigger asynchrony (TA), its prevalence, physiologic basis, and clinical implications in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV).. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive and prospective cohort study.. SETTING: Barlow Respiratory Hospital (BRH), a regional weaning center.. PATIENTS: Two hundred consecutive ventilator-dependent patients, transferred to BRH over an 18-month period for attempted weaning from PMV.. METHODS AND INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assessed clinically for TA within the first week of hospital admission, or once they were in hemodynamically stable condition, by observation of uncoupling of accessory respiratory muscle efforts and onset of machine breaths. Patients were excluded if they had weaned by the time of assessment or if they never achieved hemodynamic stability. Ventilator mode was patient triggered, flow control, volume cycled, with a tidal volume of 7 to 10 mL/kg. Esophageal pressure (Peso), airway-opening ...
When caring for ventilator-dependent patients, reliable oxygenation and ventilation monitoring are vital to providing high-quality care and improving patient safety in post-acute care settings. Many long-term acute care facilities are faced with low clinician-to-patient ratios and alarm fatigue, while needing to administer many different active therapies, wean patients off ventilation, and chart patient data. In sub-acute care facilities, where workflows may not be as strained, ventilator-dependent patients still require continuous monitoring to recognize changes in status. Masimos industry-leading SET® pulse oximetry, integrated capnography, and supplemental remote monitoring solutions help clinicians continuously monitor ventilated patients and improve workflows.
INTRODUCTION Few pediatric data exists on the ventilation mode and parameters that would provide the greatest benefit with the least risk to an individual pediatric patient with Acute Lung Injury (ALI). Current expert opinion is that it is reasonable to follow adult recommendations and to adapt clinical management in children according to adult data. In the absence of consensus and established guidelines for mechanical ventilation in children with ALI, we believe that the daily clinical practice in pediatric intensive care units is subject to great variations according to the experience, comfort and knowledge of the attending intensivist.. METHODS Objective: Describe invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in pediatric cases of ALI.. Hypothesis: There is an important variability in the observed practice pattern of mechanical ventilation in pediatric cases of ALI.. Design: An international cross-sectional epidemiologic study in Pediatric Intensive Care Units on the observed practice ...
Ventilator-dependent patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute severe asthma routinely receive bronchodilators to relieve bronchoconstriction. By reducing airway resistance, bronchodilators reduce the pressure required to ventilate the lung. This reduction in pressure may protect the lung against injury and enhance patient comfort. A general population of ventilated patients in a medical intensive care unit (ICU)2,3 and patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome4,5 showed improvement in expiratory airflow and airway resistance after bronchodilators. Infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and children with asthma, or bronchiolitis also receive bronchodilators on a routine basis.6-10 In ventilated patients with COPD, elevated airway resistance and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure are major causes for weaning failure.11 In these patients, bronchodilators may facilitate weaning.12 Therapy with bronchodilators is, therefore, ...
Vascular barrier dysfunction and acute lung inflammation are fundamental features that contribute to the significant mortality associated with VILI and ARDS. Despite advances in protective LTV ventilation strategies, effective pharmacotherapy for this devastating syndrome is lacking. Using an aseptic in vivo model of VILI, we show here for the first time that a single intravenous dose of OxPAPC significantly attenuates the early vascular barrier disruption and acute inflammation induced by mechanical ventilation at HTV. Intravenous OxPAPC significantly reduced alveolar and tissue inflammatory cell recruitment and protein accumulation in the BAL after 2 hours of mechanical ventilation at HTV.. In our previous study, we described similar protective effects of OxPAPC in an animal model of LPS-induced lung injury [20]. In that model, OxPAPC prevented neutrophil influx and barrier disruption likely in part via direct competitive inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) binding [13, 19, 20]. However, ...
Artificial ventilation, also called artificial respiration is any means of assisting or stimulating respiration, a metabolic process referring to the overall exchange of gases in the body by pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration. It may take the form of manually providing air for a person who is not breathing or is not making sufficient respiratory effort on their own, or it may be mechanical ventilation involving the use of a mechanical ventilator to move air in and out of the lungs when an individual is unable to breathe on their own, for example during surgery with general anesthesia or when an individual is in a coma. Pulmonary anton ventilation (and hence external parts of respiration) is achieved through manual insufflation of the lungs either by the rescuer blowing into the patients lungs (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation), or by using a mechanical device to do so. This method of insufflation has been proved more effective than methods which involve mechanical ...
The debate on whether HFOV or conventional mechanical ventilation is the best ventilation strategy to support premature infants with RDS has gone on for more than 20 years.6 A Cochrane review that evaluated 17 studies that included 3,652 infants failed to obtain conclusive evidence as to which type of mechanical ventilation is more effective, and no Chinese population study was included in that review.19 The conflicting reports about HFOV versus conventional mechanical ventilation are probably due to heterogeneity in study design, subject characteristics, and outcome definition. Furthermore, the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of employing different kinds of ventilation initially for preterm infants with severe RDS are still uncertain.11,12,20. Our prospective and randomized investigation of initial use of HFOV versus SIMV-PSV in preterm Chinese infants with severe RDS found that the infants receiving HFOV had a significantly reduced incidence of death or BPD, shorter mechanical ...
If a COVID-19 patient ends up on a ventilator, what are the odds of survival? I havent found good data from non-China countries. I found one Chinese study of ~200 patients and it was quite discouraging. Only one of the 32 patients on a ventilator in the ICU survived. Ive been reading Karl Denningers blog…
Apr 11, 2019 · Common indications for mechanical ventilation include the following: Bradypnea or apnea with respiratory arrest. Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Tachypnea (respiratory rate ,30 breaths per minute) Vital capacity less.. The purpose of this review is to describe the physiology and usefulness of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) during weaning from mechanical ventilation. BNP is a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool.. In some cases, patients experienced respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation but subsequently improved with. due diligence when evaluating a patient who presents with these types of.. Mechanical ventilation, or assisted ventilation, is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means are used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator , or the breathing may be assisted manually by a suitably qualified professional, such as an anesthesiologist , respiratory ...
The management of the mechanical ventilator is one of the most complex and dynamic, yet ubiquitous issues to face the critical care physician. As we as a medical community have become more advanced, so too, have our ventilators, with new modes and variables having been added beyond more traditional modeslike Assist Control and Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation. This article is designed to give a very basic understanding of what the individual ventilatory modes do and how they are set.It is in no way meant to be a replacement for either a medical intensivist or a respiratory therapist.
The authors investigated the effect of manual hyperinflation (MHI) with set parameters applied to patients on mechanical ventilation on hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, and gas exchange. Sixteen critically ill patients post-septic shock, with acute lung injury, were studied. Heart rate, arterial
When anesthetized, paralyzed patients were mechanically ventilated at rapid frequencies such that the time available for exhalation was insufficient, gas was retained in the thorax. Gas trapping became more pronounced as respiratory frequency increased. For any patient, the minimum length of time ne
Evidence-based recommendations on intramuscular diaphragm stimulation for ventilator-dependent chronic respiratory failure in people with motor neurone disease
Evidence-based recommendations on intramuscular diaphragm stimulation for ventilator-dependent chronic respiratory failure in people with motor neurone disease
(1) Background: We examine trends (2001–2015) in the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) among patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD). (2) Methods: Observational retrospective epidemiological study, using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database. (3) Results: We included 1,431,935 hospitalizations (aged ≥40 years) with an AE-COPD. NIV use increased significantly, from 1.82% in 2001–2003 to 8.52% in 2013–2015, while IMV utilization decreased significantly, from 1.39% in 2001–2003 to 0.67% in 2013–2015. The use of NIV + invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) rose significantly over time (from 0.17% to 0.42%). Despite the worsening of clinical profile of patients, length of stay decreased significantly over time in all types of ventilation. Patients who received only IMV had the highest in-hospital mortality (IHM) (32.63%). IHM decreased significantly in patients with
A compilation of selected presentations given by critical care experts at the 2008 SCCM Summer Conference, Mechanical Ventilation: Trends in Adult and Pediatric Practice, provides thirteen articles on the key topics in mechanical ventilation. Articles include principles of mechanical ventilation, noninvasive ventilation for acute hypoxic respiratory failure, preventing ventilation-associated pneumonia, lung recruitment strategies, mechanical ventilation in neurologically ill patients, and weaning from mechanical ventilation ...
Prolonged Artificial Ventilation and Tracheotomy Care, Testing of equipment and clinical trials led to modifications, of equipment and to simplified clinical routines.
Initial S. aureus isolation was mixed with another microorganism in 35.5% of cases: Haemophilus influenzae (16.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14%) and other Gram negative bacilli (58.1%). P. aeruginosa was subsequently isolated in 30 patients (24.8%). Twenty-one patients (17.3%) had a positive blood culture, and in 9 cases, the isolated microorganism was S. aureus (7.4%).. Respiratory adverse clinical outcome, including mortality related was associated with diagnosis of pneumonia (p,0.001) and staphylococcal bacteraemia (p=0.022) in univariate analysis, and only pneumonia in multivariate (p=0.001; OR: 38.4; IC95%: 4.606-320.165). Interestingly, clinical outcome was similar regardless of cloxacillin resistance. No statistical differences were found when considering ICU LOS, days on MV, age, APACHE-II and GCS.. When considering global mortality, it accounted for 48 patients (39.7%), and 6 cases were staphylococcal infection related. Mortality was significantly associated with the presence of ...
Ventilator management systems are provided. In one aspect, a ventilator management system includes a memory that includes an initial configuration profile configured to designate operating parameters for a ventilation device, and a processor. The processor is configured to receive ventilator data from the ventilation device, the ventilator data includes at least one of operating parameters of the ventilation device or physiological statistics of a patient associated with the ventilation device, and determine, based on the ventilator data, a modification to the initial configuration profile for the ventilation device. The processor is also configured to generate a modified configuration profile for the ventilation device based on the determined modification. Methods and machine-readable media are also provided.
Objective To assess current ventilation practices in newborn infants. Study design We conducted a 2-point cross-sectional study in 173 European neonatal intensive care units, including 535 infants (mean gestational age 28 weeks and birth weight 1024 g). Patient characteristics, ventilator settings, and measurements were collected bedside from endotracheally ventilated infants. Results A total of 457 (85%) patients were conventionally ventilated. Time cycled pressure-limited ventilation was used in 59% of these patients, most often combined with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (51%). Newer conventional ventilation modes like volume targeted and pressure support ventilation were used in, respectively, 9% and 7% of the patients. The mean tidal volume, measured in 84% of the conventionally ventilated patients, was 5.7 +/- 2.3 ml/kg. The mean positive end-expiratory pressure was 4.5 +/- 1.1 cmH(2)O and rarely exceeded 7 cmH(2)O. Conclusions Time cycled pressure-limited ventilation is ...
Objectives. To establish whether survivors of penetrating trunk trauma recover adequately and spontaneously following critical illness. Material and methods. A prospective observational study was conducted. Intubated and ventilated males and females with penetrating trunk trauma (SV group (mechanical ventilation (MV) <5 days, N=13), LV group (MV ≥5 days, N=29)) were recruited from four intensive care units. Dynamometry, lung function tests, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), oxygen uptake and quality of life (QOL), assessed with the short form-36 English UK version (SF-36) questionnaire, were recorded over a 6-month period following discharge. Results were compared with a healthy control group (N=40). Results. In the LV group, 6MWD was reduced in comparison wit h controls at 1 (p=0.00) and 3 months (p=0.00) after discharge. Morbidity correlated with 6MWD at 3 (p=0.03) and 6 months (p=0.02), and there was a reduction in strength at 1, 3 and 6 months relative to the SV group and controls (p=0.00 - 0.04
Background: One-lung ventilation (OLV) induces hypoxia during the operation and oxidative stress to the non-ventilated lung (NVL) which may cause acute lung injury (ALI). Aims: We sought to find out whether continuous administration of low-medium flow oxygen for NVL during OLV can mitigate the...
Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim calm and warm. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. (ERG, 2016 ...
Move victim to fresh air. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult ...
Move victim to fresh air. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult ...
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Review question: We reviewed available evidence on the effects of early tracheostomy (≤ 10 days after tracheal intubation) as compared with late tracheostomy (, 10 days after tracheal intubation) in terms of mortality in critically ill patients who predicted to be on long-term artificial respiration.. Background: Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure in which an external artificial opening is made in the trachea (windpipe). Long-term mechanical ventilation (whereby a machine is used to mechanically assist breathing) is the most common situation for which tracheostomy is indicated for patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Early and late tracheostomies may be undertaken.. Study characteristics: The evidence is current to August 2013. We included eight studies with a total of 1977 patients allocated to either early or late tracheostomy. Four studies received financial support from different institutions that did not participate in the study or in preparing the content of the final ...
The girls in boot camp at New River, North Carolina, who at the completion of their six weeks training period will be full fledged lady Leathernecks, have to take intensive training on a wide variety of subjects to keep pace with their brothers in arms. Here 2nd Lt Dorothy Mott of Oswego, New York, demonstrates to Pvt Cathe B. Greskowiak the method of artificial respiration.. ...
Definition of artificial respiration. Free online Dictionary including thesaurus, childrens and intermediate dictionary by Wordsmyth.
Definition of artificial respiration. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of anticoagulation with bivalirudin administered intravenously on gas-exchange in patients with COVID-19 and respiratory failure using invasive mechanical ventilation. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single centre parallel group, superiority, randomized (1:1 allocation ratio) controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted to the Hamad Medical Corporation -ICU in Qatar for COVID-19 associated respiratory distress and in need of mechanical ventilation are screened for eligibility. INCLUSION CRITERIA: all adult patients admitted to the ICU who test positive for COVID-19 by PCR-test and in need for mechanical ventilation are eligible for inclusion. Upon crossing the limit of D-dimers (1.2 mg/L) these patients are routinely treated with an increased dose of anticoagulant according to our local protocol. This will be the start of randomization. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: pregnancy, allergic to the drug, inherited coagulation abnormalities, no informed consent. INTERVENTION AND ...
The main findings of this study were that both spontaneous nocturnal ventilation and sleep quality progressively improved with NMV in patients with thoracic restriction, measured by withdrawing NMV for one night at six (T6) and 12 months (T12-) after initiation of NMV. However, a mild degree of hypoventilation remained apparent during the withdrawal studies, especially during REM sleep. Along with ventilation, the greatest improvement in sleep quality was achieved during the intervention itself (T12+). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to investigate spontaneous breathing and sleep quality after long term NMV, performing repeated measurements in patients with CRF due to thoracic restriction.. The study does, however, have several limitations. Firstly, the absence of a control group is a significant limitation but, because of ethical considerations, a control group without NMV was not considered acceptable. Furthermore, such a design would require the enrolment of a large ...
Previously the risks of ICD insertion in patients on mechanical ventilation has been described [5] however we presented the above case due to frequent referral of patients on mechanical ventilation to us with harmful complications of tube thoracostomy. Prior to ICD insertion in a patient on mechanical ventilation, the PEEP must be turned off and the ventilator must be disconnected briefly during the introduction of the ICD. In ICD insertion deploying Seldinger technique the same steps need to be taken for introducing the guide wire as well as the chest tube. Any ICD breaching the lung parenchyma should be removed after insertion of another ICD in the pleural space.. We believe the BTS guidelines [1] require a new revision with the view to including the mechanical ventilation as a hazardous clinical setting in pre-drainage risk assessment section. Furthermore ICD insertion needs to be explained separately in self- and mechanical-ventilating patients along with considering the clinical settings ...
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is mandatory in patients undergoing general anaesthesia for major surgery. Tidal volumes higher than 10 mL/kg of predicted body weight have been advocated for intraoperative ventilation, but recent evidence suggests that low tidal volumes may benefit surgical patients. To date, the impact of low tidal volume compared with conventional tidal volume during surgery has only been assessed in clinical trials that also combine different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in each arm. We aimed to assess the impact of low tidal volume compared with conventional tidal volume during general anaesthesia for surgery on the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications in adult patients receiving moderate levels of PEEP.. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Single-centre, two-arm, randomised clinical trial. In total, 1240 adult patients older than 40 years scheduled for at least 2 hours of surgery under general anaesthesia and routinely monitored with an ...
Objective: Lung-recruited Ly6C monocytes had been shown to be involved in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Our present study aimed to investigate whether the COX-2 inhibition modulates the function of lung-recruited Ly6C monocytes in a mouse model of VILI. Methods: Mice were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 ng) intraperitoneally prior to injurious mechanical ventilation (Vt = 30 ml/kg, PEEP = 0 cmH2O). A subgroup of mice was treated with intravenous parecoxib (30 mg/kg), a COX-2 inhibitor, 1 hour prior to ventilation. Control mice received saline and were not ventilated. At the end of the experiment, blood gas analysis was performed and lung tissue was collected for histological assessment. Flow cytometry was employed to quantify the different populations of lung monocytes/macrophages and their function. Isolated Ly6C cells were used to measure the intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by fluorescent probes, and cytokine production by ...
How does your center manage the ventilator on ECMO patients? Ventilator Management on ECMO has been a debatable topic for many years.
Results Of the 74 randomized patients (median age, 57 years; 18 [24%] women), 2 withdrew consent later and 1 was found to have been randomized incorrectly, leaving 39 patients in the dexmedetomidine group and 32 patients in the placebo group for analysis. Dexmedetomidine increased ventilator-free hours at 7 days compared with placebo (median, 144.8 hours vs 127.5 hours, respectively; median difference between groups, 17.0 hours [95% CI, 4.0 to 33.2 hours]; P = .01). Among the 21 a priori secondary outcomes, none were significantly worse with dexmedetomidine, and several showed statistically significant benefit, including reduced time to extubation (median, 21.9 hours vs 44.3 hours with placebo; median difference between groups, 19.5 hours [95% CI, 5.3 to 31.1 hours]; P less than .001) and accelerated resolution of delirium (median, 23.3 hours vs 40.0 hours; median difference between groups, 16.0 hours [95% CI, 3.0 to 28.0 hours]; P = .01). Using hierarchical Cox modeling to adjust for imbalanced ...
Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) was initiated in polio centers in the mid-50s (iron lung). Ten years ago, chronic respiratory insufficiency patients began to be treated with positive pressure ventilation via tracheostomy tube. Survival of kyphoscoliotic and myopathic patients was impressive in uncontrolled studies. Today it appears that similar results may be obtained with a new non-invasive technique, nasal mechanical ventilation. The present situation of HMV in Switzerland (number of patients and their location) and the results of this treatment are described. In addition, we report on a short series of 24 Swiss patients collected in 4 centers. We show that HMV is possible in Switzerland and that the results in survival and quality of life are excellent, provided that the indications for this technique are consistent with the recommendations in the literature.
Hemorrhagic shock causes a reduction in oxygen supply to tissues leading to increased reactive oxygen species resulting in lung injury. Often mechanical ventilation is required as supportive treatment; however, ventilation can also induce lung injury and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three modes of controlled mechanical ventilation: volume control, pressure control, and pressure regulated volume control on lung injury as measured by hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis during hemorrhagic shock. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to the three controlled mechanical ventilation groups. Hemorrhagic shock was elicited by removing approximately 40% of the blood volume over 30 minutes. The rats were treated with one of three modes of mechanical ventilation with 40% oxygen for 60 minutes. The lungs were removed and measured for hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis based on nuclear differential dye uptake. There were no significant differences in hemodynamics,
It was recently shown that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality has not been reduced in over 15 years and remains ~40 %, even with protective low tidal volume (LVt) ventilation. Thus, there is a critical need to develop novel ventilation strategies that will protect the lung and reduce ARDS mortality. Protti et al. have begun to analyze the impact of mechanical ventilation on lung tissue using engineering methods in normal pigs ventilated for 54 h. They used these methods to assess the impact of a mechanical breath on dynamic and static global lung strain and energy load. Strain is the change in lung volume in response to an applied stress (i.e., Tidal Volume-Vt). This study has yielded a number of exciting new concepts including the following: (1) Individual mechanical breath parameters (e.g., Vt or Plateau Pressure) are not directly correlated with VILI but rather any combination of parameters that subject the lung to excessive dynamic strain and energy/power load will cause VILI; (2)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute respiratory failure in children. AU - Friedman, Matthew L.. AU - Nitu, Mara. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - This article reviews the definition, pathophysiology, etiology, assessment, and management of acute respiratory failure in children. Acute respiratory failure is the inability of the respiratory system to maintain oxygenation or eliminate carbon dioxide. Acute respiratory failure is a common cause for admission to a pediatric intensive care unit. Most causes of acute respiratory failure can be grouped into one of three categories: lung parenchymal disease, airway obstruction, or neuromuscular dysfunction. Many patients with acute respiratory failure are managed successfully with noninvasive respiratory support; however, in severe cases, patients may require intubation and mechanical ventilation.. AB - This article reviews the definition, pathophysiology, etiology, assessment, and management of acute respiratory failure in children. Acute respiratory failure is the ...
Ventilator settings are ordered by the physician and are individualized for each patient. Ventilator basics: settings totally simplified Ventilators are complex pieces of equipment with a lot of variables that can be adjusted based on what the patient needs. At the end of the inguinal hernia repair, you notice that the peak airway pressures for your patient begin to rise significantly. In addition, the slope of Phase 2 on the EtCO2 curve begins Given the increasing number of patients contracting COVID-19 and developing pneumonia, the medical system is, and will continue to be, in dire need of licensed medical professionals who can assist in the operation of mechanical ventilators. High peak airway pressures and double the inspiratory volume Causes: patient flow or volume demand exceeds ventilator settings Consider: Increasing tidal volume, switching Ventilators are designed to monitor many components of the patients respiratory status. Nursing Points General Mechanical Ventilation Indications ...
BACKGROUND: Dyspnea, or difficult breathing, is common in patients receiving mechanical ventilation; however, dyspnea is not routinely or systematically measured. OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this methodological study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of 5 dyspnea rating scales and the criterion validity of 4 dyspnea rating scales in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The secondary purpose was to examine the correlations between each of these 5 rating scales and physiological measures of respiratory function. METHODS: The convenience sample consisted of 28 patients on mechanical ventilation during their hospitalization in the intensive care units of a large, inner-city hospital. Patients rated their dyspnea twice at 30-minute intervals on the visual analogue scale, the vertical analogue dyspnea scale, the modified Borg scale, the numerical scale, and the faces scale. Test-retest reliability was computed by using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Criterion validity ...
Mechanical ventilation is a common but technically challenging therapy that requires extensive education and experience to develop proficiency. This interactive computer module was developed to address a deficit in pediatric resident education. The instructional material focuses on respiratory physiology and basic concepts of conventional mechanical ventilation. In comparison to traditional didactic lectures, the computer module is brief, self-paced, and easily accessible and can be used whenever the pediatric resident has available time. These attributes are consistent with principles of adult learning and medical education.6,14. Residents preferred the interactive computer module compared to an annotated PowerPoint presentation with the same content. After using the module, they perceived an increase in self-confidence and had higher scores on a posttraining knowledge assessment. This demonstrates that self-directed learning is a feasible instructional method for learning this complex material ...
The overall goal of this thesis was to develop a dry powder delivery system for patients on mechanical ventilation. The studies were divided into two parts: the formulation development and the device design. The pulmonary system is an attractive route for drug delivery since the lungs have a large accessible surface area for treatment or drug absorption. For ventilated patients, inhaled drugs have to successfully navigate ventilator tubing and an endotracheal tube. Agglomerates of drug nanoparticles (also known as `NanoClusters) are fine dry powder aerosols that were hypothesized to enable drug delivery through ventilator circuits. This Thesis systematically investigated formulations of NanoClusters and their aerosol performance in a conventional inhaler and a device designed for use during mechanical ventilation. These engineered powders of budesonide (NC-Bud) were delivered via a Monodose® inhaler or a novel device through commercial endotracheal tubes, and analyzed by cascade impaction. ...
Mechanical ventilation is commonly used in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) [ 1 ]. Maintaining the patients own spontaneous breathing effort …
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Pearl: Strongly consider using lung-protective ventilation strategies in patient with acute respiratory failure in the emergency department3. Most patients in the ED should be placed on assist-control (AC) mode, which is usually a volume cycled or (tidal) volume controlled mode of mechanical ventilation after intubation.. Ventilation (PaCO2) settings - Tidal volume (Vt) and respiratory rate (RR). For most patient, choose Vt 6-8 cc/kg (ideal body weight) In this patient with only one lung, target 6 cc/kg initially then reduce the TV if needed (we chose 260 cc). Consider the minute ventilation the patient required before intubation as well as the cause of respiratory failure when choosing a starting point.. Oxygenation (PaO2) settings - FiO2 and PEEP. Initially start your patient on 100% FiO2 and wean down to a goal of , 60%. In patients requiring single lung ventilation, its likely they will require higher FiO2s. PEEP is positive end expiratory pressure, which helps to keep alveoli open during ...
The influence of detrimental forms of mechanical ventilation on the fluid balance across the alveolo-capillary barrier and its influence on the surfactant system have been extensively described in literature. Moreover, possible mechanisms by which such ventilation strategies exert systemic effects and effects on other organs are becoming increasingly realized. This paper describes the complications of detremental forms of mechanical ventilation and the physiological background to prevent such complications.. ...
LONDON - Revenues of the worlds mechanical ventilator market is predicted to reach USD 3.7 billion by the year 2022, registering increase at a 5.2% CAGR in the next 5 years. Among all the products, the biggest share of the overall market is predicted to be held by intensive mechanical ventilators.. Robust growth in the worlds mechanical ventilator market is spurred by a number of factors, including increasing number of old population and remarkable technological advancements, amid others. Continuous technological progress resulted in the introduction of new generation of machines with new variants in ventilation modes, designed primarily for patients comfort.. However, some factors could hamper further growth in the global mechanical ventilator market such as high cost of intensive care units. But, governmental bodies together with healthcare officials make attempts to solve this problem. Top participants in the market include Mindray Medical International Limited, Smiths Group, Becton ...
BACKGROUND: The effects of individualised perioperative lung-protective ventilation (based on the open-lung approach [OLA]) on postoperative complications is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of intraoperative and postoperative ventilatory management in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery, compared with standard protective ventilation. METHODS: We did this prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled trial in 21 teaching hospitals in Spain. We enrolled patients who were aged 18 years or older, were scheduled to have abdominal surgery with an expected time of longer than 2 h, had intermediate-to-high-risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications, and who had a body-mass index less than 35 kg/m2. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) online to receive one of four lung-protective ventilation strategies using low tidal volume plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): open-lung approach (OLA)-iCPAP (individualised intraoperative ventilation [individualised PEEP ...
Patients with mechanical ventilation are in risk of malnutrition, which could lead to worse outcome. According to guidelines released from authority organizations, enteral nutrition (EN) should be prior approach for critically ill patients. However, initiation and delivery of EN during the early period of ICU admission are frequently hampered, which results in underfeeding. The investigators speculate whether an intensive enteral nutrition strategy could reinforce the delivery of EN thereby improving outcomes. In this multi-center, prospective, randomized parallel clinical trial, the investigators aim to assess the feasibility, safety and outcomes of intensive enteral nutrition in mechanical-ventilated patients.
In order to study the interactions between critically ill patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and the machine, CIBER Researchers from the Critical Care Unit of Parc Tauli in collaboration with researchers from the Althaia Foundation, IRBLleida and BetterCare developed a new…
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Controlled mechanical ventilation induced a profound diaphragm muscle dysfunction and atrophy. The effects of diaphragmatic contractions with assisted mechanical ventilation on diaphragmatic isometric, isotonic contractile properties, or the expression of muscle atrophy factor-box (MAF-box), the gen …
ALI is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality of critical illness with extremely limited therapeutic options. In the present study, we pursued the hypothesis that tissue-specific adenosine signaling events through the A2B adenosine receptor contribute to lung protection and can thus be targeted for ALI treatment. To make progress on this front, we performed a head-to-head comparison of mice with genetic deletion of Adora2b in the myeloid lineage, vascular endothelial cells, or alveolar epithelial cells. Interestingly, we only observed a phenotype in mice with tissue-specific Adora2b deletion in alveolar epithelial cells, closely resembling the observed detrimental effects of global Adora2b deletion during ALI. Interestingly, the injurious effects of our two-hit model where an inflammatory event (i.t. LPS treatment) is followed by injurious mechanical ventilation seem to be supra-additive compared with the effects of injurious ventilation or LPS i.t. alone. Based on these findings ...
Mechanical Ventilators Market by Product Types (Critical Care Mechanical Ventilators, Neonatal Mechanical Ventilators, Transport and Portable Mechanical Ventilators, Swivels and Connectors) 2016-2020.
Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California ...
GONZALEZ-CASTRO, A. et al. Utility of the dead space fraction (Vd/Vt) as a predictor of extubation success. Med. Intensiva [online]. 2011, vol.35, n.9, pp.529-538. ISSN 0210-5691.. Purpose: To determine the value of Vd/Vt as a predictor of extubation failure in patients with mechanical ventilation admitted to the intensive care units. Design: A prospective, observational cohort study conducted from 1 September 2010 to 1 March 2011. Setting: General intensive care unit (G-ICU) of a third level university hospital. Patients or participants: The study included patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) for over 12hours, and who in the process of weaning were subjected to low-level pressure support. Exclusion criteria were age under 18 years, ventilation via tracheotomy and patients failing to cooperate for different reasons. During the study, 392 patients were admitted to the G-ICU; of these, 214 required MV. The weaning process was started in 154 cases. Fifty-four patients were excluded from the ...
Press Release issued Apr 27, 2017: Artificial ventilation and anesthesia masks are increasingly being used in developed and emerging economies for various applications under intensive care units, dental, operating rooms, emergency rooms, and home care. The market is gaining popularity and is driven by frequent use in operating rooms owing to rise in the number of dental centers and hospitals, surge in insurance reimbursement, and high-unmet needs in emerging economies. To highlight the current market trends, Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) has added a report titled as Artificial Ventilation and Anesthesia Masks Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2016 - 2024 to its vast repository of research reports. This study focuses on the artificial ventilation and anesthesia masks market evaluated by structure, scope, and dynamics, which is anticipated to grow during 2016-2024.
Although mechanical ventilation may be a patients vital ally during acute illness, it can quickly transform into an enemy during chronic conditions.. The weaning process is the fundamental phase that enables the resumption of physiological respiratory function; however, it is also associated with a number of life-threatening complications, and a large percentage of critically ill patients never achieve airway device removal or require the resumption of mechanical ventilation just a few days post-weaning.. Indeed, the weaning process is, at present, more of an art than a science.. As such, there is urgent need for novel contributions from the scientific literature to abate the growing rates of morbidity and mortality associated with weaning failure.. The physician attempting to wean a patient must integrate clinical parameters and common-sense criteria. Numerous studies have striven to identify single predictive factors of weaning failure and sought to standardize the weaning process, but the ...
Protective lung ventilation is the current standard of care for mechanical ventilation. It is synonymous with low tidal volume ventilation (4-8 mL/kg) and often includes permissive hypercapnia
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Objective The economic implications of sedative choice in the management of patients receiving mechanical ventilation are unclear due to differences in costs and clinical outcomes connected with specific sedatives. variations between midazolam and propofol on costs or actions of performance. Conclusion Propofol offers superior value in comparison to lorazepam when useful for sedation among the critically sick who require mechanised ventilation when found in the establishing of daily sedative interruption. research where individuals had been 55 years managed and older inside a medical intensive treatment device. We also assumed individuals would receive testing daily for the appropriateness of spontaneous deep breathing trials in expectation of ventilator liberation which daily awakening tests were performed where sedatives were ceased every day until individuals could follow basic instructions. Sedative and analgesic dosing Estimations of sedative and analgesic dosing had been based on unique ...
Ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD) is a marked decline in diaphragm function in response to mechanical ventilation, which has negative consequences for individual patients quality of life and for the health care system, but specific treatment strategies are still lacking. We used an experimental intensive care unit (ICU) model, allowing time-resolved studies of diaphragm structure and function in response to long-term mechanical ventilation and the effects of a pharmacological intervention (the chaperone co-inducer BGP-15). The marked loss of diaphragm muscle fiber function in response to mechanical ventilation was caused by posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of myosin. In a rat model, 10 days of BGP-15 treatment greatly improved diaphragm muscle fiber function (by about 100%), although it did not reverse diaphragm atrophy. The treatment also provided protection from myosin PTMs associated with HSP72 induction and PARP-1 inhibition, resulting in improvement of mitochondrial ...
"Artificial Respiration". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-15. "Artificial ... Artificial respiration takes many forms, but generally entails providing air for a person who is not breathing or is not making ... The efficiency of artificial respiration can be greatly increased by the simultaneous use of oxygen therapy. The amount of ... Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, a form of artificial ventilation, is the act of assisting or stimulating respiration in which a ...
He resumed artificial respiration. By the time Sekunda arrived, at around 11:30, Spencer had concluded that Mary was dead. ...
Geddes, LA (2007). "The history of artificial respiration". IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine. 26 (6): 38-41. ... "Artificial Lung on Wheels Prove Life Saver" Popular Mechanics, December 1930 photo of earliest production units from Boston ... Respiration Without Breathing - about the Thunberg "barospirator" built by John Emerson. "A medical triumph: The iron lung", ... Intermittent positive pressure respiration during the 1952 polio-epidemic in Copenhagen. Archived from the original on December ...
"Artificial Respiration for Two Years". The Lancet. 223 (5772): 786-788. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(00)92888-5. Dikeman, K J; ... The Pulsator provided life-saving treatment for many people in the early days of artificial ventilation. When the only ... Artificial ventilation Mechanical ventilation "Bragg-Paul Pulsator, model II, Europe, 1938-1939". Science Museum, London. ... Virdi, Jaipreet (4 May 2016). "The Pulsator: How a Portable Artificial Respirator Saved the Lives of Children". From the Hands ...
He also gave artificial respiration. His assessment, however, was that Lincoln could not recover. By this time other surgeons ...
Some people require artificial respiration. Once the immediate problem is under control, rehabilitation may be required. In ...
She is notable for creating the miniature pH electrode, her work on artificial respiration, and her pioneering work shaping the ... Mr S. Crosby Halahan, Bragg's neighbour and the inspiration for his respirator, was kept alive via artificial respiration for ... Kerridge, Phyllis Margaret Tookey (1934). "Artificial Respiration for Two Years". The Lancet. 223 (5772): 786-788. doi:10.1016/ ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Virdi-Dhesi, Jaipreet (May 2016). "The Pulsator: How a Portable Artificial Respirator ...
The doctors gave artificial respiration. Based on their reports, the cause of death was suffocation". It quickly became ...
Geddes, LA (2007). "The history of artificial respiration". IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine. 26 (6): 38-41. ... They may have manual backup mechanisms to enable hand-driven respiration in the absence of power (such as the mechanical ... Russell WR, Schuster E, Smith AC, Spalding JM (April 1956). "Radcliffe respiration pumps". The Lancet. 270 (6922): 539-41. doi: ... Canadian Emergency Ventilators Inc Bayliss Medical Inc Thornhill Medical Vexos Inc CAE Inc Artificial ventilation Joseph ...
The first five chapters respectively deal with the effects which an artificial environment have on the heart, on respiration, ... the phenomena of respiration; and the primary use of respiration. The work, which is made up of some 100 pages, and written in ... Tractatus Mechanicus de Non Naturalibus (A Study on Artificial Mechanics; 1748) - This book in Latin was published in Avignon, ... It was entitled Dissertatio Physiologica de Respiratione, ejusque Uso Primario (Physiological Aspects of Respiration and its ...
Shaw, LA; Drinker, P (1929). "AN APPARATUS FOR THE PROLONGED ADMINISTRATION OF ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION: I. A Design for Adults ... Shaw, LA; Drinker, P (1929). "AN APPARATUS FOR THE PROLONGED ADMINISTRATION OF ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION: II. A Design for Small ... Drinker, P; Shaw, LA (1932). "The prolonged administration of artificial respiration". Journal of the Franklin Institute. 213 ( ... Shaw, LA (1928). "Cutaneous Respiration of the Cat". American Journal of Physiology. 85 (1): 158-67. ...
Artificial Respiration and Intrathoracic Œsophageal Surgery. Annals of surgery, 52(1), 58. Janeway, H. H., & Green, N. W. (1911 ...
A. Barrington Baker (October 1971). "Artificial respiration, the history of an idea". Medical History. 15 (4): 336-351. doi: ... Furley, D, and J. Wilkie, 1984, Galen On Respiration and the Arteries, Princeton University Press, and Bylebyl, J (ed), 1979, ...
Artificial Respiration, the history of an idea. A B Baker Med Hist. 1971 15(4): 336-351 "Holger Nielsen". Olympedia. Retrieved ...
Baker, A. Barrington (1971). "Artificial respiration, the history of an idea". Medical History. 15 (4): 336-51. doi:10.1017/ ... The first detailed descriptions on tracheal intubation and subsequent artificial respiration of animals were from Andreas ... Galen may have understood the importance of artificial ventilation, because in one of his experiments he used bellows to ...
... among them Respiración artificial (1980, trans. Artificial Respiration), La ciudad ausente (1992, trans. The Absent City), and ... Novels 1980 Artificial Respiration ("Respiración artificial") 1992 The Absent City ("La ciudad ausente") 1997 Burnt Money (" ... "La literariedad: Respiración artificial, de Ricardo Piglia", Revista Iberoamericana, University of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., vol. ...
195-207 Barrington Baker, A (1971). "Artificial respiration: the history of an idea". Medical History. 15 (4): 336-51. doi: ... The first detailed descriptions of tracheal intubation and subsequent artificial respiration of animals were from Andreas ... 345-70 Booth, A. W. G.; Vidhani, K.; Lee, P. K.; Thomsett, C.-M. (2017-03-01). "SponTaneous Respiration using IntraVEnous ... SponTaneous Respiration using IntraVEnous anaesthesia and High-flow nasal oxygen (STRIVE Hi) is an open airway technique that ...
He was saved by Xia's protecter, a donkey called Azhu(阿柱). Azhu used artificial respiration to save him. When he woke up, He ...
Schafer's method of artificial respiration is named after him. Schafer coined the word "insulin" after theorising that a single ... Writer, D. (2004). "Sir Edward Sharpey-Schafer and his simple and efficient method of performing artificial respiration". ... Sykes, A. H. (2006). "Edward Schafer (1850-1935) and artificial respiration". Journal of Medical Biography. 14 (3): 155-62. doi ... artificial respiration) - Patient prone with forehead on one of his arms: straddle across patient with knees on either side of ...
Ben resuscitates Amy via artificial respiration by mouth. Later, at a swim meet, Ben is a spectator. He goes outside to his car ...
Some of the soldiers required prolonged artificial respiration." At approximately this same time the sixteen DD tanks forming ...
Will applies artificial respiration and saves the man's life. He returns home to find Arthur bleeding and terrified. Arthur has ...
Woodson provided artificial respiration to the three men, reviving them. Woodson was subsequently hospitalized due to his wound ...
U.S. Patent 859,778 Artificial Respiration (1907) U.S. Patent 978,641 Gas Generator I (1909) U.S. Patent 929,875 Gas Generator ... George Poe's machine for producing artificial respiration in the library of the Kings County Medical Society, at 1,313 Bedford ... Successful Demonstration of an Artificial Respiration Machine Cheered in Brooklyn. Women in the Audience, But Most of Those ... "An Artificial Respirator", Scientific American, June 22, 1907, page 515. "Smother Small Dog To See it Revived. ...
"Medical reform in Ukraine: artificial respiration for "Ambulance"" (in Ukrainian). Deutsche Welle. December 13, 2016. Archived ...
Shaw, LA; Drinker, P (1929). "AN APPARATUS FOR THE PROLONGED ADMINISTRATION OF ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION: I. A Design for Adults ... Shaw, LA; Drinker, P (1929). "AN APPARATUS FOR THE PROLONGED ADMINISTRATION OF ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION: II. A Design for Small ...
Successful Demonstration of an Artificial Respiration Machine Cheered in Brooklyn. Women in the Audience, But Most of Those ... Mechanical ventilation, assisted ventilation or intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV), is the medical term for artificial ... a negative pressure is created in the pleural cavity by the muscles of respiration, and the resulting gradient between the ... or a tracheostomy inserted through an artificial opening in the neck. In other circumstances simple airway maneuvres, an ...
George Poe's machine for producing artificial respiration in the library of the Kings County Medical Society, at 1,313 Bedford ... Successful Demonstration of an Artificial Respiration Machine Cheered in Brooklyn. Women in the Audience, But Most of Those ... A vital role in ICU is the initiation and maintenance of mechanical ventilation and the care of artificial airways. Respiratory ... In the United States, legislation has been introduced several times to allow Respiration Therapists certified as asthma ...
For services to research into the subject of artificial respiration. State of Queensland Walter Frank Hoger, Chief Prison ...
"Sci-Fi Writer Robert Sheckley on Artificial Respiration in Ukrainian …". mosnews.com. March 24, 2006. Archived from the ...
Aquatic respiration, animals extracting oxygen from water. *Artificial respiration, the act of simulating respiration, which ... Anaerobic respiration, cellular respiration without oxygen. *Maintenance respiration, the amount of cellular respiration ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Respiration. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ... Root respiration, exchange of gases between plant roots and the atmosphere. *Photorespiration, enzymatic combination of RuBP ...
Such wheelchairs typically employ techniques from artificial intelligence, such as path-planning. ... improved respiration, reduced occurrence of UTI, improved flexibility, help in maintaining bone mineral density, improved ...
Synthetic intelligence / Artificial intelligence *Existential risk from artificial intelligence. *AI takeover. *Technological ...
Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia. *CMAS Europe. *Coral Reef Alliance. *Diving Equipment and Marketing Association ...
The SimMan mannequin is capable of speech, heart rate control, respiration and a host of other controls to make it a realistic ... Additional capabilities are expected to help drive this use of simulation to become common, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI ... artificial, human or a combination of the two, educational documents with detailed simulated animations, casualty assessment in ...
Artificial respiration. *CPR. *Hyperbaric medicine. *Decompression chamber. *Heliox. *Mechanical ventilation. *Nebulizer. * ...
... fruits are nonclimacteric and respiration slowly declines and the production and release of ethylene is gradual.[35] The ... seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of a small number of core ancestral species, including the citron, pomelo, mandarin, ...
Geddes LA (2007). "The history of artificial respiration". IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine. 26 (6): 38-41. ... Russell WR, Schuster E, Smith AC, Spalding JM (April 1956). "Radcliffe respiration pumps". The Lancet. 270 (6922): 539-41. doi: ... They may have manual backup mechanisms to enable hand-driven respiration in the absence of power (such as the mechanical ...
The invention of the nuclear reactor in the Manhattan Project during World War 2 made possible the production of artificial ... These uncertainties can be caused by internal movement (for example, respiration and bladder filling) and movement of external ... due to respiration or inadequate patient immobilization). New techniques are being developed to better control this uncertainty ...
The infant did not need artificial respiration and could breathe on her own. Her parents kept her on kidney dialysis at home ...
Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport ... NetNGlyc: The NetNglyc server predicts N-glycosylation sites in human proteins using artificial neural networks that examine ...
Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia. *CMAS Europe. *Coral Reef Alliance. *Diving Equipment and Marketing Association ...
Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia (ARSBC). *CMAS Europe. *Diving Equipment and Marketing Association (DEMA) ...
Artificial respiration. *Mechanical ventilation. *Respiratory therapy. References[edit]. *^ a b c Neumar RW, Otto CW, Link MS, ... The full-form of AMBU is Artificial Manual Breathing Unit. An Ambu® bag is a self-inflating bag resuscitator from the company ... As previously stated, manual resuscitators are the first-line device recommended for emergency artificial ventilation of ... 10-12 respirations per minute in an adult and 20 per minute in a child or infant).[5] ...
This band was once[when?] held to be less damaging to DNA, and hence is used in cosmetic artificial sun tanning (tanning booths ... This process is known as cellular respiration.. In prehistory, humans began to further extend this process by putting plant and ... "Artificial Tanning Booths and Cancer - National Cancer Institute". 31 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2018.. ... This is higher than the efficacy (of source) of most artificial lighting (including fluorescent), which means using sunlight ...
The adjuncts to artificial respiration are covered above, but other common infection control PPE includes: *Gloves which are ... will contain a suitable infection barrier for performing artificial respiration as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ...
... the diaphragm and other muscles of respiration. An increased level of carbon dioxide in the blood, or a decreased level of ... often generating artificial stresses if the "natural" level of stress is not enough.[70] ...
Many people put up bat houses to attract bats.[230] The 1991 University of Florida bat house is the largest occupied artificial ... "Respiration, Wing-Beat and Ultrasonic Pulse Emission in an Echo-Locating Bat". Journal of Experimental Biology. 56 (56): 37-48 ...
For example, the biological process of respiration is explained as a biochemical process involving oxygen and carbon dioxide. ...
J. A. Blom (15 December 2003). Monitoring of Respiration and Circulation. CRC Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-203-50328-7. .. ... It is hoped that these artificial red blood cells can eventually be used for blood transfusions.[50] ...
Artificial respiration, the history of an idea.. *↑ Macmillan, M (2010). "William Macewen [1848-1924"]. Journal of Neurology ... Barrington Baker, A (1971). "Artificial respiration: the history of an idea". Medical History 15 (4): 336-51. PMC 1034194. PMID ...
The Roman gardeners used artificial methods (similar to the greenhouse system) of growing to have it available for his table ... Ventilation also ensures a supply of fresh air for photosynthesis and plant respiration, and may enable important pollinators ... as well as artificial pollination. Hydroponics (especially hydroponic A-frames) can be used to make the most use of the ...
Most cultivated Citrus seem to be natural or artificial hybrids of four core ancestral species[14] - the citron, pummelo, ... Citrus fruits are non-climacteric and respiration slowly declines and the production and release of ethylene is gradual.[24] ...
West, John B. (1995). "Oxygen Enrichment of Room Air to Relieve the Hypoxia of High Altitude". Respiration Physiology. 99 (2): ... Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia (ARSBC). *CMAS Europe. *Diving Equipment and Marketing Association (DEMA) ...
The bacteria is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe that can utilize some oxygen for aerobic respiration but usually produces ... this practice and instead complete malolactic fermentation prior to bottling with the slight sparkle being added by artificial ... this practice and instead complete malolactic fermentation prior to bottle with the slight sparkle being added by artificial ... species are Gram-positive with some species being micro-aerophilic while others utilizing mostly aerobic respiration. Under the ...
It is especially sensitive to natural and artificial low-frequency sounds in the 25-100 Hz range, which evoke struggling fish.[ ...
This means they lose more moisture in respiration. Kangaroos just make small pants while immobile and in motion expand and ...
Phenylalanine is a component of the artificial sweetener aspartame, so people with PKU need to avoid low calorie beverages and ... respiration enzymes, blood cells) recycle muscle protein for their own requirements.[citation needed] ...
... it bridges the disciplines of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence. A primary ambition of this field is to ... "comprehensive and in many ways remarkably accurate description of laughter in terms of respiration, vocalization, facial action ...
Artificial respiration. *CPR. *Hyperbaric medicine. *Decompression chamber. *Heliox. *Mechanical ventilation. *Nebulizer. * ...
artificial respiration, any measure that causes air to flow in and out of a persons lungs when natural breathing is inadequate ... artificial respiration (artificial ventilation) n. an emergency procedure for maintaining a flow of air into and out of a ... artificial respiration, any measure that causes air to flow in and out of a persons lungs when natural breathing is inadequate ... Respiration can be taken over by an artificial lung (especially in respiratory paralysis), a pulmotor, or any other type of ...
Artificial respiration, breathing induced by some manipulative technique when natural respiration has ceased or is faltering. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information - PubMed Central - Artificial Respiration. *Academia - Artificial Respiration: On ... Artificial respiration, breathing induced by some manipulative technique when natural respiration has ceased or is faltering. ... Various methods of artificial respiration, most based on the application of external force to the lungs, were once used. ...
Artificial Respiration. Discover more music, concerts, videos, and pictures with the largest catalogue online at Last.fm. ...
... contributed by Robert A. Freitas Jr.. © Copyright 2000, Robert A. Freitas Jr.. All rights ... Medical nanorobots can be employed as artificial oxygen carriers in the blood (see Respirocytes), thus assisting and extending ...
Definition of artificial respiration. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
Artificial respiration being taught in a Red Cross first aid class to State employees in the Wisconsin State Capitol Assembly ... Artificial Respiration First Aid Class. Artificial Respiration First Aid Class , Photograph , Wisconsin Historical Society ... Artificial respiration being taught in a Red Cross first aid class to State employees in the Wisconsin State Capitol Assembly ...
Artificial Respiration. Author(s): Ricardo Piglia. Translator(s): Daniel Balderston. Published: March 1994 Pages: 240. Sales/ ... Artificial Respiration is his first book in English. His other books have been translated into Portuguese, French, Italian, and ... Sometime ago I wrote in the New York Times Book Review that it was a shame that Artificial Respiration by Ricardo Piglia, one ... As a prize winning detective novel, Artificial Respiration reaches through many levels of mystery to explore the forces that ...
Synonyms for artificial-respiration at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word ...
Synonyms for artificial respiration at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Find descriptive ... If spasms threaten respiration, artificial respiration is necessary.. By the aid of artificial respiration, &c., she recovered ... None had better than Robert, the technic of artificial respiration.. Artificial respiration must be started as soon as possible ... Proceed to restore breathing by artificial respiration as in drowning.. It had been touch and go for his life, but artificial ...
On the Use of Artificial Respiration and Transfusion as a Means of Preserving Life Br Med J 1873; 1 :555 doi:10.1136/bmj.1.646. ... On the Use of Artificial Respiration and Transfusion as a Means of Preserving Life ... On the Use of Artificial Respiration and Transfusion as a Means of Preserving Life ... On the Use of Artificial Respiration and Transfusion as a Means of Preserving Life. Br Med J 1873; 1 doi: https://doi.org/ ...
... method of artificial respiration, using a combination of pressure on the back, and movements of the arm. The films starts with ... Credit: Artificial respiration by the H. N. method. Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) ... An instructional film describing the Holger Nielsen [HN] method of artificial respiration, using a combination of pressure on ...
... "benefits and disadvantages of artificial oxygenation" (Jouni Lehtoranta and Heikki Pitkänen, SYKE). "Can a reduction of ...
Definition of artificial respiration written for English Language Learners from the Merriam-Webster Learners Dictionary with ... Artificial respiration can be done by pressing on the persons chest, by blowing into the persons mouth, or by using a special ... What made you want to look up artificial respiration? Include any comments and questions you have about this word. ...
YOU MAY NOW ADMINISTER ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION TO THE BRIDE. A bride, groom and their entire wedding party fell into Gun Lake ...
Artificial respiration , Aspects of mortality statistics , Protective Ventilation , ADULT RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME , ...
Artificial Respiration Procedure Sign - Fast shipping, direct from the USA manufacturer. Order your Artificial Respiration ... This Artificial Respiration Procedure Sign uses informational messages for property and swimming policy concerns. An Artificial ... The Artificial Respiration Procedure Sign from SafetySign.com uses this font because it works well for both large and small ... Artificial Respiration Procedure 1. Check The Victim For Unresponsiveness. Call 911 And Return To The Victim. In Most Loca … ...
A Device for Artificial Respiration You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the ... A Device for Artificial Respiration. Anesthesiology 5 1961, Vol.22, 495. doi: ...
... Published on 21 February 2012 17:13. , Ralitsa Kovacheva, Sofia Last change on 22 ...
Timing of tracheostomy for critically ill patients who are predicted to be on long-term artificial respiration. Review question ... in terms of mortality in critically ill patients who predicted to be on long-term artificial respiration. ... Background: Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure in which an external artificial opening is made in the trachea (windpipe). ...
Tracheostomy Cannula for Speaking During Artificial Respiration You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... O. HESSLER, K. REHDER, S. W. CARVETH; Tracheostomy Cannula for Speaking During Artificial Respiration. Anesthesiology 1964;25(5 ... Tracheostomy Cannula for Speaking During Artificial Respiration. Anesthesiology 9 1964, Vol.25, 719-720. doi: ...
Here, the cap closes the lip valve so thick that in any case, leakage can occur when artificial respiration , II: Lippenventil ... Larynx mask for fibre optic endotracheal intubation with simultaneous artificial respiration Country Status (1). Country. Link ... Larynx mask for fibre optic endotracheal intubation with simultaneous artificial respiration Publications (1). Publication ... Larynx mask for fibre optic endotracheal intubation with simultaneous artificial respiration Info. Publication number. ...
Cardiac massage or artificial respiration. Description: Subject matter relating to manipulation of the heart to revive its beat ... Artificial tooth root and method of manufacturing same. Semiconductor laser device with integrated reflector on a (511) tilted ...
AUTOMATED ARTIFICIAL BREATHING DEVICE. Embodiments of the present invention in general, relates to medical devices, and more ... INSUFFLATOR DEVICE FOR ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION. The invention relates to a portable, lightweight insufflator device for ... INSUFFLATOR DEVICE FOR ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION. The invention relates to a portable, lightweight insufflator device for ... DEVICES AND METHODS FOR ADJUSTING AND TRACKING RESPIRATION-STIMULATING ELECTRODES. An electrode for stimulating a neuromuscular ...
An ear massager comprises a head beam (1), ear housings (2), a driver (7), a wire (3), and a control panel (4). The ear housings (2) are provided with massage machine cores (5), and the massage machine cores (5) are of a concave type. Th ...
Artificial respiration Lungs Respirators (Medical equipment) Respiratory insufficiency *Medicine - All Feeds. *Allergology and ...
... the staff revived the newborn by giving artificial respiration ... The Staff Revived The Newborn By Giving Artificial Respiration ...
Presentation] A New Respiratory Model Consi- dering Hysteresis for Artificial Respiration2010. *. Author(s). S. Kanae, M. ... Presentation] A New Respiratory Model Considering Hysteresis for Artificial Respiration2010. *. Author(s). S.Kanae, M.Nakamichi ... Construction of nonlinear dynamical model for artificial respiration and optimal decision of ventilation conditions. Research ... furthermore developments of applications to artificial respiration are performed for this purpose. Taking features of ...
1950s, 1959, accident, aid, ambulance, arteries, artery, artificial, assistance, background, bandages, box, cardiac, care, ... An educational film on how to properly perform the back method of artificial respiration. ... An educational film on how to properly perform the back method of artificial respiration ... 1950s, 1959, accident, aid, ambulance, arteries, artery, artificial, assistance, background, bandages, box, cardiac, care, ...
Artificial respiration What is Artificial respiration?. It is given when there is respiratory failure.It can be given by mouth ... Recent questions on Artificial respiration. What is the rate of survival in elderly patients with carcenoid tumors in brain ... Questions and answers on "Artificial respiration". What is the rate of survival in elderly patients with carcenoid tumors in ...
How to Perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Artificial Respiration Artificial respiration (AR) and cardiopulmonary ... An endotracheal tube will be placed and oxygen used for artificial respiration. (An endotracheal tube is a tube placed in the ... If the cats heart stops, use both artificial respiration and CPR (steps 7-10) ... and some can be severe enough to require cardiopulmonary resuscitation or artificial respiration. Regular check-ups and prompt ...
  • In the 1950s Austrian-born anesthesiologist Peter Safar and colleagues found that obstruction of the upper airway by the tongue and soft palate rendered existing artificial ventilation techniques largely ineffective. (britannica.com)
  • The invention relates to a portable, lightweight insufflator device for improving artificial ventilation in patient resuscitation, allowing resuscitation specialists to free their hands in a health emergency and also to increase the qual. (sumobrain.com)
  • The purpose of this project is to establish modeling methods of respiratory systems and to develop decision methods of optimal ventilation conditions for intelligent monitoring of artificial respiration. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Prolonged Artificial Ventilation and Tracheotomy Care, Testing of equipment and clinical trials led to modifications, of equipment and to simplified clinical routines. (dtic.mil)
  • artificial respiration - artificial ventilation an emergency procedure for maintaining a flow of air into and out of a patient s lungs when the natural breathing reflexes are absent or insufficient. (academic.ru)
  • Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2). (rush.edu)
  • Heart massage is always carried out with artificial ventilation. (intoxication-stop.com)
  • With the alternation of indirect heart massage with artificial ventilation of the lungs, 2 breaths are taken for 30 strokes. (intoxication-stop.com)
  • A device, usually with a one way valve, to aid in artificial ventilation. (splonk.nl)
  • Maintenance of respiratory movement by artificial means, such as rescue breathing, bag mask, pocket mask, automatic transport ventilator, manual transport ventilator, or a flow-restricted oxygen-powered ventilation device. (tabers.com)
  • Medrills - Respiration and Artificial Ventilation. (droidinformer.org)
  • The EMT task of assessing respiration and assisting with artificial ventilation is fully illustrated using 3D graphics and interactive exercises to reinforce key learning concepts. (droidinformer.org)
  • The Pulsator provided life-saving treatment for many people in the early days of artificial ventilation, and when the only alternative was the 'iron lung' the much less intrusive treatment of the Pulsator allowed for a more normal life for its patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial ventilation (also called artificial respiration) is a means of assisting or stimulating respiration, a metabolic process referring to the overall exchange of gases in the body by pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary ventilation (and hence external parts of respiration) is achieved through manual insufflation of the lungs either by the rescuer blowing into the patient's lungs (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation), or by using a mechanical device to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Greek physician Galen may have been the first to describe artificial ventilation: "If you take a dead animal and blow air through its larynx through a reed, you will fill its bronchi and watch its lungs attain the greatest distention. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1773, English physician William Hawes (1736-1808) began publicizing the power of artificial ventilation to resuscitate people who superficially appeared to have drowned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, a form of artificial ventilation, is the act of assisting or stimulating respiration in which a rescuer presses their mouth against that of the victim and blows air into the person's lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resuscitation by inducing artificial respiration consists chiefly of two actions: (1) establishing and maintaining an open air passage from the upper respiratory tract ( mouth , throat, and pharynx ) to the lungs and (2) exchanging air and carbon dioxide in the terminal air sacs of the lungs while the heart is still functioning. (britannica.com)
  • Artificial respiration (AR) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are emergency procedures that hopefully you will never need to use. (petmd.com)
  • Accidents do happen, in spite of our best efforts, and some can be severe enough to require cardiopulmonary resuscitation or artificial respiration. (petmd.com)
  • Let's find out in this article, under what kind of poisoning may occur clinical death, what kind of human resuscitation techniques exist, and how to properly perform artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. (intoxication-stop.com)
  • The simplest method and the most efficient method of artificial respiration is mouth to mouth breathing (kiss of life) or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (lifeeasy.org)
  • It is used on a patient with a beating heart or as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to achieve the internal respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • When victims vomit, they must be turned on their side and the airway cleaned before continuing artificial respiration. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If a victim was choking before falling unconscious, the Heimlich maneuver may be used to clear the airway before beginning mouth-to-mouth respiration. (britannica.com)
  • A respiratory circuit for an artificial inspiration ventilator is characterized in that it controls a volume of an O2/ air constant flow as being substantially reversely proportional to a positive and negative airway pressures by patient's own respiration . (splonk.nl)
  • If the victim has difficulty in breathing, ensure that airway is clear and if necessary administer artificial respiration. (copperwiki.org)
  • This invention relates to apparatus and methods for the control of pressure in the administration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment or assisted respiration. (google.es)
  • The need to give artificial respiration or CPR is an example of these life-saving measures. (thenatureinus.com)
  • If he's unconscious and won't start breathing, you may need to give artificial respiration. (smallfarmersjournal.com)
  • An apparatus for administering artificial respiration in cases of respiratory failure. (splonk.nl)
  • A system for timing the maximum lengths of inspiration and expiration phases of the respiration cycles of a positive pressure breathing apparatus, the rate control system including a timing cylinder with a movable piston therein forming two mutually adjustable timing chambers, two conduits receiving. (google.com)
  • and has particular reference to an improved system for controlling the maximum time intervals of the inspiration and expiration phases of a respiration apparatus for administering intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) therapy to a patient. (google.com)
  • Various methods of artificial respiration, most based on the application of external force to the lungs, were once used. (britannica.com)
  • What are the methods of artificial respiration? (lifeeasy.org)
  • The mitochondria in our cells consume 90% of the oxygen we breathe and use that oxygen to convert nutrients into energy for a variety of cellular functions through a chemical process known as respiration. (news-medical.net)
  • For decades, scientists studying mitochondrial respiration have had to isolate mitochondria within 30 minutes of collection from fresh tissue and run respirometry tests on them the same day, making side-by-side comparisons impractical and prone to errors. (news-medical.net)
  • Respiration rates of muscle mitochondria in flying hummingbirds range from 7 to 10 ml of O2 per cm3 of mitochondria per min, which is about 2 times higher than the range obtained in the locomotory muscles of mammals running at their maximum aerobic capacities (VO2max). (pnas.org)
  • Medical nanorobots can be employed as artificial oxygen carriers in the blood (see Respirocytes ), thus assisting and extending normal human respiratory capacities. (foresight.org)
  • An endotracheal tube will be placed and oxygen used for artificial respiration. (petmd.com)
  • In cellular respiration the blood cells release oxygen and pick up carbon dioxide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Artificial respiration can save lives because if breathing stops, the organs are no longer supplied with oxygen. (splonk.nl)
  • Cellular respiration in which oxygen is used in the production of energy. (tabers.com)
  • Respiration in which an organism, such as a one-celled ameba, secures its oxygen and gives up carbon dioxide directly to the surrounding medium. (tabers.com)
  • The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the organs, so if you're giving artificial respiration but there's no heartbeat, the oxygen can't get where it's needed and you'll need to provide chest compressions as well as artificial respiration. (wikihow.com)
  • This can be aerobic respiration, which needs oxygen, or anaerobic respiration, which does not. (majortests.com)
  • Aerobic respiration is the form of respiration which uses oxygen. (majortests.com)
  • As a result, more than half of patients with mitochondrial disorders are never tested for mitochondrial respiration. (news-medical.net)
  • The new technique restores essential electron-transfer components that leak out of the mitochondrial membrane when it is damaged during freezing and thawing, thus returning mitochondrial respiration to the level of fresh samples. (news-medical.net)
  • 2020) A novel approach to measure mitochondrial respiration in frozen biological samples. (news-medical.net)
  • We propose that both mitochondrial volume densities and Sv(im,m) are near their maximum theoretical limits in hummingbirds and that higher rates of mitochondrial respiration than those observed in mammals are achieved in vivo as a result of higher capacities for O2 delivery and substrate catabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Cellular Respiration and Alcoholic Fermentation Biology: The Dynamics of Life (Glencoe) Unit 3 The Life of a Cell Chapter 9 Energy in a Cell Section 9.3 Getting Energy to Make ATP Guiding Question(s) How do plant and animal cells release energy? (majortests.com)
  • What is the evidence for cellular respiration in animals? (majortests.com)
  • Context of Lesson Cellular respiration is carried out by every cell in both plants and animals. (majortests.com)
  • Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle Debbijean Michel Biology I November 19, 2014 Dr. William Hayes South University Online Respiration and Photosynthesis Cycle Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are connected through an important relationship. (majortests.com)
  • The relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration enables life to survive as we know it. (majortests.com)
  • Respiration can be taken over by an artificial lung (especially in respiratory paralysis), a pulmotor, or any other type of mechanical respirator (see resuscitator ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Now on artificial respirator. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • inhalator, respirator a breathing device for administering long term artificial respiration . (splonk.nl)
  • A young polio sufferer at Children's Hospital in Boston becomes the first person to use the iron lung artificial respirator. (wired.com)
  • With Reverso you can find the English translation, definition or synonym for harsh respiration and thousands of other words. (reverso.net)
  • Sometime ago I wrote in the New York Times Book Review that it was a shame that Artificial Respiration by Ricardo Piglia, one of the most important Latin American novels of the last decade, was unavailable in English. (dukeupress.edu)
  • Acclaimed as one of the most important Latin American novels in recent decades, Artificial Respiration is a stunning introduction for English readers to the fiction of Ricardo Piglia. (dukeupress.edu)
  • The goal is to perform chest compressions and artificial respiration in a pattern of 1 artificial breath for 10- 12 chest compressions. (wikihow.com)
  • A breath that is induced by artificial means. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Respiration, Artificial. (who.int)
  • These include artificial respiration and an external heart massage. (intoxication-stop.com)
  • It can last from 3 to 6 minutes, during which there is a chance to save a person if you start to do artificial respiration and an indirect heart massage. (intoxication-stop.com)
  • If there is no heartbeat, artificial respiration and an indirect heart massage are performed. (intoxication-stop.com)
  • If the dog is NOT breathing but DOES have a pulse, you need to perform artificial respiration. (rhodes2safety.com)
  • Respiration, Artificial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • artificial respiration, any measure that causes air to flow in and out of a person's lungs when natural breathing is inadequate or ceases, as in respiratory paralysis, drowning, electric shock, choking, gas or smoke inhalation, or poisoning. (encyclopedia.com)
  • artificial respiration - the stimulation of natural respiratory functions in persons whose breathing has failed or in newborn infants by artificially forcing air into and out of the lungs. (academic.ru)
  • artificial respiration - N UNCOUNT Artificial respiration is the forcing of air into the lungs of someone who has stopped breathing, usually by blowing through their mouth or nose, in order to keep them alive and to help them to start breathing again. (academic.ru)
  • Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. (rush.edu)
  • Organs of digestion and respiration. (alamy.com)
  • The second "FUTURAS IN RES" conference will be held on November 21 and 22, 2019 and focus on the topic of Artificial Intelligence (AI). (fraunhofer.de)
  • If there is a heartbeat, but the person does not breathe, only artificial respiration is done. (intoxication-stop.com)
  • If your cat isn't breathing but has a heartbeat then you will need to do artificial respiration on him. (cat-world.com.au)
  • Respiration in which inspiratory or expiratory sounds are not continuous. (tabers.com)
  • CPAP treatment can be in a number of forms, including (i) the maintenance of a constant treatment pressure level, (ii) alternating between two constant levels in synchronism with the inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration ("bi-level CPAP"), and (iii) having an autosetting level in accordance with a patient's therapeutic needs. (google.es)
  • Artificial respiration can be done by pressing on the person's chest, by blowing into the person's mouth, or by using a special machine. (learnersdictionary.com)
  • This combines both artificial respiration with heart compressions. (cat-world.com.au)
  • An Artificial Respiration Procedure Sign is a useful device to help protect the health and safety of others in pool and swimming areas, but is not an alternative for required protective measures for eliminating or abating hazards. (safetysign.com)
  • 10 days after tracheal intubation ) in terms of mortality in critically ill patients who predicted to be on long-term artificial respiration. (cochrane.org)
  • In emergency situations, however, when no professional help is available, rescuers undertake the mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose method of artificial respiration. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mouth-to-mouth breathing soon after became the most widely used method of artificial respiration. (britannica.com)
  • The chief principle of Dr Marshall Halls so-called ready method is the postural performance of artificial respiration. (thesaurus.com)
  • Artificial respiration by the H. N. method. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • Artificial respiration by the HN method. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • An instructional film describing the Holger Nielsen [HN] method of artificial respiration, using a combination of pressure on the back, and movements of the arm. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • Stock footage of An educational film on how to properly perform the back method of artificial respiration. (dvarchive.com)
  • Here 2nd Lt Dorothy Mott of Oswego, New York, demonstrates to Pvt Cathe B. Greskowiak the method of artificial respiration. (womenofwwii.com)
  • 9. A method as set forth in claim 8 , wherein said step of third processing comprises identifying a variation in said heart rate signal of said patient associated with said respiration. (google.com)
  • 13. A method as set forth in claim 1 , further comprising the step of providing an output indicative of a respiration rate of said patient. (google.com)
  • The invention thus allows for noninvasive monitoring of respiration rate and expands the functionality of pulse oximeters. (google.com)
  • 19 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure RESPIRATION RATE CONTROL SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a respiration rate control system. (google.com)
  • if you must know, uh, they were practicing a brand new form of artificial respiration. (bestfunnystories.com)
  • The main long-term objective of this program is the development of a more protective artificial respiratory system to reduce the physical stress of patients undergoing artificial respiration. (readrate.com)
  • Within three weeks, Demcon, with the help of VDL, managed to develop, manufacture and test a complete artificial respiration system in the Netherlands that can be used for artificial respiration for corona patients in intensive care units. (weweler.eu)
  • Respiration in which the chest cavity expands by raising the ribs. (tabers.com)
  • The researchers proceeded to develop techniques to overcome obstruction, such as lifting of the chin, and subsequently demonstrated that mouth-to-mouth respiration was superior to other methods in the quantity of air that could be delivered in each respiratory cycle (tidal volume). (britannica.com)
  • Dr. Ananya Malhotra speaks to News-Medical about her research into how pancreatic cancer prognosis could be improved by using artificial intelligence. (news-medical.net)
  • Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure in which an external artificial opening is made in the trachea (windpipe). (cochrane.org)
  • Diagnostic hypotheses and personalized therapies: artificial intelligence has begun to revolutionize the fight against cancer. (fraunhofer.de)
  • They may have manual backup mechanisms to enable hand-driven respiration in the absence of power (such as the mechanical ventilator integrated into an anaesthetic machine ). (wikipedia.org)
  • These developments construct a framework of modeling respiratory systems and give a bright prospect of intelligent monitoring of artificial respiration. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Keep careful watch on breathing and give artificial respiration again if it falters. (copperwiki.org)
  • For cold exposure, give artificial respiration. (encyclopedia.com)