The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A glycoside of a kaurene type diterpene that is found in some plants including Atractylis gummifera (ATRACTYLIS); COFFEE; XANTHIUM, and CALLILEPIS. Toxicity is due to inhibition of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSLOCASE.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
The absence of light.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.
A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of nematode worms in the superfamily Heterakoidea. A. galli and A. lineata are important intestinal parasites of domestic fowl.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in the treatment of motion sickness, vertigo, and nausea during pregnancy and radiation sickness.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae. Species are homoacetogenic, having the ability to use CARBON DIOXIDE as an electron sink, and to reduce it producing acetate as a typical fermentation product.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Amides of salicylic acid.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The act of BREATHING in.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A species of SHEWANELLA noted for its ability to reduce iron and manganese anaerobically.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The name "prickly burweed" is sometimes used but causes confusion with AMSINCKIA.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.

Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles. (1/5161)

Because the initial deposition pattern of inhaled particles of various toxic agents determines their future clearance and insult to tissue, respiratory tract deposition is important in assessing the potential toxicity of inhaled aerosols. Factors influencing the deposition of inhaled particles can be classified into three main areas: (1) the physics of aerosols, (2) the anatomy of the respiratory tract and (3) the airflow patterns in the lung airways. In the physics of aerosols, the forces acting on a particle and its physical and chemical properties, such as particle size or size distribution, density, shape, hygroscopic or hydrophobic character, and chemical reactions of the particle will affect the deposition. With respect to the anatomy of the respiratory tract, important parameters are the diameters, the lengths, and the branching angles of airway segments, which determine the deposition. Physiological factors include airflow and breathing patterns, which influence particle deposition. Various lung models used in predicting particle deposition are reviewed and discussed. The air-way structures of various animal species are compared, showing the unique structure of the human lung compared to the animal species under study. Regional deposition data in man and dog are reviewed. Recent deposition data for small rodents are presented, showing regional difference in deposition with the right apical lobe having the highest relative deposition.  (+info)

Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. (2/5161)

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

Modeling breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting. (3/5161)

This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters.  (+info)

The respiratory responses of Carcinus maenas to declining oxygen tension. (4/5161)

The degree of respiratory independence shown by Carcinus under conditions of declining oxygen tension is dependent on the animal's level of activity. Inactive Carcinus are capable of maintaining respiratory independence down to a Po2 of 60-80 mmHg. This is achieved primarily by an increase in ventilation volume such that the amount of oxygen made available at the respiratory surfaces remains constant over a wide range of oxygen tension. The Po2 at which this can no longer be maintained corresponds closely to the Po2 at which respiratory independence is lost. Under normoxic conditions the Po2 of the post- and prebranchial blood was 97 and 18 mmHg respectively. At the high oxygen tensions prevailing in the postbranchial blood the respiratory pigment is fully saturated. Under conditions of declining oxygen tension the heart rate remains more or less constant until the Po2 reaches 60-80 mmHg, the onset of bradycardia coinciding with the loss of saturation of the haemocyanin. Although cardiac output falls during hypoxia, the capacity rate ratio remains approximately constant, which enables the effectiveness of oxygen uptake by the blood to remain at a high level.  (+info)

Importance of air and water breathing in relation to size of the African lungfish Protopterus amphibius Peters. (5/5161)

1. Oxygen uptakes from air and water have been measured in relation to weight of the African lungfish Protopterus amphibius Peters. 2. Combined O2 uptake from air and water ranged from 60 ml O2 kg-1 h-1 STPD, in a 3-7 g specimen, to 30 ml O2kg-1 h-1, in a 255 g specimen. 3. While the combined O2 uptake changed by a factor of 2, within the weight range under study, the aquatic O2 uptake changed 8-fold within the same range. The smaller fish satisfy 70% of their O2 requirement by aquatic breathing compared to 10-15% in the grown specimens. 4. The pattern of bimodal breathing in P. amphibius is discussed in relation to the natural habitat of the species.  (+info)

Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion. (6/5161)

1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible.  (+info)

Evaluation of passive smoking by measuring urinary trans, trans-muconic acid and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. (7/5161)

No method has yet been established to evaluate the exposure to tobacco smoke in passive smoking (PS). We therefore conducted a study on the possibility that the levels of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) and the exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) could be indices of the passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The moderate correlation was observed between urinary MA levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. The mean urinary MA level of the PS (+) group was significantly higher than that with the PS (-) group. Among the PS (+) group, the mean MA level in the urine obtained in the afternoon was higher than that obtained in the morning. A high correlation was observed between the exhaled CO levels and the number of consumed cigarettes per day in smokers. Like the urinary MA level, the mean exhaled CO level in the PS (+) group, too, gave a significantly higher level than in the PS (-) group. Because the biological half life of MA (7.5 +/- 0.85 h) was longer than that of CO (3.0 +/- 0.36 h), the measurement of urinary MA level is recommended for evaluating the exposure of passive smoking. The measurement of exhaled CO levels is useful only for chain smokers and nonsmokers with PS just before measurement.  (+info)

Depression of peripheral chemosensitivity by a dopaminergic mechanism in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. (8/5161)

In the present study, respiratory drives to chemical stimuli and peripheral chemosensitivity were evaluated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSAS). The effects of oral administration of domperidone, a selective dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, were also examined, to study the respiratory effects of endogenous dopamine on peripheral chemoreceptors. Sixteen patients with OSAS and nine normal control subjects were studied. Respiratory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia were measured using the rebreathing method and isocapnic progressive hypoxia method, respectively. The hypoxic withdrawal test, which measures the decrease in ventilation caused by two breaths of 100% O2 under mild hypercapnic hypoxic conditions (end-tidal oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions approximately 8.0 kPa and 5.3-6.7 kPa, respectively), was used to evaluate peripheral chemosensitivity. In the patients with OSAS, ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia were significantly decreased compared with those of control subjects. Hypoxic withdrawal tests showed that peripheral chemosensitivity was significantly lower in patients with OSAS than in normal subjects. Hypercapnic ventilatory response and peripheral chemosensitivity were enhanced by administration of domperidone in the patients with OSAS, although no changes in either of these were observed in the control subjects. The hypoxic ventilatory response and peripheral chemosensitivity in the patients with OSAS were each significantly correlated with severity of hypoxia during sleep. These findings suggest that peripheral chemosensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome may be decreased as a result of abnormality in dopaminergic mechanisms and that the reduced chemosensitivity observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome may affect the severity of hypoxia during sleep.  (+info)

A system for controlling patient sedation and spontaneous breathing intensity includes a ventilator system that delivers ventilation to the patient. The system further includes a spontaneous breathing control module configured to determine a first spontaneous breathing intensity at a first sedative status of the patient, and a second spontaneous breathing intensity at a second sedative status of the patient. A sedation/breathing relationship is then defined between spontaneous breathing intensity and sedative status for the patient based on the first and second sedative statuses and the first and second spontaneous breathing intensities. The spontaneous breathing control module then receives a desired spontaneous breathing intensity for the patient and determines a desired sedative status that achieves that desired spontaneous breathing intensity based on the sedation/breathing relationship.
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1. Low level exercise is frequently used to assess cardiac and pulmonary function. This study examines the differences in both metabolic and respiratory patterns between the sitting and supine position.. 2. Six normal male subjects were studied in both positions during four levels of exercise (12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 W). Oxygen consumption (Vo2), carbon dioxide production (Vco2) and minute ventilation (Ve2) were greater when sitting as were the ventilatory equivalents to O2 (Ve2/ Vo2) and CO2 (Ve2/ Vco2).. 3. Respiration was compared at equivalent workloads; the greater minute ventilation observed during sitting was due to greater tidal volumes (Vt) and mean inspiratory flows (Vt/Vi,). Expiratory time (Te) was longer and inspiratory duration shorter under most conditions when sitting.. 4. When breathing patterns were compared at similar degrees of minute ventilation, Vt, Te and Vt/Ti were greater when sitting, while respiratory frequency (fr) was slower. ...
Gaughan, J. B. and Mader, T. L. (2013) Body temperature and respiratory dynamics in un-shaded beef cattle. International Journal of Biometeorology, 58 7: 1443-1450. doi:10.1007/s00484-013-0746-8 ...
This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a flexible belt device in guiding patient breathing during computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsy. When patients undergo CT scanning to help guide the physician during a tissue biopsy, they are usually asked to hold their breath while the scan is taken of certain parts of the body. When the first scan is completed, the patients are allowed to breathe, and are then asked to hold their breath again while the needle is advanced towards the tissue to be biopsied. Since body organs and tissues move with breathing, this study will try to stop the patients breathing at the same place in the breathing cycle to ensure that the biopsy target stays still and in the same place. This study will see if the flexible belt, used with a computer screen that charts the patients breathing, will improve the patients ability to stop breathing at the same place in the breathing cycle before and during the biopsy.. Patients 18 years of age and older who have a ...
The SleepCube BiLevel ST device is designed to enhance the breathing of patients with spontaneous respiration. Unlike ventilators, it will not completely take over the breathing for the patient, but instead helps a patient who has chronic respiratory failure, difficulty breathing, or obstructive sleep apnoea; it is administered via a mask and is not invasive.. The device automatically synchronises with the patients respiratory pattern, cycling between IPAP and EPAP (breathe in and breathe out).. The BiLevel ST can also be set to a timed mode, where the clinician sets the BPM (breaths per minute) and %IPAP; or it can be set to a combination of Spontaneous and Timed operation, where the unit cycles in response to the patients breathing rate, but switches to the timed operation if the patient fails to take a breath within the timed interval.. ...
J. R. W. Lyall, P. R. Bourne, I. R. Cameron; The Reproducibility of the Rebreathing Method for Assessing the Respiratory Response to Inhaled CO2. Clin Sci Mol Med 1 September 1975; 49 (3): 8P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
(09-05-2016, 06:45 PM)rich2905 Wrote: Hi I am running on fixed 15 still as shown in pic below. I have not included pressure in graph as they are fixed. The mask pressure stays about 13+ And pressure i
In this paper, we describe a computer program (RESP-24) specifically devised to assess the prevalence and characteristics of breathing disorders in ambulant chronic heart failure patients during the overall 24 h period. The system works on a single channel respiratory signal (RS) recorded through a Holter-like portable device. In the pre-processing stage RESP-24 removes noise, baseline drift and motion artefacts from the RS using a non-linear filter, enhances respiratory frequency components through high-pass filtering and derives an instantaneous tidal volume (ITV) signal. The core processing is devoted to the identification and classification of the breathing pattern into periodic breathing (PB), normal breathing or non-classifiable breathing using a 60 s segmentation, and to the identification and estimation of apnea and hypopnea events. Sustained episodes of PB are detected by cross analysis of both the spectral content and time behavior of the ITV signal. User-friendly interactive ...
Watch the video lecture Ventilation Vs Spontaneous Ventilation - Respiration and Cardiovascular System and prepare for your medical exams with high-yield content ✓ & quiz questions ✓ now!
The goal of radiation therapy is to give as much dose as possible to the exact target location and minimizing any dose to a normal tissue. Advances of Cyber-physical control systems allow planning and provide very accurate treatments. However, the current technology does not sufficiently compensate a respiratory movement that is especially important in case of lung (area) cancer. In this paper we present a model of radiation treatment system developed to analyze a system that compensates respiratory motion. We use Uppaal, an integrated tool environment for modeling, validation and verification of real-time systems modeled as networks of timed automata, extended with data types (bounded integers, arrays, etc.).. ...
Monitoring the physiological dynamics of the brain and peripheral tissues is necessary for addressing a number of questions about how the brain controls body functions and internal organ rhythms when animals are exposed to emotional challenges and changes in their living environments. In general exp …
Take Free test on - Respiration In Plants - AIPMT. Check out your performance on Respiration In Plants chapter by attempting this test
Although there are a couple of other reviews that report issues with small size, there are a few who say it fits perfect. Who knows, perhaps there have been several people at the factory out sick and those filling in are getting the size tags mixed up??? This style in a 32C was either overall very small or was marked very wrong. Even with the band set at the widest hooks, it cut into my ribs & constricted chest expansion during normal breathing at rest. It was so snug that it made me look as if I had another set of breasts growing out from my axila. With the very least amount of hook & Loop contact to keep the straps secure (1/2), the straps were still WAY too short. - When your breasts are lifted up a smidge too close to your throat, its not a good look. I liken it to the Goiter Look. Thats a bit more support than I prefer. HA! Ill have to try again - ...
FEV1 is largely used to evaluate the bronchodilators response in COPD patients, but under conditions that do not reflect the usual ventilatory constraints. In humans, tidal spontaneous ventilation (VE) exhibits breath-by-breath variability and features mathematical complexity that is compatible with a chaotic structure. Breath-by-breath variability and nonlinear complexity have already been shown to be reliable mathematical biomarkers to describe the ventilatory flow in COPD patients during resting spontaneous breathing (Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2013; 185: 477-80). The current work aims at evaluating the resting ventilatory flow by applying a new technique called anharmonic morphological analysis of the respiratory signals (AMARS) which produces objective, accurate and specific measures of the shape of the ventilatory flow.. 24 stable COPD patients were studied (16 males; 40-86 years old; FEV1 = 71±21% pred). Resting VE was recorded for 5-10 minutes before and after a short-acting inhaled ...
Disordered breathing events may be classified as central, obstructive or a combination of central an obstructive in origin based on patient motion associated with respiratory effort. Central disordered breathing is associated with disrupted respiration with reduced respiratory effort. Obstructive disordered breathing is associated with disrupted respiration accompanied by respiratory effort. A disordered breathing classification system includes a disordered breathing detector and a respiratory effort motion sensor. Components of the disordered breathing classification system may be fully or partially implantable.
Full article here Breathing Pattern Disorders I was very fortunate to attend an intimately small workshop with Leon Chaitow last week discussing manual therapy approaches to breathing pattern disorders. I have not been shy about sharing how much I have learned from Chaitow and his extensive body of work, so spending a day with him was…
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Ineffective breathing pattern may also occur when the patient is experiencing pain located in the chest, so you must assess for concomitant pain and discomfort that may restrict limit respiratory effort. Positioning may help or prevent this situation, so encourage the patient position of comfort of by elevating the head of the bed or have client to sit up in chair, as appropriate to promote physiologic ease of maximal inspiration. Note: if immobility is a factor, you need to reposition the patient atleast every two hours. ...
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Intervention phase was performed in two different days, each day for only one PET techniques (VIS or BS), with a minimal wash-out period of one day according to the randomization sequence. Optoelectronic Pletysmography (OEP) was recorded during quite breathing at rest and during the execution of five maneuvers form each PET technique tested. ...
If you listen closely, youll notice that your babys breathing isnt like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Heres how to recognize normal breathing in your infant-and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.
Can a few deep breaths really help calm down your stress level? Absolutely. And scientists have even studied how it works... Deep abdominal breathing stimulates
Dogs who are having trouble breathing are usually very stressed and anxious. Avoid doing anything that might cause additional stress to your dog (e.g., chasing your dog, restraining him/her while he/she is struggling to get away from you ...
Many dogs breathe 10 to 30 times per minute;for cats, the rate is 10 to 40 times a minute. Dogs who are hot or exercising breathe faster and may pant up to 200 breathes per minute. Panting and open-mouthed breathing are considered danger signs in cats because they dont use panting routinely as a means to cool off the way dogs do. ...
The Capnostream™ 35 portable respiratory monitor delivers real-time, continuous monitoring of your patients respiratory status. Learn more today.
A pet with heart disease may have an increase in both the breathing rate and or breathing effort. An animals breathing pattern may be easily monitored at home. Each breath may be seen as the chest rises with inspiration and Continue Reading ». ...
Biology is the study of living organisms. This course undertakes study at a variety of levels from the molecular to that of the biosphere. At the end of the course you will have an appreciation of: specific techniques used in biology, how the heart rate and breathing are controlled, genetic engineering, colour change in urine, how sugar levels in the body are controlled.. ...
The inverse cumulative distribution functions return the values at which their respective CDFs attain a given level. This value is typically used in hypothesis testing as a critical value. There are very few functions for which the inverse CDF can be written in closed form. In most situations the inverse is computed numerically from the CDF. ...
Who knew the simple act of sitting quietly, focusing on breathing and oxygenating the body, could make such a world of difference?
From staff reports There are certain things in life we take for granted, and filling our lungs with a deep breath of air is one of them. Its not that easy for everyone. Avera St. Lukes will help
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for normal development of the central respiratory rhythm in mice. AU - Balkowiec, Agnieszka. AU - Katz, David M.. PY - 1998/7/15. Y1 - 1998/7/15. N2 - 1. Molecular mechanisms underlying maturation of the central respiratory rhythm are largely unknown. Previously, we found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for expression of normal breathing behaviour in newborn mice, raising the possibility that maturation of central respiratory output is dependent on BDNF. 2. Respiratory activity was recorded in vitro from cervical ventral roots (C1 or C4) using the isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation from postnatal day (P) 0.5-2.0 and P4.5 wild-type mice and mice lacking functional bdnf alleles. 3. Loss of one or both bdnf alleles resulted in an approximately 50% depression of central respiratory frequency compared with wild-type controls. In addition, respiratory cycle length variability was 214% higher in bdnf null ...
PURPOSE: The short-term displacement and reproducibility of the breast or chest wall, and the internal mammary (IM), infraclavicular (ICV), and supraclavicular (SCV) nodal regions have been assessed as a function of breath-hold state using an active breathing control (ABC) device for patients receiving loco-regional breast radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten patients underwent computed tomographic scanning using an ABC device at breath-hold states of end-exhale and 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of vital capacity (VC). Patients underwent scanning before treatment and at one third and two thirds of the way through treatment. A regional registration was performed for each target using a rigid-body transformation with mutual information as a metric. RESULTS: Between exhale and 40% of VC, the mean displacement was 0.27/0.34, 0.24/0.31, 0.22/0.19, and 0.13/0.19 cm anterior/superior for the breast or chest wall, and IM, ICV, and SCV nodes, respectively. At 80% of VC, the mean displacement from ...
These experiments justify the following general conclusions.. By the intravenous injection of M/4 magnesium sulphate into dogs at a certain rate, a stage can be reached where the abdominal walls are completely relaxed and when section of the abdomen and stimulation of sensitive parts of the parietal peritoneum do not produce pain or elicit any reaction of the animal. At the same time spontaneous respiration may still be maintained within normal limits and the lid reflex be fair or even normal. In this stage intratracheal intubation for artificial respiration can be easily accomplished. This stage may be attained in 12 to 14 minutes when the rate of injection is about 3 cc. per minute. When this stage is once attained the rate of injection should gradually be reduced, otherwise, sooner or later, spontaneous respiration will be abolished, and by a further maintenance of the rate of injection all the skeletal muscles may become paralyzed.. When the injection of magnesium is continued for a longer ...
1. The pattern of breathing in 12 patients with severe irreversible airflow obstruction has been studied during ventilatory stimulation by rebreathing CO2. Mean maximum tidal volume response was only 1.23 +/- 0.30 litres (mean +/- SD); this represented 65% of mean measured vital capacity and 82% of mean measured inspiratory capacity. During the course of rebreathing mean total breath duration was reduced from 3.48 +/- 0.93 to 2.44 +/- 0.48 s. 2. End-expiratory thoracic gas volume (FRC) was elevated at rest in all subjects and increased significantly by a further 0.50 +/- 1.90 litres during ventilatory stimulation in 10 of the 12 subjects. The maximum increase in FRC was proportional to the degree of airflow obstruction afforded by the airways in each subject. 3. It is suggested that the increase in FRC during ventilatory stimulation is responsible for the diminished tidal volume response and is an important determinant of breathing pattern and symptomatology in patients with airflow obstruction.
Q and A on Effects of Opioids on Normal Breathing: Opioid reduces rate of breathing and also reduces volume of air inhaled by abruptly changing inspiration to expiration. Also know about Opioid Effect on Respiratory Center, Treatment.
A normal resting breathing rate is 15 breaths per minute. Intense exercise may increase the breathing rate up to 40 or 50 breaths per minute. The respiration rate may remain faster and deeper than...
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we showed that 5 days of normobaric intermittent hypoxia at rest (IH; 2 hours daily at 3,800 m simulated altitude; partial pressure of inspired oxygen 90 torr) can induce an increase in the isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response
Looking for respiratory centers? Find out information about respiratory centers. in politics, a party following a middle course. The term was first used in France in 1789, when the moderates of the National Assembly sat in the center of... Explanation of respiratory centers
Fazeela Ferouz, Mark C. Norris, Musa M. Aner, Martin J.R. Hortaleza; Room 310, 10/17/2000 10: 30 AM - 12: 00 PM (PD) Impact of Baricity on the Analgesic and Ventilatory Effects of Intrathecal Sufentanil in Volunteers : A-968. Anesthesiology 2000;93(3A):A-968. doi: Download citation file:. ...
The consumption of energy in prematures and newborns is primarily used to supply the heart and maintain body temperature. For newborns, the ratio of skin area to volume is lower than older children, thus it takes more oxygen to burn calories to maintain heat. Most moms recognize this, and keep newborns covered, especially from breezes. The heart pumping energy is a significant proportional user of energy in the newborn, requiring proportionally more oxygen than an older child. Finally, considering these higher uses of oxygen, and the limited lung capacity, the breathing rate has to increase in order to move more oxygen into the bloodstream per minute. Curiously, the breathing rate of prematures often exceeds 50 breaths per minute, but if you calculate the minute volume (the volume of air moved into the baby per minute), it is the same as a normal term infant ...
Definition of periodic breathing in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is periodic breathing? Meaning of periodic breathing as a legal term. What does periodic breathing mean in law?
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Multivariate autoregressive model in analysis of cardiovascular and respiratory oscillations in neonatal lambs. AU - Kalli, Seppo. AU - Grönlund, Juhani. AU - Ihalainen, Heimo. AU - Siimes, Anja. AU - Antila, Kari. AU - Välimäki, Ilkka. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. M3 - Chapter or book article. SN - 978-0-916859-39-8. BT - Fetal and Neonatal Development. A2 - Jones, Colin T.. CY - Ithaca. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Control of breathing during cortical substitution of the spontaneous automatic respiratory rhythm. AU - Haouzi, Philippe. AU - Chenuel, Bruno. AU - Whipp, Brian J.. PY - 2007/11/15. Y1 - 2007/11/15. N2 - This study addresses the following question: does the ventilatory control system adjust total ventilation in accord with the regulatory demands of the physiological dead space ventilation (over(V, ̇)D) when the breathing frequency changes, and if so, how? A simple proportionality between the amplitude of the respiratory motor output (VT) and the respiratory period (TTOT) during such changes will not provide for regulation of arterial (PaC O2); the relationship requires a positive intercept of magnitude VD, i.e. VT = over(V, ̇)A TTOT + VD. We therefore determined the relationship between VT and TTOT when breathing frequency was changed in a ramp-like manner (from 6 to 20 cycles/min), in an imperceptible manner, during a paced-breathing protocol in which the subjects voluntarily ...
The alveolar-capillary membrane, in the adult, consists of a thinned-out cell wall plus the cytoplasm of a type I cell with its basement membrane and the thinned-out cell wall and cytoplasm of a capillary endothelial cell with its basement membran Where they meet, the two basement membranes ...
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.. Alcohol: People taking this medication should not consume alcohol since doing so can increase the risk of serious side effects, or a potentially fatal overdose. It is not recommended for people with alcohol abuse problems.. Breathing: Normethadone - hydroxyephedrine can suppress breathing. This effect on breathing may be more pronounced for people who have breathing problems or brain damage, or who are taking other medications that suppress breathing. If you have breathing problems, such as COPD, asthma or respiratory depression, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this ...
A 6-month-old previously healthy boy presents to the local emergency department with a 1-week history of progressive lethargy, irritability, and anorexia. Two days before presentation he developed an unusual breathing pattern and worsening respiratory distress, and he had a fever of 101.3°F (38.5°C). There was no rhinorrhea, coryza, cough, vomiting, or diarrhea.. He appears unwell, with respiratory distress, tachypnea, and grunting. His blood pressure is 80/45 mm Hg, heart rate is 200 beats/min, respiratory rate is 60 breaths/min, and oxygen saturation is 77% in room air. He is afebrile. There is significantly decreased air entry bilaterally, most impressively over the right lung field. His neurologic examination reveals a mild right-sided ptosis. Although he moves both arms normally, there is a noticeable paucity of movements in his lower limbs, with decreased tone in both legs. The remainder of his examination findings are normal.. On further questioning the parents clarify that for the past ... Oxidative Stress and Cardiorespiratory Function [4498550] - Cardiorespiratory function is prominently affected by oxidative stress. Cigarette smoking is the archetype of oxidative and nitrative stress and free radical formation. New adverse effects of smoking keep on propping up in research. The chapters provide the comprehensive view of new developments in this area regarding cardiovascular and lung function
There are indeed numerous deaths due to synergistic combinations of sedatives and opioids. This is because sedatives obtund the primary form of respiratory drive, and opioids obtund the secondary form of respiratory drive. If both forms of respiratory drive are blocked, then respiratory drive is abolished altogether, which of course is lethal. The primary form of respiratory drive is affected by pH receptors in brain ventricles, and it determines respiratory rate and depth in conscious individuals. This form of respiratory drive is resistant to hyperventilation and depletion of CO2 tissue reserves so long as consciousnss remains present. During sleep and anesthesia, when consciousness is obtunded, the primary respiratory drive is abolished, and breathing becomes totally dependent on the secondary form of respiratory drive. The secondary form of respiratory drive is primarily determined by respiratory chemoreceptors located in extravascular tissues. These are stimulated directly by hypercarbia, ...
The left ventricular filling pattern may show changes during respiration, which are generally used in the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction. The clinical importance of the respiratory E/A wave pattern change has been investigated in a limited number
Data concerning pulmonary ventilation and respiratory response to elevation in alveolar pCO2 obtained from patients and subjects to whom Dromoran hydrobromide, levo-Dromoran tartrate, levallorphan tantrate or combinations of these drugs were administered intramuscularly have been presented.. In no instance was the mixture of levallorphan with levo-Dromoran in a dosage relationship of 1:1 or 1:10 capable of preventing the respiratory depression normally produced by levo-Dromoran. It is concluded that the mixture of opiates and opiate antagonists for the purpose of preserving analgesia and preventing respiratory depression is not worthwhile.. Observations are presented indicating that the measurement of respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute volume alone may not reveal respiratory depression from narcotics. Inclusion of alveolar or arterial pCO2 values and of the respiratory response to increased concentrations of inspired carbon dioxide permit a more objective evaluation.. ...
One limitation of this study is the small number of patients. Due to the low incidence of target disease, our database included only 20 patients despite long periods. As a result, our study have no significant clip shift according to detailed analysis such as type of operation and absolute position of clip. Another shortcoming of this work was existence of conglomerate clips. Individual clip was hard to distinguish from conglomerated clips. The nearest clip from treatment center was selected in conglomerated clips. Third, the interval between imaging and treatment have the potential of respiratory change. Respiratory change have possibility of unpredictable error. Fourth, modification was aligned to clip shifts before each treatment fraction. However, one patients distal clips were shifted in the opposite direction. These clip displacement reflect postoperative change of intra-abdominal organ position as well as bowel gas change. Therefore, in this case, modification was aligned to proximal ...
Deep breathing and coughing exercises can decrease the risk of lung complications following surgery. Not only can they prevent pneumonia, deep breathing...
Shallow breathing can be an alarming and potentially life-threatening symptom if left untreated. People who develop shallow breathing can generally develop...
Respiration - four distinct processes must happen  Pulmonary ventilation - moving air into and out of the lungs  External respiration - gas exchange between the lungs and the blood  Transport - transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues  Internal respiration - gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
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➤ Essay on Respiration in Plants and Animals ✍ Temperature and Its Effects on Respiration in Plants and Animals Introduction Cellular respiration is the process of breaking down organic compounds to
Apart from posture, there is also anxiety. One of the signs of anxiety and stress can also be heavy breathing. When the body begins to breathe too little and deeply instead of breathing at a natural rithm, it is impossible for one to relax. One reason may also be that the chest muscles and the abdomen get tightened and the air gets harder.. Massage plays an important role in learning the body how to relax and how to improve breathing. Respiratory problems such as allergies, sinuses, asthma or bronchitis are a group of conditions that can benefit from massage. In fact, massage can have a positive impact on respiratory function.. Many of the muscles in the front and back of the upper part of the body are breathing accessory. When these muscles are tight and shorten they can block normal breathing and interrupt effective breathing natural rithm. Massage techniques for stretching and relaxing these muscles improves breathing function and breathability. Massage leads to an opening of the chest as ...
A distinct ECG-derived spectrographic phenotype, designated as narrow-band elevated low frequency coupling (e-LFCNB)has been identified in a study in the July 1 issue of the journal SLEEP
This may seem a really simple question but for some reason I can t get my head around it, can anyone please help. If your breathing rate is 30 breaths per minute tidal volume is 200cm3, pulmonary ventilation is 6000, alveolar ventilation rate is (200 - 150) x 30 =1500, then why is an increase in the breathing rate alone not be able to satisfy the demands on the body during exercise:confused:
An emergency breathing device for use of evacuation in connection with fires, chemical accidents or the like, and which comprises a heat-resisting and gas-tight protective hood (1) which is adapted to surround the head (2) of a user, and wherein there are arranged an oxygen supply unit having a reservoir (12) for the supply of oxygen to the breathing air in the hood, and a CO2 absorber (14) for purifying the breathing air. The hood (1) has double walls (3, 4) for providing a closed breathing bag (5) which is separated from the surrounding atmosphere and which is provided with a suitable positioned mouthpiece (7) for use by the user. Further, the oxygen supply unit comprises a dosing means (40) which is arranged to inject oxygen in accordance with the breathing frequency of the user.
A system and method for determining respiratory cycle-related EEG changes (RCREC) for a subject with sleep-disordered breathing are provided. The method includes receiving an EEG signal from the subject using at least one sensor, and defining at least two respiratory cycle segments within each respiratory cycle. The method further includes determining an EEG power of the EEG signal during each of the at least two respiratory cycle segments, and determining RCREC by calculating a difference between a maximum EEG segment power and a minimum EEG segment power.
important update: Thanks to commenter DS, I discovered that my respiration-related data was strongly contaminated due to mechanical error. The belt we used is very susceptible to becoming uncalibrated, if the subject moves or breathes very deeply for example. When looking at the raw timecourse of respiration I could see that many subjects, included the one displayed…
Section 4 Regulation of the Respiration I. Respiratory Center and Formation of the Respiratory Rhythm 1 Respiratory Center Respiratory Centers
Lydie, RE: I take it that you are of the opinion that the breathing on her own claim is a fake.. No, I do not think it is fake. Fake implies intentional fabrication. I dont think thats the case here. The only thing Ive seen that I can unequivocally call fakery was Attorney Dolans statement to the press about the MRI he displayed in his 2014 press conference. That was blatant and shameful misrepresentation, as any neurologist or radiologist can confirm. Was it intentional? Im inclined to think so, based on Dolans history.. As for the mothers claims that she is breathing, I think she is deeply, tragically mired in the confirmation bias that grips many families faced with tragic brain injury in a loved one. Ive spent a great deal of time around families trying to cope with these issues and have dealt with it in my own family. Some people veer off the rails in situations like this. I think Nailah truly believes that Jahi didnt die in 2013. She has adjusted her reality so that she can ...
Dr. Kurzweil responded: NO.. You will be able to take a deep breath about the same volume (vital capacity) at sea level or at high altitudes. However the |a href=/topics/oxygen track_data={
Im not actually aware of any lineage that went from obligate water breathing to obligate air breathing (losing water breathing in the process), and then lost air breathing while re-evolving water breathing. I know of a few examples where some secondary water breathing adaptions appeared, but air breathing remained the primary method of obtaining oxygen.. But it should be noted that for complex macro-traits, like terrestriality, or wings, theres more than one genetic way to skin the cat, so to speak. Evolution does not have to go wholly in reverse. The second time around somewhat different genetic mechanisms might be co-opted. One could think about it as actually examples of convergent evolution happening in the same lineage, separated in time. (So for example, within the lineage that led from Urbilateria to Orca, a torpedo shaped body for swimming with fins for stabilization and direction control evolved more than once, but each time it was put together differently).. This would be different ...
A normal breathing rate for an adult at rest is 8 to 16 breaths per minute. For an infant, a normal rate is up to 44 breaths per minute. Tachypnea is the.... ...
Can you imagine breathing on your own after 12 years of dependence on a ventilator? That is exactly what recently happened to Dale.
The best 3 synonyms for internal respiration, including: tissue respiration, respiration, cellular respiration and more... Find another word for internal respiration at YourDictionary.
Question - 3 year old, taking deep breaths while running or playing. What could be this?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Ischemic heart disease, Ask a Pediatrician
Ok. Its just that you were talking about subatomic particles gone astray and you claimed the immune system was our defense to that. - #100650640 added by lateday at Take a deep breath!
Cats who are having trouble breathing are usually very stressed and anxious. Avoid doing anything that might cause additional stress to your cat (e.g., chasing your cat, restraining him/her while he/she is struggling to get away from you ...
h2,How do you manage your childs symptoms?,/h2, ,p,Your childs doctor will direct what medication your child should receive. Your role will be to ensure that the child is indeed getting the drugs and that they are effective. If they are not, alert the doctor or clinic nurse so that the medication can be altered. ,/p, ,p,You will also need to observe any changes in your childs body, such as skin infections, other skin changes, respiratory changes, and nasal symptoms, which are increased secretions from the nose, throat, and mouth. They may experience nausea and vomiting. They may also have trouble emptying their bladder or bowel which may result in constipation or incontinence (difficulty holding urine or bowel movements). Your child may not be able to control those functions and may realize this loss of control. Take care not to embarrass them. Keeping clean sheets will help to comfort them. ,/p, ,p,Undisturbed, comfortable sleep is very important during this time for your child and also for ...
Ataxic respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by complete irregularity of breathing, with irregular pauses and increasing periods of apnea . As the breathing pattern deteriorates, it merges with agonal respirations . It is caused by damage to the medulla oblongata due to strokes or trauma. It generally indicates a poor prognosis, and usually progresses to complete apnea . The term is sometimes used interchangeably with Biot's Respirations . Treatment It is believed that intensive care technology may be masking the presence of Biot
Respiration The Human Transport System Objectives Define And. Powerpoint respiration respiration and gas exchange ppt video online download respiration and gas exchange ppt video online download powerpoint respiration how to answer respiration questions gcse biology exam hints ...
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According to Webster, the diaphragm is, a large flat muscle that separates the lungs from the stomach area and that is used in breathing. If you were to look at the diaphragm within the human body it is positioned right under the lungs and looks like an upside-down cereal bowl. When we breathe in the diaphragm contracts, descending and becoming flat, while simultaneously the rib cage expands and the muscles of the abdomen expel outward. To see what I mean, place one hand on your stomach and take a deep breath in. As a result, you should feel your stomach expand. Go ahead, try it! It is the sensation of a full, deep breath, that maximizes the amount of air to be exhaled or to be used in speech or singing ...
If any of you guys have been following my twitter updates, you might have seen that we have another sicko in the house. Not that kind of sicko, you sicko. LaLa has been struck down with both bronchitis and croup. I didnt even know a person could get both of these cough-tastic illnesses at the same time. Needless to say we are not getting much sleep in the Kat household. They have her on two different breathing treatments that I have to alternate every 2 hours. One is straight saline the other is an albuterol type of medication to open up her airways. She is coping pretty well and taking her medicine when I tell her it is time. Poor thing, you can just see the sick in her eyes. ...
Respiration. 93 (2): 112-121. doi:10.1159/000453529. ISSN 0025-7931. PMC 5348732. PMID 27974713. "Lung volume reduction ...
Respiration. 73 (3): 367-74. doi:10.1159/000087945. PMID 16127266. S2CID 24408680. Morelon E, Stern M, Israël-Biet D, Correas ...
Through respiration, people also draw in forces of light and peace from the world. These methods are used to develop "inner ... "Respiration". Retrieved 2016-02-22. "Gymnastics". Retrieved 2016-02-22. "Paneurhythmy". ... respiration, spiritual gymnastics, and paneurhythmy. While each of these are different, they all possess the element of ...
Allegra L, Bossi R, Braga PC (1981). "Action of sobrerol on mucociliary transport". Respiration. 42 (2): 105-9. doi:10.1159/ ...
A report of four cases". Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases. 67 (1): 90-3. doi:10.1159/000029470. PMID ... Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases. 86 (5): 376-83. doi:10.1159/000345596. PMID 23295253. Tikoo RK, ...
Virchow JC (1999). "Reproterol: beta-2-agonist, theophylline, or both?". Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases ...
214, Limburg 2002, p. 267-946 Gompelmann, D.; Eberhardt, R.; Herth, F. J. F. (2013). "Collateral Ventilation". Respiration. 85 ...
Respiration. 57 (4): 239-42. doi:10.1159/000195848. PMID 1982774. O'Hanlon JF, Volkerts ER (1986). "Hypnotics and actual ...
Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases. 95 (5): 364-380. doi:10.1159/000486797. ISSN 1423-0356. PMID 29614508. ... Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases. 96 (4): 382-398. doi:10.1159/000490551. ISSN 1423-0356. PMID 30138943. ...
2015 Respiration (Institut du monde arabe Museum) 2016 Respiration (Dutko Gallery, Paris) 2016 Stool In The Box (Salone ... Entitled "Respiration", the exhibition began on May 31 and will be open through D'Days until the 28th of August, 2016. In ... "Respiration". 9 May 2016. "Institut du Monde Arabe - D'DAYS". "Home - Galerie DUTKO". Galerie DUTKO. "Karen Chekerdjian Studio ...
Respiration. 86 (5): 433-8. doi:10.1159/000353253. ISSN 1423-0356. PMID 24080743. Jimenez Ruiz, CA; Solano Reina, S; de Granda ...
Respiration. 86 (5): 433-8. doi:10.1159/000353253. ISSN 1423-0356. PMID 24080743. John Madden (19 September 2014). "Cigavette ...
Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases. 88 (2): 162-74. doi:10.1159/000362674. PMID 24943102. Coleman RM, ...
Respiration. 85 (6): 515-520. doi:10.1159/000348269. ISSN 0025-7931. Hammer, Jürg, ed. (2005). Paediatric pulmonary function ...
Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases. 69 (3): 277-9. doi:10.1159/000063635. PMID 12097776. Suzuki, K; Seyama ...
Respiration. 99 (11): 961-969. doi:10.1159/000511132. ISSN 0025-7931. Woo, Sungmin; Yoon, Chang Jin; Chung, Jin Wook; Kang, ...
Respiration. 32 (1): 74-80. doi:10.1159/000193637. PMID 1118672. Wujastyk, Dagmar; Smith, Frederick M. (2008). Modern and ...
Herzog H (1998). "History of Tuberculosis". Respiration. 65 (1): 5-15. doi:10.1159/000029220. PMID 9523361. Gao, Qian; Li, Xia ...
1951). "Electrophrenic Respiration". United States Navy Medical News Letter. 18 (4): 10-12. Bhimji, S. (16 December 2015). ... Judson, J.P.; Glenn, W.W.L. (1968). "Radio-Frequency electrophrenic respiration: Long-term application to a patient with ... Duchenne would later in 1872 declare the technique the "best means of imitating natural respiration". However, advances in ... Diaphragm pacing, (and even earlier as electrophrenic respiration), is the rhythmic application of electrical impulses to the ...
Contribution of six new cases to the number of case reports in Turkey". Respiration. 68 (2): 204-209. doi:10.1159/000050494. ... World cases and review of the literature". Respiration. 70 (5): 549-555. doi:10.1159/000074218. PMID 14665786. S2CID 24718986. ... Report of two cases". Respiration. 64 (2): 165-169. doi:10.1159/000196663. PMID 9097354. Castellana, G; Gentile, M; Castellana ...
Respiration. 69 (3): 217-22. doi:10.1159/000063623. PMID 12097764. "FDA orders 'black box' label on some antibiotics". ...
ISBN 978-1-4419-9694-7. Mortola, J (1999). "How newborn mammals cope with hypoxia". Respiration Physiology. 116 (2-3): 95-103. ...
Di Prampero, PE; G. Ferretti (Dec 1, 1999). "The energetics of anaerobic muscle metabolism" (PDF). Respiration Physiology. 118 ...
Respiration Physiology. 49 (2): 141-58. doi:10.1016/0034-5687(82)90070-6. PMID 6815749. Greater Siren - North Carolina. ...
Tenny, S.M. (1967). "Comparative quantitative morphology of the mammalian lung: trachea". Respiration Physiology. 3: 616-630. ... a mechanism is necessary to abduct structures from the airway to allow for non-vocal respiration. Because of this, vibratory ... present in the ancestral syrinx were likely selected to ensure that the airway did not collapse during non-vocal respiration. ...
Respiration Physiology. 39 (2): 217-239. doi:10.1016/0034-5687(80)90046-8. PMID 7375742. Hawkes, L. A.; Balachandran, S.; ...
As well as being a diagnostic device, Donald used the device to make a quantitative determination of normal respiration with ... Donald, Ian (May 1954). "Augmented Respiration". The Lancet. 263 (6818): 895-899. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(54)91522-6. PMID ...
Kreuzer, F. (1970). "Facilitated diffusion of oxygen and its possible significance; a review". Respiration Physiology. 9 (1): 1 ...
Graham, J. B. (1974-07-01). "Aquatic respiration in the sea snake Pelamis platurus". Respiration Physiology. 21 (1): 1-7. doi: ...
Respiration Physiology. 49 (2): 141-58. doi:10.1016/0034-5687(82)90070-6. PMID 6815749. Caudata Culture Species Entry - ...
LACTIC ACID AEROBIC RESPIRATION: Involves the use of OXYGEN and GLUCOSE. It RELEASES ENERGY C02 and HEAT GLUCOSE + OXYGEN (O2) ... CARBON DIOXIDE (C02) + WATER (H2O) + ENERGY + HEAT ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION: Involves the use of GLUCOSE. It RELEASES ENERGY C02, ... 1 GLOSSARY: RESPIRATION. State the equation for aerobic and anaerobic respiration State the composition of inspired air State ... Explain internal respiration Explain external respiration 2 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM GLUCOSE ENERGY + HEAT + LACTIC ACID. AEROBIC ...
Respiration In Plants - AIPMT. Check out your performance on Respiration In Plants chapter by attempting this test ...
Appraising Your Pets Health Series- Respiration. Many dogs breathe 10 to 30 times per minute;for cats, the rate is 10 to 40 ... Monitoring Respiration. When your pet is resting quietly, anything other than quiet, effortless breathing requires medical ... Emergency! Respiratory collapse; prepare for artificial respiration. YES, immediately. Shojai, Amy D. The First Aid Companion ...
Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2). Although oxygen is not the ... Therefore, anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic. Anaerobic cellular respiration and fermentation generate ATP ... in aerobic respiration) or another chemical substance (in anaerobic respiration). A proton motive force drives protons down the ... respiration) or acetate fermentation. Anaerobic respiration is a critical component of the global nitrogen, iron, sulfur, and ...
A detailed description of respiration vs. fermentation Kimballs online resource for cellular respiration Cellular Respiration ... Anaerobic respiration is used by some microorganisms in which neither oxygen (aerobic respiration) nor pyruvate derivatives ( ... "Anaerobic Respiration-Electron Donors and Acceptors in Anaerobic Respiration". ... Maintenance respiration: maintenance as a functional component of cellular respiration Microphysiometry Pasteur point ...
Anaerobic respiration. Main article: Anaerobic respiration. Cellular respiration is the process by which biological fuels are ... Aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen (O2) in order to create ATP. Although carbohydrates, fats, and ... Anaerobic respiration is used by some microorganisms in which neither oxygen (aerobic respiration) nor pyruvate derivatives ( ... Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert ...
Agonal respiration, gasping respiration or agonal breathing is an abnormal pattern of breathing and brainstem reflex ... Agonal respirations are also commonly seen in cases of cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest where agonal respirations may ... including Biots respirations and ataxic respirations). Correct usage would restrict the term to the last breaths before death ... Agonal respiration occurs in 40% of cardiac arrests experienced outside a hospital environment. Perkin, RM; Resnik, DB (June ...
Cellular respiration occurs 24 HOURS/DAY in all organisms. Respiration is sometimes called BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION and thus may be ... Cellular respiration is the process by which food molecules react with oxygen and are broken down to carbon dioxide and water ... In BURNING most of the energy is released in the form of HEAT and LIGHT, but in cellular respiration most of the energy is used ... Any organic molecule that contains bond energy can be used as a fuel in cellular respiration. The common stage for almost all ...
Fructose, galactose, and lactose produced very little, if any cellular respiration in yeast. ...
Respiration: Two types of respiratory organs are found among arachnids: book lungs and tracheae. Book lungs are found in ... Respiration. Two types of respiratory organs are found among arachnids: book lungs and tracheae. Book lungs are found in ... Most spiders have both, and small micro whip scorpions and some extremely small mites have only cutaneous respiration. ...
RYLAND, J. Respiration in Polyzoa (Ectoprocta). Nature 216, 1040-1041 (1967). ...
They take in oxygen during the respiration process and produce carbon dioxide. You can explore this process with several ... The most basic plant respiration experiment will simply demonstrate that plants do respire, thus creating carbon dioxide. To ... This can tell you how much oxygen the plant has used up during the respiration process. ... and use cabbage water or an oxygen probe to measure the different rates of respiration for each plant. Make sure to add the ...
artificial respiration, any measure that causes air to flow in and out of a persons lungs when natural breathing is inadequate ... artificial respiration (artificial ventilation) n. an emergency procedure for maintaining a flow of air into and out of a ... artificial respiration, any measure that causes air to flow in and out of a persons lungs when natural breathing is inadequate ... Respiration can be taken over by an artificial lung (especially in respiratory paralysis), a pulmotor, or any other type of ...
Artificial respiration, breathing induced by some manipulative technique when natural respiration has ceased or is faltering. ... Artificial respiration, breathing induced by some manipulative technique when natural respiration has ceased or is faltering. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information - PubMed Central - Artificial Respiration. *Academia - Artificial Respiration: On ... the stoppage or impeding of respiration, as by strangulation, choking on food, or other exclusion of oxygenated air. See. ...
... aerobic respiration ) is the process by which energy-rich organic substrates are broken down into carbon dioxide and water , ... Source for information on Cellular Respiration: The Gale Encyclopedia of Science dictionary. ... Cellular respirationCellular respiration in the presence of oxygen ( ... Cellular respiration. Cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen (aerobic respiration ) is the process by which energy-rich ...
... used Respiration books online including bestsellers & rare titles at the best prices. Shop Respiration books at Alibris. ... Book subjects like Respiration. *Medical , Pulmonary & Thoracic Medicine. *Medical , Allied Health Services , Respiratory ...
Respiration is the process or processes involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the ...
... of cellular respiration and the various processes whereby our bodies create energy i... ... B) Anaerobic Respiration/Fermentation 5:33. C) Aerobic Respiration 6:45. 4) Krebs Cycle 7:06. A) Acetyl COA 7:38. B) ... Cellular Respiration and the Mighty Mitochondria - Duration: 7:49. Amoeba Sisters 1,664,383 views ... Cellular Respiration Part 1: Glycolysis - Duration: 8:12. Professor Dave Explains 110,659 views ...
Online course on how respiration disorders occur and how to treat them. Learn about the physiology and pathophysiology of the ... Youll learn about lung and airway functioning, the control of respiration - at rest and during exercise - and the key factors ... understand modern ideas on lung and airway functioning, and understand the control of respiration, at rest and during exercise ... Youll also consider how respiration disorders occur and the rational basis for treatment for these disorders. ...
Mouth to mask respiration. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 292 :1739 ... Mouth to mask respiration.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 292 doi: (Published 28 ...
Artificial Respiration. Discover more music, concerts, videos, and pictures with the largest catalogue online at ...
The respiration assistor is intended to be activated as and when required by an anaesthetist to provide in-phase respiratory ... The respiration assistor is intended to provide respiratory assistance for a patient (14) who is breathing spontaneously under ... For this purpose, the respiration assistor incorporates a blower (15) which is located in series with a gas flow detector (20 ... the respiration assistor incorporates an expiratory valve (23) that is actuated to a closed condition when the blower is ...
Phrases that include respiration: cheyne stokes respiration, external respiration, internal respiration, cellular respiration, ... respiration: [home, info] *respiration: Macmillan Dictionary [home, info] *Respiration, respiration: Wordnik [ ... respiration: Cambridge Dictionary of American English [home, info] *Respiration (physiology), Respiration (song), Respiration: ... respiration: Wiktionary [home, info] *respiration: Websters New World College Dictionary, 4th Ed. [home, info] *respiration: ...
Cellular Respiration. Cellular respiration is carried out by all plants, animals and soil microbes, and can be thought of as ... Plants use respiration to obtain energy from the carbon fixed during photosynthesis. Conversely, heterotrophs use respiration ... Respiration requires the use of available energy in the form of ATP, but the process results in the generation of a net gain in ... Respiration is the utilization of energy within the plant and results in the release of oxygen back into the atmosphere. ...
The respiration detector of `this invention includes a detector head member 10 mounted on the end of a support member 12. The ... The details of the structure of the respiration detector is shown in FIGS. 2 to 6. In those figures the body 14 of the detector ... A respiration detector comprising, in combination, a detector head member including a plastic dished body member substantially ... RESPIRATION DETECTOR Filed Sept. 25, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. TOMMY N. TYLER Rw/TM ATTORNEY. ...
These multiple-choice questions will help you review the AHL or Option C content for Cell Respiration. You have three attempts ... Cell Respiration Review. These multiple-choice questions will help you review the AHL or Option C content for Cell Respiration ...
... contributed by Robert A. Freitas Jr.. © Copyright 2000, Robert A. Freitas Jr.. All rights ...
Essays from BookRags provide great ideas for Cellular respiration essays and paper topics like Essay. View this student essay ... and aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration.. The first example of structure determines function in cellular respiration ... This unit in biology, we studied cellular respiration, which is the process by which cells make energy to live. The subject for ... How Structure Determines Function in Cellular Respiration. Summary: Evaluates the details as to how structure determines ...
... Learning Modules on the parts of Cellular Respiration. Modules use animations to convey ... If you know the author of Cell Respiration and Bioenergetics, please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking ... You just viewed Cell Respiration and Bioenergetics. Please take a moment to rate this material. ...
Sorry I can understand that its quite difficult to understand with these pages because the text is quite small. But this respirator uses GECKEL technology that safely adheres onto your face. Its reusable, safe, self-cleaning, strong, comfortable, and waterproof as well.. The indicator light is not always on. Only when the filters start to run out itll alert you early and itll blink once with a beep. Itll continue to blink and beep every ten minutes until the filters are fully exhausted. When the filter is fully exhausted, thats when the red light comes on and stays on to alert the user that he/she is not being protected.. If you want to know more, please visit my website or contact me.. ...
soil respiration. When Wet Gets Wetter: Decoupling of Moisture, Redox Biogeochemistry, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Humid ... Soil respiration was also decreased in the earthworm-reduced plots. In contrast, soil microbial biomass C was not affected by ... The annual mean soil respirations in the plantation and the secondary forest were 2.32 0.15 and 2.65 0.18 gCm 2 day 1, ... Jiménez R.A., Geochemical Model of Redox Reactions in a Tropical Rain Forest Stream Riparian Zone: DOC Oxidation, Respiration ...
Respiration: C6H12O6 +6O2 -, 6CO2 + 6 H2O + energy. oSugar plus oxygen yields carbon dioxide plus water plus energy ... 2. These will be used to act out the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Post the equations of these processes where ... 3. They will be able to differentiate between photosynthesis and respiration.. Background. The students have probably heard ... Climate Change #2 - Photosynthesis/Respiration. .expandable a {font-size:.85em;} Wind Cave National Park ...
Cellular Respiration and the Mighty Mitochondria - Duration: 7:49. Amoeba Sisters 1,249,810 views ... Cellular Respiration Steps and Pathways - Duration: 4:41. Teachers Pet 125,454 views ...
  • When your pet is resting quietly, anything other than quiet, effortless breathing requires medical attention and possibly artificial respiration. (
  • These multiple-choice questions will help you review the AHL or Option C content for Cell Respiration. (
  • Modules use animations to convey dynamic process of cell respiration. (
  • You just viewed Cell Respiration and Bioenergetics . (
  • If you know the author of Cell Respiration and Bioenergetics , please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. (
  • Cell respiration refers to the process of converting the chemical energy of organic molecules into a form immediately usable by organisms. (
  • It is known that peas undergo cell respiration during germination. (
  • After completing the Preliminary Activity, you will first use reference sources to find out more about peas, seeds, germination, and cell respiration before you choose and investigate a researchable question dealing with the cell respiration. (
  • Peas undergo cell respiration during germination. (
  • Do peas undergo cell respiration before germination? (
  • Study the effect of temperature on cell respiration. (
  • Compare the rates of cell respiration in germinating and non-germinating peas. (
  • Researchers at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have now discovered a new function for a protein in the mitochondrion - popularly called the cell's power station - that plays a key part in cell respiration. (
  • Cell Respiration occurs in the mitochondria of the cell, as you can see below. (
  • The relation between photosynthesis and cell respiration in cells is important, yet simple. (
  • Although they don't produce and require the same products, photosynthesis and cell respiration both rely on the movement of electrons. (
  • There are many differences with photosynthesis and cell respiration, but one of the biggest ones is what they produce. (
  • ADP and Pi enter and ATP exit, the end of Cell Respiration. (
  • Cellular respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic) utilizes highly reduced chemical compounds such as NADH and FADH2 (for example produced during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle) to establish an electrochemical gradient (often a proton gradient) across a membrane. (
  • Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are consumed as reactants, aerobic respiration is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown in glycolysis, and requires pyruvate to the mitochondria in order to be fully oxidized by the citric acid cycle. (
  • Biology textbooks often state that 38 ATP molecules can be made per oxidized glucose molecule during cellular respiration (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the Krebs cycle, and about 34 from the electron transport system). (
  • Enzymes involved in respiration also function at optimal levels at specific pH levels: more basic environments for glycolysis enzymes and a more acidic environment for citric acid cycle enzymes. (
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is created in organisms through the processes of photosynthesis, glycolysis, cellular respiration and fermentation. (
  • Cellular respiration has three phases glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport. (
  • We used cells that were pretreated with ethidium bromide so that the mtDNA became mutated and depleted and the cells became incapable of aerobic respiration and growth (A549 ρ° cells), except in a permissive medium containing uridine and pyruvate to supplement anaerobic glycolysis ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • Aerobic and anaerobic respiration both begin with glycolysis, the first stage in the breakdown of glucose. (
  • Anaerobic respiration can also follow glycolysis and generates two molecules of ATP and produces lactic acid as a byproduct. (
  • Anaerobic respiration can metabolise pyruvic acid, and in the process, regenerate enzymes necessary for glycolysis, facilitating further aerobic respiration. (
  • Biology textbooks often state that 38 ATP molecules can be made per oxidised glucose molecule during cellular respiration (2 from glycolysis, 2 from the Krebs cycle, and about 34 from the electron transport system). (
  • Bacterial respiration begins with a step, glycolysis, that is primarily concerned with the breakdown of sugar to create ATP and important byproducts. (
  • To estimate the relative contributions of glycolysis and aerobic respiration, we calculated total adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) generated by measuring whole-cell lactate production and oxygen consumption, respectively ( 11 ). (
  • Dependence of aerobic respiration, glycolysis, and exercise capacity on p53. (
  • Anaerobic cellular respiration and fermentation generate ATP in very different ways, and the terms should not be treated as synonyms. (
  • There are two important anaerobic microbial methane formation pathways, through carbon dioxide / bicarbonate (HCO3−) reduction (respiration) or acetate fermentation. (
  • What is the difference between fermentation and anaerobic respiration? (
  • In doing so, we will see how fermentation and cellular respiration takes place when oxygen is not present. (
  • Fermentation and anaerobic respiration Get 3 of 4 questions to level up! (
  • Learn more about cellular respiration, fermentation, and other processes that extract energy from fuel molecules like glucose. (
  • Anaerobic respiration is often used interchangeably with fermentation , especially when the glycolytic pathway is used for energy production in the cell. (
  • Hence, scientists who study prokaryotic physiology view anaerobic respiration and fermentation as distinct processes and therefore do not use the terms interchangeably. (
  • Several examples of structure determines function in cellular respiration are as follows: ATP and ADP and how they are used in the cell, enzymes, and aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. (
  • the two main types of cellular respiration are aerobic cellular respiration and anaerobic cellular respiration. (
  • They undergo either anaerobic cellular respiration or aerobic cellular respiration. (
  • Differentiate anaerobic cellular respiration from aerobic respiration? (
  • Aerobic and Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Respiration describes sequences of enzyme-catalysed biochemical reactions within cells to produce life sustaining energy (Turtle, 2015). (
  • This unit in biology, we studied cellular respiration, which is the process by which cells make energy to live. (
  • Any organic molecule that contains bond energy can be used as a fuel in cellular respiration. (
  • ATP has three phosphate groups and during cellular respiration, it loses a phosphate making it an ADP molecule. (
  • 2. What molecule is essential for aerobic respiration to take place? (
  • One molecule of glucose can be converted into up to 32 molecules of ATP during aerobic respiration, but only two molecules of ATP per glucose molecule are gained from anaerobic respiration. (
  • During aerobic respiration the Pyruvate enters the Citric acid cycle in which 6 CO2 (1 molecule of glucose has 6 carbons), 2 ATP, 8 NADH and 2 FADH are produced. (
  • Cellfood has an array of benefits to the body that include increasing cellular respiration, boosting energy, metabolism catalyst, balancing body metabolism. (
  • Mice completely lacking in TFB1M die early in the foetal stage as they are unable to develop cellular respiration," says Medodi Metodiev, one of the researchers involved in the study, which is presented in Cell Metabolism. (
  • Also known as oxidative metabolism or aerobic metabolism, or aerobic respiration. (
  • In the field of prokaryotic metabolism , anaerobic respiration has a more specific meaning. (
  • That SCO2 couples p53 to mitochondrial respiration provides a possible explanation for the Warburg effect and offers new clues as to how p53 might affect aging and metabolism. (
  • There are currently no questions for Wendals Respiration for Horses - be the first to ask one! (
  • An example of the ecological importance of anaerobic respiration is the use of nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor, or dissimilatory denitrification, which is the main route by which fixed nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere as molecular nitrogen gas. (
  • While this is not an advantage precisely, it is an importance of anaerobic respiration. (
  • In emergency situations, however, when no professional help is available, rescuers undertake the mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose method of artificial respiration. (
  • When victims vomit, they must be turned on their side and the airway cleaned before continuing artificial respiration. (
  • Artificial respiration , breathing induced by some manipulative technique when natural respiration has ceased or is faltering. (
  • Various methods of artificial respiration, most based on the application of external force to the lungs, were once used. (
  • Mouth-to-mouth breathing soon after became the most widely used method of artificial respiration. (
  • Artificial respiration being taught in a Red Cross first aid class to State employees in the Wisconsin State Capitol Assembly Parlor, supervised by Arne Lerwick (far right), instructor from the Madison Fire Department. (
  • Specific types of anaerobic respiration are also critical in bioremediation, which uses microorganisms to convert toxic chemicals into less-harmful molecules to clean up contaminated beaches, aquifers, lakes, and oceans. (
  • Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. (
  • The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy because weak high-energy bonds, in particular in molecular oxygen, are replaced by stronger bonds in the products. (
  • However, some anaerobic organisms, such as methanogens are able to continue with anaerobic respiration, yielding more ATP by using other inorganic molecules (not oxygen) of high energy as final electron acceptors in the electron transport chain. (
  • Both are molecules that are used in cellular respiration to make energy. (
  • HS-LS1-7: Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy. (
  • These molecules, including the enzymes involved in respiration, are in contact with soil particles. (
  • The only things needed to form an Exomet are the death of microorganisms and the stabilisation by molecules of respiration enzymes, so it's very likely that the phenomenon is widespread in nature! (
  • Respiration, not to be confused with breathing, is any process by which a cell releases energy from the chemical bonds of complex molecules, such as glucose. (
  • In other situations, bacteria use one or more different molecules as a final electron acceptor for respiration. (
  • The purpose of respiration is to provide the cell with the appropriate molecules for creating energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, ATP. (
  • Anaerobic respiration (anaerobiosis) refers to the oxidation of molecules in the absence of oxygen to produce energy, in opposition to aerobic respiration which does use oxygen. (
  • In this case, anaerobic respiration is defined as a membrane-bound biological process coupling the oxidation of electron donating substrates (e.g. sugars and other organic compounds, but also inorganic molecules like hydrogen, sulfide/sulfur, ammonia, metals or metal ions) to the reduction of suitable external electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen. (
  • In aerobic organisms undergoing respiration, electrons are shuttled to an electron transport chain, and the final electron acceptor is oxygen. (
  • All organisms utilize the processes of cellular respiration to provide energy for cellular maintenance and for the production of starting materials for the biosynthesis of needed compounds. (
  • Respiration in living organisms works by exchanging gases to support essential metabolic processes. (
  • Gas exchange at the cellular wall is the entire process of respiration for unicellular organisms and other simple living things. (
  • How many organisms need to be in a food chain to carry out cellular respiration? (
  • Do all organisms do cellular respiration? (
  • In multicellular organisms that require oxygen, such as human beings, anaerobic respiration can act as a backup when cellular oxygen is depleted. (
  • We have recently shown that beyond its role in respiration, this protein complex is also involved in defence signalling in plants by helping plants to respond to invading organisms like pathogenic fungi and it also alter the growth of roots. (
  • Anaerobic respiration breaks down glucose in the absence of oxygen, and produces pyruvate, which is then reduced to lactate or to ethanol and CO2. (
  • Respiration was only stimulated when reactive oxygen species (ROS) were scavenged by pyruvate or NAC: other fuels or fuel combinations had little effect. (
  • These studies suggest for the first time that adipocyte O(2) consumption may be inhibited by ROS, because pyruvate and NAC stimulated respiration. (
  • Handbook of Physiology (Sec. 3, Respiration, Vol. 2). (
  • The advantages of anaerobic respiration" last modified May 13, 2017. (
  • Cellular+respiration - Google Search. (
  • Sulfate respiration produces hydrogen sulfide, which is responsible for the characteristic 'rotten egg' smell of coastal wetlands and has the capacity to precipitate heavy metal ions from solution, leading to the deposition of sulfidic metal ores. (
  • Unlike cellular respiration, photorespiration does not produce any ATP or NADH, and so consumes chemical energy rather than produces it. (
  • Respiration is important because it produces energy that is essential for the normal functioning of the body. (
  • Anaerobic respiration produces small amounts of energy in the absence of oxygen. (
  • 2) On the other hand, «root respiration» produces CO 2 during metabolic activity in the rhizosphere. (
  • Aerobic respiration produces ATP at the slowest rate of the three systems, but it can continue to supply ATP for several hours or longer, so long as the fuel supply lasts. (
  • 2015. (
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  • Neural control of respiration (like neural control of many other physiological functions, micturition, for example) is highly complex and not fully elucidated. (
  • Figure 2: Composite seasonal cycles of GEP and DER indicate strong inhibition of aboveground respiration by light and sustained photosynthetic efficiency. (
  • We propose that both mitochondrial volume densities and Sv(im,m) are near their maximum theoretical limits in hummingbirds and that higher rates of mitochondrial respiration than those observed in mammals are achieved in vivo as a result of higher capacities for O2 delivery and substrate catabolism. (
  • Analysis of respiration-incompetent yeast with specific deletions in the electron transport chain and the machinery of mitochondrial ATP synthesis indicated that the ability to respire is critical for Bax toxicity. (
  • A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the Warburg effect ( 3 - 7 ), but there have not been any reports of a genetically defined pathway that couples a tumor suppressor gene to mitochondrial aerobic respiration. (
  • Soil respiration measurement: chamber with infrared gas analyser. (
  • Schematic representation of C fluxes including soil respiration in forests. (
  • Soil respiration, i.e. the CO 2 flux from the soil, is the largest CO 2 flux in ecosystems besides photosynthesis. (
  • Therefore, if soil respiration changes, this can significantly affect the CO 2 balance of forests and their climate impact. (
  • Soil respiration consists of two components: (1) on the one hand, leaf litter, dead roots and soil humus are broken down by microorganisms, thereby releasing CO 2 . (
  • Measurement of soil respiration: a chamber is placed on the soil surface and the increase in CO 2 concentration is monitored by an infrared gas analyser. (
  • Temperature and water availability are the most important direct factors that control soil respiration. (
  • The linearly increasing CO2 concentration is the rate of soil respiration. (
  • Agonal respiration, gasping respiration or agonal breathing is an abnormal pattern of breathing and brainstem reflex characterized by gasping, labored breathing, accompanied by strange vocalizations and myoclonus. (
  • Cheyne-Stokes respiration, also known as periodic respiration, is an abnormal pattern of breathing. (
  • Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity. (
  • Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent providing most of the chemical energy is molecular oxygen (O2). (
  • In BURNING most of the energy is released in the form of HEAT and LIGHT, but in cellular respiration most of the energy is used to create NEW CHEMICAL BONDS and only a relatively small amount of heat energy is liberated (2nd Law of Thermodynamics). (
  • Until now, it was thought that respiration could only occur in an intracellular environment in which enzymes are protected inside cellular compartments in specific physical and chemical conditions. (
  • A small fraction (5-10%) of these enzymes will connect with minerals or humus to reconstitute a meta-organism capable of producing the cascade of chemical reactions which occur in respiration. (
  • Cellular respiration involves the chemical release o. (
  • In anaerobic respiration, as the electrons from the electron donor are transported down the electron transport chain to the terminal electron acceptor, protons are translocated over the cell membrane from "inside" to "outside", establishing a concentration gradient across the membrane which temporarily stores the energy released in the chemical reactions. (
  • Aerobic respiration takes even more chemical reactions to produce ATP than either of the above systems. (
  • In which Hank does some push ups for science and describes the "economy" of cellular respiration and the various processes whereby our bodies create energy in the form of ATP. (
  • Respiration is the utilization of energy within the plant and results in the release of oxygen back into the atmosphere. (
  • Conversely, heterotrophs use respiration to yield energy from the food that they consume. (
  • Provide students with a simple definition of cellular respiration: Cellular respiration is the method by which cells in humans, plants, and animals break down sugar (or glucose) from the food that they eat, which in turn changes into energy or ATP. (
  • What is the energy from respiration used for? (
  • The energy from respiration is used to utilize stored energy within an organism's body when necessary. (
  • All animals use biochemical respiration to deliver oxygen across the cell wall, and they use the gas to acquire energy. (
  • Cellular Respiration is converting glucose to usable energy. (
  • Definition of anaerobic respiration: the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen with a small amount of energy. (
  • Aerobic respiration is the release of energy from glucose or another organic substrate in the presence of Oxygen. (
  • In the case of anaerobic respiration, glucose is broken and the products generated from this are energy and either lactic acid or ethanol (alcohol) and CO2. (
  • The plant cells break down sugar through cellular respiration then the sugar particles produce energy. (
  • To do this, use different types of aquatic plants, or different sizes of the same aquatic plant, and use cabbage water or an oxygen probe to measure the different rates of respiration for each plant. (
  • What is plant respiration? (
  • Cellular respiration in an animal cell is very similar to a plant cell. (
  • The physiological processes that lead to the development of Cheyne-Stokes respiration, which involves the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and sympathetic nervous systems, are not fully understood. (
  • To make ATP, a muscle cell (Myocyte) utilises Oxygen provided by Myoglobin (a muscle-fibre oxygen-binding protein) and breaks down glucose in aerobic cellular respiration. (
  • The term is sometimes (inaccurately) used to refer to labored, gasping breathing patterns accompanying organ failure (e.g. liver failure and renal failure), SIRS, septic shock, and metabolic acidosis (see Kussmaul breathing, or in general any labored breathing, including Biot's respirations and ataxic respirations). (
  • Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. (
  • Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (∼45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. (
  • Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2). (
  • Anaerobic respiration processes require another electron acceptor to replace oxygen. (
  • Beardall J, Raven JA (1990) Pathways and mechanisms of respiration in microalgae. (
  • Some of these pathways require oxygen and are called aerobic respiration. (
  • Pathways that do not require oxygen are called anaerobic respiration. (
  • A respiration assistor (10) for use in an anaesthesia breathing system. (
  • It consists of cycles of breathing, which become increasingly deeper, followed by periods where respiration becomes gradually shallower. (
  • Animal respiration: walrus, frog, and butt-breathing turtle. (
  • Respiration is taking a breath or the act of breathing. (
  • In air-breathing vertebrates, respiration takes place in the lungs. (
  • If you tell the patient/client that you're going to count their respirations, wouldn't they be tempted to control their breathing pattern? (
  • A pattern of breathing with varying depth of respiration and brief periods of apnea. (
  • Students use puzzle pieces representing the components of the equations for photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration and answer questions about these processes. (
  • We realised that respiration was occurring in the absence of living cells. (
  • Respiration is what happens when you move oxygen from your environment and into your cells. (
  • Site of the cellular respiration in cells? (
  • When muscle cells use up oxygen faster than it can be replenished, the cells start to perform anaerobic respiration in order to keep muscles moving, which can be important in an emergency situation. (
  • Unit 4: Respiration, circulation and excretion Sistema digestivo Glándulas digestivas Tracto digestivo Sistema respiratorio Alvéolos Bronquios Bronquiolos Capilares Dióxido de carbono Laringe Pulmones Faringe Tráquea Sistema circulatorio Arterias Vasos. (
  • Carvalho MC, Eyre BD (2012) Measurement of planktonic respiration in the light. (