Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Calycanthaceae: A plant family of the order Laurales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Thulium: Thulium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tm, atomic number 69, and atomic weight 168.93.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Tympanic Membrane Perforation: A temporary or persistent opening in the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE). Clinical signs depend on the size, location, and associated pathological condition.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Spectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Caloric Tests: Elicitation of a rotatory nystagmus by stimulating the semicircular canals with water or air which is above or below body temperature. In warm caloric stimulation a rotatory nystagmus is developed toward the side of the stimulated ear; in cold, away from the stimulated side. Absence of nystagmus indicates the labyrinth is not functioning.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Nanoshells: Nanometer range spherical cores of particular semiconductor compounds surrounded by an ultrathin metal shell that is commonly made of gold or silver. This configuration gives the nanoshells highly tunable optical properties. They have potential in biomedicine for diagnosis and therapy.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Radiation, Nonionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.PhotochemistryBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Near Drowning: Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Neurochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.

*Cerebral autoregulation

These are Transcranial Doppler sonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Near Infrared Spectroscopy. The quantification of ... This technique uses a combination of an inflatable finger cuff and an infrared plethysmograph. Cerebral blood flow can be ...

*Padmanabhan Balaram

To do this, he has extensively used techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, and ...

*Brian Orr

Back in Australia his research focused mainly on laser infrared-ultraviolet double resonance spectroscopy. More recently his ... and Raman-ultraviolet double resonance, coherent Raman spectroscopy, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, ... "for advancing molecular spectroscopy by experiment and theory on infrared- ... 58, 1718 (1991). Y. He and B. J. Orr, Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable ...

*Arno Villringer

Correlates of alpha rhythm in functional magnetic resonance imaging and near infrared spectroscopy. Neuroimage. 20(1):145-58 ... Villringer, A., Planck, J., Hock, C., Schleinkofer, L., Dirnagl, U. (1993). Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a new tool to ... cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy. ... Villringer showed feasibility of noninvasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging (fNIRS, fNIRI) of the human ...

*The Frythe

ESR spectroscopy (electron paramagnetic resonance), and infrared spectroscopy. Smith, Kline & French discovered Tagamet ( ... Techniques included molecular biophysics, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), mass ...

*Chromium(I) hydride

Z+ State Determined by Far-Infrared Laser Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy" (PDF). Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy. 149: 257- ... N=2→1 735 GHz; N=3→2 at 1.11 THz N=4→3 at 1.47 THz Kleman & Uhler observed the infrared spectrum and were the first to note ... In S-type stars a series of unknown lines appeared in the near infrared spectrum. They were termed the Keenan bands based on a ... Van Zee, R. J.; T. C. DeVore; W. Weltner (1979). "CrH and CrH2 molecules: ESR and optical spectroscopy at 4 °K". The Journal of ...

*Uroerythrin

In 1975 its structure was descripted in base of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Xiang ...

*Crystallization of polymers

... infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The measured value depends on the method used, which is therefore ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR) Infrared absorption or reflection spectra from crystalline polymers contain additional peaks which ... Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) crystalline and amorphous areas differ by the mobility of protons. The latter can be monitored ... such as nuclear magnetic resonance. When polymers crystallize from an isotropic, bulk of melt or concentrated solution, the ...

*Eastern Analytical Symposium

Analytical Chemistry Magnetic Resonance Near-infrared spectroscopy Chemometrics Mass Spectrometry Separation Science or ... In 1973, the EAS was suspended to support the emerging FACSS (Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Societies), ... the Society for Applied Spectroscopy's Delaware Valley, New York, and New England Sections, the Association of Laboratory ... the Hassler Award in Applied Spectroscopy, and the Anachem Award. ...

*Quantum chemistry

Common methods are infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and scanning probe microscopy. ... This model can explain the new lines that appeared in the spectroscopy of atoms. For multielectron atoms we must introduce some ... The concept of chemical bond distorts when the aromatic compounds are considered, then you need to apply resonance ideas and ... Experimental quantum chemists rely heavily on spectroscopy, through which information regarding the quantization of energy on a ...

*Brain

... of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging ... "Energy contribution of octanoate to intact rat brain metabolism measured by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy". J ... In other animals additional senses are present, such as the infrared heat-sense of snakes, the magnetic field sense of some ... of blood lactate to brain energy metabolism in humans measured by dynamic 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy". J ...

*Hemoglobin

... of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging ... Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 ... McCully, K. K.; Hamaoka, T. (2000). "Near-infrared spectroscopy: What can it tell us about oxygen saturation in skeletal muscle ... Direct experimental data: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests iron has an oxidation state of approximately 3.2. Infrared ...

*Nano-FTIR

"Broadband near-field mid-infrared spectroscopy and application to phonon resonances in quartz". Optics Express. 20 (10). ... Huth, Florian (2015). Nano-FTIR - Nanoscale Infrared Near-Field Spectroscopy (Ph.D.). Universidad del Pais Vasco. Infrared ... "High resolution Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a high temperature argon arc source". Infrared Physics & ... Nano-FTIR (nanoscale Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) is a scanning probe technique that can be considered as a ...

*Cell-penetrating peptide

Fourier transform infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These models are associated with electrophysiological ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for disease diagnosis such as cancer metastasis and inflammation, using ... Colloidal QD emission can be modulated from UV-Vis to the infrared by using different types of coating agents, such as ZnS, CdS ... displaying an overall decreasing concentration of contrast agent and a decrease of magnetic resonance (MR) signal in time. This ...

*Organic matter

... spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Each of these methods has its ... These rings are very stable due to resonance stabilization, so they are difficult to break down. The aromatic rings are also ... These include, but are not limited to: total and dissolved organic carbon, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ...

*Robert Burns Woodward

His work also involved the exhaustive use of the then newly developed techniques of infrared spectroscopy and later, nuclear ... magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Another important feature of Woodward's syntheses was their attention to stereochemistry or ... Woodward also applied the technique of infrared spectroscopy and chemical degradation to determine the structures of ... of Woodward's career in the early 1940s was a series of papers describing the application of ultraviolet spectroscopy in the ...

*Molecular vibration

Lennard-Jones potential Near infrared spectroscopy Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy Resonance Raman spectroscopy ... Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy Eckart conditions Fermi resonance GF method Infrared spectroscopy of metal carbonyls ... The most direct way is through infrared spectroscopy, as vibrational transitions typically require an amount of energy that ... corresponds to the infrared region of the spectrum. Raman spectroscopy, which typically uses visible light, can also be used to ...

*Cortical control of posture

Various functional neuroimaging techniques such as Functional near-infrared spectroscopy, Functional magnetic resonance imaging ... Brain activation patterns during imagined stance and locomotion in functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroimage, 22(4), ...

*Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

... like nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy (IR), for a more accurate analysis. Hybrid mass ...

*Marcetta Y. Darensbourg

Using infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and electronic spectroscopy of some carbene pentacarbonyl complexes of ... With mass spectroscopy evidence, the existence of cross-association with other organolithium species in the vapor phase could ...

*Microanalysis

... ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray fluorescence also mass spectrometry ... The most known methods used in microanalysis are: Most of the spectroscopy methods: ...

*George Andrew Olah

... scientists could now use infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study them in greater depth ... Olah's studies of the cation with NMR spectroscopy provided more evidence suggesting that Winstein's model of the non-classical ...

*Normal mode

Antiresonance Critical speed Harmonic oscillator Harmonic series (music) Infrared spectroscopy Leaky mode Mechanical resonance ...

*Functional magnetic resonance imaging

The fMRI procedure can also be combined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to have supplementary information about both ... of cerebral oxygenation changes during brain activation by near-infrared spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging ... "Magnetic Resonance, a critical peer-reviewed introduction; functional MRI". European Magnetic Resonance Forum. Retrieved 17 ... "Oxygenation-sensitive contrast in magnetic resonance image of rodent brain at high magnetic fields", Magnetic Resonance in ...

*Mary Louisa Willard

... including infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Her ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Method of determining protein conformations by the two-dimensional nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy data. AU - Sherman, S. A.. AU - Andrianov, A. M.. AU - Akhrem, A. A.. PY - 1987/4. Y1 - 1987/4. N2 - A method is suggested to determine the most probable values of the angles, y of the protein backbone by the data on the availability and absence of d connectivities in the two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra. In view of this, the dependences of the protonproton distances in dipeptide units of L-amino acid residues on the dihedral angles tp, y, x, are considered and the conformational states of amino acid residues of the proteins with the known spatial structure are analysed statistically. The potentialities of the method are assessed with the aid of model spectral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters obtained from the X-ray data for the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and avian pancreatic polypeptide. It ...
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disorder in children. Currently available neuroimaging techniques require complete body confinement and steadiness and thus are extremely difficult for pediatric patients. Here, we report the use and quantification of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex in children with hemiparetic CP. Ten of sixteen children with congenital hemiparesis were measured during finger tapping tasks and compared with eight of sixteen age-matched healthy children, with an overall measurement success rate of 60%. Spatiotemporal analysis was introduced to quantify the motor activation and brain laterality. Such a quantitative approach reveals a consistent, contralateral motor activation in healthy children at 7 years of age or older. In sharp contrast, children with congenital hemiparesis exhibit all three of contralateral, bilateral and ipsilateral motor ...
[114 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Functional Near Infrared Optical Brain Imaging System (fNIRS) Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Functional Near Infrared Optical Brain Imaging System (...
Recent functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) instrumentation encompasses several dozen of optodes to enable reconstructing a hemodynamic image of the entire cerebral cortex. Despite its potential clinical applicability, widespread use of fNIRS with human subjects is currently limited by unresolved issues, namely the collection from the entirety of optical channels of signals with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sufficient to carry out a reliable estimation of cortical hemodynamics, and the considerable amount of time that placing numerous optodes take with individuals for whom achieving good optical coupling to the scalp is difficult due to thick or dark hair. To address these issues, we developed a numerical method that: 1) at the channel level, computes an objective measure of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) related to its optical coupling to the scalp, akin to electrode conductivity used in electroencephalography (EEG), and 2) at the optode level, ...
A method for determining properties of a mixture of fluids includes: (a) acquiring a plurality of nuclear magnetic resonance measurements from the mixture of fluids, each of the plurality of nuclear magnetic resonance measurements having a different value in an acquisition parameter for which at least one relaxation selected from the group consisting of longitudinal relaxation and transverse relaxation affects magnitudes of the nuclear magnetic resonance measurements; (b) generating a model of the mixture of fluids; (c) calculating a synthesized nuclear magnetic data set based on the model; (d) comparing the synthesized nuclear magnetic data set with the nuclear magnetic resonance measurements; and (e) adjusting the model and repeating (c) and (d), if difference between the synthesized nuclear magnetic data set and the nuclear magnetic measurements is greater than a minimum.
Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada 2018.We used visible near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) to characterize a set of organic materials (n = 75). Good predictions for total carbon, excellent predictions for total nitrogen, but poor predictions for pH were found. This preliminary study showed that VNIRS could rapidly characterize organic materials before soil application.. ...
Comparison of a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy system and skin conductance measurements for in vivo estimation of skin hydration: a clinical study
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is susceptible to signal artifacts caused by relative motion between NIRS optical fibers and the scalp. These artifacts can be very damaging to the utility of functional NIRS, particularly in challenging subject groups where motion can be unavoidable. A number of approaches to the removal of motion artifacts from NIRS data have been suggested. In this paper we systematically compare the utility of a variety of published NIRS motion correction techniques using a simulated functional activation signal added to 20 real NIRS datasets which contain motion artifacts. Principle component analysis, spline interpolation, wavelet analysis, and Kalman filtering approaches are compared to one another and to standard approaches using the accuracy of the recovered, simulated hemodynamic response function (HRF). Each of the four motion correction techniques we tested yields a significant reduction in the mean-squared error (MSE) and ...
Natural and semi-synthetic compounds are being studied as novel phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, and lower urinary symptoms. Maclura pomifera is a source of flavonoids, one of the main classes of molecules investigated for these purposes. The extraction of the natural isoflavone osajin and its modification to obtain a semi-synthetic derivative are described in this short note. 1H and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectroscopic characterization of the title compound are also hereby provided. Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) NMR, supported by in silico conformational studies, was used to achieve a complete assignment of the proton signals, assessing the correct chemical structure of the compound. Heteronuclear single quantum ...
Two new daphnane-type diterpene esters, yuanhuahine (1) and yuanhualine (2), were isolated from the flowers of Daphne genkwa (Thymelaeaceae) along with three known diterpene esters, yuanhuacine (3), yuanhuadine (4), and yuanhuagine (5). Their structures were determined by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation (HMQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and rotating frame Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY) sequences, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were tested against A549 human lung cancer cells and MRC-5 human normal lung epithelial cells. Compounds 1-5 exhibited potent anti-proliferative effects against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 values of 12-53 nM, whereas these compounds were relatively non-cytotoxic against MRC-5 normal lung epithelial cells. © 2010 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan ...
Conventional semi-infinite analytical solutions of correlation diffusion equation may lead to errors when calculating blood flow index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in tissues with irregular geometries. Very recently, we created an algorithm integrating a Nth-order linear model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in homogenous tissues with arbitrary geometries for extraction of BFI (i.e., αD{sub B}). The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of the Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting BFI in heterogeneous tissues with arbitrary geometries. The previous linear algorithm was modified to extract BFIs in different types of tissues simultaneously through utilizing DCS data at multiple source-detector separations. We compared the proposed linear algorithm with the semi-infinite homogenous solution in a computer model of adult head with heterogeneous tissue layers of scalp, skull, ...
A method for determining a pore characteristic of a substance includes the following steps: subjecting the substance to a substantially uniform static magnetic field; applying a magnetic pulse sequence to the substance, the pulse sequence being selected to produce nuclear magnetic resonance signals that are responsive to internal magnetic field inhomogeneities in the pore structure of the substance, and detecting, as measurement signals, nuclear magnetic resonance signals from the substance; applying a reference magnetic pulse sequence to the substance, the reference pulse sequence being selected to produce nuclear magnetic resonance signals that are substantially unresponsive to internal magnetic field inhomogeneities in the pore structure of the substance, and detecting, as reference measurement signals, nuclear magnetic resonance signals from the substance; and determining a pore characteristic of the substance from the measurement ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study of the proton-irradiated KTiOPO4 AU - Kim, Se Hun. AU - Lee, Cheol Eui. PY - 2013/10/17. Y1 - 2013/10/17. N2 - 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to study the effects of proton irradiation on KTiOPO4 (KTP) in view of the previously studied paramagnetic impurity doping effects. High-resolution 31P NMR measurements showed significant increase in the isotropic chemical shifts of the two inequivalent phosphorus sites in the proton-irradiated KTP system, indicating decrease in the electron density around the phosphorous nuclei. The 31P NMR linewidths of the KTP system manifested anomalies associated with the superionic transition and with the polaron formation, which became much weaker after proton irradiation. Besides, the activation energy of the charge carriers increased significantly after proton irradiation.. AB - 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to study the effects of ...
High-resolution magic angle spinning proton (HRMAS 1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy produces well-resolved spectra of metabolites from intact tissue specimens. Here we report the results of a preliminary study of 19 human brain tumors obtained by applying this method. Among these 19 cases were 2 low-grade astrocytomas, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 8 glioblastomas, 6 meningiomas, and 2 schwannomas. In addition, autopsy human brain tissues from two subjects without any known neurological diseases were used as normal controls. The HRMAS 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were performed at 2°C on a 400-MHz NMR spectrometer with a HRMAS speed of 2.5 kHz. From these HRMAS 1H MR spectra, we measured the concentrations of 11 metabolites, the ratios of 15 metabolites (resonances) to creatine (at 3.03 ppm), and the spin-spin relaxation time for these metabolites ...
The Kingston Upon Hull Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations (CMRI), which opened in 1992, is a magnetic resonance imaging centre located in the city of Kingston upon Hull (Hull) in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, UK. It is situated in the grounds of the Hull Royal Infirmary hospital in the centre of the city. The centre carries out both cancer research studies, under the auspices of the University of Hull, and clinical scanning, under the auspices of the local NHS trust, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals. The centre currently has three MRI scanners; two 1.5 tesla scanners owned by the NHS (a Philips Intera and a GE Signa) and a 3.0 tesla MR 750 GE Signa scanner owned by the University which was installed in January 2009 (one of the first 3.0 tesla whole-body capable systems in Europe). The medical research is carried out under the Directorship of Professor Lindsay W. Turnbull, and is devoted to the application of magnetic resonance imaging and ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Preface XV. 1 Introduction 1. 1.1 Literature 8. 1.2 Units and Constants 9. References 10. Part I Basic Principles and Applications 11. 2 The Physical Basis of the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiment.. Part I 13. 2.1 The Quantum Mechanical Model for the Isolated Proton 13. 2.2 Classical Description of the NMR Experiment 16. 2.3 Experimental Verification of Quantized Angular Momentum and of the Resonance Equation 17. 2.4 The NMR Experiment on Compact Matter and the Principle of the NMR Spectrometer 19. 2.4.1 How to Measure an NMR Spectrum 19. 2.5 Magnetic Properties of Nuclei beyond the Proton 25. References 27. 3 The Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Organic Molecules - Chemical Shift and Spin-Spin Coupling 29. 3.1 The Chemical Shift 29. 3.1.1 Chemical Shift Measurements 32. 3.1.2 Integration of the Spectrum 35. 3.1.3 Structural Dependence of the Resonance Frequency - A General Survey 37. 3.2 Spin-Spin Coupling 41. 3.2.1 Simple Rules for ...
1. One- and two-dimensional (correlated shift spectroscopy) high resolution proton n.m.r. spectra of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are reported. The merits of water suppression by freeze drying or irradiation, and spectral simplification by spin-echo methods, are discussed. 2. Well-resolved resonances for a range of low molecular weight metabolites such as lactate, 3-d-hydroxybutyrate, alanine, acetate, citrate, glucose, valine and formate were observed. Resonances for glutamine were observed only from freeze dried samples. Concentrations determined by n.m.r. were in reasonable agreement with those from conventional methods. 3. The n.m.r. spectra of CSF were related to the clinical conditions of the subjects. No resonances for citrate were present in spectra of CSF from subjects (three infants) with bacterial meningitis; high lactate and lowered glucose levels were observed. Strong resonances for glucose ...
Detail záznamu - 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of different histological types of human meningiomas in vitro - Detailné zobrazenie záznamu - Slovenská lekárska knižnica
The chemical structures of isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopical data as Infra-red (IR), 1D (1H, 13C, DEPT 135) and 2D-NMR experiments; Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation (HMQC), correlation spectroscopy (COSY) and Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC) plus Mass Spectroscopy (MS) data. The 13C NMR data were assigned with the help of HMQC and DEPT 135 experiments while, the connectivitys of the molecular fragments were established by HMBC, COSY and NOESY. The analysis of the spectra and structure elucidation was also facilitated by comparison of observed and published 1H and 13C NMR data for the compounds.. Lysicamine (1): yellow needles (10.21 mg), m.p. 209-211°C, 1H NMR (CDCl3, 600 MHz) δ 7.57 (1H, s, H-3), 8.07 (1H, d, J = 5.2 Hz, H-4), 8.77 (1H, d, J = 5.2 Hz, H-5), 8.48 (1H, dd, J = 9.0, 1.8 Hz, H-8), 7.63 (1H, t, J = 9.0, 1.2 Hz, H-9), 7.86 (1H, t, J = 9.0, 1.4 Hz, H-10), 9.26 (1H, dd, J = ...
Virulence of Vibrio vulnificus has been strongly associated with encapsulation and an opaque colony morphology. Capsular polysaccharide was purified from a whole-cell, phosphate-buffered saline-extracted preparation of the opaque, virulent phase of V. vulnificus M06-24 (M06-24/O) by dialysis, centrifugation, enzymatic digestion, and phenol-chloroform extraction. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of the purified polysaccharide showed that the polymer was composed of a repeating structure with four sugar residues per repeating subunit: three residues of 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxyhexopyranose in the alpha-gluco configuration (QuiNAc) and an additional residue of 2-acetamido hexouronate in the alpha-galactopyranose configuration (GalNAcA). The complete carbohydrate structure of the polysaccharide was determined by heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The 1H and ...
High-field proton NMR spectroscopic analysis of urine and plasma has been employed to study the biochemical effects and nephrotoxic action of an intramuscular dose of auranofin in rats. Auranofin induced a characteristic profile of proximal tubular damage as evidenced by aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria and increased urinary acetate concentrations. In addition, ethanol was detectable in both urine and plasma obtained from auranofin-treated rats. Auranofin-mediated elevations in the plasma and urine concentrations of 3-D-hydroxybutyrate indicated an increased utilisation of fats for fuel in rats treated with this novel therapeutic agent.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A tridentate CNO-donor palladium(II) complex as efficient catalyst for direct C―H arylation. T2 - Application in preparation of imidazole-based push-pull chromophores. AU - Li, Hui Hong. AU - Maitra, Ratnava. AU - Kuo, Ya Ting. AU - Chen, Jie Hong. AU - Hu, Ching Han. AU - Lee, Hon Man. PY - 2018/1. Y1 - 2018/1. N2 - A series of imidazolium chlorides for the formation of tridentate CNO-donor palladium(II) complexes featuring N-heterocyclic carbene moieties have been developed from cheap and readily available starting materials with high yields. Their palladium complexes were prepared by reactions between the ligand precursors and PdCl2 using K2CO3 as base in pyridine with reasonable yields. These air-stable metal complexes were characterized using 1H NMR and 13C{1H} NMR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. Heteronuclear multiple bond correlation experiments were performed to identify key NMR signals of these compounds. The structures of two of the complexes ...
Abstract: We present two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy protocols based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond as efficient quantum sensors of protein structure. Continuous microwave driving fields are used to achieve Hartmann-Hahn resonances between NV spin sensor and proximate nuclei for selective control of nuclear spins and measurement of their polarization. Our protocols take advantage of the strong coupling between the NV sensor and the nuclei, thus facilitating coherence control of nuclear spins and relax the requirement of nuclear spin polarization. We dramatically reduce the experimental effort by employing a singular value thresholding matrix completion algorithm from signal processing to regain the resolution of protein structure based on sub-sampled data from NV based single molecule nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As an illustration, we ...
B. Rajagopalan, W.J. McKenna, M.J. Blackledge, G.K. Radda; Measurement of Phosphorus Metabolism in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy by 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 74 (s18): 9P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs074009P. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The secondary structure of a pyrimidine-guanine sequence-specific ribonuclease possessing cytotoxic activity from the oocytes of Rana catesbeiana. AU - Chen, Chinpan. AU - Hom, Kellie. AU - Huang, Rong Fong. AU - Chou, Ping Jung. AU - Liao, You Di. AU - Huang, Tai Huang. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - RC-RNase is a pyrimidine-guanine sequence-specific ribonuclease and a sialic-acid-binding lectin purified from Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) oocytes. This 111-amino acid protein exhibits cytotoxicity toward several tumor cell lines. In this paper we report the assignments of proton NMR resonances and the identification of the secondary structure deduced from NOE constraints, chemical shift index, 3JNHα and amide proton exchange rates. The protein was directly isolated from bullfrog oocytes; we were able to assign all but five of the amino acid backbone protons of the unlabeled protein by analyzing a large set of two-dimensional proton NMR spectra obtained at several ...
1. A patient with familial adult-onset hypophosphataemia, whose myopathy was closely related to the plasma phosphate concentration, was investigated by phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P n.m.r.) in vivo of the right flexor digitorum superficialis muscle.. 2. During hypophosphataemia induced by stopping oral phosphate a significant reduction in measured muscle strength occurred, but the ratios of the intramyocellular levels of phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) remained unchanged at rest. During exercise these levels changed, as did the intramyocellular pH, but they did not differ from the pattern previously recorded in normal subjects.. 3. In four adults with inherited infantile-onset hypophosphataemia (vitamin D-resistant rickets, VDRR) without myopathy, the n.m.r. measurements were normal at rest and during exercise.. 4. In one patient with inherited hyperphosphataemia (tumoral calcinosis) ...
A number of copolymers between styrene (St) or 4-azidomethylstyrene (N 3St) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FSt) have been prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and conventional free radical polymerization (FRP). The mode of monomer alternation in copolymers has been established unambiguously using heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) NMR. The degree and nature of monomer alternation was found to be strongly dependent on both the solvent (or lack thereof) and the polymerization initiator. These results are in contrast to previously published studies, which rely primarily on classic analysis of monomer reactivity ratios. We proceeded to independently functionalize the N3St and FSt moieties using orthogonal click chemistries: copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and fluoroarene-thiol coupling (FTC). An alternating copolymer bearing -NH2 and -SO3 - functional groups was found to be a competent organocatalyst for a Henry reaction between benzaldehyde ...
We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization-magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by ...
Despite the burgeoning field of uranium-ligand multiple bonds, analogous complexes involving other actinides remain scarce. For thorium, under ambient conditions only a few multiple bonds to carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, selenium and tellurium are reported, and no multiple bonds to phosphorus are known, reflecting a general paucity of synthetic methodologies and also problems associated with stabilising these linkages at the large thorium ion. Here we report structurally authenticated examples of a parent thorium(IV)-phosphanide (Th-PH2), a terminal thorium(IV)-phosphinidene (Th=PH), a parent dithorium(IV)-phosphinidiide (Th-P(H)-Th) and a discrete actinide-phosphido complex under ambient conditions (Th=P=Th). Although thorium is traditionally considered to have dominant 6d-orbital contributions to its bonding, contrasting to majority 5f-orbital character for uranium, computational analyses suggests that the bonding of thorium can be more nuanced, in terms of 5f- versus 6d-orbital ...
Poor drug delivery to brain tumors caused by aberrant tumor vasculature and a partly intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) can significantly impair the efficacy of chemotherapy. Determining drug delivery to brain tumors is a challenging problem, and the noninvasive detection of drug directly in the tumor can be critically important for accessing, predicting, and eventually improving effectiveness of therapy. In this study, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to detect an anticancer agent, temozolomide (TMZ), in vivo in murine xenotransplants of U87MG human brain cancer. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the low-molecular-weight contrast agent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (GdDTPA), was used to evaluate tumor vascular parameters. Carbon-13-labeled TMZ ([C-13]TMZ, 99%) was intraperitoneally administered at a dose of similar to 140 mg/kg (450 mg/m(2), well within the ...
Proton Nmr Of Ethanol - 28 images - Fatty Alcohols Aocs Lipid Library, High Resolution Nmr Spectra Chemical Reactions, Compound Interest Analytical Chemistry A Guide To, 1 H Nmr Basics Anthony Crasto Spectroscopy, Construct A Simulated 1h Nmr Spectrum For Ethanol
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemical reactions in fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. AU - Vékey, K.. AU - Zerilli, Luigi F.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Examples of various chemical reactions occurring in the matrix or in the selvedge region in fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry are discussed. These are categorized as oxidations and reductions; substitutions; clusterings and additions; and sample decomposition or transformation. Some reactions observed showed significant time behaviour and in one case it was possible to determine rate constants. These data suggest that chemical reactions can be accelerated significantly by fast atom bombardment.. AB - Examples of various chemical reactions occurring in the matrix or in the selvedge region in fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry are discussed. These are categorized as oxidations and reductions; substitutions; clusterings and additions; and sample decomposition or transformation. Some reactions observed showed significant time ...
The individual functional significance of the various creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes for myocardial energy homeostasis is poorly understood. Whereas transgenic hearts lacking the M subunit of CK (M-CK) show unaltered cardiac energetics and left ventricular (LV) performance, deletion of M-CK in combination with loss of sarcomeric mitochondrial CK (ScCKmit) leads to significant alterations in myocardial high-energy phosphate metabolites. To address the question as to whether this alteration is due to a decrease in total CK activity below a critical threshold or due to the specific loss of ScCKmit, we studied isolated perfused hearts with selective loss of ScCKmit (ScCKmit(-/-), remaining total CK activity approximately 70%) using (31)P NMR spectroscopy at two different workloads. LV performance in ScCKmit(-/-) hearts (n = 11) was similar compared with wild-type hearts (n = 9). Phosphocreatine/ATP, however, was significantly reduced in ScCKmit(-/-) compared with wild-type ...
The crystalline lipovitellin/phosvitin complex has a molecular weight of 456 000 and contains nearly 100 molecules of bound phospholipid. Earlier work using electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction methods established the symmetrical dimeric nature of this lipoprotein, but the organization of the lipid was unknown. Under conditions where the lipoprotein is in solution, the high-resolution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra contain two well-resolved peaks which can be assigned to phosphoserine moieties in both lipovitellin and phosvitin and to the phospholipid microdomains. The spin-lattice relaxation times, T1, for the phosphoserines and the phospholipid head groups are distinctly different, with the serine phosphates having faster reorientation rates. 31P NMR spectra of crystalline lipoprotein contain a broad symmetric component with a chemical shielding anisotropy of about -50 ppm. By obtaining 31P MNR spectra from several modified forms of the lipoprotein ...
Choline-containing compounds detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the basal ganglia in bipolar disorder.: Choline-containing compounds (Cho) we
Supercompensated brain glycogen levels may contribute to the development of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) following recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) by providing energy for the brain during subsequent periods of hypoglycemia. To assess the role of glycogen supercompensation in the generation of HAAF, we estimated the level of brain glycogen following RH and acute hypoglycemia (AH). After undergoing 3 hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic and 3 hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemic clamps (RH) on separate occasions at least 1 month apart, five healthy volunteers received [1-C]glucose intravenously over 80+ h while maintaining euglycemia. C-glycogen levels in the occipital lobe were measured by C magnetic resonance spectroscopy at ∼8, 20, 32, 44, 56, 68 and 80 h at 4 T and glycogen levels estimated by fitting the data with a biophysical model that takes into account the tiered glycogen structure. Similarly, prior C-glycogen data obtained following a single ...
A prominent lactate peak as a potential key magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) feature of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML): Spectrum pattern observed in three patients
The investigation of the coacervation (self-aggregation) behavior of biomicrogels which can potentially be used as drug carriers is an important topic, because self-aggregation can not only cause loss of activity, but also toxicity and immunogenicity. To study this effect microgels from elastin-like recombinamer are synthesized using miniemulsion technique. The existence of coacervation for such microgels, at different concentrations and temperatures, is studied and proved by cryo-field emission scanning clectron microscopy (cryo-FESEM), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and by a novel 1H high-resolution magic angle sample spinning (HRMAS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and relaxometry methods. The findings by 1H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy and relaxometry show simultaneous processes of volume phase temperature transition and coacervation with different sensitivity for hydrophobic and hydrophilic ...
The oxidation and exchange reactions of simple phosphorus compounds and the behaviour of a range of low valent triphenylphosphine complexes of the transition metals in liquid hydrogen chloride at room temperature were studied by (^31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. When oxidation did occur, the phosphorus was oxidised from the +3 to the +5 oxidation state. In general, five co-ordinate fluorine containing phosphorus(V) species were produced from the oxidation of phosphorus(III) fluoride and four co-ordinate species of type PBr(_x)C1(_4-x)(^+) (O ≤ x ≤ 4) from the oxidation of phosphorus(ill) bromide or chloride. The (^31)P n.m.r. chemical shifts of the complete series PBr(_x)C1(_4-x)(^+) (O ≤ x ≤ 4) were recorded in solution for the first time, stabilised by tetrachloroborate anions in liquid hydrogen chloride. The protonation of a series of oxygen containing phosphorus (V) compounds in the solvent at room temperature was investigated using P ...
The aims of this study were twofold: (i) to determine quantitatively the contribution of glutamate/glutamine cycling to total astrocyte/neuron substrate trafficking for the replenishment of neurotransmitter glutamate; and (ii) to determine the relative contributions of anaplerotic flux and glutamate/glutamine cycling to total glutamine synthesis. In this work in vivo and in vitro (13)C NMR spectroscopy were used, with a [2-(13)C]glucose or [5-(13)C]glucose infusion, to determine the rates of glutamate/glutamine cycling, de novo glutamine synthesis via anaplerosis, and the neuronal and astrocytic tricarboxylic acid cycles in the rat cerebral cortex. The rate of glutamate/glutamine cycling measured in this study is compared with that determined from re-analysis of (13)C NMR data acquired during a [1-(13)C]glucose infusion. The excellent agreement between these rates supports the hypothesis that glutamate/glutamine cycling is a major metabolic flux ( approximately 0.20 ...
Phospholipid patterns of 15 representative strains of the genus Amycolatopsis were recorded by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The structure analysis of the isolated phospholipids was verified by fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy. The positive- and negative-ion spectra of the partially purified phospholipid fractions qualitatively reflect their distinctive composition. All strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol. Two different types of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmethylethanolamine were detected, viz., compounds with or without hydroxy fatty acids. These phospholipid patterns underline the integrity of the genus. Fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry analysis of phospholipid patterns may serve as an aid for differentiation of bacterial species.
We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) in patients with motor neuron disease (MND) to evaluate the distribution and extent of cortical neuron damage or loss as reflected by decreased N-acetyl (NA) to creatine (Cr) resonance intensity ratios. We examined premotor (superior frontal gyrus), primary motor (precentral gyrus), primary sensory (postcentral gyrus), and parietal (superior parietal gyrus/precuneus) neocortical regions of 12 patients with MND and six normal control subjects. Patients with MND were representative of three syndromes: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with definite lower motor neuron and upper motor neuron signs, MND with probable upper motor neuron signs (PUMNS), and progressive spinal muscular atrophy (PSMA) with lower motor neuron signs only. Compared with healthy controls, ALS patients had a significant decrease in NA/Cr resonance intensity ratios, most prominently in the primary motor cortex (p , ...
We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte material containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt for a wide temperature regime above and below the experimental crystallization temperature with and without N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (IL). The impact of the IL-concentration on the cation dynamics is studied. The increase of the cation mobility upon addition of IL is significant but temperature-independent. This can be related to distinct variations of the underlying transport properties as expressed within the previously introduced transport model of polymer electrolytes. Even for the largest IL concentration the transport model perfectly predicts the non-trivial time-dependence of the cationic mean square displacement for all temperatures. Finally, we compare our numerical and theoretical findings with the results of recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. In ...
Catchments impacted by wildfire typically experience elevated rates of post-fire erosion and formation and deposition of pyrogenic carbon (PyC). To better understand the role of erosion in post-fire soil carbon dynamics, we determined distribution of soil organic carbon in different chemical fractions before and after the Gondola fire in South Lake Tahoe, CA. We analyzed soil samples from eroding and depositional landform positions in control and burned plots pre- and post-wildfire (in 2002, 2003, and 10-years post-fire in 2013). We determined elemental concentrations, stable isotope compositions, and biochemical composition of organic matter (OM) using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for all of the samples. A subset of samples was analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CPMAS 13C-NMR). We combined the MIR and CPMAS 13C-NMR data in the Soil Carbon ...
The etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatitis remains unclear. In the presence of pancreatic inflammation, metabolite abnormalities appear before transformation of tissue structure and changes in functions occur. Detection of abnormalities in metabolite levels facilitates a greater understanding of the pathophysiological events and aids in the early diagnosis of the disease. In this study, metabolic profiles from the pancreas of Wistar rats were examined using high-resolution proton magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the metabolite indicator(s) of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). The animals were divided into three groups: those with histologically confirmed ANP (n=7), those with CP (n=6) and a control group (n=9). The processed NMR spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to extract characteristic metabolites of ANP and CP. Levels of leucine, ...
The counteranion exchange of quaternary 1,2,3-triazolium salts was examined using a simple method that permitted halide ions to be swap for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A¯ form). The method was applied to 1,2,3-triazolium-based ionic liquids and the iodideto- anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Additionally, an anion exchange resin (N3¯ form) was used to obtain the benzyl azide from benzyl halide under mild reaction. Likewise, following a similar protocol, bis(azidomethyl)arenes were also synthesized in excellent yields. The results of a proton NMR spectroscopic study of simple azolium-based ion pairs are discussed, with attention focused on the significance of the charged-assisted ( ...
Members of the Department carry out research in several areas of experimental and theoretical physics, including atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, physical oceanography, theoretical geophysics and applied nuclear physics. In atomic and molecular physics, there are experimental programs in collision-induced infrared absorption spectroscopy, electron emission spectroscopy of simple molecules, molecular ions and free radicals, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, and theoretical work on atomic and molecular collisions. The work in condensed matter physics includes experimental programs in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance on systems of biophysical interest, Raman spectroscopy of lipid bilayers and membranes, studies of phase transitions using Brillouin and ...
Conversion of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus cytochrome c(552) into a b-type cytochrome by mutagenesis of both heme-binding cysteines to alanines significantly reduces the stability of the protein (Tomlinson, E. J., and Ferguson, S. J. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 5156-5160). To understand the effects of this change on the structure and dynamics of the protein, hetero-nuclear (15)N-edited NMR techniques have been used to characterize this b-type variant. The backbone (15)N, (1)H(N), and (1)H(alpha), and (1)H(beta) resonances of the protein have been assigned. Analysis of (3)J(HN)alpha coupling constants, nuclear Overhauser enhancement intensities, and chemical shift index data demonstrates that the four alpha-helices present in the wild-type protein are retained in the b-type variant. Comparison of the chemical shifts for the b-type and wild-type proteins indicates that the tertiary structures of the two proteins are closely similar. Some subtle differences are, however, observed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Frequency-selective non-linear blending for the computed tomography diagnosis of acute gangrenous cholecystitis. T2 - Pilot retrospective evaluation. AU - Schwarz, R.. AU - Bongers, N. M.. AU - Hinterleitner, C.. AU - Ditt, H.. AU - Nikolaou, K.. AU - Fritz, Jan. AU - Bösmüller, H.. AU - Horger, M.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of frequency-selective non-linear blending and conventional linear blending contrast-enhanced CT for the diagnosis of acute (AC) and gangrenous (GC) cholecystitis. Materials and methods: Following local ethics committee approval for retrospective data analysis, a database search derived 39 patients (26 men, mean age 67.8 ± 14.6 years) with clinical signs of acute cholecystitis, contrast enhanced CT (CECT) evaluation, cholecystectomy, and pathological examination of the resected specimen. The interval between CECT and surgery was 4.7 ± 4.1 days. Pathological gross examination was used to categorize ...
Bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) represent a wide morphologic and functional spectrum. In coarctation of the aorta, BAVs are common, but the proportion of BAV subtypes and their relation to aortic dimensions and development of late valve dysfunction are unknown. Sixty-two cardiovascular magnetic resonance investigations of patients with coarctation of the aorta were reviewed with respect to aortic valve morphology, aortic valve function, and aortic dimensions. BAVs were identified in 45 patients (72.6 %), of which 13 (20.9 %) were type-0 (two commissures), 28 (45.1 %) type-1 (three commissures but fusion of one commissure with a raphe) and 4 (6.5 %) valves were bicuspid but not possible to classify further. Patients with BAVs type-0 had larger dimensions in their sinus of Valsalva (35.5 ± 6.8 vs. 29.7 ± 2.7 mm, p = 0.002), ascending aorta (33.1 ± 6.2 vs. 26.0 ± 4.3 mm, p = 0.005) and sino-tubular junction (29.3 ± 7.4 vs. 24.2 ± 3.5 mm, p = 0.040) compared with tricuspid aortic valves (TAVs). ...
Evidence for the presence of the enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Helicobacter pylori was obtained using 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bacterial lysates generated 6-phosphogluconate and NADH or NADPH in incubations with glucose-6-phosphate and NAD+ or NADP+, indicating the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. Formation of pyruvate was observed in time courses of incubations of bacterial lysates with 6-phosphogluconate as the only substrate, suggesting the presence of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase activities. The existence of these enzymes and of triose phosphate isomerase was confirmed by observing the appearance of dihydroxyacetone phosphate in time courses of bacterial lysates incubated with 6-phosphogluconate. Aldolase activity was measured by the production of pyruvate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate in lysates incubated with ...
Multiwall carbon nanotubes are produced by decomposition of acetylene at 600 degreesC on metal catalysts supported on NaY zeolite. The support and the metal are eliminated by dissolving them in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF). Two methods were used to eliminate the pyrolitic carbon: oxidation in air at 500 degreesC and oxidation by potassium permanganate in acidic solution at 70 degreesC. The progress and efficacy of the purification methods are verified by TEM. The properties of the purified multiwalled carbon nanotubes are probed using C-13 and Xe-129 NMR spectroscopy under continuous-flow optical-pumping conditions. Xenon is shown to penetrate the interior of the nanotubes. A distribution of inner tube diameters gives rise to chemical shift dispersion. When the temperature is lowered, an increasing fraction of xenon resides inside the nanotubes and is not capable of exchanging with xenon in the interparticle space. In the case of the permanganate-oxidized sample, rapid ...
article{09402644-cc4f-47e1-ae1f-eac67d1fdc7b, abstract = {Self-diffusion in polymer solutions studied with pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG NMR) is typically based either on a single self-diffusion coefficient, or a log-normal distribution of self-diffusion coefficients, or in some cases mixtures of these. Experimental data on polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions and simulations were used to compare a model based on a gamma distribution of self-diffusion coefficients to more established models such as the single exponential, the stretched exponential, and the log-normal distribution model with regard to performance and consistency. Even though the gamma distribution is very similar to the log-normal distribution, its NMR signal attenuation can be written in a closed form and therefore opens up for increased computational speed. Estimates of the mean self-diffusion coefficient, the spread, and the polydispersity index that were obtained using the gamma model were in ...
t tree species remains largely unknown. This study involved assessing changes in soil phosphorus (P) over a 10 year period following the afforestation of grazed pasture with 3 contrasting tree species (Pinus radiata, Cupressus macrocarpa, Eucalyptus nitens) in a replicated field trial at Orton Bradley Park, New Zealand. A combination of techniques (sequential fractionation, alkaline phosphatase hydrolysable P, solution ³¹P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) was used to quantify changes in the nature and bioavailability of soil P. Results revealed that the establishment and growth of trees caused a significant decrease in soil organic P within 10 years, indicating net organic P mineralisation. Surprisingly this trend was similar under all three tree species, which suggested similar soil P acquisition despite differences in the type of mycorrhizae associated with each species: P. radiata is ectomycorrhizal, C. macrocarpa is arbuscular mycorrhizal, and E. ...
By introducing an additional H-bond in the alpha(1)beta(2) subunit interface or altering the charge properties of the amino acid residues in the alpha(1)beta(1) subunit interface of the hemoglobin molecule, we have designed and expressed recombinant hemoglobins (rHbs) with low oxygen affinity and high cooperativity. Oxygen-binding measurements of these rHbs under various experimental conditions show interesting properties in response to pH (Bohr effect) and allosteric effectors. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that these rHbs can switch from the oxy (or CO) quaternary structure (R) to the deoxy quaternary structure (T) without changing their ligation states upon addition of an allosteric effector, inositol hexaphosphate, and/or reduction of the ambient temperature. These results indicate that if we can provide extra stability to the T state of the hemoglobin molecule without perturbing its R state, we can produce hemoglobins with low oxygen affinity and high cooperativity. ...
Instrumental analysis is a field of analytical chemistry that investigates analytes using scientific instruments. Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation. Spectroscopy consists of many different applications such as atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, photoemission spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Circular dichroism spectroscopy, and so on. Mass ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation and characterization of cellulose derivatives by regioseleclive esterification of biodegradable cyclic esters. AU - Mayumi, Ayaka. AU - Kttaoka, Takuya. AU - Wariishi, Hiroyuki. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - New cellulose derivatives were prepared by the regioselective derivatization of cellulose with L-lactide (LA) and ε-caprolactone (CL) in a lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide solvent system, and investigated for their characteristics by spectroscopic analyses, calorimetry, solvent solubility/enzymatic degradability tests. Fourier transform Raman spectra of cellulose derivatives confirmed that the LA and CL molecules were covalently introduced into cellulose at the hydroxyl groups through the ring-opening esterification catalyzed by LiCl. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that the ring-opened LA and CL were regioselectively combined with cellulose C6-OH. Moreover, LA and CL portions were partially grafted on the cellulose ...
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common disorder afflicting 2% to 3% of the general population and is the most common cause of severe nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) requiring surgery in the U.S. (1). Mitral valve prolapse is defined by echocardiography as a condition in which segment(s) of 1 or both mitral leaflets extend above the plane of the mitral annulus in the parasternal long-axis view during ventricular systole by at least 2 mm (2,3).. Mitral valve prolapse has been extensively studied by echocardiography, including two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (2-7). Transthoracic echocardiography remains the diagnostic modality of choice for MVP because of its ease of use and unsurpassed temporal resolution. However, TTE imaging is highly dependent on patient image windows and the MR assessment is limited by its semiquantitative nature. Three-dimensional TTE provides excellent visualization of the ...
Background: In V. cholerae, the biogenesis of capsule polysaccharide is poorly understood. The elucidation of capsule structure and biogenesis is critical to understanding the evolution of surface polysaccharide and the internal relationship between the capsule and LPS in this species. V. cholerae serogroup O31 NRT36S, a human pathogen that produces a heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), is encapsulated. Here, we report the covalent structure and studies of the biogenesis of the capsule in V. cholerae NRT36S. Results: The structure of the capsular (CPS) polysaccharide was determined by high resolution NMR spectroscopy and shown to be a complex structure with four residues in the repeating subunit. The gene cluster of capsule biogenesis was identified by transposon mutagenesis combined with whole genome sequencing data (GenBank accession DQ915177). The capsule gene cluster shared the same genetic locus as that of the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biogenesis gene cluster. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The capsule polysaccharide structure and biogenesis for non-O1 Vibrio cholerae NRT36S. T2 - Genes are embedded in the LPS region. AU - Chen, Yuansha. AU - Bystricky, Peter. AU - Adeyeye, Jacob. AU - Panigrahi, Pinaki. AU - Ali, Afsar. AU - Johnson, Judith A.. AU - Bush, C. A.. AU - Morris, J. G.. AU - Stine, O. C.. PY - 2007/4/13. Y1 - 2007/4/13. N2 - Background. In V. cholerae, the biogenesis of capsule polysaccharide is poorly understood. The elucidation of capsule structure and biogenesis is critical to understanding the evolution of surface polysaccharide and the internal relationship between the capsule and LPS in this species. V. cholerae serogroup O31 NRT36S, a human pathogen that produces a heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), is encapsulated. Here, we report the covalent structure and studies of the biogenesis of the capsule in V. cholerae NRT36S. Results. The structure of the capsular (CPS) polysaccharide was determined by high resolution NMR ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain creatine (Cr) deficiencies (BCr-d) are rare disorders of creatine biosynthesis and transport. We performed consecutive measures of total Cr (tCr) and of its phosphorylated fraction, phosphocreatine (PCr), in the brains of children affected by Cr synthesis defects during a long period of therapy. The aim was to identify the optimal treatment strategy for these disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two patients with guanidinoacetate methyltransferase defect (GAMT-d) were treated with different amounts of Cr and with diet restrictions aimed at reducing endogenous guanidinoacetate (GAA) synthesis. Three patients with arginine:glycine amidinotransferase defect (AGAT-d) were treated with different Cr intakes. The patients treatments were monitored by means of (1)H- and (31)P-MR spectroscopy. RESULTS: Cr and PCr replenishment was lower in GAMT-d than in AGAT-d even when GAMT-d therapy was carried out with a very high Cr intake. Cr and especially PCr ...
This thesis focuses on the study of hydrogen dynamic behavior in a series of proton sponge cations as well as in bis(silyl)hydride organometallic complexes. To understand the dynamic behavior, a new tool, i.e. the three-dimensional vibrational Schrödinger equation has been derived and solved. Three different vibrational patterns for hydrogen motion have been revealed. The classification of proton sponges and bis(silyl)hydride complexes into those with localized and delocalized hydrogen behavior has been proposed. For the organometallic complexes the influence of the vibrational motion of the hydrogen on J(Si−H) spin−spin coupling constants has been studied. Also this thesis presents a study of [Cp*Co(SiR3)2(H)2] cobalt complexes and their iridium analogues to detect possible Si···H interactions. Based on molecular geometries, Wiberg bond indices, and J(Si-H) spin-spin coupling constants, at least two residual Si···H interactions have been detected in cobalt complexes while there are ...
Morinda ellipfica or locally known as "mengkudu kecil" is a medicinal plant commonly used by the Malays i n Peninsular Malaysia. The plant parts are used in various ways to treat many health problems and ailments. Literature search did not reveal any reports on its chemical constituents or biological activity. So, it is believed tl1at this is the first study on the chemical constituents and biological activity of Morinda ellipfica. Phytochemical studies on roots of this plant have resulted in the isolation of a new anthraquinone, 2-formyl-1-hydroxyanthraquinone, and ten known anthraquinones, 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone, nordamnacanthal, damnacanthal, lucidin-w-methylether, rubiadin, soranjidiol, morindone, rubiadin-1-methylether, morindone-5-methyl ether and a lizarin-1-methylether. The structures of the anthraquinones were established based on spectral studies using ultravioletvisible spectroscopy, infrared ...
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare disease of unclear etiology. There is no single test diagnostic of primary angiitis of the central nervous system. We report an unusual pattern on brain magnetic resonance imaging that might be specific for primary angiitis of the central nervous system. A 47-year-old Caucasian man developed progressive bilateral hand tremor, difficulty walking, cognitive slowing and headache. A physical examination showed bilateral hand tremor with dysmetria, hyperreflexia and abnormal gait. Magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed bilateral, symmetrical, increased intensity on T2-weighted images concurrent with linear contrast enhancement in a radial distribution throughout his white matter, sparing subcortical regions in his centrum semiovale, corona radiata, basal ganglia and brainstem. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated elevated choline and decreased N-acetyl ...
Catalysts based on the first-row (3d) transition metals are commonly seen in chemical and biological reactions. To understand the role of the transition metal in the catalyst, the element specific technique core level spectroscopy is used to probe the electronic structure and geometric properties centered around the metal site. Different types of X-ray spectra can be applied to probe the metal 3d character orbitals involved in reactions, which make it possible to identify and characterize the reactive sites of samples in different forms. A detailed interpretation and understanding of the different X-ray spectra requires a unified method which can be used to model different types of X-ray spectra, e.g., soft and hard X-rays. In this thesis, theoretical investigations of the electronic structures of 3d transition metal complexes through X-ray spectroscopy are presented. The restricted active space method (RAS) is used to successfully reproduce ...
Measurement of intestinal permeability (IP) is often used in the examination of inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders. IP can be assessed by measurement of urinary recovery of ingested non-metabolizable lactulose (L) and mannitol (M). The present study aimed to examine how measurements of IP can be integrated in a NMR-based metabolomics approach for a simultaneous quantification of L/M ratio and biomarker exploration. For this purpose, plasma and urine samples were collected from five-day-old preterm piglets (n = 20) with gastrointestinal disorders (subjected to intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/fetus)) after they had been administrated a 5% lactulose and 5% mannitol solution (15 mL/kg). The collected plasma and urine samples were analyzed by 1H NMR-based metabolomics. Urine L/M ratio measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy showed high correlation with the standard measurement of the urinary recoveries by enzymatic assays (r = 0.93, p < 0.05). Partial least squares ...
Some types of anaesthetics cause an increase in the level of lactate production in unconscious childrens brains, causing delirium.. Two commonly used anaesthetics produce different metabolic patterns in the brains of children, according to a study from Anesthesiology. Researchers from Stony Brook University, New York, found the inhalant gas anaesthetic sevoflurane produced more lactate, a marker for enhanced or changed brain metabolism, compared to the intravenous anaesthetic propofol.. While past paediatric literature has reported that sevoflurane may be associated with emergence delirium, a state of consciousness in which a child is inconsolable, irritable or uncooperative, the study explored the potential association between emergence delirium and specific brain metabolites like lactate.. Applied proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) was used to investigate the metabolic consequences of general anaesthesia in the brains of rodents. Findings ...
Using in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy we show that CO can act as an alkylating reagent and react with benzene to produce toluene over a Zn/H-ZSM-5 zeolite. In the alkylation reaction, CO provides the methyl group of toluene via a methoxy intermediate.
Conformational intermediates of the human prion protein huPrPC were characterized by a combination of hydrostatic pressure (up to 200 MPa) with two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. All pressure effects showed to be reversible and there is virtually no difference in the overall pressure response between the folded core of the N-terminal truncated huPrPC(121-230) and the full-length huPrPC(23-230). The only significant differences in the pressure response of full-length and truncated PrP suggest that E168, H187, T192, E207, E211 and Y226 are involved in a transient interaction with the unfolded N-terminus. High-pressure NMR spectroscopy indicates that the folded core of the human prion protein occurs in two structural states N1and N2 in solution associated with rather small differences in free enthalpies (3.0 kJ/mol). At atmospheric pressure approximately 29% of the protein are already in the pressure favored conformation N2. There is a second ...
Figure 1. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids isolated from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae).. Experimental. General. UV spectra were obtained in CH3OH on an Agilent HP 8453 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. IR spectra were acquired in KBr pellets on a BIORAD FTS-3500 GX spectrophotometer. Optical rotations were measured in CHCl3 or MeOH solutions at room temperature on a Rudolph Research Autopol III automatic polarimeter. Circular dichroism analyses were measured in MeOH on a JASCO J-720 spectropolarimeter. 1D and 2D NMR experiments were acquired in CDCl3, CDCl3 + drops of CD3OD, or CD3OD at 293 K on a Bruker AVANCE 400 NMR spectrometer operating at 9.4 T, observing 1H and 13C at 400 and 100 MHz, respectively. The spectrometer was equipped with a 5 mm multinuclear direct detection probe with z-gradient. One-bond (HSQC) and long-range (HMBC) 1H-13C NMR correlation experiments were optimized for average coupling constants 1J(C,H) and LRJ(C,H) of 140 and 8 Hz, respectively. All ...
FIG. 4. Proton NMR spectrum (500 MHz) of the major phenanthrene metabolite formed from phenanthrene by C. elegans, shown with resonance assignments. - Identification of a novel metabolite in phenanthrene metabolism by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans.
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The structure of the O-antigen polysaccharide (PS) from the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 180/C3 has been determined. Sugar and methylation analysis together with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were the main methods used. The PS is composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the following structure:→2)-β-d-Quip3NAc-(1→3)-β-d-Ribf-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→Analysis of NMR data indicates that the presented sequence of sugar residues also represents the biological repeating unit of the O-chain. The structure is closely related to that of O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O5 and partially to that of E. coli O65. The difference between the O-antigen from the 180/C3 strain and that of E. coli O5 is the linkage to the d-Quip3NAc residue, which in the latter strain is 4-O-substituted. The E. coli O65 O-antigen contains as part of its linear pentasaccharide repeating unit a similar structural element, namely ...
The N-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in CHO cells were quantitatively released with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F, separated from the remaining O-glycoprotein by gel-permeation chromatography, and subsequently fractionated via FPLC on Mono Q, HPLC on Lichrosorb-NH2 and high-pH anion-exchange chromatography on CarboPac PA1. The purified sialylated oligosaccharides were ... read more analyzed by one-dimensional and two-dimensional 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. When necessary, oligosaccharides were treated with endo-beta-galactosidase (and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase) followed by 1H-NMR analysis of the incubation products, to obtain additional structural information. Di-, tri-, tri- and tetraantennary, N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides occur which can be completely (major) or partially (minor) sialylated. Three different types of alpha2-3-linked sialic acids are present, namely, N-acetylneuraminic ...
MR spectroscopy-based brain metabolite profiling in propionic acidaemia: metabolic changes in the basal ganglia during acute decompensation and effect of liver transplantation : Propionic acidaemia (PA) results from deficiency of Propionyl CoA carboxylase, the commonest form presenting in the neonatal period. Despite best current management, PA is associated with severe neurological sequelae, in particular movement disorders resulting from basal ganglia infarction, although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The role of liver transplantation remains
TY - JOUR. T1 - Liver perfusion changes occurring during pancreatic islet engraftment. T2 - A dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance study. AU - Esposito, A.. AU - Palmisano, A.. AU - Maffi, P.. AU - Malosio, M. L.. AU - Nano, R.. AU - Canu, T.. AU - De Cobelli, F.. AU - Piemonti, L.. AU - Ironi, G.. AU - Secchi, A.. AU - Del Maschio, A.. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate liver microvascular adaptation following the intraportal infusion of pancreatic islets (pancreatic islet transplantation [islet-tx]) in diabetic patients using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). DCE-MRI was performed before and 7 days after islet-tx in six diabetic patients. Initial area under curve (AUC60) and volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) were assessed as markers of liver perfusion. Clinical and metabolic monthly follow-up was performed in all patients, considering fasting C-peptide and β-score as main indices of graft ...
A 15-year-old girl presented with recurrent encephalopathic episodes, epilepsy, myopathy and chronic lactic acidosis. A muscle biopsy revealed the presence of ragged red fibres and mitochondria with paracrystalline inclusions. Biochemical studies on freshly isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria demonstrated a deficiency of NADH-CoQ reductase activity. Investigation of her gastrocnemius muscle at rest by phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance displayed a reduced phosphocreatine concentration with elevated levels of inorganic phosphate and ADP. Abnormalities were also apparent in her brain spectrum. It is therefore possible that the mitochondrial defect present in skeletal muscle is also being expressed in the brain.
The aim of this thesis was to investigate carbon based molecular materials at first principles levels. Special attention has been paid to simulations of X-ray spectroscopies, including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), X-ray photoelectron, and X-ray emission spectroscopy, which can provide detailed information about core, occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals of the systems under investigation. Theoretical calculations have helped to assign fine spectral structures in high resolution NEXAFS spectra of five azabenzenes (pyridine, pyrazine, pyrimidine, pyridazine and s-triazine), and to identify different local chemical environments among them. With the help of NEXAFS, the characters of important chemical bonds that might be responsible for the unique magnetic properties of the tetracyanoethylene compound has been revealed. Calculations have demonstrated that X-ray spectroscopies are powerful tools for isomer identification and structure determination of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetic and stoichiometric assessment of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. AU - McPhail, D B AU - Hartley, R C AU - Gardner, P T AU - Duthie, G G. PY - 2003/3/12. Y1 - 2003/3/12. N2 - dThere is current interest in the use of naturally occurring flavonoids as antioxidants for the preservation of foods and the prevention of diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancers. To establish the molecular characteristics required for maximum antioxidant activity, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been used to determine the stoichiometry and kinetics of the hydrogen-donating ability of 15 flavonoids and D-alpha-tocopherol to galvinoxyl, a resonance-stabilized, sterically protected aryloxyl radical. The second-order reaction rates, which will be governed by O-H bond dissociation energies, were myricetin , morin , quercetin , ...
Iron porphyrins with the intermediate spin S = 3/2 or admixed with S = 5/2 or 1/2 are models for a number of heme protein systems, including cytochromes c. The (57)Fe Mossbauer quadrupole splittings and (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts have been found to be useful probes of their electronic states. We present the results of the first successful quantum chemical calculations of the Mossbauer and NMR properties in various S = 3/2 iron porphyrin complexes, covering four-, five-, and six-coordinate states and three commonly seen porphyrin conformations: planar, ruffled, and saddled. Several interesting correlations among these useful experimental spectroscopic probes and geometric and electronic properties were discovered. These results should facilitate future investigations of related heme proteins and model systems.
Acknowledgements. Preface.. 1 Introduction.. 1.1 Past, Present and Future.. 1.2 About this Book.. Bibliography.. 2 Case Studies.. 2.1 Introduction.. 2.2 Datasets, Matrices and Vectors.. 2.3 Case Study 1: Forensic Analysis of Banknotes.. 2.4 Case Study 2: Near Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Food.. 2.5 Case Study 3: Thermal Analysis of Polymers.. 2.6 Case Study 4: Environmental Pollution using Headspace Mass Spectrometry.. 2.7 Case Study 5: Human Sweat Analysed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.. 2.8 Case Study 6: Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of Pharmaceutical Tablets.. 2.9 Case Study 7: Atomic Spectroscopy for the Study of Hypertension.. 2.10 Case Study 8: Metabolic Profiling of Mouse Urine by Gas Chromatography of Urine Extracts.. 2.11 Case Study 9: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Salival Analysis of the Effect of Mouthwash.. 2.12 Case Study 10: Simulations.. 2.13 Case Study ...
In order to determine the relation between depression of myocardial function and the myocardial high energy phosphate stores during acute hypoxia, a technique for serial evaluation of these stores was developed. Acute hypoxia was induced in 18 anesthetized dogs and serial determinations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) were made while myocardial function was continuously measured. Myocardial concentrations of ATP were maintained even in the presence of severe hypoxia and myocardial failure. There was a small depression of the average myocardial CP concentration during early heart failure. However, in more than one-third of the dogs there was no significant depression of CP concentration at this time. It is concluded that hypoxic depression of myocardial function is not initiated by a decrease in the total myocardial high energy phosphate stores. The possibility could not be excluded that a particular fraction of the high energy phosphate store is decreased when ...
West Virginia University is hosting the international conference on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging of Biological Systems (EPR-2017) July 16-22, 2017, at Lakeview Resort and Conference Center, Morgantown, W.Va.. The conference has significant representation, on the national and international level, with 120 participants from 22 states and 12 countries, including leading scientists in the field. The program will include traditional plenary lectures, invited speakers, selected oral presentations, and poster sessions. Additionally, this years conference will feature a variety of educational workshops led by the Mountaineer EPR School, plus a Young Scientist Award ceremony.. "Having this conference in Morgantown strengthens the recognition of scientific effort of West Virginia scientists at WVU and NIOSH, in the field of functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as builds collaborative research efforts," said Valery ...
BACKGROUND: The 2S albumin Ber e 1 is the major allergen in Brazil nuts. Previous findings indicated that the protein alone does not cause an allergenic response in mice, but the addition of components from a Brazil nut lipid fraction were required. Structural details of Ber e 1 may contribute to the understanding of the allergenic properties of the protein and its potential interaction partners. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The solution structure of recombinant Ber e 1 was solved using NMR spectroscopy and measurements of the protein back bone dynamics at a residue-specific level were extracted using (15)N-spin relaxation. A hydrophobic cavity was identified in the structure of Ber e 1. Using the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement property of Cu(2+) in conjunction with NMR, it was shown that Ber e 1 is able to specifically interact with the divalent copper ion and the binding site was modeled into the structure. The IgE binding region as well as the copper binding site ...
The cancer-cell-cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the acetone extracts of two cultured marine-derived Streptomyces strains belonging to the MAR4 group yielded six new napyradiomycins, compounds A-F (1-6), together with three known compounds, napyradiomycins B2-B4 (7-9). Napyradiomycins 1-4 are new members of the napyradiomycin C-type meroterpenoids, which possess a linear monoterpene bridge between C-7 and C-10a. Compound 4 has an additional tetrahydropyran ring fused to the phenol moiety. Compounds 5-9 are related to the napyradiomycin B-type meroterpenoids. The structures of all new compounds were assigned by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR, MS, and other spectroscopic data. The relative configurations were assigned based upon interpretation of ROESY 2D NMR experiments. The cytotoxicity of 1-9 against the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116 and their antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are presented.. ...
Background/Purpose Acyclic retinoid (ACR) is a promising chemopreventive agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that selectively inhibits the growth of HCC cells (JHH7) but not normal hepatic cells (Hc). To better understand the molecular basis of the selective anti-cancer effect of ACR, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based and capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS)-based metabolome analyses in JHH7 and Hc cells after treatment with ACR. Methodology/Principal Findings NMR-based metabolomics revealed a distinct metabolomic profile of JHH7 cells at 18 h after ACR treatment but not at 4 h after ACR treatment. CE-TOFMS analysis identified 88 principal metabolites in JHH7 and Hc cells after 24 h of treatment with ethanol (EtOH) or ACR. The abundance of 71 of these metabolites was significantly different between EtOH-treated control JHH7 and Hc cells, and 49 of these metabolites were significantly down-regulated in the ACR-treated JHH7 cells ...
Our department main research field is Nuclear magnetic resonance, a phenomenon whose principal application is Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Over the last thirty years, this method has established itself as one of the highest performance medical imaging methods. More precisely, we are studying the behaviour of nuclear magnetic relaxation of water protons in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles.. Indeed, the contrast of MRI images is strongly influenced by the presence of magnetic particles. Some particles are endogenous, i.e. naturally present in the human body, whereas others are exogenic, i.e. injected into patients to obtain a better contrast. Let us mention ferritin and hemosiderin, which are iron storage proteins, as examples of endogenous magnetic particles, whereas magnetite nanoparticles are used as exogenic contrast agents.. For more information, consult the research page. ...
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Purpose: : Peripherin-2 is a tetraspannin transmembrane protein, implicated in retinitis pigmentosa and localized in retinal rod outer segment disk membranes, whose complete 3-dimensional structure is the goal of this nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study. Methods: : The 63-residue C-terminal extramembraneous region of peripherin (PERCTER) is crucial to peripherin-mediated fusion.The first target of our structural analysis is the PERCTER, expressed and labeled with 15N, and subjected to structural determination by solution NMR. For this analysis, 3-dimensional HSQC-NOESY and HSQC-TOCSY experiments were utilized, along with 2-dimensional 1H NOESY and TOCSY experiments at various mixing times. This analysis is followed by a similar study of the PERCTER in the presence of a membrane-mimetic, DPC micelles. Results: : The solution structure of the PERCTER that emerges from the NMR data contains considerable alpha-helix at the amino terminus (near the membrane) and is disordered at the ...
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We have in our lab a Finnegan 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer with GC-combustion interface, a Finnegan Delta Plus IRMS with dual inlet and continuous flow GC interfaces, two standalone HP 6890 GCs, and a Pfeiffer quadrupole mass spectrometer. There is also an Ionicon high resolution proton transfer time of flight mass spectrometer (HR-PTRTOFMS) (shared with D. Knopf).. We have two cryogenic vacuum extraction lines for the separation and quantification of specific trace gases, such as isoprene, methanol, carbon monoxide and methane. We have developed our own preconcentration systems for the analysis of selective trace species via continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); this allows us to quantify the isotopic composition of gases from ice core samples (e.g., Mak and Yang, 1998; Wang and Mak, 2010; Wang et al., 2010). We are currently funded to analyze the stable isotopic composition of CO from Antarctic Ice cores (e.g., SPICE), as well as Greenland ice.. We are also involved in ...
BACKGROUND: Both nutritional and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the effects of fructose, a potent stimulator of hepatic de novo lipogenesis, on intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCLs) and insulin sensitivity in healthy offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes (OffT2D)--a subgroup of individuals prone to metabolic disorders. DESIGN: Sixteen male OffT2D and 8 control subjects were studied in a crossover design after either a 7-d isocaloric diet or a hypercaloric high-fructose diet (3.5 g x kg FFM(-1) x d(-1), +35% energy intake). Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity were assessed with a 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1)), together with 6,6-[2H2]glucose. IHCLs and intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) were measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS: The OffT2D group had significantly (P , 0.05) higher ...
Local dynamics of polyisoprene in dilute solution with toluene are examined through C-13 NMR relaxation measurements. The variations of T1 and NOE with Larmor frequency are analyzed over a wide temperature range, including both the extreme narrowing region and the T1 minima. A frequency-temperature superposition of the data demonstrates that the distribution of motional time constants does not change shape with temperature and has a temperature and viscosity dependence consistent with that in nine other solvents. The data are analyzed in terms of eight motional models. Only those models that invoke motion on two well-separated time scales are successful. The slower, conformational motions correspond to activated torsional dynamics. The faster motions are librations within potential energy wells. Local dynamics in toluene are believed to exemplify polyisoprene dynamics in other solvents. Some similarities to local dynamics in bulk polymers are also expected.. ...
0004] During leg exercise the aortic-to-peripheral pressure transfer function may change. Therefore, methods for determining aortic blood pressure which do not take such change into account may be inaccurate. In principle, during exercise, two major changes occur in the hemodynamic status of a subject: both heart rate and mean blood pressure increase. The pressure transfer function used to describe waveform changes from aortic path to a periphery, expressed in the frequency domain, comprises a characteristic resonance peak frequency. Heart rate may have no direct influence on pressure transfer function, whereas an increase in mean blood pressure may change vascular diameter according to the compliance curve of the vessel, coupled with an increase in elastic modulus. This may have a direct effect on travel time over the arteries and on the transfer function, whereby travel time may be reduced and the resonance peak of the pressure transfer function may be shifted to higher ...
3-aminopropyl(cyclohexylmethyl)phosphinic acid 123691-14-5 NMR spectrum, 3-aminopropyl(cyclohexylmethyl)phosphinic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, 3-aminopropyl(cyclohexylmethyl)phosphinic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.

10 Semiconductors - conocimientos.com.ve: Organic semiconductor10 Semiconductors - conocimientos.com.ve: Organic semiconductor

Chemical composition and structure of organic semiconductors can be characterized by Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Secondary Ion mass ... and electron spin resonance studies on polypyrrole. In later papers, they achieved resistivities as low as 0.03 Ω cm,[3][4] on ... Spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors (Hopping ... ionisation potential can be characterized by probing the electronic band structure with Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy ...
more infohttp://conocimientossemiconductors.blogspot.com/2010/03/organic-semiconductor.html

lecture25 2011 - 04Mar2011 Chemistry 21b - Spectroscopy Lecture 25 - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Along with...lecture25 2011 - 04Mar2011 Chemistry 21b - Spectroscopy Lecture 25 - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Along with...

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Along with infrared spectroscopy, nuclear ... Proton, Infrared Spectroscopy, Mole, Magnetic Field, Nuclear magnetic resonance, NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Along with infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the most ... While infrared spectroscopy provides information about the functional groups that are present in a molecule, NMR yields the ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/6668595/lecture25-2011/

Supplemental material for Simultaneous In Situ Monitoring of Trimethoxysilane Hydrolysis Reactions Using Raman, Infrared, and...Supplemental material for Simultaneous In Situ Monitoring of Trimethoxysilane Hydrolysis Reactions Using Raman, Infrared, and...

... and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Aided by Chemometrics and Ab Initio Calculations ... and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Aided by Chemometrics and Ab Initio Calculations. 2018-05-14T12:00:00Z (GMT) ... and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy Aided by Chemometrics and Ab Initio Calculations by Xiaoyun Chen, Donald ... p,Supplemental material for Simultaneous In Situ Monitoring of Trimethoxysilane Hydrolysis Reactions Using Raman, Infrared, ...
more infohttps://figshare.com/articles/Supplemental_material_for_Simultaneous_In_Situ_Monitoring_of_Trimethoxysilane_Hydrolysis_Reactions_Using_Raman_Infrared_and_Nuclear_Magnetic_Resonance_NMR_Spectroscopy_Aided_by_Chemometrics_and_Ab_Initio_Calculations/6269486

Tumour oxygen dynamics measured simultaneously by near-infrared spectroscopy and <sup>19</sup>F magnetic resonance imaging...Tumour oxygen dynamics measured simultaneously by near-infrared spectroscopy and <sup>19</sup>F magnetic resonance imaging...

Simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to investigate the correlation ... abstract = "Simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to investigate the ... N2 - Simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to investigate the ... AB - Simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to investigate the ...
more infohttps://asu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/tumour-oxygen-dynamics-measured-simultaneously-by-near-infrared-s

KAKEN - Research Projects | Isolation and Characterization of Connection, Muscle Elastic Protein (KAKENHI-PROJECT-01480025)KAKEN - Research Projects | Isolation and Characterization of Connection, Muscle Elastic Protein (KAKENHI-PROJECT-01480025)

Structural properties of connectin studied by ultra violet resonance Raman spectroscopy and infrared dicbroism FEBS Letters. ... Structural properties of connection studied by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy and infrared dichroism FEBS Lett. 295 ... Structural properties of Connectin studied by ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy and infrared dichroism FEBS Letters. ... Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra of beta-connection also indicated the abundance of beta sheet. Infrared dichroism spectra ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-01480025/

Xpert search results for Why study the Didache?staXpert search results for Why study the Didache?sta

Topics include mass spectrometry; ultraviolet, chiroptical, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ... Chem 203: Organic Spectroscopy. Graduate course in organic spectroscopy. Modern methods used in structure determination of ...
more infohttps://www.nottingham.ac.uk/xpert/scoreresults.php?keywords=Why%20study%20the%20Didache?sta&start=10640&end=10660

Courses | Chemistry and Biochemistry | Bates CollegeCourses | Chemistry and Biochemistry | Bates College

Theoretical and experimental aspects of several techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and UV- ... Topics include ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and atomic spectroscopy; and potentiometric and voltametric methods of analysis ... Analytical Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry.. Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods employed in chemical analysis are ... In this course the utilization of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectral data for structural analysis is developed ...
more infohttps://www.bates.edu/chemistry-biochemistry/academics/courses/

Dr. Schmidts Current Research Projects,  Washburn UniversityDr. Schmidt's Current Research Projects, Washburn University

... as well as the analysis of simple cobalt complexes by NMR spectroscopy. ... nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, etc.), record data properly in lab notebooks, and finally write a research ... In reality, the NMR analysis showed eight 1H resonances and eleven 13C resonances. In [Co(bipy)2CO3]+, the two bipy ligands are ... A student will be assigned one or two complexes to synthesize, purify, characterize {Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible ...
more infohttps://washburn.edu/cas/chemistry/sschmidt/Research/Research_index.html

University of Calgary : Chemistry CHEM 
		University of Calgary : Chemistry CHEM

Spectroscopy (nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, ultra-violet/visible, and mass spectrometric techniques). Substitution and ... Interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, vibrational and mass spectra. Fundamental ... The instrumentation, theory and practical aspects of spectroscopy (e.g. UV/vis, MS, IR, 1H and 13C NMR including 2D-techniques ... Vibrational, electronic and magnetic resonance spectra. Reaction kinetics and transport properties in the gas phase and in ...
more infohttps://www.ucalgary.ca/pubs/calendar/current/chemistry.html

Contribution of humic substances from different composts to the synthesis of humin in a tropical soilContribution of humic substances from different composts to the synthesis of humin in a tropical soil

INBAR, Y.; CHEN, Y. & HADAR, Y. Solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy of composted organic ... KÖGEL-KNABNER, I. 13C e 15N NMR spectroscopy as a tool in soil organic matter studies. Geoderma, 80:243-270, 1997. [ Links ]. ... USSIRI, D.A.N. & JOHNSON, C.E. Characterization of organic matter in a northern hardwood forest soil by 13C NMR spectroscopy ... GRESSEL, N.; McGRATH, A.E.; McCOLL, J.G. & POWERS, R.F. Spectroscopy of aqueous extracts of forest litter. I: Suitability of ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-06832010000400004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

head & shoulders restoring shine 2in1 pyrithione zinc dandruff shampoo + conditioner | Head and Shoulders 2in1head & shoulders restoring shine 2in1 pyrithione zinc dandruff shampoo + conditioner | Head and Shoulders 2in1

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy analysis of precipitate formed after mixing sodium ... Visualization of rotator cuff tear morphology by radial magnetic resonance imaging.. The objective of this study was to ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/drug/4553/Head-and-Shoulders-2in1.html

ChemistryChemistry

A detailed study ofmodern infrared,nuclearmagnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy; molecular orbital theory applied to ... introduction to infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three 50- minute lectures, one 2-hour lab each week. ... An introduction to transport processes, quantum mechanics, and spectroscopy. Three 50-min lectures and one 3-hour lab each week ... A lab to be taken concurrently with CHM 3430.Topics include UV-vis spectroscopy, protein purification and chromatographic ...
more infohttp://www.css.edu/academics/catalog/undergraduate-catalog-2007-2009/course-descriptions/chemistry.html

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Enzyme Inhibitory Radicinol Derivative from Endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12,...Molecules | Free Full-Text | Enzyme Inhibitory Radicinol Derivative from Endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12,...

... infrared spectroscopy, mass, and UV spectrometric analyses. The bipolarisenol was assessed for its potential role in enzyme ... The structure elucidation was carried out by the combined use of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, ... The structure elucidation was carried out by the combined use of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/7/12198

Search ResultsSearch Results

Sears, T.J.; Temps, F.; Wagner, H.G.; Wolf, M., Far-Infrared Laser Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of CH2Cl (X2B1), J. Mol. ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Author=Wolf%2C+M.&Units=CAL&Mask=800

Methyl radicalMethyl radical

Settersten, T.B.; Farrow, R.L.; Gray, J.A., Coherent infrared--ultraviolet double-resonance spectroscopy of CH3, Chem. Phys. ... Fawzy, W.M.; Sears, T.J.; Davies, P.B., Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of the «nu»3 fundamental of the CD3 radical, J. Chem ... Tan, L.Y.; Winer, A.M.; Pimentel, G.C., Infrared Spectrum of Gaseous Methyl Radical by Rapid Scan Spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys. ... Westre, S.G.; Kelly, P.B., Examination of CD3 vibrational structure by resonance Raman spectroscopy, J. Chem. Phys., 1989, 90, ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Source=1984HOL%2FMCC3349&Units=SI&Mask=800

Vibrational spectroscopy at atomic resolution with electron impact scattering | Nature PhysicsVibrational spectroscopy at atomic resolution with electron impact scattering | Nature Physics

Conventional on-axis electron energy-loss spectroscopy can detect vibrational modes in crystals and amorphous solids at atomic ... vibrational spectroscopy employing oscillating dipoles yields signals originating from regions tens of nanometres in size, ... have enabled nanoscale probing of vibrational modes using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS)1,2. Although atomically ... Rez, P. Is localized infrared spectroscopy now possible in the electron microscope? Microsc. Microanal. 20, 671-677 (2014). ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41567-019-0675-5?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+nphys%2Frss%2Fcurrent+%28Nature+Physics+-+Issue%29&error=cookies_not_supported&code=f3dd469a-01ca-4596-871c-c2e65237f410

Donald McNaughton - Projects
     - Monash UniversityDonald McNaughton - Projects - Monash University

Resonance Raman and Infra-red Spectroscopy of Single Live Erythrocytes.. McNaughton, D., Tait, B. D., Jane, S., Langford, S. & ... nano infrared and sub micron Raman spectroscopy and imaging.. McNaughton, D., Appadoo, D., Bao, Q., Beardall, J., Beattie, D., ... Taxonomic discrimination and compositional analysis of microalgae using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. ... High-accuracy spectroscopy under extreme conditions: combining novel synchrotron and laboratory-based spectroscopy. Bond, A., ...
more infohttps://research.monash.edu/en/persons/donald-mcnaughton/projects/?status=FINISHED&ordering=statusStartDate&descending=false

Boğaziçi Üniversitesi - Kimya BölümüBoğaziçi Üniversitesi - Kimya Bölümü

Characterization of polymers using nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, dilute solution viscometry, differential ... an introduction to spectroscopy; UV-visible spectroscopy; laboratory experiences involving gravimetric, volumetric and ... An introduction to spectroscopy and spectroscopic instrumentation; analysis and identification of organic compounds using UV- ... Group theory, crystal field theory, ligand field theory, electronic spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms and catalysis of ...
more infohttp://boun.edu.tr/tr_TR/Content/Akademik/Lisans_Katalogu/FenEdebiyat_Fakultesi/Kimya_Bolumu

Boğaziçi Üniversitesi - Kimya BölümüBoğaziçi Üniversitesi - Kimya Bölümü

Characterization of polymers using nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, dilute solution viscometry, differential ... an introduction to spectroscopy; UV-visible spectroscopy; laboratory experiences involving gravimetric, volumetric and ... An introduction to spectroscopy and spectroscopic instrumentation; analysis and identification of organic compounds using UV- ... Group theory, crystal field theory, ligand field theory, electronic spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms and catalysis of ...
more infohttp://www.boun.edu.tr/tr-TR/Content/Akademik/Lisans_Katalogu/FenEdebiyat_Fakultesi/Kimya_Bolumu

University of Calgary: Calendar: 
				
	Courses:
ChemistryUniversity of Calgary: Calendar: Courses: Chemistry

Techniques include Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet and Visible ... Stereochemistry, kinetics and thermodynamics, spectroscopy (nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, ultra-violet/visible, and ... Organic Spectroscopy. The instrumentation, theory and practical aspects of spectroscopy (e.g. MS, IR, 1H and 13C NMR including ... Interpretation of nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, vibrational and mass spectra. Fundamental ...
more infohttps://www.ucalgary.ca/pubs/calendar/archives/2008/what/courses/CHEM.htm

CHEM 200 - Organic Chemistry I - Capilano UniversityCHEM 200 - Organic Chemistry I - Capilano University

Also a study of infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance.. Prerequisites. CHEM 111 with a minimum C- grade ... A study of nomenclature, structure, and spectroscopy of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, ethers and alkyl halides. ...
more infohttps://www.capilanou.ca/programs--courses/courses/chem-200---organic-chemistry-i/

Plus itPlus it

2003) Correlates of alpha rhythm in functional magnetic resonance imaging and near infrared spectroscopy. Neuroimage 20:145-158 ... 2001) LIPSIA-a new software system for the evaluation of functional magnetic resonance images of the human brain. Comput Med ... 2007) Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nat Rev Neurosci 8:700- ... 1995) Improved assessment of significant activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): use of a cluster-size ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/35/15/5917

Frontiers | Network Connectivity in Epilepsy: Resting State fMRI and EEG-fMRI Contributions | NeurologyFrontiers | Network Connectivity in Epilepsy: Resting State fMRI and EEG-fMRI Contributions | Neurology

Correlates of alpha rhythm in functional magnetic resonance imaging and near infrared spectroscopy. Neuroimage (2003) 20(1):145 ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human absence seizures. Ann Neurol (2003) 53(5):663-7. doi:10.1002/ana.10586 ... Localization of focal epileptic discharges using functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosurg (2011) 114(6): ... Motor system hyperconnectivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a cognitive functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Brain ( ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2014.00093/full

Frontiers | L-DOPA changes spontaneous low-frequency BOLD signal oscillations in Parkinsons disease: a resting state fMRI...Frontiers | L-DOPA changes spontaneous low-frequency BOLD signal oscillations in Parkinson's disease: a resting state fMRI...

Correlates of alpha rhythm in functional magnetic resonance imaging and near infrared spectroscopy. Neuroimage 20, 145-158. ... processing of concurrent fMRI and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Neuroimage 60, 1913-1923. ... a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Mov. Disord. 25, 1226-1231. ... functional magnetic resonance imaging. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 67, 783-792. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2012.00052/full
  • Operate instrumentation, such as an infrared spectrometer, melting point device, and polarimeter, independently to acquire data relevant to an experiment. (oakton.edu)
  • Apply the three models of bonding-Lewis, valence bond and molecular orbital theory-as well as their extensions-hybridization and resonance-to describe covalent bonding in organic species. (oakton.edu)
  • Infrared dichroism spectra of oriented beta-connection fibers showed that beta sheet structure run parallel to the fiber axix. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Brian J. Orr is an Australian scientist known for his contributions to laser spectroscopy and optical parametric oscillators. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently his research has expanded towards the development of tunable coherent sources, in particular optical parametric oscillators for spectroscopy, medicine, and other applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fellow of the Optical Society Fellow of the Australian Institute of Physics Fellow of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute William F. Meggers Award from the Optical Society W. H. Steel Medal from the Australian Optical Society A. D. Buckingham, B. J. Orr, J. M. Sichel, Angular distribution and intensity in molecular photoelectron spectroscopy I. General theory for diatomic molecules, Phil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Y. He and B. J. Orr, Ringdown and cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous-wave tunable diode laser and a rapidly swept optical cavity, Chem. (wikipedia.org)