Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Insulin Aspart: Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Insulin, Regular, Human: Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Insulin, Short-Acting: Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.PhosphoproteinsTriglyceridesMice, Inbred C57BLMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.GlycogenBiphasic Insulins: An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Sulfonylurea CompoundsFructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Insulysin: An enzyme the catalyzes the degradation of insulin, glucagon and other polypeptides. It is inhibited by bacitracin, chelating agents EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, and by thiol-blocking reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide, but not phosphoramidon. (Eur J Biochem 1994;223:1-5) EC 3.4.24.56.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.ThiazolesBlood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.MethylglucosidesIntra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
Zhang, Wen-qing; Wang Hong-wei; Zhang Yue-ming; Yang Yue-xin (March 2007). "Effects of resistant starch on insulin resistance ... Johnston, KL; Thomas EL; Bell JD; Frost GS; Robertson MD (2010). "Resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in metabolic ... Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant ... resistant starch, may increase insulin sensitivity in healthy people,[53][54] in type 2 diabetics,[55] and in individuals with ...
Witteles, R. M. and Fowler, M. B. (2008). Insulin-Resistant Cardiomyopathy. Clinical Evidence, Mechanisms, and Treatment ... There is mechanistic and epidemiological evidence for a link between insulin resistance and HFpEF. Conditions, such as ... It is thought that increased pressure, in concert with a pro-inflammatory state (insulin resistance, obesity), encourage ...
... insulin-dependent, 2; 125852; INS Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 20; 612520; HNF1A Diabetes mellitus, insulin-resistant ... PRNP Insulin resistance, severe, digenic; 604367; PPARG Insulin resistance, severe, digenic; 604367; PPP1R3A Insulin-like ... vitamin D-resistant, type IIA; 277440; VDR RIDDLE syndrome; 611943; RNF168 Rieger or Axenfeld anomalies; 602482; FOXC1 Ring ... resistant to imatinib; 607685; PDGFRA Hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome; 600886; FTL Hyperfibrinolysis, familial, due to ...
"Impaired Mitochondrial Activity in the Insulin-Resistant Offspring of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes". New England Journal of ... explored the role of mitochondria in insulin resistance among the offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes.[12] Other studies ...
High levels of leptin and insulin are produced; at the same time, the body becomes resistant to both. Insulin resistance in ... For example, dogs were used as subjects in a study of the effects of diet-induced obesity on insulin dispersion. In this ... They also can be bred or genetically engineered to be resistant to certain diseases, which can be important for studies of ... Streptozotocin inhibits the ability of pancreatic β cells to produce insulin, and depending on the dosage used, the result can ...
These include KBG syndrome, otodental syndrome, and insulin-resistant diabetes. Ethnicity and gender also factors that ...
"Apelin stimulates glucose utilization in normal and obese insulin-resistant mice". Cell Metab. 8 (5): 437-45. doi:10.1016/j. ... Most obese people have elevated levels of insulin, which may therefore be the reason why obese people have been reported to ... In pancreas, apelin inhibits the insulin secretion induced by glucose. This inhibition reveals the functional interdependency ... between apelin signalling and insulin signalling observed at the adipocyte level where insulin stimulate apelin production. ...
Sun C, Zhang F, Ge X, Yan T, Chen X, Shi X, Zhai Q (October 2007). "SIRT1 improves insulin sensitivity under insulin-resistant ... Sirtuin 1 is downregulated in cells that have high insulin resistance and inducing its expression increases insulin sensitivity ... This has been linked to insulin resistance in the obese. Human Sirt1 has been reported having 136 direct interactions in ... suggesting the molecule is associated with improving insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, SIRT1 was shown to de-acetylate and ...
Lee J. H.; Bullen Jr J. W.; Stoyneva V. L.; Mantzoros C. S. (2005). "Circulating resistin in lean, obese and insulin-resistant ... Insulin resistance is a major feature of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM), and central obesity is correlated with both insulin ... For example, fat next to the liver drains into it, causing a fatty liver, which is a risk factor for insulin resistance, ... An additional benefit to exercising is that it reduces stress and insulin levels, which reduce the presence of cortisol, a ...
Genentech announced the production of genetically engineered human insulin in 1978.[25] The insulin produced by bacteria, ... In 2010, scientists created "malaria-resistant mosquitoes" in the laboratory.[143][144][145] The World Health Organization ... Genetically modified bacteria are used to produce the protein insulin to treat diabetes.[49] Similar bacteria have been used to ... The first genetically modified crop, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant, was produced in 1982.[30] China was the first ...
Levy JR, Davenport B, Clore JN, Stevens W (March 2002). "Lipid metabolism and resistin gene expression in insulin-resistant ... Lee JH, Bullen JW, Stoyneva VL, Mantzoros CS (March 2005). "Circulating resistin in lean, obese, and insulin-resistant mouse ... insulin-resistant, and diabetic subjects". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88 (10): 4848-56. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-030519. PMID ... It was called "resistin" because of the observed insulin resistance in mice injected with resistin. Resistin was found to be ...
"Atorvastatin protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in fructose-induced insulin resistant rats". Cardiovascular Drugs and ...
van Loon LJ, Goodpaster BH (2005). "Increased intramuscular lipid storage in the insulin-resistant and endurance-trained state ... as the body adapts and becomes more resistant to stress. However, work examining the time course of changes in muscle protein ...
Breastmilk also makes a child resistant to insulin, which is why they are less likely to be hypoglycemic. Infants are more ... Mothers with all types of diabetes mellitus normally use insulin to control their blood sugar, as the safety of other ... insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, childhood lymphoma, allergic diseases, digestive ...
Published studies have shown that resistant starch helps to improve insulin sensitivity, increases satiety and improves markers ... "Resistant Starch from High-Amylose Maize Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight and Obese Men". Journal of Nutrition. 142 ... Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals. High amylose starch from corn ... High amylose starch, amylomaize, is cultivated for the use of its gel strength and for use as a resistant starch (a starch that ...
As the mutation causing the disorder affects insulin receptor function, those with the disease are also insulin resistant, with ... Some mutations to the gene instead result in insulin resistant diabetes without Donohue syndrome. Because mutations in the gene ... Many of the problems associated with Donohue syndrome may be due to the insulin receptor binding the insulin-like growth factor ... The beta cells in the pancreas, which make and store insulin and release it on an as-needed basis, are often found to be very ...
Bao S, Zhu J, Garvey WT (Nov 1998). "Cloning of Rab GTPases expressed in human skeletal muscle: studies in insulin-resistant ...
... studies in insulin-resistant subjects". Horm. Metab. Res. 30 (11): 656-662. doi:10.1055/s-2007-978953. PMID 9918381. Bucci C, ...
Bao S, Zhu J, Garvey WT (Nov 1998). "Cloning of Rab GTPases expressed in human skeletal muscle: studies in insulin-resistant ... "Characterization of the role of the Rab GTPase-activating protein AS160 in insulin-regulated GLUT4 trafficking". The Journal of ...
Bao S, Zhu J, Garvey WT (1999). "Cloning of Rab GTPases expressed in human skeletal muscle: studies in insulin-resistant ...
"Rac1 signaling is required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is dysregulated in insulin-resistant murine and human ... Rac1 is expressed in significant amounts in insulin sensitive tissues, such as adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Here Rac1 ... and Rac1 signaling are jointly required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and downregulated in insulin ... In response to insulin, this allows for blood glucose to enter the cell to lower blood glucose. In conditions of obesity and ...
Cattle that are over-conditioned are also more insulin resistant compared to their leaner counterparts. As demonstrated in mice ... "Declining fertility, insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism in dairy cows : Developmental consequences for the oocyte and ... According to recent studies, insulin-sensitiser drugs are the main type of therapy for women with irregular cycles that want to ... Currently, therapy is aimed at patients that need to improve their resistance to insulin so that hyperinsulinemia is reduced ...
"Genetic analysis of human type 1 protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 in insulin-resistant Pima Indians". Genomics. 41 (1): 110-4. ...
He leads a laboratory at IIT Delhi involved in research on Insulin-resistant diabetes and hosts a number of scholars and ... The model, which involved insulin-resistant cultured skeletal muscle cells, earned him a US patent. Using the model in tandem ... Kinase contributes to insulin-induced actin reorganization into a mesh harboring Glucose transporter-4 in insulin resistant ... Gupta A, Bisht B, Dey CS (2011). "Peripheral insulin-sensitizer drug metformin ameliorates neuronal insulin resistance and ...
"Changes in microRNA profile and effects of miR-320 in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes". Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 36 (9 ... profile and effects of miR-320 in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes". Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology. 36 ... "MicroRNA-320 expression in myocardial microvascular endothelial cells and its relationship with insulin-like growth factor-1 in ...
High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... it may have a role for individuals whose acne has been resistant to topical medications.[10] A 2016 meta-analysis was unable to ... Widespread broad-spectrum antibiotic overuse for acne has led to higher rates of antibiotic-resistant C. acnes strains ... Studies suggest these components promote the effects of insulin and IGF-1 and thereby increase the production of androgen ...
Non-fasting insulin levels are determined by the ambient degree of insulin resistance together with the capacity of beta cells ... A raised proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (proinsulin/insulin) due to impaired processing of proinsulin is an early marker of beta ... In regression analyses we assessed the relationships between age and insulin, proinsulin, and proinsulin/insulin, while ... proinsulin/insulin) (p = 0.0001 for all). Negative associations of age with random insulin levels, together with positive ...
What exactly is the difference between between being insulin resistant and having diabetes. And apparently from reading the ... We are probably insulin resistant well before diabetes hits. I wish I had known I was insulin resistant years ago and I would ... Insulin Resistant What exactly is the difference between between being insulin resistant and having diabetes. And apparently ... People who use insulin can also be insulin resistant and require more injected insulin to cover carbs. The drug metformin and ...
... alters the brains glucose metabolism in physically inactive insulin resistant people. Only two weeks of HIIT training reduced ... High-intensity-Interval-Training-Alters-Brain-Glucose-Metabolism-in-Insulin-Resistant-People.. aspx Related Journal Article. ... HIIT alters brain glucose metabolism in insulin resistant people. University of Turku ... alters the brains glucose metabolism in physically inactive insulin resistant people. Only two weeks of HIIT training reduced ...
Insulin regulates mitochondrial biogenesis, degradation, and function. In canonical insulin signaling, insulin binds to insulin ... Altered mitochondrial function in insulin-deficient and insulin-resistant states. Gregory N. Ruegsegger, Ana L. Creo, Tiffany M ... Altered mitochondrial function in insulin-deficient and insulin-resistant states Gregory N. Ruegsegger et al. ... Women with PCOS are insulin-resistant, but their muscle has similar maximal mitochondrial oxygen flux to insulin-sensitive lean ...
... Tung-Yueh Chuang,1 Hsiao-Li Wu,1 Chen-Chun ... Tung-Yueh Chuang, Hsiao-Li Wu, Chen-Chun Chen, et al., "MicroRNA-223 Expression Is Upregulated in Insulin Resistant Human ...
Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either ... lipogenesis or insulin sensitivity.ConclusionMonomeric TRAP, most likely secreted from adipose tissue macrophages, induces ... which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of ... hyperplastic obesity with normal adipocyte lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. ...
Defects in insulin-receptor function have been associated with insulin-resistant states such as obesity and non-insulin- ... Mutations in Insulin-Receptor Gene in Insulin-Resistant Patients. Simeon I Taylor, Takashi Kadowaki, Hiroko Kadowaki, Domenico ... Mutations in Insulin-Receptor Gene in Insulin-Resistant Patients. Simeon I Taylor, Takashi Kadowaki, Hiroko Kadowaki, Domenico ... Mutations in Insulin-Receptor Gene in Insulin-Resistant Patients Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Pergolide for Insulin Resistant horse?. Does anyone give their Insulin Resistant horse Pergolide if their ACTH and cortisol ... Insulin resistance is often caused by Cushings/PPID, either of which can and often does cause chronic active laminitis unless ... Yes, years ago I tried pergolide on a horse that tested normal for ACTH, but high for insulin. Then Id stop it after she was ... Yes, years ago I tried pergolide on a horse that tested normal for ACTH, but high for insulin. Then Id stop it after she was ...
To test this, we gave a glucose drink to an insulin-sensitive control group and an insulin-resistant group of individuals and ... The lower response of the insulin-resistant subjects may play a role in abnormal eating behavior and possibly increase their ... However, after patients drank the sugary glucose, those who were insulin-resistant and had signs of disorderly eating were ... In this study, a total of 19 participants-including 11 healthy controls and eight insulin-resistant subjects-consumed a glucose ...
Endothelin Limits Insulin Action in Obese/Insulin-Resistant Humans. Amale Lteif, Prashant Vaishnava, Alain D. Baron, Kieren J. ... Endothelin Limits Insulin Action in Obese/Insulin-Resistant Humans. Amale Lteif, Prashant Vaishnava, Alain D. Baron, Kieren J. ... Endothelin Limits Insulin Action in Obese/Insulin-Resistant Humans Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... improved fasting and meal-stimulated insulin levels in insulin-resistant Zucker fatty rats (26). No studies have been published ...
Aerobic exercise training will improve insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant subjects through changes in the major cellular ... Mechanism of Insulin-Resistant in Lean Non-Diabetics. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... Insulin Resistance Insulin Sensitivity Type 2 Diabetes Behavioral: exercise Behavioral: Non exercise Phase 1 ... Biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle from insulin resistant subjects will be obtained before and after a hyperinsulinemic ...
Vitamin D Replacement in Insulin Resistant South Asians (VITALITY). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Insulin resistance, defined as homeostatic model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA1-IR) ≥ 1.93. ... Insulin. Vitamins. Vitamin D. Ergocalciferols. Cholecalciferol. Hypoglycemic Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Insulin Resistance. Vitamin D Deficiency. Hyperinsulinism. Glucose Metabolism Disorders. Metabolic Diseases. Avitaminosis. ...
in insulin-resistant patients.. As can be seen by comparison with the text of point 2.1 of this decision, the same features are ... T 0025/10 (PPAR Ligands for insulin resistant hypertension/BETHESDA) of 16.2.2011. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA: ... for the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of hypertension in insulin-resistant patients, wherein the compound is ... and a diuretic as its constituent pharmacological agents, for use in the treatment of hypertension in insulin-resistant ...
Dietary Cod Protein Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Insulin-Resistant Men and Women. A randomized controlled trial. ... CONCLUSIONS-Dietary cod protein improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant individuals and thus could contribute to ... Dietary Cod Protein Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Insulin-Resistant Men and Women ... Dietary Cod Protein Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Insulin-Resistant Men and Women ...
Pharmacological inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rat models.. Issandou ... Furthermore, in a diet-induced insulin resistant rat model, GSK993 induced a very strong reduction in Triton-induced hepatic ... SCD1 is an emerging target in obesity and insulin resistance due to the improved metabolic profile obtained when the enzyme is ... we observed an improvement in the whole body insulin sensitivity as reflected by an increase in the glucose infusion rate. ...
Lean insulin-sensitive and obese insulin-resistant subjects (n = 10 each) received euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with ... Skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant subjects displays a wide variety of abnormalities in insulin receptor signaling, ... The increase in intramyocellular lipid in insulin-resistant humans is manifested as an increase in triacylglycerol content (2-6 ... The results of the study show that ceramide content is increased nearly twofold in muscle from insulin-resistant obese subjects ...
cat very resistant to insulin shots. Discussion in Feline Health - (The Main Forum) started by brooke84, Sep 20, 2017. ... Curious which insulin it is. If its a longer acting one then its not as vital that shes eating a full meal. How much does ... I would try giving her a yummy low carb treat while you give the insulin.. If she is not eating her food maybe a change of diet ...
My Doctor told me Type II Diabetics are Insulin Resistant,so Im wondering if following an IR Diet like the one below will help ... Insulin Resistant. My Doctor told me Type II Diabetics are Insulin Resistant,so Im wondering if following an IR Diet like the ... New and insulin resistant ~Sharon. PCOS/Insulin Resistance Support. 28. 11-14-2006 05:09 AM. ... I read an amazing book called the Insulin Resistant Diet. It was similar, but the focus was really on the balance of protein to ...
... in insulin-resistant, but not insulin-sensitive subjects. Thus, HE3286 may preferentially benefit insulin-resistant, inflamed, ... In insulin-resistant subjects, HE3286 significantly increased day 29 insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and HDL cholesterol, ... A synthetic anti-inflammatory sterol improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant obese impaired glucose tolerance ... adiponectin levels were significantly increased in insulin-resistant (baseline M , 4.2), but not insulin-sensitive (baseline M ...
... extracts increase glucose uptake and inhibit their production in insulin-resistant C2C12 and HepG2 cells, respectively. ... and reduced resistance to insulin. Likewise, this extract had anti-inflammatory effects in adipose tissue when compared to ... insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes as controls; Ins 100 R, insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes treated with 100 nM insulin; Metf, ... Insulin-Resistant Cell Model. To develop a model of insulin-resistant cells, 4-day differentiated myotubes and HepG2 cells were ...
The glucosamine-induced insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells were produced and the rate of glucose uptake was measured using ... Suppression of phosphatase and tensin homolog protects insulin-resistant cells from apoptosis.. [Di-Fei Wang, Hui-Jing Yang, ... In the present study, a glucosamine-induced model of insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells was established in order to ... The expression and translocation of GLUT4 were reduced in the insulin-resistant muscle cells. By contrast, the expression of ...
Abstract P066: A Refined Carbohydrate Diet Attenuates Weight Loss in Insulin Resistant Individuals. Kristina A Harris, Sheila G ... Abstract P066: A Refined Carbohydrate Diet Attenuates Weight Loss in Insulin Resistant Individuals ... Abstract P066: A Refined Carbohydrate Diet Attenuates Weight Loss in Insulin Resistant Individuals ... Abstract P066: A Refined Carbohydrate Diet Attenuates Weight Loss in Insulin Resistant Individuals ...
A similar diet has been shown to be associated with improved insulin sensitivity in normoglycaemic insulin-resistant ... Ninety-six normoglycaemic, insulin-resistant women (BMI ,27 kg/m2) were randomised to one of three dietary interventions: a ... However, given that the aim in insulin-resistant individuals is to reduce the cardiovascular risk as well as to reduce the risk ... Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women. ...
Human primary myoblast cell cultures from non-diabetic insulin resistant subjects retain defects in insulin action.. D B ... The in vivo rates of insulin-stimulated glycogen production (insulin resistance) were correlated with in vitro measures of ... Insulin resistance is a predictor of the development of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in humans. It is unclear ... To determine if insulin resistance is the result of extrinsic factors such as hyperinsulinemia primary skeletal muscle cell ...
Lower Your Insulin-Resistant Horses Carbohydrate Intake. Author:. Cynthia Foley. Publish date:. Mar 2, 2012. ... Besides insulin-resistant horses, soaking hay is often recommended for horses with PSSM, a severe, recurrent form of tying up; ... THE RIGHT AMOUNT.? To start, we know you're not giving your overweight or insulin-resistant (IR) horse grain. You?re also ... As fellow owners of overweight and insulin-resistant horses, we know it's not that difficult.? it's minimizing the ...
  • We hypothesised that in a general population, signs of beta cell failure with advancing age manifest not only by decreases in random insulin, but also with a corresponding increase in its precursor proinsulin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RESULTS -There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity ( P = 0.027) and a strong tendency for a better disposition index (β-cell function × M / I ) ( P = 0.055) in subjects consuming the cod protein diet compared with those consuming the BPVEM diet. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A more pronounced reduction in adiposity or higher volume or intensity of exercise may be necessary for improvement in insulin sensitivity in such horses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These additional ingredients help to reduce the rate of absorption of sugar thereby enabling the body to have sufficient time to secrete enough insulin. (mannaplus.co.za)
  • Not enough insulin means the sugar builds up in the blood. (earthlink.net)
  • These studies will also answer the question of whether mutations in the insulin-receptor gene contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance with common forms of NIDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, because changes in inflammatory adipocytokines ( 17 ⇓ ⇓ - 20 ), branched-chain amino acids ( 21 , 22 ), and acylcarnitines ( 23 ) have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, we also measured plasma levels of these factors before and after this modest weight-loss intervention. (pnas.org)
  • Our aims are to (1) determine the extent to which FoxO1 and SREBP-1c promote atherosclerosis, steatosis, and cholesterol gallstones by knocking down FoxO1 or reconstituting SREBP-1c expression in the livers of LIRKO mice;and (2) to define the insulin-independent signaling pathways by which nutrients can activate SREBP-1c and lipogenesis. (grantome.com)
  • Because infective helminths continually parasitize nutrients from the host, we hypothesized that signaling pathways mediating immunity against helminths might also regulate nutrient homeostasis via modulation of insulin action. (pnas.org)
  • In skeletal muscle, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) produced by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) is involved in signaling pathways triggered by insulin. (mdpi.com)
  • This disrupts the signalling pathways needed for insulin to work ( 9 , 10 , 11 ). (healthline.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show that morbid obesity is characterized by circulating immune cells that are activated and insulin resistant, with the T-cell balance polarized towards a pro-inflammatory Th1 phenotype. (garvan.org.au)
  • We hypothesize that FoxO1, which fails to be suppressed by insulin, drives dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and gallstones;but that SREBP-1c, induced by nutrients, drives lipogenesis and steatosis. (grantome.com)
  • This raises the question, what drives SREBP-1c in the presence of insulin resistance? (grantome.com)
  • These data indicate the existence of an insulin-independent signaling pathway that could potentially allow the excessive consumption of carbohydrates to activate SREBP-1c and lipogenesis, even in the presence of insulin resistance. (grantome.com)
  • HealthDay News - For patients with insulin resistance with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), pioglitazone is associated with reduced risk of stroke or myocardial infarction, according to a study published online February 17 in the New England Journal of Medicine . (empr.com)
  • This Review discusses the association between both insulin-deficient and insulin-resistant diabetes and alterations in mitochondrial proteome homeostasis and function that adversely affect cellular functions, likely contributing to many diabetic complications. (jci.org)
  • The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) was used. (dovepress.com)
  • Despite conservation of this anatomic relationship through evolution, the signals and mechanisms by which the immune system regulates nutrient homeostasis and insulin action remain poorly understood. (pnas.org)
  • Since it has been shown that both afferent hepatic vagus transection and hypothalamic ablation can both lead to changes in BCM, it is reasonable to assume that the vagus nerve provides not only functional control of insulin needs, but of compensatory growth mechanisms needed to maintain glucose homeostasis. (grantome.com)