Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Acinetobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Cilastatin: A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.Dipeptidases: EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Glycosuria, Renal: An autosomal inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of GLUCOSE by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The urinary loss of glucose can reach beyond 50 g/day. It is attributed to the mutations in the SODIUM-GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER 2 encoded by the SLC5A2 gene.Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Klebsiella oxytoca: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Aeromonas hydrophila: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Formularies, Hospital: Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Monobactams: Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Citrobacter freundii: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Enterobacter aerogenes: Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infectionsStaphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Bacteria, AnaerobicAmpicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.GreeceTetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Proteus mirabilis: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.Bacteria, AerobicInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated: Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Resistance to carbapenems is also being increasingly reported. A. baumannii can survive on the human skin or dry surfaces for ... Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been reported during therapy, which has also resulted in increased resistance to other drug ... Antibiotic resistance genes are often plasmid-borne, and plasmids present in Acinetobacter strains can be transferred to other ... Antibiotic resistance is a major risk factor for epidemic behavior of Acinetobacter baumannii. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ...
Imipenem (carbapenems) is often the antibiotic of choice. Aminoglycosides such as amikacin have been found to be very effective ... Note: Treatment is dependent on local trends of antibiotic resistance. Cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin from the β- ... Furthermore, the same bacterial strain, isolated from the patient, induced obesity and insulin resistance in germfree C57BL/6J ...
Antibiotic resistance[edit]. Main article: Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae. Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have ... For instance, some Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are carbapenem resistant.[9] References[edit]. *^ "List of genera included in ... Klebsiella bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems." ... been isolated which are resistant to antibiotics including carbapenems, which are often claimed as "the last line of antibiotic ...
In the United States, the reasons the CDC is recommending the detection of carbapenem resistance or carbapenemase production ... A number of mechanisms cause carbapenem resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae. These include hyperproduction of ampC beta- ... April 2001). "Novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, from a carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae ... and resistance mechanisms". Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 7: 483. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2017.00483. "Carbapenem-resistant ...
The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. However, the ... an enzyme that hydrolyzes and inactivates these carbapenem antibiotics. Carbapenemases are particularly dangerous resistance ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics that are capable of killing most bacteria by inhibiting the synthesis of one ... In March 2010, a study in a hospital in Mumbai found that most carbapenem-resistant bacteria isolated from patients carried the ...
It also demonstrates potent in vitro activity versus carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. In 2012, U.S. Food and Drug ... Antimicrobial resistance "WHO Drug Information, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2012. International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical ... to treat serious bacterial infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, including carbapenem-resistant ... "Can Plazomicin Alone or in Combination Be a Therapeutic Option against Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii?" (PDF). ...
"Acinetobacter radioresistens as a Silent Source of Carbapenem Resistance for Acinetobacter spp". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
Bacteria often develop resistance to β-lactam antibiotics by synthesizing a β-lactamase, an enzyme that attacks the β-lactam ... In clavams, the β-lactam is formed prior to the second ring; in carbapenems, the β-lactam ring is closed second in sequence. ... To overcome this resistance, β-lactam antibiotics are often given with β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid. β-lactam ... Hence, there are two main modes of bacterial resistance to β-lactams: If the bacterium produces the enzyme β-lactamase or the ...
... and carbapenems. Hydrolysis of the antibiotics by blaCMY-2 results in the resistance. This enzyme is present and expressed in ... The antibiotic resistance of Salmonella makes it difficult to treat these infections if they were to inflict humans. The ... E. coli local to the human's GI tract have acquired this same antibiotic resistance using the blaCMY-2 enzyme. The sequence ... Beta-lactamase (blaCMY-2) is an enzyme responsible for providing antibiotic resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, ...
... is a carbapenem antibiotic marketed by Merck as Invanz. It is structurally very similar to meropenem in that it ... Acquired resistance to ertapenem is usually mediated by up-regulation of efflux mechanisms and by the selection of porin- ... Organisms that produce a metallo-β-lactamase are innately immune to ertapenem (as well as all carbapenems).[citation needed] ... Other members of the carbapenem group (imipenem, doripenem, and meropenem) are broadly active antibacterials that are used for ...
... (PTZ-601) is a broad spectrum injectable antibiotic, from the carbapenem subgroup of beta-lactam antibiotics. It was ... against Enterobacteriaceae with defined resistance mechanisms". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 64 (2): 330-335. doi: ... Livermore, D. M.; Mushtaq, S.; Warner, M. (2009). "Activity of the anti-MRSA carbapenem razupenem (PTZ601) ... developed as a replacement drug to combat bacteria that had acquired antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics. ...
Carbapenem resistance via the bla KPC-2 gene in Enterobacter cloacae blood culture isolate. South. Med. J.103(5),453-454 (2010 ... Resistance in Gram-negative bacteria: Enterobacteriaceae. Am. J. Med.119(6 Suppl. 1),S20-S28 (2006). 64.Paterson DL, Bonomo RA ... NmcA carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzyme in Enterobacter cloacae in North America. Emerg. Infect. Dis.9,999-1002 (2003). 77.Naas T, ... Regulation of polymyxin resistance and adaptation to low-Mg2+ environments. J. Bacteriol.179(22),7040-7045 (1997). 131.Lo-Ten- ...
From a medical standpoint, an important feature of this genus is the high level of intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Some ... enterococci are intrinsically resistant to β-lactam-based antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems), as well as ... 2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1- ... Urinary tract infections can be treated specifically with nitrofurantoin, even in cases of vancomycin resistance. ...
Clindamycin is no longer recommended as the first-line agent for B. fragilis due to emerging high-level resistance (>30% in ... In general, B. fragilis is susceptible to metronidazole, carbapenems, tigecycline, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor ... The bacteria have inherent high-level resistance to penicillin. Production of beta lactamase appears to be the main mechanism ... "Penicillin-binding proteins of Bacteroides fragilis and their role in the resistance to imipenem of clinical isolates". Journal ...
Resistance to clindamycin is common and has been seen in over 10% of isolates in the US. One review stated that "the ... Most surveys have found it to be susceptible to penicillins, carbapenems and metronidazole, though resistant strains have been ...
Antimicrobial resistance Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae Medications used to treat MRSA Teixobactin XF-73 Gurusamy, ... Resistance to other antibiotics was documented in some strains of S. aureus. In 1996, vancomycin resistance was reported in ... Antimicrobial resistance is genetically based; resistance is mediated by the acquisition of extrachromosomal genetic elements ... "Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 - Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance - CDC". This article ...
Antibiotic resistanceEdit. Main article: Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae. Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have been ... Klebsiella bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems." ... isolated which are resistant to antibiotics including carbapenems, which are often claimed as "the last line of antibiotic ...
Several cases of severe hypokalemia have been reported.[14][15] Meropenem, like other carbapenems, is a potent inducer of ... In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or ... "Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PPMO) restores carbapenem susceptibility to NDM-1-positive pathogens ... It is in the carbapenem family of medications.[1] Meropenem usually results in bacterial death through blocking their ability ...
"Novel Carbapenem Antibiotics for Parenteral and Oral Applications: In Vitro and in Vivo Activities of 2-Aryl Carbapenems and ... It was developed as a replacement drug to combat bacteria that had acquired antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics ... Tebipenem is the first carbapenem whose prodrug form, the pivalyl ester, is orally available. El-Gamal, M. I.; Oh, C. H. (2010 ... Hazra, S; Xu, H; Blanchard, J (June 2014). "Tebipenem, a New Carbapenem Antibiotic is a Slow Substrate that Inhibits the β- ...
... and carbapenem antibiotics. The group's biosynthetic work has focused on the clavams and carbapenems, with a particular focus ... The biggest threat to the continued use of β-lactam antibiotics is that of bacterial resistance. Prof Schofield is currently ... "Epimerization and desaturation by carbapenem synthase (CarC). A hybrid DFT study". Journal of Computational Chemistry. 27 (6): ...
... more precisely the carbapenem family of antibiotics. This property is due to the physico-chemical similarities between membrane ... although it has been proved to be active against a zinc-dependent beta-lactamase that usually confer antibiotic resistance to ...
Resistance to polymyxins first appear in 2011. An easier way for this resistance to spread, a plasmid known as MCR-1 was ... Carbapenem antibiotics (heretofore often the treatment of last resort for resistant infections) are generally not effective ... M. tuberculosis develops resistance to drugs by spontaneous mutations in its genomes. Resistance to one drug is common, and ... These bacteria have shown antibiotic resistance (or antimicrobial resistance). NDM-1 is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant ...
... provide resistance to carbapenems. Members of the family commonly express plasmid-encoded β-lactamases (e.g., TEM-1, TEM-2, and ... Some confer resistance predominantly to ceftazidime, but OXA-17 confers greater resistance to cefotaxime and cefepime than it ... Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant ( ... although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the ...
Due to widespread resistance to many common first-line antibiotics, carbapenems, polymyxins, and more recently tigecycline were ... In addition to this intrinsic resistance, P. aeruginosa easily develops acquired resistance either by mutation in chromosomally ... This matrix is one of the main resistance mechanisms in the biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Cyclic di-GMP is a major contributor to ... Despite this, they are still being used in areas where resistance has not yet been reported. Use of β-lactamase inhibitors such ...
Klebsiella bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems." ... Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have been isolated which are resistant to antibiotics including carbapenems, which are often ... For instance, some Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are carbapenem resistant. "List of genera included in families - ...
Carbapenemases represent type of ESBL which are able to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics that are considered as the last-resort ... Multiple resistance genes are commonly arranged in the resistance cassettes. The antibiotic resistance genes found on the ... Plasmid-mediated resistance is the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes which are carried on plasmids. The plasmids can be ... It is very common for the resistance genes or entire resistance cassettes to be re-arranged on the same plasmid or be moved to ...
... gene-mediating macrolide resistance. For these isolates the MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited was significantly lower ... Kobayashi R, Konomi M, Hasegawa K, Morozumi M, Sunakawa K, Ubukata K. In vitro activity of tebipenem, a new oral carbapenem ... フィンガープリント In vitro activity of tebipenem, a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, against penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus ... N2 - The in vitro activity of tebipenem (TBM), a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, against Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical ...
Carbapenems differ from conventional penicillins (penams) in having no sulfur atom in their 5-membered ring and in having a ... I. Podglajen, J. Breuil, A. Coutrot, L. Gutmann and E. Collatz, Incidence of the carbapenem (Cpm) resistance gene cfiA and ... Livermore D.M. (1995) Bacterial Resistance to Carbapenems. In: Jungkind D.L., Mortensen J.E., Fraimow H.S., Calandra G.B. (eds ... Antimicrob Agent Serratia Marcescens Carbapenem Resistance Lactam Antibiotic Carbapenemase Gene These keywords were added by ...
Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: here is the storm!. Nordmann P1, Dortet L, Poirel L. ... The current worldwide emergence of resistance to the powerful antibiotic carbapenem in Enterobacteriaceae constitutes an ... This review summarizes the current knowledge on carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, including activity, distribution, ... are the most important determinants sustaining resistance to carbapenems. The corresponding genes are mostly plasmid-located ...
... Atul Khajuria, Ashok Kumar ... Atul Khajuria, Ashok Kumar Praharaj, Mahadevan Kumar, and Naveen Grover, "Carbapenem Resistance among Enterobacter Species in a ...
Multi-institute carbapenem-resistance analysis. Gustavo C. Cerqueira, Ashlee M. Earl, Christoph M. Ernst, Yonatan H. Grad, John ... Multi-institute carbapenem-resistance analysis. Gustavo C. Cerqueira, Ashlee M. Earl, Christoph M. Ernst, Yonatan H. Grad, John ... Multi-institute analysis of carbapenem resistance reveals remarkable diversity, unexplained mechanisms, and limited clonal ... We provide evidence for considerable asymptomatic carriage and unrecognizable mechanisms of carbapenem resistance that, ...
Contribution of extended-spectrum AmpC (ESAC) beta-lactamases to carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli.. Mammeri H1, ... The production of ESAC beta-lactamase in favorable E. coli background may represent an additional mechanism of resistance to ... ESAC expression associated with the loss of both OmpC and OmpF porins conferred in Escherichia coli a high level of resistance ... cephalosporinase expressed in the OmpC-and OmpF-deficient strain do not confer reduced susceptibility to any of the carbapenems ...
... ... Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ( ... These results revealed diverse mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance to P. aeruginosa isolates from Saudi Arabia. ... The predominant serotype was O:11 (16 isolates), followed by O:15 (nine isolates). PFGE analysis of the 34 carbapenem-resistant ...
... the mechanism of resistance involved and (ii) whether resistance to carbapenems affects the level of resistance to other beta- ... if resistance to other beta-lactam agents affects the level of resistance to carbapenems. For this purpose, the presence of ... Lack of additive effect between mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems and other beta-lactam agents in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... demonstrating the role of cephalosporinase in carbapenem resistance. Within each pattern of susceptibility, the mean MICs of ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae screening should be considered for patients who have undergone medical procedures ... Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae screening should be considered for patients who have undergone medical procedures ... Notes from the Field: Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate with Three Carbapenem Resistance Genes Associated with Urology ... Notes from the Field: Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate with Three Carbapenem Resistance Genes Associated with Urology ...
All these 170 CRKP isolates showed high resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems (,95%), except for tigecycline and ... A majority of these children had received therapy of antibiotics before CRKP isolation, especially for carbapenems (76/170) and ... Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenemases, drug resistance, OXA-232, NDM-5, children ... Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has caused wide global disseminations and serious clinical outcomes in ...
In 2012 the WHO released a publication outlining the evolving threat of antimicrobial resistance in order to raise awareness ... Unprecedented levels of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates have prompted great concerns globally. ... Now carbapenem resistance further limits treatment options. In this article the authors discuss carbapenem resistance in ... Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: laboratory challenges, mechanistic insights and therapeutic strategies Expert ...
We analyzed 556 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from patients in Singapore hospitals during 2010-2015 and ... Intrapatient isolates were also able to acquire additional antimicrobial drug resistance genes when inside human bodies. Our ... The convergence of carbapenem-resistance and hypervirulence genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae has led to the emergence of highly ... results highlight the potential spread of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae in Singapore. ...
Approximately 3.2% of Enterobacteriaceae reported in healthcare-associated infections were resistant to carbapenems and 26.9% ... Carbapenem and Cephalosporin Resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in Healthcare-Associated Infections, California, USA1 On This ... Decreasing trends in carbapenem resistance and in the DTR phenotype among Klebsiella species, often the focus of AMR ... We observed decreasing trends in carbapenem resistance (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.80-1.01) and in the DTR phenotype (RR 0.88; 95% CI ...
Polymyxin B resistance in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, São Paulo, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016; 22(10): 1849- ... Deleterious mutations in pmrB gene is the main chromosomal target for induction of polymyxin resistance in carbapenem-resistant ... Non-clonal occurrence of pmrB mutations associated with polymyxin resistance in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in ... 97 carbapenems non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were studied. β-lactamases (bla OXA-48, bla KPC, bla NDM, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, bla ...
This underscores a concerning evolution of colistin resistance in a setting of high KPC-KP endemicity. ... of carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were collected from 21 hospital laboratories across Italy from November 2013 ... Colistin resistance superimposed to endemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: a rapidly evolving problem in Italy, ... Colistin resistance superimposed to endemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: a rapidly evolving problem in Italy, ...
However, only one (2.4%) of the 41 ESBL producing isolates exhibited carbapenem resistance. The ESBL negative isolates were ... We recommend that institutions develop guidelines for the early phenotypic detection of ESBLs and carbapenem resistance. ... Carbapenem resistance was confirmed by the Modified Hodge Test. Of the 220 isolates, 122 (55.5%) were from females; 41 (18.6%) ... Low Prevalence of Carbapenem Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Escherichia ...
Twenty-five of the isolates were positive for the cfiA carbapenem resistance gene. The resistance rates were 0.8% and 1.3% for ... The major determinant of carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis is production of CfiA metallo-beta-lactamase via ... Examination of cfiA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis strains from a European antibiotic susceptibility ... However, other strains displayed at least elevated carbapenem MICs or were carbapenem resistant and produced measurable ...
... with the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) seen in the past decade. Resistance to carbapenems may be ... designed to detect the presence of the bla NDM-1 gene conferring carbapenem resistance. K. pneumoniae strain BAA-2146 (ATCC, ... Active surveillance is crucial to establishing the true prevalence of this resistance gene. The expression of NDM-1 in other ... The New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae threatens to render serious Gram-negative ...
Because of the increase in the infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K ... Colistin resistance in Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains.. Objective: Because of the increase in the ... The presence of carbapenem resistance genes (OXA23, NDM1, OXA48, KPC, VIM ve IMP ) was investigated by Polymerase Chain ... Resistance to carbapenems were confirmed genotypically. Two strains isolated from patients in clinics were positive for NDM1 ...
Mechanisms of Resistance. Acinetobacter radioresistens as a Silent Source of Carbapenem Resistance for Acinetobacter spp. ... Carbapenem resistance results mostly from the expression of acquired carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases in Acinetobacter ... Contribution of acquired carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases to carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrob. ... Carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) represent the main mechanism of resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter ...
Mechanisms of Resistance. Contribution of Acquired Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Oxacillinases to Carbapenem Resistance in ... including carbapenem resistance.. Although carbapenem resistance may be due in part to an impaired permeability related to ... thus showing the contributive role of OXA-40 in carbapenem resistance. This result was confirmed, as resistance to carbapenems ... Carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases OXA-23, OXA-40, and to a lesser extent OXA-58 play a role in carbapenem resistance in A. ...
Cepheid Announces First FDA-Cleared Test for Detection of Carbapenem Resistance Genes in Isolates of Multidrug Resistant ... Cepheid Announces First FDA-Cleared Test for Detection of Carbapenem Resistance Genes in Isolates of Multidrug Resistant ... and reproducible identification of 5 distinct families of carbapenem resistance genes that together represent the most common ... previously shown to be non-susceptible to carbapenem antibiotics, which may be cultured from a wide range of clinical specimens ...
Prevalence of carbapenem resistance and carbapenemase production among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine in the UK: ... results of the UK infection-Carbapenem Resistance Evaluation Surveillance Trial (iCREST-UK) ... Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infections (AMRHAI) Reference Unit, National Infection Service, Public ...
To determine the role of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from south-western ... Carbapenem Resistance in Gram-negative Bacteria in South-western Nigeria: The Role of Extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-15 ... Conclusion: Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics in this sample was not mediated only by carbapenemases but also by production ... This was an important mechanism underpinning carbapenem resistance in these clinical isolates of various species. ...
MBT Subtyping and Carbapenem Resistance Tests ... For this resistance mechanism, the new test can differentiate ... The MBT STAR-BL IMI approach will be helpful for that purpose, as increased resistance can be detected in less than three hours ... Identification and resistance detection is performed in a single automated analysis, providing species identification followed ... 3. Rapid, New MBT Selected Test of Antibiotic Resistance (STAR) for Beta-lactamase (BL) ...
  • Acquired class A (KPC), class B (IMP, VIM, NDM), or class D (OXA-48, OXA-181) carbapenemases, are the most important determinants sustaining resistance to carbapenems. (nih.gov)
  • Table 1 shows the classification of carbapenemases , the enzymes CRE produce that mediate resistance to antimicrobials. (aacc.org)
  • Our findings show that although multidrug resistant ESBL producing E. coli are prevalent in both the hospital and the community in this environment, carbapenem resistance is still low. (scirp.org)
  • Resistance rates to polymyxin B in surveillance studies have been very low despite its increasing use worldwide as the last resort therapy for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. (biomedcentral.com)