A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.
EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
An autosomal inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of GLUCOSE by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The urinary loss of glucose can reach beyond 50 g/day. It is attributed to the mutations in the SODIUM-GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER 2 encoded by the SLC5A2 gene.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Diseases of plants.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Resistance to carbapenems is also being increasingly reported. A. baumannii can survive on the human skin or dry surfaces for ... Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been reported during therapy, which has also resulted in increased resistance to other drug ... Antibiotic resistance genes are often plasmid-borne, and plasmids present in Acinetobacter strains can be transferred to other ... Antibiotic resistance is a major risk factor for epidemic behavior of Acinetobacter baumannii. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ...
Antibiotic resistance[edit]. Main article: Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae. Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have ... For instance, some Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are carbapenem resistant.[9] References[edit]. *^ "List of genera included in ... Klebsiella bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems." ... been isolated which are resistant to antibiotics including carbapenems, which are often claimed as "the last line of antibiotic ...
Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Multiple drug resistance Cerceo, Elizabeth; Deitelzweig, Steven B.; Sherman, Bradley M.; ... Subsequently, carbapenems are sometimes not active against those serious infections. That is why clinicians around the world ... We used to use carbapenems as the main option in several countries for those severe infections; however, now there are several ... Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN bacteria) are a type of Gram-negative bacteria with resistance to multiple ...
... , like other carbapenems, is a potent inducer of multidrug resistance in bacteria. Meropenem is bactericidal except ... In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or ... It is in the carbapenem family of medications. Meropenem usually results in bacterial death through blocking their ability to ... restores carbapenem susceptibility to NDM-1-positive pathogens in vitro and in vivo". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 72 ...
In the United States, the reasons the CDC is recommending the detection of carbapenem resistance or carbapenemase production ... A number of mechanisms cause carbapenem resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae. These include hyperproduction of ampC beta- ... April 2001). "Novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, from a carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae ... that even gives resistance against intravenous antibiotic carbapenem, were discovered in India and Pakistan.Klebsiella cases in ...
The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. However, the ... an enzyme that hydrolyzes and inactivates these carbapenem antibiotics. Carbapenemases are particularly dangerous resistance ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics that are capable of killing most bacteria by inhibiting the synthesis of one ... In March 2010, a study in a hospital in Mumbai found that most carbapenem-resistant bacteria isolated from patients carried the ...
... (PTZ-601) is a broad spectrum injectable antibiotic, from the carbapenem subgroup of beta-lactam antibiotics. It was ... against Enterobacteriaceae with defined resistance mechanisms". The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 64 (2): 330-5. doi: ... Livermore DM, Mushtaq S, Warner M (August 2009). "Activity of the anti-MRSA carbapenem razupenem (PTZ601) ... developed as a replacement drug to combat bacteria that had acquired antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics. ...
... and resistance to chloramphenicol. The resistance of P. penneri to cefuroxime and the marked inhibitory activity of cefoxitin ... However, HugA does not affect cephamycins or carbapenems and is inhibited by clavulanic acid. Similar to other Proteus species ... Isolates of P. penneri have been found to be multiple drug-resistant (MDR) with resistance to six to eight drugs. β-lactamase ... Most isolates of P. penneri from the experiment were found to be multiple drug-resistant including resistance to amoxy- ...
"Acinetobacter radioresistens as a Silent Source of Carbapenem Resistance for Acinetobacter spp". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
Cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin from the β-Lactam antibiotic class.[more detail needed] Imipenem (a carbapenem) is ... Furthermore, the same bacterial strain, isolated from the patient, induced obesity and insulin resistance in germfree C57BL/6J ... Treatment is dependent on local trends of antibiotic resistance. Enterobacter huaxiensis and Enterobacter chuandaensis are two ...
... carbapenem resistance evolution through heteroresistance as an intermediate stage in Acinetobacter baumannii after carbapenem ... Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be categorized into three groups. First, resistance can be achieved by reducing ... AbaRs contain several genes for antibiotic resistance, all flanked by insertion sequences. There exist several resistance genes ... a novel Class D Beta-Lactamase Involved in Resistance to Carbapenems in Acinetobacter baumannii". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
... and carbapenems. Hydrolysis of the antibiotics by blaCMY-2 results in the resistance. This enzyme is present and expressed in ... The antibiotic resistance of Salmonella makes it difficult to treat these infections if they were to inflict humans. The ... E. coli local to the human's GI tract have acquired this same antibiotic resistance using the blaCMY-2 enzyme. The sequence ... Beta-lactamase (blaCMY-2) is an enzyme responsible for providing antibiotic resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, ...
Carbapenem resistance via the bla KPC-2 gene in Enterobacter cloacae blood culture isolate. Southern Medical Journal. 103 (5), ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 8, 281-289 (2002). Ruiz J. Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones: target alterations, decreased ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 14 (1), 45-47 (2008). Falcone M, Mezzatesta ML, Perilli MG et al. Infections with VIM-1 metallo-beta ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 13 (1), 1-6 (2007). Daurel C, Fiant AL, Brémont S, Courvalin P, Leclercq R. Emergence of an ...
Antibiotic resistanceEdit. Main article: Carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae. Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have been ... Klebsiella bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems." ... isolated which are resistant to antibiotics including carbapenems, which are often claimed as "the last line of antibiotic ...
From a medical standpoint, an important feature of this genus is the high level of intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Some ... enterococci are intrinsically resistant to β-lactam-based antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems), as well as ... Urinary tract infections can be treated specifically with nitrofurantoin, even in cases of vancomycin resistance. Enterococcal ... 2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1- ...
Drug resistance, such as antimicrobial resistance or antineoplastic resistance, may make the first-line drug ineffective, ... Carbapenems (such as imipenem/cilastatin) - used as drug of last resort for a variety of different bacterial infections; ... or vancomycin intermediate-resistance S. aureus (VISA)) often coinciding with methicillin/penicillin resistance, prompting the ... Recently, resistance to even vancomycin has been shown in some strains of S. aureus (sometimes referred to as vancomycin ...
Antibiotics are used in combination for a number of reasons: to treat multiresistant organisms, such as carbapenem-resistant ... Antibiotic combinations are increasingly important because of antimicrobial resistance. This means that individual antibiotics ... In particular, they may be required to treat multiresistant organisms, such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Some ...
Resistance to clindamycin is common and has been seen in over 10% of isolates in the US. One review stated that "the ... Most surveys have found it to be susceptible to penicillins, carbapenems and metronidazole, though resistant strains have been ...
Resistance to ceftazidime, carbapenems, and co-amoxiclav are rare in the intensive phase, but are more prominent during ... Resistance to cotrimoxazole is rare in Australia. Surgical drainage is indicated for single, large abscesses in the liver, ... However, B. pseudomallei often acquires resistance when co-amoxiclav is used. Cases have also been reported where melioidosis ... and resistance to certain antibiotics of the bacteria. Molecular methods such as 16S rDNA probes and polymerase chain reaction ...
Enzymes conferring resistance to fosfomycin have also been identified and are encoded both chromosomally and on plasmids. Three ... Fosfomycin acts synergistically with many other antibiotics, including cephalosporins, carbapenems, daptomycin and ... Development of bacterial resistance under therapy is a frequent occurrence and makes fosfomycin unsuitable for sustained ... The global problem of advancing antimicrobial resistance has led to a renewed interest in its use more recently. Fosfomycin can ...
In areas where there is a higher prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance, it is useful to initiate treatment with a single ... or a carbapenem. Combination antibiotic therapy is often used in such situations. The treatment regimen is selected based on ... Take resistance into account". Prescrire International. 23 (155): 296-300. December 2014. PMID 25629148. Ferri, Fred F. (2017 ... local resistance data and the susceptibility profile of the specific infecting organism(s). During the course of antibiotic ...
February 2013). "Novel carbapenem antibiotics for parenteral and oral applications: in vitro and in vivo activities of 2-aryl ... It was developed as a replacement drug to combat bacteria that had acquired antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics ... Hazra S, Xu H, Blanchard JS (June 2014). "Tebipenem, a new carbapenem antibiotic, is a slow substrate that inhibits the β- ... Tebipenem is the first carbapenem whose prodrug form, the pivalyl ester, is orally available. El-Gamal MI, Oh CH (2010). " ...
... and carbapenem antibiotics. The group's biosynthetic work has focused on the clavams and carbapenems, with a particular focus ... The biggest threat to the continued use of β-lactam antibiotics is that of bacterial resistance. Prof Schofield is currently ... "Epimerization and desaturation by carbapenem synthase (CarC). A hybrid DFT study". Journal of Computational Chemistry. 27 (6): ...
... and carbapenems. Many of these antibiotics also cover gram positive organisms. The drugs that specifically target gram negative ... The outer membrane provides these bacteria with resistance to lysozyme and penicillin. The periplasmic space (space between the ...
... provide resistance to carbapenems. Members of this family commonly express β-lactamases (e.g., TEM-3, TEM-4, and SHV-1) which ... Some confer resistance predominantly to ceftazidime, but OXA-17 confers greater resistance to cefotaxime and cefepime than it ... Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant ( ... although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase. Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the ...
Resistance to polymyxins first appear in 2011. An easier way for this resistance to spread, a plasmid known as MCR-1 was ... Carbapenem antibiotics (heretofore often the treatment of last resort for resistant infections) are generally not effective ... These bacteria have shown antibiotic resistance (or antimicrobial resistance). NDM-1 is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant ... Resistance to one drug is common, and this is why treatment is usually done with more than one drug. Extensively drug-resistant ...
Klebsiella bacteria have developed antimicrobial resistance, most recently to the class of antibiotics known as carbapenems." ... Several Enterobacteriaceae strains have been isolated which are resistant to antibiotics including carbapenems, which are often ... For instance, some Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are carbapenem resistant. "List of genera included in families - ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "A new class of antibiotics to combat drug resistance". Science Daily. 6 April 2018. ... Odilorhabdins were shown to act particularly against carbapenem-resistant members of bacteria family Enterobacteriaceae, having ... potential to kill pathogens with antimicrobial resistance. The discovery of odilorhabdins was announced in 2013 and formally ... Resistance-Combatting Antibacterial". Bioprocess Online. Retrieved 7 April 2018. ...
The mechanism of bacterial resistance in some strains of B. avium have been recorded: there are resistance genes encoded on ... carbapenem, imipenem, fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, cefoperazon, cefepime, cetazidime, piperacillin and ... Most isolate strains of B. avium have resistance to a number of antibiotics. Resistance has been elucidated to aztreonam, ... The difficulty with characterizing antibiotic resistance and susceptibility in B. avium strains is most strains will appear ...
... mga carbapenem, fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside, atvancomycin.[68] Ang mga antibiyotikong ito ay kadalasang ibinibigay sa ... "Community-Acquired Pneumonia: From Common Pathogens To Emerging Resistance". Emergency Medicine Practice. 7 (12).. Unknown ...
2002). The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN 978-1- ... Algúns enterococos son intrinsecamente resistentes a antibióticos β-lactámicos (penicilinas, cefalosporinas, carbapenems), e a ...
In case of people having high risk of being infected with multiple drug resistance organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ... or broad-spectrum carbapenem combined with fluoroquinolones, macrolides, or aminoglycosides) are recommended. The choice of ... During critical illness, a state of adrenal insufficiency and tissue resistance to corticosteroids may occur. This has been ... low blood pressure due to decreased systemic vascular resistance, higher cardiac output, and disorders in blood-clotting that ...
Carbapenemases represent type of ESBL which are able to hydrolyze carbapenem antibiotics that are considered as the last-resort ... Multiple resistance genes are commonly arranged in the resistance cassettes. The antibiotic resistance genes found on the ... Plasmid-mediated resistance is the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes which are carried on plasmids. The plasmids can be ... It is very common for the resistance genes or entire resistance cassettes to be re-arranged on the same plasmid or be moved to ...
... it reduces the effect of any coincident synaptic input by reducing the electrical resistance of the cell's membrane. Shunting ... β-Lactams (e.g., penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems). *Basmisanil. *Bemegride. *Bicyclic phosphates (TBPS, TBPO, IPTBO) ... "A point mutation in a Drosophila GABA receptor confers insecticide resistance". Nature. 363 (6428): 449-51. Bibcode:1993Natur. ...
In case of people having high risk of being infected with multiple drug resistance organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ... or broad-spectrum carbapenem combined with fluoroquinolones, macrolides, or aminoglycosides) are recommended. However, ... During critical illness, a state of adrenal insufficiency and tissue resistance to corticosteroids may occur. This has been ... low blood pressure due to decreased systemic vascular resistance, higher cardiac output, and disorders in blood-clotting that ...
"About Antimicrobial Resistance". www.cdc.gov. Consultado o 2015-10-30.. *↑ "Antibiotic Resistance Questions & Answers". Get ... Enterobacteriáceas resistentes a carbapenem[editar , editar a fonte]. En 2013 apareceron infeccións difíciles de tratar ou ... "Antibiotic Resistance , NRDC". www.nrdc.org. Consultado o 2015-10-30.. *↑ Sapkota AR, Lefferts LY, McKenzie S, Walker P (maio ... Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a Crises for the Health and Welfare of Nations: 2014. Jim O'Neill Gibbs Building, 215 Euston ...
In areas where there is a higher prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance, it is useful to initiate treatment with a single ... or a carbapenem. Combination antibiotic therapy is often used in such situations. The treatment regimen is selected based on ... local resistance data and the susceptibility profile of the specific infecting organism(s).[၁၀] ...
... and Bacteroides fragilis strains having various resistance phenotypes". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 55 (5): 2390-4. ...
Antibiotic resistance[edit]. Intrinsic resistance[edit]. A few Gram-positive bacteria are intrinsically resistant to vancomycin ... Acquired resistance[edit]. Evolution of microbial resistance to vancomycin is a growing problem, in particular, within ... Three main resistance variants have been characterised to date among resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis populations ... One mechanism of resistance to vancomycin involves the alteration to the terminal amino acid residues of the NAM/NAG-peptide ...
Bacterial resistance[edit]. See also: Antibiotic abuse and Antibiotic resistance. As a result of its widespread use to treat ... M Jacobs, Worldwide Overview of Antimicrobial Resistance. International Symposium on Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance 2005. ... "Bacterial resistance prompts concern among health officials". 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009.. ... As resistance to cipro has grown, research has been conducted to discover and develop analogs that can be effective against ...
"Penicillin G sodium salt Susceptibility and Resistance Data" (PDF). TOKU-E. Retrieved 4 March 2014.. ... However, the usefulness of the β-lactam ring was such that related antibiotics, including the mecillinams, the carbapenems and ... They are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use. ... implication in drug resistance". Journal of Molecular Biology. 299 (2): 477-85. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.3740. PMID 10860753.. ...
Spectrum of bacterial susceptibility and resistance[edit]. Cefdinir is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and has been used to treat ... no documented resistance of Group A Streptococcus to penicillin has ever been reported, and penicillin or amoxicillin is ...
Plasmids that carry several different resistance genes can confer resistance to multiple antibacterials.[72] Cross-resistance ... Imipenem/MK-7655: Carbapenem/ β-lactamase inhibitor combination (cell wall synthesis inhibitor). In phase 2. ... Resistance and modifying agentsEdit. One strategy to address bacterial drug resistance is the discovery and application of ... Resistance modifying agents are capable of partly or completely suppressing bacterial resistance mechanisms.[136] For example, ...
"Infection and Drug Resistance. 6: 215-23. doi:10.2147/idr.s36140. PMC 3848746. PMID 24348053. Retrieved 2019-06-23.. ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 24 (5): 563-577. doi:10.1089/mdr.2017.0266. PMID 29039729.. ... Activity of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam Tested Against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Various Resistance ...
"Cefprozil Susceptibility and Resistance Data" (PDF). Retrieved 23 July 2013.. *^ H. Hoshi et al., DE 3402642 ; eidem, U.S. ... Spectrum of bacterial susceptibility and resistance[edit]. Currently bacteria like Enterobacter aerogenes, Morganella morganii ... Some bacteria like Brucella abortus, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae have developed resistance towards ... Detailed minimum inhibition concentration information is given by the Cefprozil Susceptibility and Resistance Data sheet.[3] ...
McGowan J (2006). "Resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria: multidrug resistance to the maximum". Am J Med. 119 (6 ... S. maltophilia is naturally resistant to many broad-spectrum antibiotics (including all carbapenems) due to the production of ... Many strains of S. maltophilia are sensitive to co-trimoxazole and ticarcillin, though resistance has been increasing.[13] It ... "Update on infections caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with particular attention to resistance mechanisms and therapeutic ...
Resistance to amikacin also confers resistance to kanamycin and capreomycin.[30] Resistance to amikacin and kanamycin in ... Respiratory tract infections, including as an adjunct to beta-lactams or carbapenem for hospital-acquired pneumonia ... also confer resistance: resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is caused by AAC(6')-IV, which also confers resistance to ... Resistance[edit]. Amikacin evades attacks by all antibiotic-inactivating enzymes that are responsible for antibiotic resistance ...
McDonnell, G; Russell, AD (1999). "Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance". Clin Microbiol Rev. 12 (1 ... and carbapenems) and vancomycin. Also bactericidal are daptomycin, fluoroquinolones, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, co- ...
Bacterial resistance occurs as a result of the expression of one of many genes for the production of β-lactamases, a class of ... Penams have values in the range 0.40-0.50 Å, while carbapenems and clavams have values of 0.50-0.60 Å, being the most reactive ... carbapenems, and monobactams, which are, therefore, also called β-lactam antibiotics. Nearly all of these antibiotics work by ... β-lactam derived antibiotics can be considered as one of the most important antibiotic classes but prone to clinical resistance ...
Seven people have been infected by and two have died from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, a drug-resistant superbug. A ... The building envelope is designed to resist and survive severe seismic events and maintain excellent resistance to air and ...
Methicillin-resistant Staph aureus (MRSA) can develop resistance to Ceftaroline through the alteration of penicillin-binding ... or carbapenems should be made. If this product is to be given to penicillin- or other beta-lactam-allergic people, caution ... While cephalosporinases (a type of beta-lactamase that inactivates cephalosporins) confers resistance to other cephalosporins, ... PBP2a mutations causing high-level Ceftaroline resistance in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. ...
... isolates of the species have been identified as an important source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenem-resistance ...
Carbapenems differ from conventional penicillins (penams) in having no sulfur atom in their 5-membered ring and in having a ... I. Podglajen, J. Breuil, A. Coutrot, L. Gutmann and E. Collatz, Incidence of the carbapenem (Cpm) resistance gene cfiA and ... Livermore D.M. (1995) Bacterial Resistance to Carbapenems. In: Jungkind D.L., Mortensen J.E., Fraimow H.S., Calandra G.B. (eds ... Antimicrob Agent Serratia Marcescens Carbapenem Resistance Lactam Antibiotic Carbapenemase Gene These keywords were added by ...
Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: here is the storm!. Nordmann P1, Dortet L, Poirel L. ... The current worldwide emergence of resistance to the powerful antibiotic carbapenem in Enterobacteriaceae constitutes an ... This review summarizes the current knowledge on carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, including activity, distribution, ... are the most important determinants sustaining resistance to carbapenems. The corresponding genes are mostly plasmid-located ...
... Atul Khajuria, Ashok Kumar ... Atul Khajuria, Ashok Kumar Praharaj, Mahadevan Kumar, and Naveen Grover, "Carbapenem Resistance among Enterobacter Species in a ...
Multi-institute carbapenem-resistance analysis. Gustavo C. Cerqueira, Ashlee M. Earl, Christoph M. Ernst, Yonatan H. Grad, John ... Multi-institute carbapenem-resistance analysis. Gustavo C. Cerqueira, Ashlee M. Earl, Christoph M. Ernst, Yonatan H. Grad, John ... Multi-institute analysis of carbapenem resistance reveals remarkable diversity, unexplained mechanisms, and limited clonal ... We provide evidence for considerable asymptomatic carriage and unrecognizable mechanisms of carbapenem resistance that, ...
Contribution of extended-spectrum AmpC (ESAC) beta-lactamases to carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli.. Mammeri H1, ... The production of ESAC beta-lactamase in favorable E. coli background may represent an additional mechanism of resistance to ... ESAC expression associated with the loss of both OmpC and OmpF porins conferred in Escherichia coli a high level of resistance ... cephalosporinase expressed in the OmpC-and OmpF-deficient strain do not confer reduced susceptibility to any of the carbapenems ...
... ... Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ( ... These results revealed diverse mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance to P. aeruginosa isolates from Saudi Arabia. ... The predominant serotype was O:11 (16 isolates), followed by O:15 (nine isolates). PFGE analysis of the 34 carbapenem-resistant ...
... the mechanism of resistance involved and (ii) whether resistance to carbapenems affects the level of resistance to other beta- ... if resistance to other beta-lactam agents affects the level of resistance to carbapenems. For this purpose, the presence of ... Lack of additive effect between mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems and other beta-lactam agents in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... demonstrating the role of cephalosporinase in carbapenem resistance. Within each pattern of susceptibility, the mean MICs of ...
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae screening should be considered for patients who have undergone medical procedures ... Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae screening should be considered for patients who have undergone medical procedures ... Notes from the Field: Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate with Three Carbapenem Resistance Genes Associated with Urology ... Notes from the Field: Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate with Three Carbapenem Resistance Genes Associated with Urology ...
All these 170 CRKP isolates showed high resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems (,95%), except for tigecycline and ... A majority of these children had received therapy of antibiotics before CRKP isolation, especially for carbapenems (76/170) and ... Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenemases, drug resistance, OXA-232, NDM-5, children ... Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has caused wide global disseminations and serious clinical outcomes in ...
In 2012 the WHO released a publication outlining the evolving threat of antimicrobial resistance in order to raise awareness ... Unprecedented levels of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates have prompted great concerns globally. ... Now carbapenem resistance further limits treatment options. In this article the authors discuss carbapenem resistance in ... Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: laboratory challenges, mechanistic insights and therapeutic strategies Expert ...
We analyzed 556 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from patients in Singapore hospitals during 2010-2015 and ... Intrapatient isolates were also able to acquire additional antimicrobial drug resistance genes when inside human bodies. Our ... The convergence of carbapenem-resistance and hypervirulence genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae has led to the emergence of highly ... results highlight the potential spread of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae in Singapore. ...
Approximately 3.2% of Enterobacteriaceae reported in healthcare-associated infections were resistant to carbapenems and 26.9% ... Carbapenem and Cephalosporin Resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in Healthcare-Associated Infections, California, USA1 On This ... Decreasing trends in carbapenem resistance and in the DTR phenotype among Klebsiella species, often the focus of AMR ... We observed decreasing trends in carbapenem resistance (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.80-1.01) and in the DTR phenotype (RR 0.88; 95% CI ...
Polymyxin B resistance in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, São Paulo, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016; 22(10): 1849- ... Deleterious mutations in pmrB gene is the main chromosomal target for induction of polymyxin resistance in carbapenem-resistant ... Non-clonal occurrence of pmrB mutations associated with polymyxin resistance in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in ... 97 carbapenems non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were studied. β-lactamases (bla OXA-48, bla KPC, bla NDM, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, bla ...
Detection of carbapenem resistance genes and cephalosporin, and quinolone resistance genes along with oqxAB gene in Escherichia ... Genomic Analysis of Hospital Plumbing Reveals Diverse Reservoir of Bacterial Plasmids Conferring Carbapenem Resistance. Rebecca ... Nested Russian doll-like genetic mobility drives rapid dissemination of the carbapenem resistance gene blaKPC. Antimicrob ... The hospital environment is a potential reservoir of bacteria with plasmids conferring carbapenem resistance. Our Hospital ...
Multi-institute analysis of carbapenem resistance reveals remarkable diversity, unexplained mechanisms, and limited clonal ... "Multi-Institute Analysis of Carbapenem Resistance Reveals Remarkable Diversity, Unexplained Mechanisms, and Limited Clonal ... We also found evidence for previously unrecognized resistance mechanisms that produced resistance when transformed into a ... The most common resistance mechanisms were KPC (K. pneumoniae carbapenemases) beta-lactamases encoded by bla(KPC2), bla(KPC3), ...
This underscores a concerning evolution of colistin resistance in a setting of high KPC-KP endemicity. ... of carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were collected from 21 hospital laboratories across Italy from November 2013 ... Colistin resistance superimposed to endemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: a rapidly evolving problem in Italy, ... Colistin resistance superimposed to endemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: a rapidly evolving problem in Italy, ...
However, only one (2.4%) of the 41 ESBL producing isolates exhibited carbapenem resistance. The ESBL negative isolates were ... We recommend that institutions develop guidelines for the early phenotypic detection of ESBLs and carbapenem resistance. ... Carbapenem resistance was confirmed by the Modified Hodge Test. Of the 220 isolates, 122 (55.5%) were from females; 41 (18.6%) ... Low Prevalence of Carbapenem Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Escherichia ...
To determine the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in fish fished in Mediterranean Sea near the Bejaia ... Keywords : carbapenem resistance Acinetobacter baumannii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Acinetobacter baumannii Carbapenemase ... First description of two OXA-23-mediated carbapenem resistance in Sequence Type 2 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Pagellus ... First description of two OXA-23-mediated carbapenem resistance in Sequence Type 2 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Pagellus ...
Twenty-five of the isolates were positive for the cfiA carbapenem resistance gene. The resistance rates were 0.8% and 1.3% for ... The major determinant of carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis is production of CfiA metallo-beta-lactamase via ... Examination of cfiA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis strains from a European antibiotic susceptibility ... However, other strains displayed at least elevated carbapenem MICs or were carbapenem resistant and produced measurable ...
... with the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) seen in the past decade. Resistance to carbapenems may be ... designed to detect the presence of the bla NDM-1 gene conferring carbapenem resistance. K. pneumoniae strain BAA-2146 (ATCC, ... Active surveillance is crucial to establishing the true prevalence of this resistance gene. The expression of NDM-1 in other ... The New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae threatens to render serious Gram-negative ...
Molecular characterization of OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains after a carbapenem resistance ... which may be involved in reduced susceptibility to carbapenems.12 A low affinity for carbapenems of some ESBLs has been ... Antimicrobial resistance genes present in the different MLST and PFGE profiles of the 85 OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae strains ... Table 2. Antimicrobial resistance genes present in the different MLST and PFGE profiles of the 85 OXA-48-producing K. ...
Because of the increase in the infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K ... Colistin resistance in Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains.. Objective: Because of the increase in the ... The presence of carbapenem resistance genes (OXA23, NDM1, OXA48, KPC, VIM ve IMP ) was investigated by Polymerase Chain ... Resistance to carbapenems were confirmed genotypically. Two strains isolated from patients in clinics were positive for NDM1 ...
Mechanisms of Resistance. Acinetobacter radioresistens as a Silent Source of Carbapenem Resistance for Acinetobacter spp. ... Carbapenem resistance results mostly from the expression of acquired carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases in Acinetobacter ... Contribution of acquired carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases to carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrob. ... Carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) represent the main mechanism of resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter ...
Mechanisms of Resistance. Contribution of Acquired Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Oxacillinases to Carbapenem Resistance in ... including carbapenem resistance.. Although carbapenem resistance may be due in part to an impaired permeability related to ... thus showing the contributive role of OXA-40 in carbapenem resistance. This result was confirmed, as resistance to carbapenems ... Carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases OXA-23, OXA-40, and to a lesser extent OXA-58 play a role in carbapenem resistance in A. ...
Cepheid Announces First FDA-Cleared Test for Detection of Carbapenem Resistance Genes in Isolates of Multidrug Resistant ... Cepheid Announces First FDA-Cleared Test for Detection of Carbapenem Resistance Genes in Isolates of Multidrug Resistant ... and reproducible identification of 5 distinct families of carbapenem resistance genes that together represent the most common ... previously shown to be non-susceptible to carbapenem antibiotics, which may be cultured from a wide range of clinical specimens ...
ZN148 Is a Modular Synthetic Metallo-beta-Lactamase Inhibitor That Reverses Carbapenem Resistance in Gram-Negative Pathogens In ... ZN148 Is a Modular Synthetic Metallo-beta-Lactamase Inhibitor That Reverses Carbapenem Resistance in Gram-Negative Pathogens In ... Unfortunately, there are no approved inhibitors of MBL-mediated carbapenem-resistance and treatment options for infections ... ZN148 Is a Modular Synthetic Metallo-beta-Lactamase Inhibitor That Reverses Carbapenem Resistance in Gram-Negative Pathogens In ...
Prevalence of carbapenem resistance and carbapenemase production among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine in the UK: ... results of the UK infection-Carbapenem Resistance Evaluation Surveillance Trial (iCREST-UK) ... Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infections (AMRHAI) Reference Unit, National Infection Service, Public ...
To determine the role of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from south-western ... Carbapenem Resistance in Gram-negative Bacteria in South-western Nigeria: The Role of Extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-15 ... Conclusion: Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics in this sample was not mediated only by carbapenemases but also by production ... This was an important mechanism underpinning carbapenem resistance in these clinical isolates of various species. ...
MBT Subtyping and Carbapenem Resistance Tests ... For this resistance mechanism, the new test can differentiate ... The MBT STAR-BL IMI approach will be helpful for that purpose, as increased resistance can be detected in less than three hours ... Identification and resistance detection is performed in a single automated analysis, providing species identification followed ... 3. Rapid, New MBT Selected Test of Antibiotic Resistance (STAR) for Beta-lactamase (BL) ...
1). Carbapenem and 3rd. gen. cephalosporin resistance among K. pneumoniae is increasing in all patient settings. 2). Carbapenem ... Trends in Resistance to Carbapenems and Third-Generation Cephalosporins among Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the ... cephalosporin resistance among K. pneumoniae highest along the East Coast, but present in all regions of the country. ... Methods: Isolates were defined as CRKP if they were nonsusceptible to 1 or more carbapenems and were defined as G3CRKP if they ...
  • Sporadic outbreaks or endemic situations with enterobacterial isolates not susceptible to carbapenems are now reported not only in hospital settings but also in the community. (nih.gov)
  • This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. (hindawi.com)
  • A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • 256 mg/L). Fifteen isolates had MIC values ≥64 mg/L for any of the carbapenems examined. (hindawi.com)
  • PFGE analysis of the 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates revealed 14 different pulsotypes. (hindawi.com)
  • These results revealed diverse mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance to P. aeruginosa isolates from Saudi Arabia. (hindawi.com)
  • Unprecedented levels of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates have prompted great concerns globally. (nih.gov)
  • Maximum-likelihood trees of genes from carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, Singapore, 2013-2015. (cdc.gov)
  • The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) and the increased use of polymyxin B to treat infections caused by these microorganisms may have contributed to the spread of polymyxin-resistant K . pneumoniae isolates (PRKP). (scielo.br)
  • Consecutive non-replicate clinical isolates (n=191) of carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were collected from 21 hospital laboratories across Italy from November 2013 to April 2014 as part of the European Survey on Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE) project. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • However, only one (2.4%) of the 41 ESBL producing isolates exhibited carbapenem resistance. (scirp.org)
  • Twenty-five of the isolates were positive for the cfiA carbapenem resistance gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • Two strains isolated from patients in clinics were positive for NDM1 and OX-48, and isolates from patients in intensive care unit were positive for only OXA-48 carbapenem genes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Five Acinetobacter radioresistens isolates that were susceptible to carbapenems harbored chromosomally encoded bla OXA-23 -like genes. (asm.org)
  • Recently, we identified acquired bla OXA-23 genes located in peculiar transposon structures, namely, Tn 2006 (IS Aba1 linked) and Tn 2007 (IS Aba4 linked) from carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Recently, a novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinase, OXA-51, has been described in A. baumannii clinical isolates from Argentina ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Since studies published on these oxacillinases reported mostly analyses of clinical isolates, it is difficult to compare the precise roles of these β-lactamases in resistance to carbapenems in A. baumannii ( 1 , 15 , 23 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Xpert Carba- R is the first FDA-cleared test for detection and differentiation of carbapenemase genes in pure bacterial isolates, previously shown to be non-susceptible to carbapenem antibiotics, which may be cultured from a wide range of clinical specimens, including blood cultures, urine, respiratory samples, abscesses and swab surveillance specimens. (cepheid.com)
  • Twenty-seven carbapenem-resistant isolates that were found to be non-carbapenemase producers (15 Escherichia coli , 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) were further studied. (uwi.edu)
  • These isolates were subjected to analysis including phenotypic and genotypic detection of various β-lactamases, efflux activity, outer membrane protein, plasmids replicon typing, detection of transferable genes and resistances and typing using random amplified polymorphic DNA tests. (uwi.edu)
  • This was an important mechanism underpinning carbapenem resistance in these clinical isolates of various species. (uwi.edu)
  • We examined national trends in the proportion of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates resistant to carbapenems (CRKP) and third-generation cephalosporins (G3CRKP). (extendingthecure.org)
  • Isolates were defined as CRKP if they were nonsusceptible to 1 or more carbapenems and were defined as G3CRKP if they were nonsusceptible to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, or related antibiotics. (extendingthecure.org)
  • The frequency of G3CRKP and CRKP is increasing in all regions of the United States, and resistance is emerging among isolates recovered in the outpatient setting. (extendingthecure.org)
  • Two major studies proved that in Bulgarian clinical isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa the increased expression or overexpression of MexXY-OprM efflux pump sometimes combined with overexpression of MexAB-OprM with or without loss of the OprD is the main mechanism of determining this type of resistance. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This study was undertaken with the primary aim of characterising the molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter isolates collected at St. James's Hospital, Dublin. (tcd.ie)
  • Resistance to Imipenem was found in 31.8% of the isolates, whereas resistance to meropenem was found in 23.8% of the isolates. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Overall carbapenem resistance was observed in 55.7% of the total isolates, with a slight increase in resistance of isolated over the 3 years of collection. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Multiple carbapenem resistance mechanisms were found in nearly a quarter of the isolates. (jidc.org)
  • Muderris T, Durmaz R, Ozdem B, Dal T, Unaldı O, Aydogan S, Celikbilek N, Acıkgoz Z (2018) Role of efflux pump and OprD porin expression in carbapenem resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. (jidc.org)
  • Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of carbapenemase production and carbapenem resistance mechanisms in 47 carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates by phenotypic confirmatory tests and molecular assay. (jidc.org)
  • Conclusions: This study revealed that carbapenem resistance observed in K. pneumoniae isolates was mainly due to OXA-48 and NDM genes and the increase of carbapenem resistance among K. pneumoniae strains in our hospital was due to the interhospital spread of especially 3 epidemic clones. (jidc.org)
  • Plasmid borne Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Class D β-Lactamases (CHDLs) and AdeABC efflux pump conferring carbapenem-tigecycline resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates harboring TnAbaRs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we studied the prevalence and mechanisms of simultaneous resistance to carbapenem and tigecycline and accumulation of resistance determinants reservoirs in genome of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) clinical isolates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, two multiplex polymerase chain reactions were performed to screen for both carbapenem-hydrolysing class D β-lactamases and MBL genes in 97 clinical isolates of A. baumannii. (up.ac.za)
  • That year, the National Healthcare Safety Network reported new findings in a disturbing trend: Nearly four percent of Escherichia coli isolates and 10.8 percent of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from device-associated infections were carbapenem resistant. (captodayonline.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae , most notably isolates classified as multilocus sequence type (ST) 258, have emerged as an important cause of hospital deaths. (pnas.org)
  • The frequency of resistance to carbapenems in Bacteroides fragilis isolates is rising and is conferred by a metallo-β-lactamase encoded by the cfiA gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Underlying mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates at a tertiary care centre in Lebanon: role of OXA-48 and NDM-1 carbapenemases. (sparrho.com)
  • A recent increase in carbapenem resistance among extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates at a major tertiary care centre in Lebanon prompted the initiation of this study. (sparrho.com)
  • Consecutive ESBL-producing isolates were tested for resistance to carbapenems, with initial screening by disk diffusion and Etest using ertapenem. (sparrho.com)
  • In conclusion, carbapenem resistance in ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli is due to the combined effect of β-lactamases with porin impermeability and/or efflux pump activity observed in these organisms, and in a number of isolates is due to the production of the carbapenemase-encoding genes bla(OXA-48) and the newly emerging bla(NDM-1). (sparrho.com)
  • A survey of Bacteroides clinical isolates from the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary was also undertaken to determine the frequency of resistance to several antimicrobials. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and revealing genetic relatedness to isolates from human clinical sources requires further investigations regarding the pathogenic potential, genomic characteristics, zoonotic risk and putative additional sources of this new Acinetobacter species. (rki.de)
  • Among consecutive A. baumannii isolates collected at 54 United Kingdom hospitals in 2000 more than 85% were resistant to cephalosporins, 43% were resistant to gentamicin, and 46% were resistant to quinolones, leaving the carbapenems as the only standard antibiotics active against more than 90% of isolates in vitro ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Fortunately, imipenem resistance is relatively rare among Acinetobacter clinical isolates. (asm.org)
  • The clinical relevance of these genetic mechanisms became evident from the analysis of previously isolated carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates, which appeared to carry similar mutations. (uu.nl)
  • Hence this study was undertaken to study the magnitude of carbapenem resistance among routine clinical isolates of family Enterobacteriaceae so as to guide the clinicians in selection of appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapies and infection control measures. (msjonline.org)
  • All the clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were screened for carbapenem resistance as per CLSI guidelines. (msjonline.org)
  • Out of the 400 total clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the laboratory,57 were found to be Meropenem resistant (14.25%) and were labelled 'Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae" or CRE. (msjonline.org)
  • Modified Hodge test (MHT) performed on the 57 carbapenem resistant isolates showed 41 (71.93%) isolates to be carbapenemase enzyme producers. (msjonline.org)
  • The bacterial isolates were screened for meropenem- and colistin-resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • 2016). At the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), the prevalence of CREs has doubled since 2015, reaching 11%, while carbapenem resistance among A. baumannii isolates has remained high beyond 75% during the same time period (Araj and Zaatari, 2015, 2018). (medworm.com)
  • In carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa, the outer membrane protein D (oprD) expression was down regulated in all clinical isolates investigated, both susceptible and resistant. (ki.se)
  • Analysis of oprD and efflux genes expression in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicates that other resistance mechanisms are involved in clinical isolates. (ki.se)
  • In isolates from intensive care units (ICU) resistance to carbapenems was significantly higher than non-ICU patients. (who.int)
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Resistance to meropenem and imipenem was seen in various clinical isolates of Gram-negative ESBL-positive bacteria. (who.int)
  • Additionally, most isolates harbored MDR genes, including Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC, and quinolone and aminoglycoside resistance genes. (annlabmed.org)
  • A high prevalence of NDM-1 genes encoding carbapenem resistance determinants was demonstrated among the K. pneumoniae isolates. (annlabmed.org)
  • analysis of the isolates did not indicate the presence of the MCR-1 or MCR-2 genes, which are carried on plasmids and can readily transfer colistin resistance to different types of bacteria. (umn.edu)
  • Microbiological findings were reported in 212 cases (43%) with 276 isolates: 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 46 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 39 Acinetobacter baumannii, with carbapenem resistance detected in 55%, 71%, and 65%, respectively. (diva-portal.org)
  • During this study 226 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from Hungary were screened for MBL production by phenotypic tests. (asm.org)
  • Methods: A cohort nested within the Consortium on Resistance against Carbapenems in Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRACKLE) was constructed of patients with infection, or colonization with CRKp isolates tested for colistin susceptibility during the study period of December, 2011 to October, 2014. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Wolter, DJ , Hanson, ND & Lister, PD 2004, ' Insertional inactivation of oprD in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa leading to carbapenem resistance ', FEMS microbiology letters , vol. 236, no. 1, pp. 137-143. (elsevier.com)
  • A total of 250 isolates which included Escherichia coli (113) and Klebsiella spp (137) were screened for meropenem resistance by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. (ijcmas.com)
  • Modified Hodge test was positive in 41(83.7%) of carbapenem resistant isolates while confirmatory phenotypic detection test showed 69.4% of carbapenem resistant isolates positive for carbapenemase production. (ijcmas.com)
  • Sieving and phenotype conformation of ESBL isolates were performed by double disc synergy test (DDST), and then, the strains identified as ESBL were test by carbapenem, ertapenem, imipenem andmeropenem. (ac.ir)
  • The resulting isolates were characterized for resistance to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime, presence of carbapenemase and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and phylogroups and sequence types (STs). (iwaponline.com)
  • Of the 65 carbapenem-resistant E. coli (CREC) isolates, 62% were positive for more than one and 31% were positive for two or more of carbapenemase and ESBL genes targeted. (iwaponline.com)
  • In this study we analysed the genetic basis and phylogenetic profile of resistance to ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam as well as carbapenems in cystic fibrosis P. aeruginosa isolates. (elsevier.com)
  • All isolates resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam and/or ceftolozane/tazobactam were resistant to carbapenems and showed inactivating mutations in the chromosomal oprD gene. (elsevier.com)
  • Talebi G, Hakemi-Vala M. Survey on Some Carbapenems and Colistin Resistance Genes Among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Burn and Cystic Fibrosis Patients, Tehran, Iran, Arch Clin Infect Dis. (archcid.com)
  • Because of increasing antibiotic resistance, this study investigated the prevalence of bla IMP , bla PER , bla VEB , bla GES , pmrA , pmrB , and mcr-1 genes in P. aeruginosa isolates among burn and CF (Cystic Fibrosis) patients in Tehran. (archcid.com)
  • As of June 2010[update], there were three reported cases of Enterobacteriaceae isolates bearing this newly described resistance mechanism in the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stated that "All three U.S. isolates were from patients having received recent medical care in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • On December 31, 2018, Public Health - Seattle & King County (PHSKC) was notified by the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network regarding a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) isolate cultured from the urinary tract in a man aged 65 years. (cdc.gov)
  • To identify the major mechanisms of resistance to polymyxin and compare the genetic similarity between multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains recovered from inpatients of public hospitals in the Mid-West of Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • We found eight species exhibiting resistance, with the majority of our sample being the sequence type 258 (ST258) lineage of Klebsiella pneumoniae. (harvard.edu)
  • To characterize OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated after an increase in carbapenem resistance in Catalonia. (elsevier.es)
  • Colistin resistance in Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Carbapenem resistance was more exhibited in A. baumannii (23%), followed by P. aeruginosa (17%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15%), Proteus mirabilis (14%) and Escherichia coli (12%) mainly isolated from respiratory tract, blood, urine and wound/pus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ciftci E, Sesli Cetin E, Us E, Haydar Kutlu H, Cicioglu Arıdogan B (2019) Investigation of Carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae by using phenotypic tests and a molecular assay. (jidc.org)
  • The rapid diffusion of carbapenem-resistant (C-R) Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) represents a global concern from both clinical and public health standpoints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Out of total 300 Klebsiella pneumoniae subspp pneumoniae strains, 83 (27.7%), 90 (30%), 56 (18.7%), 40 (13.3%) and 96 (32%) were positive by Classical Hodge test, Modified Hodge test, MBL confirmatory test, KPC confirmatory test and Carbapenem hydrolysis positive due to MBL and KPC production respectively. (ijcmas.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged globally as a multidrug-resistant hospital pathogen for which there are few treatment options. (pnas.org)
  • Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are examples of Enterobacterales, a normal part of the human gut bacteria, that can become carbapenem-resistant. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been defined as carbapenem-nonsusceptible and extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae complex, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Klebsiella oxytoca. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were associated with organ/stem cell transplantation, mechanical ventilation, exposure to antimicrobials, and overall longer length of stay in hospitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report presents antimicrobial resistance data for seven microorganisms of major public health importance: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococci. (europa.eu)
  • Safety and Efficacy Study of Eradication of Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella Pneumonia From the Gastrointestinal Tract by Probiotics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A negative stool culture for Carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumonia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In recent years, the proportions of carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae - a type of Enterobacteriaceae - rapidly increased to high levels in Greece, Italy and Romania. (eurekalert.org)
  • Data from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) for 2016 show large differences in the national percentages of carbapenem resistant bloodstream infections caused by Klebsiella pneumonia , ranging from 0% to as high as 67%, depending on the country. (eurekalert.org)
  • There is also scarce information about whether colistin resistance influences the prognosis of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) bacteraemia. (csic.es)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is considered a serious global threat. (annlabmed.org)
  • A new study from an ongoing investigation into patients with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) has found resistance to colistin in 13% of patients. (umn.edu)
  • The study, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases , looked at a cohort of 246 patients nested within the Consortium on Resistance Against Carbapenems in Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRACKLE), a prospective, multicenter observational study of patient hospitalized with CRKp. (umn.edu)
  • The Klebsiella found in the man's urine was resistant to a huge array of drugs, including a last-resort category reserved for very serious infections that are known as carbapenems. (wired.com)
  • Background: Polymyxins including colistin are an important "last-line" treatment for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Acquired resistance to carbapenems mediated by carbapenemases in gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella has become worldwide. (ijcmas.com)
  • The infection was identified as a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain bearing the novel gene blaNDM-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: here is the storm! (nih.gov)
  • The current worldwide emergence of resistance to the powerful antibiotic carbapenem in Enterobacteriaceae constitutes an important growing public health threat. (nih.gov)
  • This review summarizes the current knowledge on carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, including activity, distribution, clinical impact, and possible novel antibiotic pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Approximately 3.2% of Enterobacteriaceae reported in healthcare-associated infections were resistant to carbapenems and 26.9% were resistant to cephalosporins. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) as an urgent public health threat and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae as a serious public health threat ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, mcr-1 gene and its variants ( mcr -1 to mcr -8 genes) was described conferring resistance to polymyxin in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from humans, animals and environmental samples worldwide, including Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are among the most severe threats to the antibiotic era. (harvard.edu)
  • The New Delhi Metallo- β -lactamase (NDM) resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae threatens to render serious Gram-negative infections untreatable. (scielo.org.za)
  • Resistance to β -lactam antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae has steadily increased, with the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) seen in the past decade. (scielo.org.za)
  • Resistance to carbapenems may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, but the development and spread of carbapenemases ( β -lactamase enzymes that hydrolyse carbapenems and many other β -lactam antibiotics) in Enterobacteriaceae has caused global concern. (scielo.org.za)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) now pose a serious threat to hospitalized patients in the United States and around the world, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is monitoring the emergence of carbapenemases in superbugs such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (captodayonline.com)
  • Introduction: In the management of nosocomial infections, the emergence of carbapenem-resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains is a matter of increasing concern. (pagepressjournals.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, considered the drugs of last resort for such infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global rise of carbapenem resistance in a certain family of bacteria called Enterobacteriaceae, or carbapenem-resistant Enterobactericaeae (CRE), represents a threat to healthcare delivery and patient safety. (eurekalert.org)
  • How frequently are hospitalized patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) already on contact precautions for other indications? (cambridge.org)
  • Using samples collected for VRE surveillance, we evaluated unit admission prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) perirectal colonization and whether CRE carriers (unknown to staff) were on contact precautions for other indications. (cambridge.org)
  • 2. Facility Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)- November 2015 Update CRE Toolkit. (cambridge.org)
  • The global spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is increasingly becoming a major challenge in clinical and public health settings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae can result from AmpC production and simultaneous reduction of antibiotic influx into the periplasm by mutations in the porin genes. (uu.nl)
  • The availability of effective antibiotics, one of the cornerstones of modern medicine, is increasingly coming under threat owing to the rising resistance rates among members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and the non-fermenting bacteria ( e1 , e2 ). (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Antibiotic resistance, including to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and carbapenems, is increasingly prevalent among Enterobacteriaceae . (iwaponline.com)
  • In this article the authors discuss carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, a bacterial isolate often implicated in nosocomial infections. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in fish fished in Mediterranean Sea near the Bejaia coast (Algeria), we studied 300 gills and gut samples randomly and prospectively collected during 1 year. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • 4 This facilitates transfer of the gene between bacteria, resulting in the emergence of resistance in other unrelated genera, such as Acinetobacter and Vibrio . (scielo.org.za)
  • Acinetobacter radioresistens as a Silent Source of Carbapenem Resistance for Acinetobacter spp. (asm.org)
  • Carbapenem resistance results mostly from the expression of acquired carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases in Acinetobacter baumannii . (asm.org)
  • Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly reported and leads to difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections ( 25 , 28 , 33 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases (CHDLs) represent the main mechanism of resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter spp. (asm.org)
  • In addition, OXA-23-producing and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter sp. (asm.org)
  • Carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases are reported increasingly in Acinetobacter baumannii . (asm.org)
  • The production of bla OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-58 and the hyperexpression of OXA-51 due to ISAba1 insertion sequence are the leading cause of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii [ 1 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Teck Wee Boo, 'Molecular characterisation of carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter species in an Irish tertiary care hospital', [thesis], Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland). (tcd.ie)
  • Carbapenems are used as a last resort for treating patients infected with resistant or multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Unfortunately, very little research has been devoted exclusively to investigating Acinetobacter baumannii prevalence, resistance and pathogenicity in Kuwaiti Hospitals. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The present study aimed to perform a deep phenotypic and genotypic analysis of 15 clinical carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) strains isolated in Madagascar between 2008 and 2016 from diverse sources. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diante da escassez de dados sobre o assunto, estudos que avaliem o tratamento de infecções por Acinetobacter spp resistente a carbapenem são necessários. (usp.br)
  • Antimicrobials drugs frequently reported as active against Acinetobacter spp include carbapenems, colistin, ampicillin/sulbactam, amikacin, rifampin and tetracyclines and currently carbapenens are considered the main antimicrobial treatment. (usp.br)
  • Unfortunately, over the past years there has been a worldwide increase in infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter. (usp.br)
  • We performed a retrospective review of the case records of patients from 1996 to 2004 who had nosocomial infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (usp.br)
  • Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45) from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. (rki.de)
  • Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. (rki.de)
  • including 419 and 58 examples, respectively, of two carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii lineages, designated OXA-23 clones 1 and 2. (asm.org)
  • Disturbingly, several successful clones are now also carbapenem resistant and, as noted by the Infectious Disease Society of America, Acinetobacter is "a prime example of the mismatch between unmet medical need and the current antimicrobial research and development pipeline" ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Two lytic bacteriophages, WCHABP1 and WCHABP12, were recovered from hospital sewage and were able to infect 9 and 12 out of 18 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, which belonged to different clones. (frontiersin.org)
  • ARPAC Steering Group (2004) Antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter spp. (springer.com)
  • Montero A, Ariza J, Corbella X et al (2004) Antibiotic combinations for serious infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a mouse pneumonia model. (springer.com)
  • Complete genome sequence of the siphoviral bacteriophage Βϕ-R3177, which lyses an OXA-66-producing carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate. (jcvi.org)
  • Among these threats, the rapid increase in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a particularly challenging global issue in the health care setting. (jcvi.org)
  • The emergence of colistin resistant strains is a very important problem due to decrease of treatment options for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant KPC producing K. pneumoniae . (alliedacademies.org)
  • Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant strains have few treatment options ( 6 , 7 ) and are associated with mortality rates upwards of 50% ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • On the contrary, ESAC expressed in the OmpC- or OmpF-deficient E. coli strains or narrow-spectrum cephalosporinase expressed in the OmpC-and OmpF-deficient strain do not confer reduced susceptibility to any of the carbapenems. (nih.gov)
  • Synergy between imipenem or meropenem and BRL 42715 was observed for all of the strains, demonstrating the role of cephalosporinase in carbapenem resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Within each pattern of susceptibility, the mean MICs of beta-lactam agents other than carbapenems were similar, whether the strains were susceptible or resistant to imipenem. (nih.gov)
  • The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to polymyxin and to evaluate the genetic diversity in carbapenem and polymyxin-resistant K. pneumoniae strains recovered from patients admitted in intensive care units of public hospitals in the Mid-West of Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • We prospectively sampled CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals, together with a collection of CRE from a single California hospital, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks and determine whether there is evidence for transfer of strains within and between hospitals and the frequency with which resistance is transferred between lineages or species. (harvard.edu)
  • The most common resistance mechanisms were KPC (K. pneumoniae carbapenemases) beta-lactamases encoded by bla(KPC2), bla(KPC3), and bla(KPC4), which were transferred between strains and species by seven distinct subgroups of the Tn4401 element. (harvard.edu)
  • However, other strains displayed at least elevated carbapenem MICs or were carbapenem resistant and produced measurable carbapenemase activities but did not harbour IS elements in the region upstream of the cfiA gene. (diva-portal.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance in OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae strains. (elsevier.es)
  • Antimicrobial resistance genes present in the different MLST and PFGE profiles of the 85 OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae strains. (elsevier.es)
  • In this study, the firstly detected colistin resistance in carbapenem-resistant KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were evaluated. (alliedacademies.org)
  • All strains were resistance for carbapenems and colistin Two of four strains were isolated from patients hospitalized in intensive care and two of them were isolated from patients hospitalized in clinics. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Transconjugants from these strains contained various genes including plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. (uwi.edu)
  • Whole-genome sequencing allowed us to assess the presence of antibiotic-resistance determinants, insertion sequences, integrons, genomic islands and potential virulence factors in all strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: The screening of the strains with reduced carbapenem susceptibility was carried out using the automated Vitek®2 System (bioMérieux). (pagepressjournals.org)
  • The emergence of strains resistant to carbapenems has left few treatment options, making infection containment critical. (sciencemag.org)
  • In recent years, the threat posed by K. pneumoniae has markedly increased with the emergence of strains resistant to carbapenem antibiotics ( 3 ) and their worldwide dissemination ( 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • KPC strains are notoriously difficult to treat, as they often display broad spectrum resistance to many other antimicrobials including aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. (kirbylab.org)
  • The increase in carbapenem therapy might be associated with the emergence of A. baumannii strains that produce imipenem-hydrolyzing enzymes, which is a serious concern due to the large spectrum of these enzymes. (asm.org)
  • Nine NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli strains could transfer carbapenem resistance via plasmids to susceptible Escherichia coli AB1157. (elsevier.com)
  • gyrA mutations associated with quinolone resistance in Bacteroides fragilis group strains. (ki.se)
  • 20% G. mellonella larvae survived at 96 h after being infected by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains, from which the two bacteriophages were recovered. (frontiersin.org)
  • The high prevalence of HAI with carbapenem resistant gram-negative strains and common treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and colistin suggests that interventions are needed to prevent HAI and to optimize antibiotic use. (diva-portal.org)
  • Further dissemination of MCR-CREC strains, which exhibit resistance to the last-line drugs of carbapenems and colistin, is expected to pose a severe threat to human health. (cdc.gov)
  • No plasmid DNA was detected in PA396 and PA450, and experiments to transfer resistance from these strains into E. coli J5-3 Rif r and PAO4089Rp did not result in transconjugants under the experimental conditions applied. (asm.org)
  • Recently, a Texas, USA hospital isolated seven Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains displaying dual resistance to fluoroquinolones and imipenem. (elsevier.com)
  • A widespread dispersal of carbapenem-resistant STs and other clinically significant AR STs observed in the present study suggested the plausible release of these strains into the environment. (iwaponline.com)
  • In this study, a novel lytic A. baumannii phage, Βϕ-R3177, infecting carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains was isolated from sewage samples at a hospital. (jcvi.org)
  • Multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) have been distinguished to be resistant to carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides and are common causative nosocomial infections, especially in immune deficient patients such as those with cystic fibrosis (CF) and burn patients ( 2 , 3 ). (archcid.com)
  • CDC recommends a public health response when organisms with emerging forms of antibiotic resistance, such as the metallo-beta-lactamases this isolate harbored, are identified † because such organisms are often difficult to treat and have the potential to spread rapidly in health care settings ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This case highlights two important considerations for preventing antibiotic resistance spread. (cdc.gov)
  • First, when responding to emerging antibiotic resistance, health departments should consider on-site standardized infection control assessments § in outpatient settings associated with an elevated risk for transmission, such as those that perform procedures involving the digestive tract, urogenital tract, and wounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Philip Perry, the Business Development Manager for Consumables at Bruker Daltonics, added: 'Bruker is committed to the continuous expansion of our MALDI Biotyper platform, e.g. with enhancements of our reference libraries, increased customer convenience and expansion of the MALDI Biotyper assay menu, in order to further increase workflow ease-of-use and efficiency, and now also for rapid testing of selected antibiotic resistance mechanisms in clinical research. (bruker.com)
  • Few decades after the implementation of the potential broad spectrum antimicrobials, the antibiotic resistance turns into a global problem. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Antibiotic-resistance genes against six classes of antimicrobial agents were described. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, continuous surveillance and monitoring of A. baumannii is crucial because of the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes. (up.ac.za)
  • Answers to frequently asked questions about how health care-associated infections and antibiotic resistance are connected, and surveillance programs Minnesota uses to measure HAIs and antibiotic resistance in the state. (mn.us)
  • The basis for the success of ST258 organisms above and beyond antibiotic resistance is not known, nor is it clear whether infections are caused by a single clone. (pnas.org)
  • The complexity of TB treatment and growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance is a serious threat to public health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For decades after, scientists and doctors managed the problem of antibiotic resistance by developing new drugs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is called antibiotic resistance. (drugs.com)
  • This is witnessed in the increasing awareness being created by the WHO and EU about antibiotic resistance, specifically through the formers' global/regional antibiotic surveillance reports ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, antibiotic resistance awareness days and weeks have been instituted by both organizations ( 3 ), while efforts to engage policy makers and governments ( 4 ), clinicians, and patients in antibiotic stewardship have increased concomitantly ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Subsequently, the concept of "One Health" that triangulates clinical, environmental, and veterinary antibiotic resistance surveillance and molecular epidemiological studies as a means to containing resistance is gaining grounds ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Critical Care is therefore introducing a series of papers that examine the problem of progressive antibiotic resistance in the ICU. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These articles will focus on the mechanisms of resistance, spread of antibiotic resistance genes, efforts to limit the further spread of MDR pathogens, and novel current and future therapeutic approaches to respond to the challenge of antibiotic resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hope that this thematic series will inform the clinician about steps that we can take to confront the threat of antibiotic resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India. (msjonline.org)
  • PCR and sequencing were utilized to identify antibiotic resistance determinants. (annlabmed.org)
  • Here s what you need to know about antibiotic resistance and how to prevent it. (care2.com)
  • What causes antibiotic resistance? (care2.com)
  • According to WHO, antibiotic resistance to bacteria that cause life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections and infections in newborns and ICU patients has spread to all regions of the world. (care2.com)
  • Antibiotic resistance is an important warning for infection control and the treatment of infectious disease ( 1 ). (archcid.com)
  • Most studies on antibiotic resistance mechanisms in P. aeruginosa have investigated modifying enzymes and attaining plasmid resistance genes, the overexpression of efflux pumps, or post-mutational changes in chromosomal and plasmidic genes ( 6 - 8 ). (archcid.com)
  • The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This particularly broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance was heightened by the strain's expressing several different resistance genes in addition to blaNDM-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, when several mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam agents are present in the same strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there is no additive effect between these mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • The loss of OprD transmembrane protein sometimes combined with overexpression of the intrinsic AmpC and the overexpression of some efflux pumps are considered as main factors for carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas metallo-enzymes' production has a secondary role [ 6 , 7 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Resistance to these has been reported in a few bacteria especially Pseudomonas spp. (who.int)
  • Maximum resistance was seen in Pseudomonas spp. (who.int)
  • Acquired class A (KPC), class B (IMP, VIM, NDM), or class D (OXA-48, OXA-181) carbapenemases, are the most important determinants sustaining resistance to carbapenems. (nih.gov)
  • It tested positive for carbapenemase activity by the modified carbapenem inactivation method and positive for genes encoding the carbapenemases New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase, and OXA-48-type beta-lactamase, by polymerase chain reaction. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbapenemases (β-lactamases able to inactivate carbapenems) have been identified in both serine β-lactamase (SBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) families. (uio.no)
  • Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics in this sample was not mediated only by carbapenemases but also by production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (largely CTX-M-15), accompanied by protein loss. (uwi.edu)
  • This study revealed the presence of high-level carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii with the first description of OXA-24 and OXA-58 carbapenemases in Madagascar. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many carbapenemases are encoded on plasmids, facilitating the spread of resistance genes among organisms of the same species or even different bacterial species. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The novel beta-lactamase inhibitors, avibactam, relebactam, and vaborbactam, can inhibit most carbapenemases but are ineffective against metallo-beta-lactamases (a type of carbapenemase that uses reactive zinc to destroy the carbapenem). (merckmanuals.com)
  • One of the most epidemiologically concerning mechanisms is the emergence of enzymes (carbapenemases) capable of degrading carbapenems and beta-lactams more generally. (kirbylab.org)
  • A subset of these enzymes, carbapenemases, hydrolyzes carbapenem antibiotics avidly. (grantome.com)
  • Finally, we will design and test inhibitors of class D carbapenemases that would restore clinical utility of carbapenem antibiotic for combating deadly A. baumannii infections. (grantome.com)
  • Class D carbapenemases are bacterial enzymes that destroy the most potent and clinically successful antibiotics, carbapenems. (grantome.com)
  • Our studies aim at elucidation of mechanisms employed by class D carbapenemases to produce resistance to carbapenems and at development of inhibitors of these enzymes capable of restoring clinical utility of these valuable antibiotics. (grantome.com)
  • Carbapenemases are particularly dangerous resistance mechanisms, since they can inactivate a wide range of different antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there were plasmid backbones common to both populations, highlighting a potential environmental reservoir of mobile elements that may contribute to the spread of resistance genes. (asm.org)
  • The presence of carbapenem resistance genes (OXA23, NDM1, OXA48, KPC, VIM ve IMP ) was investigated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Methodology: Carbapenem resistance genes KPC, OXA-48 and NDM were investigated with the BD MAX CRE assay kit in the BD MAX real time PCR instrument. (jidc.org)
  • However, the detection of mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in swine, pork, imported chicken (in Denmark), and hospitalized patients has helped settle the argument that antibiotics use in veterinary medicine, specifically as growth promoters, can be a source of resistance genes in human pathogenic bacteria ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A recent study in the UK detected large amounts of resistance genes to clinically useful antibiotics, such as sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and tetracyclines, in rivers that were fed with runoff effluents from farms on which antibiotics were used, as well as from sewage processing plants ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The progressive loss of antibiotic activity as a result of dissemination of antibacterial resistance genes is increasingly recognized as global threat to humankind. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resistance to quinolones develops as a result of chromosomal mutations in the target genes, DNA topoisomerases, alterations in outer membrane proteins or interference with binding to the target by a protein encoded on a transferable plasmid. (ki.se)
  • Acquired metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are mostly encoded by integron-borne genes and confer resistance against all β-lactams except for the monobactams. (asm.org)
  • Hopefully, by the low frequency of mcr-1 gene and the rate of mutation in pmrAB genes in this study, the rate of resistance can keep low with caution prescription to polymyxins. (archcid.com)
  • Virulence factors, intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms, together with laboratory challenges in the detection and antibiotic susceptibility testing of A. baumannii make this a truly problematic isolate. (nih.gov)
  • These oxacillinases confer reduced susceptibility or resistance to carbapenems once they are expressed in A. baumannii ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The β-lactamase OXA-23 (formerly ARI-1) was identified first in Scotland and was found to be a source of transferable resistance to imipenem in A. baumannii ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Since they hydrolyze carbapenems at low levels, the roles of carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases OXA-23, OXA-40, and OXA-58 in A. baumannii were determined. (asm.org)
  • Intermediate levels of resistance or reduced susceptibilities to carbapenems were observed for A. baumannii transformants expressing OXA-23, OXA-40, and OXA-58. (asm.org)
  • The inactivation of bla OXA-40 in A. baumannii CLA-1 yielded reduced susceptibilities to carbapenems. (asm.org)
  • Carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases OXA-23, OXA-40, and to a lesser extent OXA-58 play a role in carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii , and overexpression of efflux pump AdeABC may also contribute to higher levels of resistance to β-lactams, including carbapenems. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, A. baumannii may acquire additional β-lactam resistance phenotypes, including carbapenem resistance. (asm.org)
  • Carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases (Ambler class D β-lactamases) and metallo-β-lactamases (Ambler class B β-lactamases) have been reported in A. baumannii ( 27 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Its clinical role in carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii remains to be determined. (asm.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAb) have arisen in recent decades. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The occurrence of carbapenem resistance that is caused by the carbapenem-hydrolysing class D β-lactamases and the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) limits the range of therapeutic alternatives in treating A. baumannii infections. (up.ac.za)
  • We will elucidate the mechanism of carbapenemase activity of A. baumannii CHDLs and evaluate the evolutionary potential of these class D enzymes to further enhance their catalytic efficiency against carbapenems, rendering this important class of antibiotics obsolete for treatment of infections caused by this bacterial pathogen. (grantome.com)
  • Colistin and tigecycline resistance was prevalent among K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, S. marcescens , and E. cloacae . (frontiersin.org)
  • These lineages increase the burden created by the southeast (SE) clone, a previously reported A. baumannii lineage with variable carbapenem resistance contingent on upregulation of the bla OXA-51 -like gene. (asm.org)
  • The difficulty of treating A. baumannii nosocomial infection is associated with the high resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents frequently observed in this species ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Imipenem, the first commercially-available carbapenem, (Merck Sharp and Dohme) has been used for nearly 10 years and is now being joined by a second agent, meropenem (Zeneca/Sumitomo). (springer.com)
  • In most cases, the drug of choice in the presence of an ESBL producing organism is a carbapenem (e.g. meropenem, imipenem, ertapenem, doripenem) which are mostly injectable drugs and quite expensive. (scirp.org)
  • The resistance rates were 0.8% and 1.3% for imipenem and meropenem, respectively. (diva-portal.org)
  • The resistance to the carbapenems: imipenem and meropenem, was identified by use of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) test. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Here we investigated the route and genetic mechanisms of acquisition of carbapenem resistance in a clinical E. coli isolate carrying blaCMY-2 on a plasmid by selecting for mutants that are resistant to increasing concentrations of meropenem. (uu.nl)
  • In the second step, the expression of the CMY-2 β-lactamase was upregulated, leading to resistance to meropenem. (uu.nl)
  • We have also investigated resistance mechanisms to two carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem. (ki.se)
  • In India carbapenems available for use are meropenem and imipenem, introduced recently. (who.int)
  • We show here that ESAC expression associated with the loss of both OmpC and OmpF porins conferred in Escherichia coli a high level of resistance to ertapenem and reduced the susceptibility to imipenem. (nih.gov)
  • Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. (hindawi.com)
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution showed resistance to 15 antibiotics tested* but low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to colistin (MIC ≤0.25) and tigecycline (MIC = 1). (cdc.gov)
  • C.C. Sanders and W.E. Sanders, f3-Lactam resistance in gram-negative bacteria: global trends and clinical impact, Clin Infect Dis. (springer.com)
  • G. Satta, M. Lleo, E. Tonin, G.M. Rossolini and R. Fontana, Substitution of the antibiotic target: a mechanism of intrinsic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in gram-positive bacteria, Current Topics in Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. (springer.com)
  • The hospital environment is a potential reservoir of bacteria with plasmids conferring carbapenem resistance. (asm.org)
  • However, shortly after the introduction of these magic bullets in clinical practice, it was discovered that bacteria were capable of developing resistance to the antimicrobials. (scirp.org)
  • To determine the role of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from south-western Nigeria. (uwi.edu)
  • In the recent past, carbapenems were potent against all multiple drug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacteria and in combination with their negligible toxicity to the host, carbapenems became the preferred last resort antibiotics for the treatment of MDR Gram negative bacterial infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carbapenems not long ago assumed to be, "the heavy artillery" of the antibiotic therapy today face the disability to be effective in the treatment of infections caused by multi-drug-resistant bacteria (MDR). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Our results revealed significant correlations between the consumption of antibiotics and rates of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. (researchsquare.com)
  • Implementing proper management strategies and reducing the unreasonable use of antibacterial drugs may be an effective measure to reduce the spread of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGN), which should be further confirmed by more studies. (researchsquare.com)
  • Many multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired bacteria are sensitive only to carbapenems. (merckmanuals.com)
  • People most likely to acquire carbapenem-resistant bacteria are those already receiving medical attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolones, and previous hospitalization dramatically increased the risk of acquisition carbapenem-resistant bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • They showed this also worked in a group of bacteria that the CDC call ESKAPE pathogens and see as a particular threat because of their ability to develop drug resistance. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In CRE infections, the bacteria release chemicals that prevent carbapenems from killing them. (drugs.com)
  • Infections with bacteria resistant to carbapenems, a group of highly effective antibiotics, pose a significant threat to patients and healthcare systems in all EU/EEA countries, warns ECDC in a Rapid Risk Assessment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Resistance to last-resort antibiotics, such as carbapenems, tigecycline, and colistin, is increasing among Gram-negative bacteria in South Africa, restricting infection management options for clinicians and posing a threat to food safety. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbapenems have the broadest activity spectra of any β-lactam antibiotic and are often the most appropriate agents for use in the treatment of infections caused by multi resistant gram negative bacteria. (msjonline.org)
  • The occurrence of carbapenem- and colistin-resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is increasing worldwide. (elsevier.com)
  • Introduction Carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been gradually increasing in prevalence in recent years. (medworm.com)
  • As the carbapenems have been the gold standard to date for the systemic treatment of serious infections with Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance presents new and difficult challenges in therapeutic decision-making, particularly because of the high frequency of co-resistance. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • GA, USA) and the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KY, USA) have used whole-genome sequencing to demonstrate that carbapenem-resistant can be transferred among unrelated species of bacteria via plasmids or other mobile genetic elements. (id-hub.com)
  • Colistin resistance is considered a grave threat in patients with severe CRKp infections because it is one of the last lines of defense against multidrug-resistant bacteria. (umn.edu)
  • The problem of infections not responding to drugs that once were effective is so serious that recently the World Health Organization (WHO) released a report calling antimicrobial resistance in bacteria as well as fungi, viruses and parasites an increasingly serious threat to global public health . (care2.com)
  • Bacteria can also transmit this resistance to bacteria within and outside their species. (care2.com)
  • As more and more bacteria develop resistance, it ll be harder to treat many infections. (care2.com)
  • The latest data confirm that the number of patients infected with resistant bacteria steadily increases, and the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics has become a global problem, one of the most important public health threats. (pjph.eu)
  • Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics that are capable of killing most bacteria by inhibiting the synthesis of one of their cell wall layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resistance conferred by this gene (blaNDM-1), therefore, aids the expansion of bacteria that carry it throughout a human host, since they will face less opposition/competition from populations of antibiotic-sensitive bacteria, which will be diminished by the original antibacterial treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 2010, a study in a hospital in Mumbai found that most carbapenem-resistant bacteria isolated from patients carried the blaNDM-1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contribution of extended-spectrum AmpC (ESAC) beta-lactamases to carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • Influence of acquired β-lactamases on the evolution of spontaneous carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli. (sparrho.com)
  • The first mcr-1 colistin resistance gene to be detected in South Africa was reported in Escherichia coli from livestock as well as from hospitalized and outpatients. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mcr-1 colistin resistance gene has been reported among Escherichia coli in both clinical and poultry samples in two provinces in South Africa. (frontiersin.org)
  • In an attempt to detect transfer of imipenem resistance, filter mating experiments were performed at 37°C by using Escherichia coli K802N as a recipient cell. (asm.org)
  • Roer L , Hansen F , Stegger M , Sönksen UW , Hasman H , Hammerum AM . Novel mcr-3 variant, encoding mobile colistin resistance, in an ST131 Escherichia coli isolate from bloodstream infection, Denmark, 2014. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mcr-4 gene in Salmonella and Escherichia coli, Italy 2013, Spain and Belgium, 2015 to 2016. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • First detection of the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in Escherichia coli in Italy. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • This underscores a concerning evolution of colistin resistance in a setting of high KPC-KP endemicity. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The association of colistin resistance with mortality was studied. (csic.es)
  • To study the prognostic significance of colistin resistance, 83 selected cases of bacteraemia due to colistin-susceptible CRKp were obtained from the INCREMENT cohort for comparison. (csic.es)
  • Colistin resistance was not clearly associated with increased mortality. (csic.es)
  • The aim of this study was to understand the distribution of carbapenem- and colistin-resistance in two areas in Tamil Nadu, India. (elsevier.com)
  • Reference colistin resistance determination as performed by broth macrodilution was compared to results from clinical microbiology laboratories (Etest) and to polymyxin resistance testing. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Kluytmans J . Plasmid-encoded colistin resistance: mcr-one, two, three and counting. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are a critical public health threat and there is an urgent need for new treatments. (uio.no)
  • Overall, these results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of a ZN148-carbapenem combination against MBL-producing Gram-negative pathogens and that ZN148 is a highly promising MBL inhibitor that is capable of operating in a functional space not presently filled by any clinically approved compound. (uio.no)
  • As with most nosocomial pathogens, multiple-drug resistance offers inherent selective advantage ( 11 ), which allows such organisms to persist both in the flora of hospitalized patients and in the hospital environment, in which antibiotic usage is widespread. (sciencemag.org)
  • established the presence of previously undetected tickborne pathogens Polymyxin B Resistance in in rural dogs and associated ticks in Uganda. (cdc.gov)
  • Rates of colonization and infection with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are on the rise, particularly in southeastern European countries, and this is increasingly true in Germany as well. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • The treatment of severe infection with carbapenem-resistant pathogens should be individualized and carried out in an interdisciplinary framework, in consideration of antibiotic pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in each case. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Using live bacterial cultures, they showed that the compounds - called carbapenems - block the wall-building enzyme. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Such large plasmids often employ conjugation machinery to promote transfer of the plasmid and plasmid-borne resistance elements into different bacterial populations. (kirbylab.org)
  • Carbapenems are a group of antibiotics that treat bacterial infections. (drugs.com)
  • These include the antibiotics of the carbapenem family, which are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although multiple resistance mechanisms have been identified ( 10 ), carbapenem resistance in the United States is primarily caused by the plasmid-encoded K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) gene ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Data on molecular mechanisms of resistance are not collected for CLABSI, SSI, or CAUTI. (cdc.gov)
  • In this systematic review, we present the molecular epidemiology and knowledge gaps of the carbapenem resistance in East Africa as well as the future probable research interventions that can be used to address the emergence of carbapenem resistance in the region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aims of these studies were to provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to fluoroquinolone and carbapenem antibacterials. (ki.se)
  • There are a number of therapeutic alternatives to carbapenems that can be applied with the aid of sensitive microbiological and/or molecular genetic testing. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • In contrast to all useful penicillins and cephalosporins, and to various experimental carbapenems, these three agents carry the substituents to the β-lactam ring in the trans configuration. (springer.com)
  • Carbapenems are cell wall synthesis inhibiting antibiotics just like penicillins and cephalosporins with a different chemical structure. (scirp.org)
  • The MBT STAR-BL software (RUO) monitors mass shifts introduced by enzymatic degradation of betalactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, 3rd- generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. (bruker.com)
  • What are the mechs of resistance for cephalosporins? (brainscape.com)
  • However, little is known regarding the multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms of CRKP. (annlabmed.org)
  • Deleterious mutations in pmrB gene is the main chromosomal target for induction of polymyxin resistance in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in public hospitals in the Mid-West of Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • 4 Previous studies reported that disruption of mgrB gene is one of the major mechanisms of polymyxin resistance in K. pneumoniae . (scielo.br)
  • The major determinant of carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis is production of CfiA metallo-beta-lactamase via activation of the cfiA gene by IS elements (higher level resistance) or by activation of its putative own promoter. (diva-portal.org)
  • The 'Indian superbug' NDM-1 -- actually a gene which encodes an enzyme which confers resistance to almost all known antibiotics -- has been found for the first time in a pet, somewhere in the United States. (wired.com)
  • This is the first report of carbapenem resistance occurring through insertional inactivation of the oprD gene by IS elements. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the blaNDM-1 gene produces NDM-1, which is a carbapenemase beta-lactamase - an enzyme that hydrolyzes and inactivates these carbapenem antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regional genetic determinants of carbapenem resistance detected were bla IMP, bla VIM-1 bla SPM-l, bla NDM-1, bla OXA-23 bla OXA-24, bla OXA-58 and bla KPC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4,7 Of additional concern is that resistance to tigecycline and colistin has been described, further limiting available treatment options. (scielo.org.za)
  • A review of the literature was undertaken to delineate the current level and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline in South Africa. (frontiersin.org)
  • Resistance to carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline restricts infection management options for clinicians. (frontiersin.org)
  • The emergence of resistance was noted with tigecycline regimens in off-label uses in three studies. (springer.com)
  • The carbapenem class of antibiotics is largely considered as an antibiotic of last-resort when treating infections. (nih.gov)
  • High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. (rki.de)
  • We have investigated the resistance mechanisms to two classes of antibacterials with broad spectrum of activity, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. (ki.se)
  • The production of ESAC beta-lactamase in favorable E. coli background may represent an additional mechanism of resistance to ertapenem. (nih.gov)
  • Some exclude ertapenem resistance from the definition. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study found that carbapenem-resistant acquisition has a significantly higher mortality rate and poorer clinical response compared to that of the ertapenem-resistance acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • One variant showed auxotrophy for hemin with a deletion of 20 365 nucleotides, dosC-ydiK-mmuP-mmuM-tauA-tauB-tauC-tauD-hemB-yaiT-yaiV-ampH-yddQ-sbmA-yaiW-yaiY-yaiZ , including hemB , and was more resistant to aminoglycosides and carbapenems, but more susceptible to aztreonam, than the parent strain. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Carbapenems are active synergistically with aminoglycosides against P. aeruginosa . (merckmanuals.com)
  • or =1 mg/L and were chosen for a thorough analysis of their resistance mechanism. (diva-portal.org)
  • For this resistance mechanism, the new test can differentiate MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) from MSSA (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ) within minutes. (bruker.com)
  • We recommend that institutions develop guidelines for the early phenotypic detection of ESBLs and carbapenem resistance. (scirp.org)
  • Phenotypic Detection of carbapenem susceptible metallo-p-lactamase-producing gram negative bacilli in the clinical laboratory. (msjonline.org)
  • Since there is a high prevalence of carbapenemase resistance in our setting hence we need to be cautious with the indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antimicrobials, more so, the carbapenems. (msjonline.org)
  • The most common mechanisms for resistance involve enzymatic degradation of the drugs, modification or protection of the target and decreased permeability to or active efflux of antibiotics, often working synergistically. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, carbapenem resistance may also be mediated by the loss or alteration of porin channels, the expression of efflux pumps, or penicillin-binding protein (PBP) modification. (merckmanuals.com)
  • However, overproduction of AmpC alone contributes to ceftazidime resistance but not to carbapenem resistance ( 5 , 10 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • This development is concerning because carbapenems are often the last resort for treating multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms, particularly those that produce AmpC and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, which destroy most beta-lactams except for carbapenems. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Although AmpC β-lactamases can barely degrade carbapenems, if at all, they can sequester them and prevent them from reaching their targets. (uu.nl)
  • Ceftazidime resistance was primarily related to AmpC induction, as tested by cloxacillin inhibition assays, while amino acid variations in AmpC were associated with high-level ceftazidime resistance not reversed by cloxacillin. (elsevier.com)
  • The therapeutic restrictions are determined on one hand due to their intrinsic resistance to a great variety of antibiotics and on the other to the arising acquired resistance. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Studying the exact structure of antimicrobial resistance is a cornerstone in coping with imposed therapeutic restriction. (alliedacademies.org)
  • They can exhibit a major resistance profile, including carbapenems and other β -lactam antibiotics, leaving clinicians with limited therapeutic options. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although a negative MTMS result does not rule out resistance, it is a rapid and valuable tool to guide early therapeutic decisions for this important pathogen. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • August 2015-The problem of carbapenem resistance first made its way to Detroit's Henry Ford Hospital in 2007, when a multidrug-resistant organism appeared in a sputum sample from the intensive care unit. (captodayonline.com)
  • 8 ). DTR included an intermediate or resistant result to all reported agents within carbapenem, cephalosporin, and fluoroquinolone categories, as well as piperacillin-tazobactam and aztreonam when results were available. (cdc.gov)
  • The NDM-1 enzyme hydrolyses all available penicillin, cephalosporin and carbapenem antibiotics, and is commonly accompanied by additional resistance mechanisms to multiple antibiotic classes. (scielo.org.za)
  • Third-generation cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance in Streptococcus mitis/oralis. (rug.nl)
  • Multiple different species can exhibit resistance due to many different mechanisms, and many different mobile elements are capable of transferring resistance between lineages. (harvard.edu)
  • Identification and resistance detection is performed in a single automated analysis, providing species identification followed by selected resistance information. (bruker.com)
  • This species also has a remarkable propensity for the rapid acquisition of resistance to an extensive range of antimicrobial agents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Saranraj P, Stella D. Antibiogram of nosocomial infections and its antimicrobial resistance. (msjonline.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Emerging resistance to carbapenems in a tertiary care hospital in north India. (who.int)
  • Gupta E, Mohanty S, Sood S, Dhawan B, Das BK, Kapil A. Emerging resistance to carbapenems in a tertiary care hospital in north India. (who.int)
  • Our findings show that although multidrug resistant ESBL producing E. coli are prevalent in both the hospital and the community in this environment, carbapenem resistance is still low. (scirp.org)
  • The present study was performed to separate and identify the carbapenemase resistance pattern of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and ESBL-positive K.pneumoniaas well as its prevalence among different wards and various clinical specimens in Isfahan. (ac.ir)
  • R.C. Moellering, G. M. Eliopoulos and D.E. Sentochnik, The carbapenems: new broad spectrum f3-lactam antibiotics, J. Antimicrob Chemother. (springer.com)
  • Carbapenems are parenteral bactericidal beta-lactam antibiotics that have an extremely broad spectrum. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Carbapenems are broad-spectrum β-lactam antimicrobials used for the treatment of serious infections in humans. (europa.eu)
  • D.M. Livermore, Mechanisms of resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics, Scand J Infect Dis. (springer.com)
  • Both methods-phenotypic and genetic, are used to evaluate the mechanisms of resistance. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Mechanisms of resistance to imipenem in imipenem-resistant, ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium. (ki.se)
  • The recent worldwide emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Gram negative rods that are resistant to carbapenems is a significant concern with respect to patient care and infection control strategies. (msjonline.org)
  • These types belong to class A of ESBLs and illustrate a high rate of resistance to cephems, monobactams, and ceftazidime ( 11 , 12 ). (archcid.com)
  • The utilisation of existing technologies such as MALDI-TOF MS (MTMS) may allow for the early detection of this important resistance phenotype. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Varying resistances to other antimicrobial agents were also transferred with the plasmids. (uwi.edu)
  • The special ability it exhibits in developing resistance to a wide variety of known antimicrobial agents also helped make this a pathogen of profound importance in modern day medical microbiology. (ed.ac.uk)
  • KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was noted that these enzymes were inhibited by the presence of excess zinc sulphate, and that this inhibition was reversible and substrate specific, affecting carbapenem hydrolysis more than any other substrate. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In general, the emergence of carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes has been limited compared to the prevalence of other β-lactamases ( 1 ). (asm.org)