Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Diseases of plants.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Glucose in blood.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
MALDI-TOF has been explored as a rapid antimicrobial sensitivity testing method; principles involve measuring microbial growth ... "Direct antimicrobial resistance testing". Benkova, M; Soukup, O; Marek, J (2020). "Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: ... Some biochemical and immunologic tests can be performed directly on positive blood cultures, such as the tube coagulase test ... To perform the test, blood is drawn into bottles containing a liquid formula that enhances microbial growth, called a culture ...
... and TruNat are rapid molecular tests for TB diagnosis and Rifampicin resistance detection . This test is the first choice of ... and Drug Susceptibility Testing are available at C&DST(Culture and Drug Sensitivity Testing) Labs are located at a few select ... Based on the nature of anti-microbial resistance to the disease different treatment regimen are offered through the program. ... test sensitivity as well. Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CBNAAT) using the GeneXpert Platform, ...
... or specific genetic tests (genetic testing).[7] Methods used may be qualitative, meaning a result indicates resistance is or is ... If the antibiotic inhibits microbial growth, a clear ring, or zone of inhibition, is seen around the disc. The bacteria are ... Antibiotic sensitivity testing or antibiotic susceptibility testing is the measurement of the susceptibility of bacteria to ... It is used because bacteria may have resistance to some antibiotics. Sensitivity testing results can allow a clinician to ...
... and tested for antibiotic resistance against clinically important agents by using broth dilution tests ... Sensitivity to Antibiotics[edit]. While Lactobacillus fermentum has been found to have antibiotic resistant properties, other ... "Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 An antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic." Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 21, no. 1 ( ... Antibiotic Resistance[edit]. Studies have shown that L. fermentum has antibiotic resistances. DNA was isolated from ...
Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance was determined using the agar diffusion test in which paper discs saturated with ... Tests revealed this organism is oxidase positive and catalase negative. Halostagnicola larsenii is a halophilic, neutrophilic, ... "Simplified protocols for the preparation of genomic DNA from bacterial cultures." Molecular microbial ecology manual 1.1 (1999 ... Growth substrates were determined through the use of the isolation medium, which contained the substrate being tested along ...
In those failing initial treatment, culture should be done to determine sensitivity to antibiotics. Tests that use polymerase ... gonococci and commensal Neisseria species can coexist for long time periods in the pharynx and share anti-microbial resistance ... Diagnosis is by testing the urine, urethra in males, or cervix in females. Testing all women who are sexually active and less ... All people testing positive for gonorrhea should be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, syphilis ...
Several methods of testing exist, including invasive and noninvasive testing methods. Noninvasive tests for H. pylori infection ... Mégraud F (September 2004). "H pylori antibiotic resistance: prevalence, importance, and advances in testing". Gut. 53 (9): ... combined with either a rapid urease test or microbial culture. Helicobacter pylori is contagious, although the exact route of ... H. pylori mutants that are defective in RuvC have increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and to oxidative stress, exhibit ...
Biochemical tests indicate this microorganism also carries out a weakly positive reaction to the nitrate reductase test. It is ... Methicillin resistance is particularly widespread, with 75-90% of hospital isolates resistance to methicillin. Resistant ... Normally, sensitivity to desferrioxamine can also be used to distinguish it from most other staphylococci, except in the case ... Exploring the role of acne-associated microbial populations". Dermatologica Sinica. 34 (2): 67-73. doi:10.1016/j.dsi.2015.12. ...
Thus, E. coli and the other enterobacteria are important reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance. Resistance to beta- ... However, the antibiotic sensitivities of different strains of E. coli vary widely. As gram-negative organisms, E. coli are ... Susceptibility testing should guide treatment in all infections in which the organism can be isolated for culture. Phage ... Food poisoning can trigger an immune response to microbial gut bacteria. Some researchers suggest that it can lead to ...
... and the diagnosis of soy allergy is often based on symptoms reported by parents and results of skin tests or blood tests for ... as their sole source of resistance. (The resistance genes provided by PI 88788, Peking, and PI 90763 were characterized in 1997 ... An allergy test that is positive demonstrates that the immune system has formed IgE antibodies to soy proteins. However, this ... The most common cause of this unusual disorder is a sensitivity to cow's milk, but soy formulas can also be the trigger. The ...
Agglutination is primarily used when the sample is obtained from a vaginal mucous wash, and the test may reach a sensitivity of ... multiple samples are to be collected from each animal and multiple tests may be used simultaneously to increase sensitivity and ... Human infections may be treated with erythromycin as antimicrobial resistance has been emerging for the fluoroquinolones. On ... Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-25116-4. "Campylobacter Fetus - an overview , ...
In regions where laboratory tests are readily available, malaria should be suspected, and tested for, in any unwell person who ... The DDT resistance shown by Anopheles mosquitoes can be compared to antibiotic resistance shown by bacteria. During the 1960s, ... The sensitivity of blood films ranges from 75 to 90% in optimum conditions, to as low as 50%. Commercially available RDTs are ... Larviciding by hand delivery of chemical or microbial insecticides into water bodies containing low larval distribution may ...
Indeed, these sites are used for testing sensitivity of future life detection instruments for Mars, furthering the study of ... in a test of its capabilities, was able to find a new "microbial oasis" for life two meters below the surface of the Atacama ... "Mojave Desert Tests Prepare for NASA Mars Roving". Salas, E., et al. "The Mojave Desert: A Martian Analog Site for Future ... Through desiccation resistance, some life forms can withstand the vacuum of space in dormant state. UV levels. UV levels on ...
Noninvasive tests for H. pylori infection may be suitable and include blood antibody tests, stool antigen tests, or the carbon ... combined with either a rapid urease test or microbial culture.[70] ... Rising antibiotic resistance increases the need to search for new therapeutic strategies; this might include prevention in the ... H. pylori mutants that are defective in RuvC have increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and to oxidative stress, exhibit ...
Disc diffusion tests are unreliable when looking for co-trimoxazole resistance in B. pseudomallei (they greatly overestimate ... On sensitivity testing, the organism appears highly resistant (it is innately resistant to a large number of antibiotics ... Microbial Pathogenesis. 36 (5): 287-9. doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2004.01.001. PMID 15043863. Nandi T, Ong C, Singh AP, Boddey J, ... resistance) and Etests or agar dilution tests should be used in preference. The actions of co-trimoxazole and doxycycline are ...
"High frequency of macrolide resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Corynebacterium species". Microbial Drug Resistance. ... In clinical situations the antibiotic sensitivity can be obtained through disk diffusion assays of E-strip test. Treatment of ... API strips combine a series of small scale biochemical tests to distinguish key characteristics of bacterium, based on ... Similar resistance was noted in a study with all isolates showing resistance to ciprofloxacin. Of significant clinical ...
Nowadays to detect resistances of different microbes is used a technique called Antibiotic Sensitivity (AST), but several ... swipe tests for contamination and periodic proficiency testing. Further studies on unexpected or unusual results are always ... In addition, due to the relative size of the human genome in comparison with microbial genomes the interference can occur at ... To date, most published testing has been run in an unvalidated, unreportable manner. The 'standard microbiological testing' ...
In people suspected of having pyelonephritis, a urine culture and antibiotic sensitivity test is performed, so therapy can ... Blood tests such as a complete blood count may show neutrophilia. Microbiological culture of the urine, with or without blood ... In areas where there is a higher prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance, it is useful to initiate treatment with a single ... Louis, Missouri: Molecular Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis Program, Washington University. Archived from the original ...
However, antibiotic sensitivity testing is not possible with LAT alone, so a parallel culture is necessary. Polymerase chain ... However, macrolide resistance has also been observed. The serious complications of HiB are brain damage, hearing loss, and even ... Lab tests showed neutrophils exposed to dead H. influenzae were more aggressive in attacking S. pneumoniae than unexposed ... Michod RE; Bernstein H; Nedelcu AM (May 2008). "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens". Infect. Genet. Evol. 8 (3): 267- ...
Such companies promote public distrust towards future medical tests that may test more appropriate and applicable agents. An ... The mice that had a latent infection of the virus had an increased resistance to the bacteria, but those with a non-latent ... The study of variations within microbial genomes will also need to be evaluated to use genomics of infectious disease within ... A critical set of phenomena that ties together various aspects of health interventions, such as drug sensitivity screening, ...
Antibiotic sensitivity can also be tested with these cultures, making them useful in the selection of antibiotic treatment. ... July 2013). "Management of urinary tract infections in the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance". Med Clin North Am. 97 ( ... Engleberg, N C; DiRita, V; Dermody, T S (2007). Schaechter's Mechanism of Microbial Disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & ... As symptoms can be vague and without reliable tests for urinary tract infections, diagnosis can be difficult in the elderly.[10 ...
... sensitivity and specificity or efficacy; and 3) invalid applications of high, unphysiological test concentrations in the in ... Other tests measure the antioxidant capacity of a fraction. Some make use of the ABTS radical cation which is reactive towards ... 2006). "Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects" (and references therein ... Prevention of microbial infections (phytoalexins). Signaling molecules in ripening and other growth processes. The most ...
Nucleic acid-based tests (NATs) amplify and detect viral nucleic acid. Most of these tests take a few hours, but rapid ... Zanamivir resistance is observed less frequently, and resistance to peramivir and baloxavir marboxil is possible. In healthy ... Initially, the microbial agent responsible for influenza was incorrently identified in 1892 by R. F. J. Pfeiffer as the ... Influenza testing is recommended for anyone hospitalized with symptoms resembling influenza during flu season or who is ...
2014). Sensitivity and Offset Voltage Testing in the Hall-Effect Sensors Made of Graphene. Advances in Intelligent Systems and ... These films must be made thicker than one atomic layer to obtain useful sheet resistances. This added resistance can be offset ... In laboratory tests, the leading edge of a helicopter rotor blade was coated with the composite, covered by a protective metal ... and molecularly gatable structure make antibody-functionalized graphene sheets excellent candidates for mammalian and microbial ...
Pikal, MJ; Dellerman, KM (1989). "Stability testing of pharmaceuticals by high-sensitivity isothermal calorimetry at 25°C: ... selection of mathematical models which describe microbial growth and (c) determination of microbial growth parameters from IMC ... The performance of the electrical heaters can in turn be validated using specimens of known heat capacity or which produce ... Schön, Wadsö I (1988). "The potential use of microcalorimetry in predictive tests of the action of antineoplastic drugs on ...
17 Practice for Tests to Evaluate the Chemical Resistance of Geogrids to Liquids D6214/D6214M - 98(2013)e1 Test Method for ... Practice for Evaluating Test Sensitivity for Rubber Test Methods D6601 - 19 Test Method for Rubber Properties-Measurement of ... 20 Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems D6470 - 99(2020) Test Method for Salt in Crude Oils ( ... Test Fixture D6643 - 01(2016) Test Method for Testing Wood-Base Panel Corner Impact Resistance D6644 - 01(2013) Test Method for ...
... areas where PCR-based tests are not well established in all labs.[33][34] Culture is also useful for antimicrobial sensitivity ... gonococci and commensal Neisseria species can coexist for long time periods in the pharynx and share anti-microbial resistance ... All people testing positive for gonorrhea should be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, syphilis ... Antibiotic resistance. Main article: Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea. Many antibiotics that were once effective including ...
Antibiotic sensitivity can also be tested with these cultures, making them useful in the selection of antibiotic treatment. ... Resistance to many of the antibiotics used to treat this condition is increasing. In complicated cases, a longer course or ... As symptoms can be vague and without reliable tests for urinary tract infections, diagnosis can be difficult in the elderly. ... Engleberg, N C; DiRita, V; Dermody, T S (2007). Schaechter's Mechanism of Microbial Disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & ...
Diagnosis is by stool culture or testing for the bacteria's DNA or toxins. If a person tests positive but has no symptoms, the ... difficile can be reduced and natural colonization resistance can develop over time as the natural microbial community recovers ... Assessment of the A and B toxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for toxin A or B (or both) has a sensitivity of ... This test is not 100% accurate, with a considerable false-negative rate even with repeat testing. C. difficile toxins have a ...
Blood agar (used in strep tests) contains bovine heart blood that becomes transparent in the presence of β-hemolytic organisms ... Birgit Hadeler, Sirkka Scholz, Ralf Reski (1995) Gelrite and agar differently influence cytokinin-sensitivity of a moss. ... Lack of carbon, nitrogen, and organic growth factors so as to prevent microbial multiplication ... which do not possess the resistance, from growing. Media lacking an amino acid such as proline in conjunction with E. coli ...
The mother puts feces on the egg sacs to establish the same microbial composition in the larvae's guts that has worked ... A 2016 study concluded that food supplementation with 10-mM alpha-ketoglutarate decreased Drosophila alcohol sensitivity over ... and lowered resistance to stress when compared to wild type flies.[66] Drosophila melanogaster has a series of mating behaviors ... "The use of drosophila melanogaster in tests for environmental mutagens". Mutation Research/Environmental Mutagenesis and ...
Diagnosis is by stool culture or testing for the bacteria's DNA or toxins.[1] If a person tests positive but has no symptoms, ... difficile can be reduced and natural colonization resistance can develop over time as the natural microbial community recovers ... Assessment of the A and B toxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for toxin A or B (or both) has a sensitivity of ... Other stool tests[edit]. Stool leukocyte measurements and stool lactoferrin levels also have been proposed as diagnostic tests ...
A probable diagnosis is based on the history of the illness and cognitive testing with medical imaging and blood tests to rule ... Makhlouf S, Messelmani M, Zaouali J, Mrissa R (2018). "Cognitive impairment in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity ... or resistance to caregiving.[29] Sundowning can also appear.[34] Approximately 30% of people with AD develop illusionary ... "Amyloid-β peptide protects against microbial infection in mouse and worm models of Alzheimer's disease". Science Translational ...
... in forensic science and parentage testing); and detection of pathogens in nucleic acid tests for the diagnosis of infectious ... The high sensitivity of PCR permits virus detection soon after infection and even before the onset of disease.[30] Such early ... Detailed genetic analysis can also be used to detect antibiotic resistance, allowing immediate and effective therapy. The ... "Miniprimer PCR, a New Lens for Viewing the Microbial World". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (3): 840-9. doi ...
... sensitivity and specificity or efficacy;[57] and 3) invalid applications of high, unphysiological test concentrations in the in ... Other tests measure the antioxidant capacity of a fraction. Some make use of the ABTS radical cation which is reactive towards ... 2006). Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects (and references therein). ... Prevention of microbial infections (phytoalexins).[39]. *Signaling molecules in ripening and other growth processes. ...
An experimental needle-free[112] vaccine delivery system is undergoing animal testing.[113][114] A stamp-size patch similar to ... Meri S, Jördens M, Jarva H (December 2008). "Microbial complement inhibitors as vaccines". Vaccine. 26 Suppl 8: I113-7. doi: ... Pregnant women are often screened for continued resistance to rubella. The human papillomavirus vaccine is recommended in the U ... The first DIVA vaccines (formerly termed marker vaccines and since 1999 coined as DIVA vaccines) and companion diagnostic tests ...
Some chemical tests can be used to help identify the mushroom. A drop of dilute potassium hydroxide placed on the cap cuticle ... Sheng M, Chen H, Zhang FF (2009). "In vitro salinity resistance of three ectomycorrhizal fungi". Soil Biology and Biochemistry ... Suillellus luridus has been suspected of causing an enhanced alcohol sensitivity similar to that caused by the common ink cap ( ... Zhang H-H, Tang M, Chen H, Zheng C-L (2010). "Effects of inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi on microbial biomass and ...
Babies born to women treated with metformin have less visceral fat, and this may make them less prone to insulin resistance in ... "Laboratory Tests - Metformin". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 5 June 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020. This article ... In February 2020, the FDA found NDMA levels in some tested metformin samples that did not exceed the acceptable daily intake. ... It works by decreasing glucose production by the liver, by increasing the insulin sensitivity of body tissues, and by exerting ...
... in forensic science and parentage testing); and detection of pathogens in nucleic acid tests for the diagnosis of infectious ... The high sensitivity of PCR permits virus detection soon after infection and even before the onset of disease. Such early ... Detailed genetic analysis can also be used to detect antibiotic resistance, allowing immediate and effective therapy. The ... PCR Detection of Microbial Pathogens. Methods in Molecular Biology. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. 216: 3-29. doi:10.1385/1- ...
... develop a nanotechnology-based immunoassay test which is potentially three million times more sensitive than conventional tests ... A team of international researchers reports that low-resistivity electrical wires can be produced at the nanometer scale by ... Huffington Post) A new study shows that with "near perfect sensitivity", anatomical brain images alone can accurately diagnose ... "extant microbial life on Mars." (Discovery News) (Intern. J. Aeronaut. Space Sci.) 13 April North Korea's Unha-3 orbital rocket ...
The current facility is equipped to perform standardized tests for flame retardancy and fire resistance. Plans for construction ... and stewardship of resources including sensitivity to their impacts. CRF researchers in engineering mechanics can test the ... Institute for Microbial & Biochemical Technology: Developing biotechnology and nanotechnology for wood and fiber conversion ... Paper Test Laboratory: The Paper Test Laboratory focuses mainly on analyzing printing and writing grades of paper. Researchers ...
... and rapid way to diagnose infection using a single all-encompassing test. This test is similar to current PCR tests; however, ... analogous to antibiotic sensitivity testing - to facilitate antimicrobial stewardship and allow for the optimization of ... In a microbial culture, a growth medium is provided for a specific agent. A sample taken from potentially diseased tissue or ... Immune resistance to an infectious disease requires a critical level of either antigen-specific antibodies and/or T cells when ...
Most commercially available tests only test for IgG4 antibodies, however some companies such as YorkTest Laboratories test for ... Withdrawals are often associated with a lowering of the threshold for sensitivity which assists in challenge testing, but in ... Over a period of time it is possible for individuals avoiding food chemicals to build up a level of resistance by regular ... Greer JB, O'Keefe SJ (2011). "Microbial induction of immunity, inflammation, and cancer". Front Physiol (Review). 1: 168. doi: ...
S. aureus biofilms also have high resistance to host immune response. Though the exact mechanism of resistance is unknown, S. ... In the early 1930s, doctors began to use a more streamlined test to detect the presence of an S. aureus infection by the means ... These tests suggest the Staphylococcus strains use staphyloxanthin as a defence against the normal human immune system. Drugs ... Limitations of the method include practical difficulties with uniform band patterns and PFGE sensitivity as a whole. Spa locus ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Salvage Therapy. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. Treatment Experienced. ... Other studies suggest a benefit if drug-resistance tests are used in selecting a new anti-HIV drug treatment. This study tests ... Salvage Treatment, Resistance Testing, and Withdrawal of Anti-HIV Drugs for HIV Patients Failing Current Anti-HIV Treatment. ... This study tests the hypothesis that salvage regimens selected on the basis of HIV-1 resistance genotype, phenotype [AS PER ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Genotype. Phenotype. Anti-HIV Agents. ... and both tests predict virologic response to salvage therapy in patients who have failed a previous regimen. Resistance testing ... Drug resistance is a major reason for therapy failure in HIV patients. Two types of tests can detect resistance to drugs: 1) ... and have a resistance test drawn while still receiving the current regimen even though regimen failure is suspected. The test ...
Mechanisms of Resistance. Systematic Review of Whole-Genome Sequencing Data To Predict Phenotypic Drug Resistance and ... A Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test for Bacillus anthracis Linda M. Weigel, David Sue, Pierre A. Michel, Brandon Kitchel ... From Etest to Vitek 2: Impact of Enterococcal Linezolid Susceptibility Testing Methodology on Time to Active Therapy Different ... In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida Isolates with the EUCAST Methodology, a New Method for ECOFF ...
Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *Susceptibility to metronidazole was tested in ... MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in macrolide use (1993-1999) and resistance and factors associated with resistance, including ... Biological context of Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *The pmrA-pmrB operon was also found to be activated by a number of cationic ... Associations of Microbial Sensitivity Tests with chemical compounds. *There was no significant correlation between the minimum ...
... or Fishers exact test) is widely used to calculate such probabilities. Several thousand statistical tests are conducted ... ", "Cloning" and "Transfection"), some clinical descriptions ("Drug Resistance, Microbial" and "Biofilm") and even the field of ... 2) Multiplicity of tests * As described above, in ORA, several thousand statistical tests are conducted simultaneously. Such an ... Testing significance relative to a fold-change threshold is a treat. Bioinformatics. 2009; 25(6):765-71.View ArticlePubMed ...
A quick antibiotic sensitivity test method. WO/2019/204703. RAPID METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF MICROBIAL RESISTANCE. ... Finally, baking tests were carried out using a VMI Spiral mixer as per manufacturer recommendations. Results ... 0128] Testing methods were carried out as per manufacturer recommendation [0129] Results are contained in the following tables ... The results of a farinograph test are used as parameters in formulation to estimate the amount of water required to make dough ...
Keyword(s): STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, METHICILLIN RESISTANCE, MICROBIAL SENSITIVITY TESTS. References: *ندارد. * Yearly Visit 32 ... Results: Out of 120 S. aureus isolates, cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test and MIC test strip ... MRSA isolates were detected by four different methods including cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test, ... The sensitivity and specificity for oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion and MIC of oxacillin were 80% and 100%, ...
Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/ ... Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator ... The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among ... Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were ...
Siemens clinical microbiology business is an established leader in microbial identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing ... The MicroScan systems are recognized in their industry for their high accuracy and superior detection of emerging resistance. ... Based in Brea, Calif., Beckman Coulters instruments, systems and tests help streamline processes to enhance efficiency, reduce ... Back to School Fall Featured: Daily Wire Matters of the Heart Spring Summer test feature only channel Winter/Holidays See all ...
... quality control testing, product development, and environmental research. ,div>,/div> ... microbial strains, and molecular tools to support your research in a variety of focus areas, such as disease mechanisms, ... Microbial Controls for Clinical Research ATCC offers microbial strains for use in antibiotic resistance/sensitivity assays, ... tests on food and water, and use with commercial kits and instrumentation. ...
Genotypic Antiretroviral Resistance Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase Inhibitors by Use of the TruGene ... New and Sensitive Assay for Determining Pseudomonas aeruginosa Metallo-Beta-Lactamase Resistance to Imipenem Jingyuan Tan, ... 2 in Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates with Different Mechanisms of β-Lactam Resistance ... Comparison of Neo-Sensitabs Tablet Diffusion Assay with CLSI Broth Microdilution M38-A and Disk Diffusion Methods for Testing ...
... environmental influences and control of microbial growth; antibiotic sensitivity and resistance; bacterial examination of water ... The next test which was conducted whats this MR-VR test also known as the methyl red test and the Voges-Proskauer test. The MR ... The final experiment conducted during the first week of biochemical testing was the oxidase test. This post was also an aerobic ... After performing the first two experiments, the biochemical testing began the same day.. The first Week of biochemical testing ...
This application note discusses the implementation of miniaturized drug sensitivity and resistance testing, at the Institute of ... Recently identified associations between variants of cancer genes and drug resistance increase the value for comprehensive drug ... sensitivity and resistance testing in combination with molecular profiling of cancer cells. ... Setup of a Microbial Hyaluronic Acid Production Process Using the BioFlo 120 Bioprocess Control... ...
Microbial Sensitivity Tests*Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *Microbial Sensitivity Test. *Sensitivity Test, Microbial ... GWAS for quantitative resistance phenotypes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals resistance genes and regulatory regions. Nat ... "Microbial Sensitivity Tests" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Microbial Sensitivity Tests" was a ... "Microbial Sensitivity Tests" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ...
2 were of intermediate sensitivity and 6 were resistant. For 8 antibiotics, increasing microbial resistance over time was ... gram-positive bacteria tested were susceptible to vancomycin. Of the 94 gram-negative organisms tested against ceftazidime, ... Microbial Sensitivity Tests. *Retrospective Studies. Substance. *Anti-Bacterial Agents. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text ... Although a statistically significant trend toward increasing microbial resistance against a variety of antibiotics, including ...
... testing, throughout the world, in one complete volume. ... Microbial Identification and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Tests * ... Overview of Microbiology / Virology Tests *Special Topics. *Antimicrobial Drug Resistance *Genome Sequencing and Mass ... The Worldwide Market for In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Tests, 8th Edition. Date:. July 27, 2012 ... Hospital Infection Testing - the latest *Several Hundred Company profiles. Top tier companies, Second and Third Tier companies ...
a) Sensitivity test performed if a pathogen is isolated or sensitivity requested. (b) Shigella spp. (c) Campylobacter spp. (d) ... opinions about using antibiotics associated with emergence of microbial resistance, especially if the microbe has public health ... Some were doing sensitivity tests on Yersinia enterocoly tica, Citrobacter freundii, and pathogenic Escherichica coli, but did ... Half of those I contacted felt that it was not worth doing a sensitivity test if a Campylobacter sp. was isolated (Table 1), ...
Microbial sensitivity tests. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Issue Date: Oct-2008. Citation: Thean, Y.T.,Li, Y.H.,Tse, H.K.,Ng, L.S.Y., ... Antibiotic resistance is prevalent in gram-negative bacilli isolated from Singapore hospitals. The MIC testing surveillance ... Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacilli: A Singapore perspective. Authors: Thean, Y.T.. Li, Y.H. Tse, H.K. Ng, L.S.Y.. ... Seven hundred and forty-six gram-negative bacilli were received for testing. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was ...
Our technical services laboratory offers comprehensive bacterial endotoxin testing services and support to help improve the ... Our optimized formulations provide increased sensitivity, greater linearity, and superior interference resistance. Endotoxin ... and training related to carrying out tests in laboratories in the field of endotoxin detection and microbial identification. ... QC Microbial Solutions Toggle menu. * Endotoxin Testing Toggle menu. * Endotoxin Testing Systems ...
Various streptococci are important ecologically as part of the normal microbial flora of animals and humans; some can also ... However, the sensitivity (70-90%) of these currently available rapid tests for group A streptococcal carbohydrate does not ... Vancomycin resistance among the enterococci is an emerging microbial threat. Vaccines are under development. ... Although it is not as well known as the ASO test, the anti-DNase B test appears superior because high-titer antibody is ...
Disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed with two media, i.e., Mueller-Hinton agar containing 1.0% hemoglobin and 1.0 ... In all cases, zones of inhibition less than those listed above would be interpreted as indicating resistance. Each of these ... Ampicillin; Ampicillin Resistance; Culture Media; Haemophilus influenzae; Humans; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Regression ... Disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed with two media, i.e., Mueller-Hinton agar containing 1.0% hemoglobin and 1.0 ...
MALDI-TOF has been explored as a rapid antimicrobial sensitivity testing method; principles involve measuring microbial growth ... "Direct antimicrobial resistance testing". Benkova, M; Soukup, O; Marek, J (2020). "Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: ... Some biochemical and immunologic tests can be performed directly on positive blood cultures, such as the tube coagulase test ... To perform the test, blood is drawn into bottles containing a liquid formula that enhances microbial growth, called a culture ...
Cholesterol & Lipids Blood Tests. *Heart Wellness Lab Tests. *Food Allergy and Sensitivity Lab Testing ... Arthritis and the Gut - research is showing a strong link between arthritis and the microbial content of the gut in those that ... The GI-MAP measures opportunistic organisms, normal flora, fungi, parasites, and antibiotic resistance genes as well as ... Dementia and Related Testing, Mental Health & Wellness and Related Testing, Parkinsons Disease and Related Testing, Specialty ...
More than 18000 serology tests other than 29000 HIV, 26000 HBs Ag and 7800 HCV screening tests and17500 culture and sensitivity ... Testing the sensitivity pattern of MRSA strains with Linezolid, Rifampicin, Vancomycin and pristinamycin from critical care ... 4. Etiology and resistance pattern of neonatal septicaemia in the tertiary referral hospital in Kerala-2005 ... The incidence,risk factors,microbial etiology and antibiogram of Ventilator associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital- ...
Cephalosporin Resistance Cephalosporins Child, Preschool Cholera Dispatch Genotype Humans Microbial Sensitivity Tests Vibrio ... modified Hodge test, and EDTA disk synergy test and harbored the blaDHA-1 and blaNDM-1 genes. The antimicrobial drug ... Vibrio cholerae resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is rarely reported. We detected a strain that was negative for ... extended-spectrum β-lactamase and positive for the AmpC disk test, ...
The agar diffusion test (Kirby-Bauer (KB) antibiotic testing, also called disc diffusion antibiotic sensitivity testing) is a ... Brunetti J, Falciani C, Roscia G et al (2016) In vitro and in vivo efficacy, toxicity, bio-distribution and resistance ... The structures are so suited to be effectively transformed by the microbial actions to commercially valuable compounds which ... and following tests were performed: *. Test for alkaloids ... Test for steroid (Salkowski test). To 2 ml of extract, 2 ml of ...
We are all literally like the test mice that are subject to all our scientific tests - chemicals are being used without ... Use wood or bamboo cutting boards instead of plastic. Wood and bamboo are naturally anti-microbial. It is plastic that harbors ... Exposure to BPA suppresses the release of adiponectin, a hormone that increases insulin sensitivity. BPA could lead to insulin ... BPA could lead to insulin resistance and increased susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndromes. BPA has also been shown ...
They use aromatograms to test bacterial sensitivity to oils. Theres a lot of clinical experience using ingested oils. And ... Young Living tests and maintains pure, organic, therapeutic grade from the time the seed is put into the ground to the time ... Bacteria CANNOT Build Up Resistance To Essential Oils.. In l985, Dr. Jean C. Lapraz stated that, according to his research, no ... They do not create microbial upset in our digestive tract and they do not create "super-bugs." They keep microorganisms ...
Add some resistance. Once youre able to tolerate light aerobic exercise, add light free weights to work the different muscle ... Rather, it means that medical science has not identified abnormal processes that can be revealed by testing and treated with ... Whereas a short course of synthetic antibiotics would be the correct choice for an acute microbial illness like pneumonia, ... But unlike fibromyalgia, these are diseases - detectable with tests, and treatable with drugs. ...
Additional urinalysis direct-to-consumer tests are under development, including testing for Kidney Disease. ... The high prevalence of these disorders is due to the extreme sensitivity of retinal cells to physiological or genetic ... Persona Biome is a microbiome dermatology platform that provides custom microbial ferments direct to consumer for cosmetic use ... and also writes back into the brain using novel brain mapping algorithms and precisely focused and individualized electrical ...
Hyman, "Blood tests confirmed significant deficiencies in many important fats, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals. The child ... that has put the local school district of 19,000 kids first in the world of science test scores), SPARK is the first book to ... a microbial imbalance inside the body), sleeping difficulties, and food allergies, all of which surprisingly can cause or ... It might feel like the path of least resistance, it might feel like being proactive and doing SOMETHING (taking pills), but ...
The phytochemical screening was performed by chemical staining tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using ... The results showed that 66.67% of the strains tested were sensitive to the aqueous extract with inhibition diameters ranging ... 100% of the germs tested were sensitive to hydroethanolic and ethanolic extracts. The inhibition diameters range from 12 - 28 ... The fruits were used as plant material while the microbial germs consisted of six reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC ...
We present sensitivity tests that document the influence of the Antarctic surface heat budget on Southern Ocean ventilation and ... We test a range of predictions against data from temperate broadleaved forests in the northern USA. The results show the model ... The land model, known as LM2, includes soil sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The ... due to flushing of N accumulated throughout the dry spells and altered microbial processes. Our analyses suggest that possible ...
... for skin sensitivity and cytotoxic tests as they are in prolonged contact with skin.Tests are conducted on materials used in ... splash-resistant and complete a microbial cleanliness test.Face mask regulations explained Comparing surgical and Best Sellers ... Disposable Medical Face Mask - 50 pcs - FDA CE Registered.High Fluid Resistance 160 mmHg; Filtration Efficiency BFE 98%,PFE 98 ... Protective Face Mask Testing Certification SGS. United States.Classified as either a Class 1 or Class 2 medical device,in the ...
If you test negative for generic lotensin prices latent TB with a 2-year lag. Latino men in the process involves having a hotel ... Children with COVID-19 may be associated with severe to critical illness or who are older and have an allergy or sensitivity to ... Resistance to essential antibiotics is increasing and further explore new or more aggressive breast cancer screening were ... Government is taking action to address skin cancer prevention therapies targeting early microbial drivers of COVID-19 on the ...
To test this hypothesis, the same GO analysis was performed on native genes that are found in chordates and not in non-chordate ... Genome linkage tests. For each foreign gene, we identified to which contig/scaffold it mapped and determined whether native ... Dormancy and resistance in harsh environments. Topics in current genetics, vol. 21. Berlin: Springer; 2010. p. 91-108 ... Microbial genes in the human genome: lateral transfer or gene loss? Science. 2001;292:1903-6. ...
Reaction Time Test - a reflex test to see how tired you are (needs Flash) ... 2014 Jun 1; 37(6): 1043 1051) - "The diagnostic value of multiple sleep latency tests is strongly altered by shift work and to ... Yong, Ed, How Jetlag Disrupts The Ticks of Your Microbial Clock (Phenomena, National Geographic Online, 2014) ... Smell sensitivity varies with circadian rhythm, study suggests (EurekAlert, Oct 26, 2017) ...
Serum samples were collected and tested for HIV and syphilis using HIV and syphilis rapid tests. Demographic and clinical ... "Microbial selleck kinase inhibitor infection triggers assembly of inflammasome complexes that promote caspase-1-dependent ... The objective of this study was to demonstrate that it is possible to predict antimicrobial resistance of 256 samples (APEC) ... greater sensitivity and a considerable reduction of spatial distortions that were sufficient to envisage reliable biometry ...
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in ... The sensitivity of culture compared to qPCR was 6.6% and increased to 27.8% in Shigella-attributable dysentery. Shigella ... Consumption of microbial-contaminated water can result in diarrheal illnesses and enteropathy with the heaviest impact upon ... A total of 6,602 LM tests were conducted in 1,980 children at 3, 6, 9, and 15 months old; percent lactulose excretion, percent ...
But yes, there must be more elements of the Fleet elsewhere, and after such an attack, keeping the Resistance at arms length ... Engine production with shop floor issues and engine test data and warranty issues). I was the engineering leader not one of the ... I dont think their horizons of inclusion extend to microbial life - they dont seem to have a problem taking or prescribing ... confirmed to me that the reason he could break his stormtrooper conditioning was his Force sensitivity. The entire plot happens ...
But yes, there must be more elements of the Fleet elsewhere, and after such an attack, keeping the Resistance at arms length ... Engine production with shop floor issues and engine test data and warranty issues). I was the engineering leader not one of the ... I dont think their horizons of inclusion extend to microbial life - they dont seem to have a problem taking or prescribing ... confirmed to me that the reason he could break his stormtrooper conditioning was his Force sensitivity. The entire plot happens ...
Soil physicochemical and microbial drivers of temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition under boreal forests ... using Biolog test), microbial community structure (using PLFA method) and enzyme activities. ... Hypothesis tests will be centered around the assumptions that, if there is selection maintaining the integrity of co-adapted ... Currently, horticultural species of long flowering time, high resistance to extreme conditions, e.g., cold and heavy metals are ...
Herbicide Resistance. Several projects focus on herbicide resistance in invasive milfoil populations. ... The students are comparing their findings to work that students did on the Great Salt Lake microbial life at Utah State ... The faculty is also developing a surface water quality class to teach students water testing methods in the classroom and in ... North Central Michigan College (NCMC) tests three sites in the college natural area for fecal coliform contamination, and ...
Unfortunately, a specific test needs to be ordered to determine an individuals vitamin D level - it is not a part of a regular ... resistance-based equipment developed by Joseph Pilates. The Pilates body is. not one of bulk and restricted movement or of the ... Alteration of the microbial flora of the intestine, which may occur with the use of antibiotics, disease, and aging, can ... However, if the gluten-allergy-gallstone hypothesis is true, the sensitivity to gluten does not end even when the gallbladder ...
Phenotypic Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by Disk Diffusion Testing and Etest ... Determination of the Microbial Contamination and prevalence of multidrug resistant bacteria of Ready-to-Eat Fried Chicken Meat ... Antibiotic sensitivity profiles of biofilm-producing bacterial isolates from clinical and water samples ... Evolution of biocide resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. *PCR detection of virulence-associated genes in ...
A microbial community refers to the mix of organisms present at a time and place, such as the microbial community living in the ... Once the sensitivity of the model to its parameters has been established, it is necessary to consider how much uncertainty ... Ecologists ask questions regarding the resistance of a community to disruption and the resilience following disruption. Methods ... Modeling quarantine during epidemics and mass-testing using drones, Prevalence of serum IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among ...
... with hormonal changes in excess CCK excretion and decreased CCK sensitivity, insulin resistance with excess insulin in ... Discuss these tests with your M.D.. Certain drugs can increase the risk of developing biliary sludge and gallstones ... If the obstruction of bile flow or pathological changes to the gallbladder are not seen in testing, the surgical removal of the ... Attention to balance of the symbiotic microbial health of the small intestine is thus very important in preventing gallstone ...
... microbial, pesticide, fungicide and insecticide testing. In addition to the standard gamut of tests, they also specialize in ... Such an instrument exhibits extreme sensitivity, supports in situ extraction and analysis, and has a wide application range for ... S. Kim et al., "Dietary camphene attenuates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice," Obesity 2, 2014. ... We will take a deep dive into various cannabis and hemp testing methods, laboratory accreditation, microbial testing, standards ...
Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West Nile virus. *Institut Pasteur in Guinea: One Health training to ... Blood test: a potential new tool for controlling infections. *Book release: "Institut Pasteur: Todays Research, Tomorrows ... COVID-19: analysis of the sensitivity of the UK (B.1.1.7) and South African (B.1.351) variants to SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing ... A microbial virus from extreme environments opens doors to new therapeutical strategies ...
He was tested to try the Evidence of Saint Benedict, in the Abstract surgery over which he sent functioning, but he was the ... 2014) The Microbial problems of the change of the Study of English phenomenon constitutional request: to effect, at state, ... In always a work teachers I do suggested financial to scan my sensitivity Multicultural so I are not find functioning Employers ... order for the Development of ecological post-tests in abstracts of Structural Reforms in Russia, Innovation editor, 4( 9), 11- ...
... sodium tolerances and antifungal sensitivities much like the parental enzyme. These tests exhibited cross-species ... The lack of these transporters was likely to offer enhanced xenobiotic awareness during cell-based inhibitor testing, decrease ... Development characteristics, hygromycin level of resistance and glucose-dependent proton pumping At pH 6.0. ... to GF pets was sufficient to reproduce the energetic suppression of iNKT cell amounts to levels identical as with microbial ...
A stress test for coal in Europe under the Paris Agreement. Climate Analytics, 9 February 2017. This report calculates that to ... Microbial metabolisms in a 2.5-km-deep ecosystem created by hydraulic fracturing in shales. Rebecca A. Daly, Mikayla A. Borton ... Local control: authority, resistance, and knowledge production in fracking. Valencia, C and Carrillo Martinet, M, Wiley ... The report says if all these tests are met shale gas could make a useful contribution to UK energy supplies. ...
  • In this retrospective study, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data generated on an Ion Torrent platform was used to predict phenotypic drug resistance profiles for first- and second-line drugs among Swedish clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 2016 to 2018. (asm.org)
  • MRSA isolates were detected by four different methods including cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxacillin as determined by MIC test strip, and mecA detection by PCR. (sid.ir)
  • Results: Out of 120 S. aureus isolates, cefoxitin disc diffusion test, oxacillin disc diffusion test and MIC test strip identified 60 (50%), 48 (40%), 55 (45.83%) isolates as MRSA, respectively. (sid.ir)
  • For the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay, the pooled sensitivity was 0.97 (95%CI 0.95-0.98) and the pooled specificity was 0.99 (95%CI 0.98-1.00) for detecting rifampin resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • For the MTBDR and MTBDR( plus ) assays, the pooled sensitivity was 0.98 (95%CI 0.96-0.99) and the pooled specificity was 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-0.99) for detecting rifampin resistance in isolates or directly from clinical specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • With the exception of 2 isolates, Enterococcus faecium and Nocardia exalbida, all the other 725 (99.7%) gram-positive bacteria tested were susceptible to vancomycin. (nih.gov)
  • Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was present in a third of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) carriage was present in 19.6% and 30.1% of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The microbiologist should confer with the clinicians related to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to make sure the right antibiotics are being tested on the right microbial isolates. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Environmental exposure is the most prevalent means of resistance development, and these isolates can cause disease in various at-risk groups, which now include those with influenza, and potentially COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • Enterobacterial isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk (DD) synergy test. (uliege.be)
  • The resistance of bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics was also studied. (scirp.org)
  • About 87.5% of the tested isolates were resistant to augmentin, 83.33% to cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid. (scirp.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori isolates were obtained from gastric biopsy samples on selective culture media after characterization by conventional biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction. (archcid.com)
  • Three reference isolates with predetermined MIC values (two penicillin- and multidrug-resistant isolates, one uniformly susceptible to all antibiotics) were also tested with the same antibiotics. (elsevier.com)
  • Among the antimicrobials tested, sitafloxacin was the most potent against the clinical isolates with an MIC 90 of 0.12μg/ml at baseline. (elsevier.com)
  • AS PER AMENDMENT 12/6/00: If the resistance assay fails to yield results, another regimen is chosen and prescribed based on the patient's medical and medication history. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This application note discusses the implementation of miniaturized drug sensitivity and resistance testing, at the Institute of Molecular Medicine in Finland (FIMM), with assay-ready plates produced by the Echo liquid handler. (selectscience.net)
  • Typically, PCR is used to amplify a target sequence followed by a second assay to determine if the sequence contains a mutation associated with resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, a single-well assay has been developed that uses five molecular beacons to detect mutations associated with rifampin resistance in M. tuberculosis bacteria and appears to perform similarly as the line-probe assays. (cdc.gov)
  • In the 50 years since the discovery of Limulus amebocyte lysate and LAL testing, approximately 70 million bacterial endotoxin tests have been performed each year, and there have been no FDA-confirmed pyrogenic outbreaks due to LAL assay false-negative results. (criver.com)
  • Charles River has evolved the exquisitely specific endotoxin testing in vitro assay by developing new technologies and innovative products to improve the quality and speed of the LAL test. (criver.com)
  • Our second-generation reagent, KTA 2 , releases one of the fastest turbidimetric LAL reaction times in the industry, and our enhanced LAL reagent water formulations deliver an unrivaled combination of sensitivity, linearity, and interference resistance properties with minimal assay times. (criver.com)
  • After drying and applying the appropriate extraction methods, the plant extracts were tested in antimicrobial screening assay, performed on 19 Gram-positive and -negative strains of microbes. (elsevier.com)
  • en] Organisms producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Cameroon. (uliege.be)
  • Thirty-one (12%) of these Enterobacteriaceae strains were shown to be positive by the DD synergy test, suggesting the presence of ESBLs. (uliege.be)
  • Drug resistance can be detected by genotypic or phenotypic assays, both having distinct advantages and disadvantages. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ATCC offers microbial strains for use in antibiotic resistance/sensitivity assays, instrument validation, and inclusivity/exclusivity testing. (atcc.org)
  • Kits for detecting mutations associated with rifampin resistance that are commercially available in Europe and elsewhere include line-probe assays (INNO-LiPA® Rif.TB, Innogenetics and GenoType® MTBDR( plus ), Hain LifeScience GmbH) and microarray assays (CombiChip Mycobacteria DR, GENE IN). (cdc.gov)
  • For the hybridization assays, the region of the target gene associated with resistance is PCR amplified, and the labeled PCR products hybridized to oligonucleotide probes immobilized on a nitrocellulose strip or in a microarray. (cdc.gov)
  • The performance of the line-probe assays relative to culture-based DS tests was evaluated in meta-analyses (3-5). (cdc.gov)
  • The Siemens clinical microbiology business is an established leader in microbial identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing (ID/AST). (newswise.com)
  • Analyze the complex relationship between microbiology and environmental toxicology using microbial strains provided by ATCC. (atcc.org)
  • Confirmatory identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed at Changi General Hospital. (nus.edu.sg)
  • ATCC offers a wide assortment of cell cultures, microbial strains, and molecular tools to support your research in a variety of focus areas, such as disease mechanisms, quality control testing, product development, and environmental research. (atcc.org)
  • For all in vitro diagnostic studies, use ATCC as your trusted source for cell cultures and microbial control strains. (atcc.org)
  • ATCC offers fully characterized strains for quality control testing, including strains that have been recommended as controls for rapid identification, tests on food and water, and use with commercial kits and instrumentation. (atcc.org)
  • For example, approximately 95% of rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis strains carry mutations within the rifampin-resistance determining region (RRDR), an 81-bp region encoding codons 507 through 533 of the rpoB gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Resistance was observed only with penicillin and ampicillin and then only with beta-lactamase-producing strains. (umassmed.edu)
  • Resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and monobactams of 12 (38.7%) of the 31 strains-i.e., 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 4 Escherichia coli, 1 Citrobacter freundii, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae strain-was transferred to E. coli HK-225 by conjugation. (uliege.be)
  • The fruits were used as plant material while the microbial germs consisted of six reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Candida albicans ATCC 35659 and their clinical counterparts. (oalib.com)
  • The results showed that 66.67% of the strains tested were sensitive to the aqueous extract with inhibition diameters ranging from 15 to 21 mm and MIC and MCB or MFC between 0.0976 - 0.3906 mg/mL and 0.1953 - 07812 mg/mL respectively, thus determining bacteriostatic activity. (oalib.com)
  • In order to do that, bacterial strains isolated from patientsamples were identified based on "bacterial fatty acid profiles" and determined the antimicrobialsusceptibilities by using disc diffusion test for aerobic bacteria, and E test for anaerobic bacteria.Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in 71 patients with a diagnosis oforofacial infections in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Atatürk University. (oalib.com)
  • Constant monitoring of Helicobacter pylori resistance is necessary for selection of the best treatment regimen for eradication of the resistant strains. (archcid.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate diversity of resistance and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of H. pylori strains against metronidazole in Tehran, Iran. (archcid.com)
  • Used as a broad screening test to check for such disorders as anemia, infection, and many other diseases. (directlabs.com)
  • Due to the increasing rate of MRSA infections, implementing of reliable, accurate and rapid testing for diagnosis of MRSA is necessary. (sid.ir)
  • provide rapid and accurate identification of the agent for appropriate treatment and finally to provide epidemiological trending of the microbial organisms that are associated with infections especially healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Because it is essential that bloodstream infections are diagnosed and treated quickly, rapid testing methods have been developed using technologies like polymerase chain reaction and MALDI-TOF MS. Procedures for culturing the blood were published as early as the mid-19th century, but these techniques were labour-intensive and bore little resemblance to contemporary methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study tests the hypothesis that salvage regimens selected on the basis of HIV-1 resistance genotype, phenotype [AS PER AMENDMENT 02/19/02: virtual phenotype], and treatment history will be more effective if there is a period of treatment interruption before initiating that regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Based on the results of the pre-entry genotype and phenotype [AS PER AMENDMENT 02/19/02: virtual phenotype] tests and treatment history, an individualized salvage therapy regimen (not provided by the study) is selected by the site investigator(s). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Voges-Proskauer test is designed to detect organisms that are able to ferment glucose yes are able to convert their acid products to acetone 2-3 butanediol quickly. (majortests.com)
  • Of the 94 gram-negative organisms tested against ceftazidime, 2 were of intermediate sensitivity and 6 were resistant. (nih.gov)
  • If microbial growth is detected, a Gram stain is conducted from the culture bottle to confirm that organisms are present and provide preliminary information about their identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensitivity and specificity for oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion and MIC of oxacillin were 80% and 100%, 100% and 100%, and 91.6% and 100%, respectively. (sid.ir)
  • In four studies, the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB showed 100% specificity and sensitivity ranging from 80% to 100% for detecting rifampin resistance directly from clinical specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • Our optimized formulations provide increased sensitivity, greater linearity, and superior interference resistance. (criver.com)
  • Charles River has developed and optimized a range of quantitative and qualitative LAL reagent water formulations that provides increased sensitivity, greater linearity, and superior interference resistance. (criver.com)
  • A fully quantitative and uniquely stable kinetic chromogenic LAL reagent, Endochrome-K™ includes an enhanced KCA formulation that delivers an unrivaled combination of sensitivity, linearity, and interference resistance. (criver.com)
  • Conclusion: Cefoxitin disc diffusion test is a reliable substitute for detection of MRSA in clinical laboratory where MIC detection and molecular methods are not accessible. (sid.ir)
  • In-house PCR-based tests using molecular beacons have also been used for diagnostic purposes in a few clinical laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • n an era of increasing bacterial resistance and the avail- the content was analyzed by P.M. and W.R. One recording ability of a plethora of antimicrobial agents, hospitals of an interview with a clinical microbiologist was damaged have developed policies to promote prudent antimicrobial and could not be used. (cdc.gov)
  • We retrospectively reviewed available clinical and drug susceptibility data for drug-resistant TB suspects referred for culture and drug-susceptibility testing between April 1, 2011 and March 1, 2012. (nih.gov)
  • Although clinical outcomes in the treatment of aspergillosis have markedly improved with the availability of newer triazoles, the development of resistance to these antifungals, especially in Aspergillus fumigatus, is a growing concern. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this review is to provide an update on azole resistance mechanisms and their epidemiology in A. fumigatus, the clinical implications of azole resistance, and to discuss future treatment options against azole-resistant aspergillosis. (cdc.gov)
  • This is perhaps just another example of resistance to significant change in clinical approach within medicine, even in the face of compelling evidence to do so, because it would then require at least a passive admission that something so seemingly simple had been missed for so long. (ndnr.com)
  • Other studies suggest there is a virologic benefit derived from using genotypic or phenotypic resistance testing in selecting salvage therapy regimens for patients failing antiretroviral therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our lysate features a firm gel over a wide range of sensitivities as the buffered reagent provides improved interference resistance for routine LAL tests. (criver.com)
  • Rapid drug-susceptibility tests are a pressing public health and diagnostic need because of the rise in multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR TB) globally (1). (cdc.gov)
  • In eight best-selling editions, Shara Rosen has detailed the market for in vitro diagnostic (IVD) testing, throughout the world, in one complete volume. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report, The Worldwide Market for In Vitro Diagnostic Tests , is a testament to the Kalorama methodology. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Although a statistically significant trend toward increasing microbial resistance against a variety of antibiotics, including cephalosporins and methicillin, was observed, a significant trend toward decreasing microbial resistance against aminoglycosides and imipenem also was detected. (nih.gov)
  • Crude extracts of beta-lactamase-producing transconjugants were able to reduce the diameters of inhibition zones around disks containing penicillins, narrow- to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins or monobactams when tested against a fully susceptible E. coli strain but had no effect on such zones around cefoxitin, imipenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanate disks. (uliege.be)
  • The bacterial endotoxin testing services performed by Charles River uses customer-requested methods for submitted samples. (criver.com)
  • In a high HIV-prevalence setting, MODS diagnosed TB and drug-resistant TB with high sensitivity and shorter turnaround time compared with standard culture and DST methods. (nih.gov)
  • Tests are performed with multiparametric flow cytometry methods of cell sorting for later in vitro examination capability. (santa.lt)
  • METHODS: Data from four Western Pacific nations (N = 3,277) are used to test additive and multiplicative models of the relationships between financial strain, social relations, and psychological distress. (afpm.org.my)
  • To identify the spectrum and susceptibility pattern of pathogens responsible for culture-positive endophthalmitis referred to a single institution and investigate possible trends in both pathogens and antibiotic sensitivities over the past 25 years. (nih.gov)
  • This prospective study was performed to survey antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella spp. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Based on literature review, calibration of the antibiotic-resistance spectra of Escherichia coli or the bifidobacterial tracking ratio should be investigated locally for potential implementation into the existing monitoring system. (mdpi.com)
  • The emergence of multidrug resistance was observed for E. coli during patient stays in the ICU. (eur.nl)
  • Resistance frequencies in E. coli significantly increased with the length of stay in the ICU. (eur.nl)
  • We describe detection in the United Kingdom (UK) of the drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae FC428 clone, with ceftriaxone resistance and intermediate azithromycin resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Vancomycin resistance among the enterococci is an emerging microbial threat. (nih.gov)
  • The in vitro activity of tigecycline against these ESBL producers was tested by use of Etest strips. (elsevier.com)
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Results from genotypic and phenotypic testing are helpful in excluding from the subsequent regimen drugs to which the resistance is identified, and both tests predict virologic response to salvage therapy in patients who have failed a previous regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Based upon the shortage of information about the bacterial density and antimicrobial resistance in Nile tilapia sampled from feral and cultured ponds in Nigeria. (scirp.org)
  • Among the eight antibiotics tested, six patterns of drug resis- tance were obtained and all of them were multiple drug resistance with three to eight. (scirp.org)
  • Modulation of antibiotic sensitivity and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by interspecies signal analogues. (harvard.edu)
  • abstract = "The European HIV Drug Resistance Guidelines Panel, established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists, felt that sufficient new information has become available to warrant an update of its recommendations, explained in both pocket guidelines and this full paper. (unicatt.it)
  • The MIC testing surveillance programme complemented susceptibility data from wider laboratory-based surveillance, and has revealed emerging mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effect(s) of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microbial profiles of acute periodontal lesions. (elsevier.com)
  • NAA-positive respiratory specimen or one M. tuberculosis culture from each TB patient or TB suspect (estimate testing 15,000 to 20,000 samples per year). (cdc.gov)
  • The mutations associated with resistance to many of the antituberculosis drugs have been identified, though much work remains to be done to identify the molecular basis of resistance for some of the drugs and to determine the predictive value of finding a particular mutation in a strain of M. tuberculosis (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • Introduction: Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacilli is an area of increasing importance. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Results: Seven hundred and forty-six gram-negative bacilli were received for testing. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The most active antibiotic against A. baumannii was polymyxin B. Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance is prevalent in gram-negative bacilli isolated from Singapore hospitals. (nus.edu.sg)
  • RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Colonization and resistance dynamics of gram-negative bacteria in patients during and after hospitalization. (eur.nl)
  • The colonization and resistance dynamics of aerobic gram-negative bacteria in the intestinal and oropharyngeal microfloras of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and general wards were investigated during and after hospitalization. (eur.nl)
  • Blood culture can identify an underlying microbial cause in cases of endocarditis and fever of unknown origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbiological spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity in endophthalmitis: a 25-year review. (nih.gov)
  • Chi-square test for trend was used to detect changes in spectrum or susceptibility over time. (nih.gov)
  • Microbial spectrum and susceptibility pattern over time. (nih.gov)
  • Liquid medium method LiquiPrep (USA) is used for gynecologic and non-gynecologic specimen preparation, which enables a broad spectrum of tests from the same sample. (santa.lt)
  • This study tests the effect of stopping anti-HIV drugs for a time before switching to anti-HIV drugs selected using drug-resistance test results. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The test results are available between Weeks 1 and 4, inclusive. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If virologic failure is confirmed, a new regimen is chosen and prescribed at the first visit after resistance test results are available. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Different linezolid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methodologies yield various results. (asm.org)
  • Based in Brea, Calif., Beckman Coulter's instruments, systems and tests help streamline processes to enhance efficiency, reduce costs and speed the delivery of results. (newswise.com)
  • The generation of valid results for bacterial endotoxins testing (BET) necessitates robust test procedures, well-maintained equipment, and properly trained personnel, but too often it is cost, not quality, that is the driving force in the BET decision-making process. (criver.com)
  • The Endosafe ® cartridge technology is our advanced solution to our customers' need for higher sensitivity in the LAL test and faster quantitative results. (criver.com)
  • Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert ® 18 system which leads to rapidly available results. (mdpi.com)
  • The results of in vitro susceptibility tests with agar dilution and broth microdilution procedures were found to be comparable. (umassmed.edu)
  • The results of broth tube macrodilution tests were, in general, one twofold-concentration increment higher. (umassmed.edu)
  • Reception division receives orders for laboratory tests performed in all laboratories of CLM from the customers, then manages information, and forwards orders to the appropriate laboratory and test results to the customer site. (santa.lt)
  • Indeed, resistance test results should be used in the context of all other clinically relevant information for predicting therapy response. (unicatt.it)
  • Recently identified associations between variants of cancer genes and drug resistance increase the value for comprehensive drug sensitivity and resistance testing in combination with molecular profiling of cancer cells. (selectscience.net)
  • To ensure access to state-of-the-art testing, the panel recommends that CDC establish regional laboratories to provide molecular drug-resistance testing services to state and local TB programs. (cdc.gov)
  • A phased approach to developing and implementing a molecular drug-resistance testing service would be prudent. (cdc.gov)
  • As an initial step, the expert panel strongly recommends that CDC immediately establish a service to provide molecular drug resistance testing for TB suspects and patients at high-risk of having MDR TB and those deemed high priority by the state or local TB program(estimate testing 2,500 samples per year). (cdc.gov)
  • CDC is encouraged to explore using supplements to existing cooperative agreements to provide sufficient new funds to existing, proficient molecular drug-resistance testing laboratories to allow them to expand their capacities to meet this need. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular genetic tests for detecting drug-resistance are, in general, just a variation of nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests and can reliably provide information on the presence of mutations associated with drug resistance in 1 to 2 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Miniaturization of traditional immunoassay and molecular test technologies has finally matured to the point where they may be ready for scale-up and then commercialization into products. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Our bacterial endotoxin testing technical services laboratory is available to assist with performing critical endotoxin tests to help streamline the process to final product release. (criver.com)
  • Our bacterial endotoxin testing services laboratory can support you with performing your critical tests to help streamline the process to final product release. (criver.com)
  • Bacteria flora of the skin and stomach of fish samples were examined and compared statistically (t-test independent). (scirp.org)
  • Our Endochrome-K™ LAL test reagent offers quantitative endotoxin values in roughly an hour, depending on the user's desired sensitivity, and the stability of the reconstituted LAL allows for extended bench time and reuse, making it a highly economical solution. (criver.com)
  • Detection of microbial growth involved visual examination of the culture bottles until automated blood culture systems, which monitor gases produced by microbial metabolism, were introduced in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MicroScan systems are recognized in their industry for their high accuracy and superior detection of emerging resistance. (newswise.com)
  • Five colonies per specimen were selected for identification and susceptibility testing. (eur.nl)
  • The blood is then subcultured, meaning it is streaked onto an agar plate to isolate microbial colonies for full identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to the ACET resolution, CDC convened an expert panel to examine the current status of rapid drug resistance testing in the United States, published evidence, and current guidelines and to provide guidance and make recommendations to CDC for developing a system to provide access to rapid drug-susceptibility testing to all TB Control programs in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The accuracy of MODS drug-susceptibility testing (DST) was assessed against a reference standard absolute concentration method. (nih.gov)
  • Disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed with two media, i.e. (umassmed.edu)
  • The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the well diffusion m ethod and the MIC and MBC or MFC were determined using the 96-well microplate dilution method. (oalib.com)
  • Some also detect mutations associated with isoniazid resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients in both arms are monitored for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts, and HIV drug resistance genotypes and phenotypes for a duration of 64 weeks from randomization. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • By partnering with Charles River, you can be confident that our experienced specialists can help improve the compliance and efficiency of your endotoxin testing program and help you to achieve control, consistency and precision in your laboratory. (criver.com)
  • The micro lab of the past has significantly changed due to the constantly evolving new tests and evolving technology in laboratory science. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Together with the laboratory staff they identify the best test to order to provide a diagnosis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • 1 Fungus Testing Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA. (cdc.gov)
  • DirectLabs ® offers low-cost, high-quality laboratory tests at a fraction of the cost. (directlabs.com)
  • A blood culture is a medical laboratory test used to detect bacteria or fungi in a person's blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • This combination of blood tests is designed to give you a complete picture of the state of your liver and help detect liver disease and measure potential liver damage. (directlabs.com)

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