A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A mitochondrial enzyme found in a wide variety of cells and tissues. It is the final enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Ferrochelatase catalyzes ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme or heme. Deficiency in this enzyme results in ERYTHROPOIETIC PROTOPORPHYRIA.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Four conserved histidine residues are postulated to be the ligands of the iron atoms of these two heme groups. Cytochrome b is ... Human genes encoding cytochrome b proteins include: CYB5A - cytochrome b5 type A (microsomal) CYB5B - cytochrome b5 type B ( ... In plants and cyanobacteria, cytochrome b6 consists of two protein subunits encoded by the petB and petD genes. Cytochrome b/b6 ... Cytochrome b/b6 is an integral membrane protein of approximately 400 amino acid residues that probably has 8 transmembrane ...
... gene; that gene encodes the very first enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. The mutation is caused by a frameshift mutation ... This alters the 19th and 20th residues of the C-terminal domain thereby altering the secondary structure of the enzyme. The ... animal models and update in gene-based therapies". Curr Gene Ther. 8 (3): 176-86. doi:10.2174/156652308784746477. PMID 18537592 ... Additionally, unlike the other condition the arises out of a mutation of the ALAS2 gene, there is no anaemia. XDEPP is ...
Located near the heme propionate groups or the distal face of the heme, these residues are also important for proper ... Baek SJ, Lee KD, Shen RF (1996). "Genomic structure and polymorphism of the human thromboxane synthase-encoding gene". Gene. ... Hsu PY, Tsai AL, Wang LH (2000). "Identification of Thromboxane Synthase Amino Acid Residues Involved in Heme-Propionate ... TXA synthase has a heme group coordinated to the thiolate group of a cysteine residue, specifically cysteine 480. Mutagenesis ...
The fold of the enzyme is known as the heme peroxidase fold, conserved among all members of this gene family. However, not all ... The fifth ligand of iron is a conserved histidine residue, hydrogen bonded directly to an asparagine residue. These two ... The basic mechanism of heme peroxidases consists in using hydrogen peroxide to produce an activated form of the heme cofactor, ... Cyanide binds very tightly to mammalian heme peroxidases. Tight binding directly to heme iron converts the protein to a low- ...
... is a heme-containing cytosolic enzyme encoded by gene TDO2. Crystallographic studies of Xanthomonas ... identification of the putative heme-ligating histidine residues". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 392 (1): 71-78. doi: ... Gene. 396 (1): 203-213. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.04.010. PMID 17499941. Zhang Y, Kang SA, Mukherjee T, Bale S, Crane BR, Begley ... TDO is assumed to react in the same way, but a ferryl heme has not been observed in TDO. See also discussion of mechanism for ...
... (also known as Complex III subunit 4) is a protein encoded by the CYC1 gene. Cytochrome is a heme-containing ... rationalizing the role of key residues". Biophysical Journal. 99 (8): 2647-56. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2010.08.042. PMC 2955499. PMID ... "CYC1 - Cytochrome c1, heme protein, mitochondrial precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CYC1 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. ... There, the electron carried by the iron-sulfur protein is transferred to the heme carried by cytochrome c1. This electron is ...
Dumont ME, Ernst JF, Hampsey DM, Sherman F (1987). "Identification and sequence of the gene encoding cytochrome c heme lyase in ... Both patterns contain conserved histidine, tryptophan and acidic residues which could be important for the interaction of the ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYT2 gene encoding cytochrome-c1-heme lyase". Eur. J. ... heme Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, holocytochrome c, and two products, apocytochrome c and heme. This enzyme belongs to ...
The cDNA of this gene spans a length of 1527 bp. This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The ... The protein encoded by its cDNA is composed of 508 amino acid residues. As an enzyme, CYP17A1 possesses an active site that ... Abiraterone acetate binds in the active site of the enzyme and coordinates the heme iron through its pyridine nitrogen, ... "Entrez Gene: CYP17A1 cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1". Ma YN, Cao CY, Wang QW, Gui WJ, Zhu GN (October ...
HO-1 is a 32kDa enzyme containing 288 amino acid residues which is encoded by the HMOX1 gene. A study has found levels of HO-1 ... Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha-methene bridge to form either biliverdin or, if the heme is still attached to ... A third heme oxygenase (HO-3) is considered to be catalytically inactive and is thought to work in heme sensing or heme binding ... originating from heme via heme oxygenase and ~14% from non-heme sources including: photooxidation, lipid peroxidation, and ...
Mutations of the heme binding site, particularly those affecting the conserved proximal or distal histidine residues, can ... Hemoglobinopathies are inherited single-gene disorders; in most cases, they are inherited as autosomal co-dominant traits. ... The binding of oxygen to methaemoglobin results in an increased affinity for oxygen in the remaining heme sites that are in ... Each globin chain is associated with an iron-containing heme moiety. Throughout life, the synthesis of the alpha-like and the ...
500 residue) monomeric heme-containing protein bound to the endoplasmic reticulum in neurons. Cholesterol-24 hydroxylase is ... Lund EG, Xie C, Kotti T, Turley SD, Dietschy JM, Russell DW (2003). "Knockout of the cholesterol 24-hydroxylase gene in mice ... has a series of 5 residues (residues 116-120) unique to cholesterol-24 hydroxylase that contribute to the positioning of the ... While the exact function of these proline residues remain highly speculative, it has been shown that the deletion of this ...
Heme attachment to cytochrome c takes place in the intermembrane space and requires conserved heme-interacting residues on HCCS ... Cytochrome c-type heme lyase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HCCS gene on chromosome X. The HCCS gene is located ... "Entrez Gene: HCCS holocytochrome c synthase (cytochrome c heme-lyase)". http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa/genes/ENSG00000004961 Babbitt ... "Conserved residues of the human mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase mediate interactions with heme". Biochemistry. 53 (32 ...
A cysteine residue on one of the loops at the open end of the basket is of central importance for the function. A1M binds and ... It is synthesized in most cells of the body, but mainly in the liver from a gene that codes for the alpha-1-microglobulin/ ... particularly heme, from the tissues. It is subsequently transported to the kidneys, where it is broken down. The protein is ... and the antioxidative heme scavenger alpha-1-microglobulin in preeclampsia". Free Radic Biol Med. 48 (2): 284-291. doi:10.1016/ ...
... and Arg185 as key residues. This binding site attaches to biliverdin, and causes its dissociation from heme oxygenase (HO) ( ... There are two isozymes, in humans, each encoded by its own gene, biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA) and biliverdin reductase B ( ... Biliverdin also is replenished in the cycle with its formation from heme units through heme oxygenase (HO) localized from the ... Bilirubin, being one of the last products of heme degradation in the liver, is further processed and excreted in bile after ...
"GeneCards: C6orf165 Gene". Retrieved 2014-02-28. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "NCBI gene: C6orf165 Gene". Retrieved ... heme biosynthesis, and mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. Two-hybrid experiments revealed interacting protein ... the translation length is 622 residues The second protein coding transcript in human is transcript ID ENST00000480123 or ... In mouse, the gene expression of C6orf165 is even lower, the gene is only expressed in two body parts, ovary and testis. In ...
The side-chain of this residue protrudes out above the heme center, restricting active site volume compared to related enzymes ... In humans, the CYP2E1 enzyme is encoded by the CYP2E1 gene. The enzyme has been identified in fetal liver, where it is posited ... Like other enzymes of this class, the active site of CYP2E1 contains an iron atom bound by a heme center which mediates the ... In rats, within one day of birth the hepatic CYP2E1 gene is activated transcriptionally. CYP2E1 expression is easily inducible ...
... in yeast mediates hydroxylation of the methyl group at the C-8 position of the heme O molecule to form heme A. A deletion ... The COX15 gene lies on the chromosome location of 10q24 and consists of nine exons. Two splice variants formed by alternative ... Four conserved histidine residues are proven to be critical for COX15 activity. Both COX15 multimerization and enzymatic ... Wang Z, Wang Y, Hegg EL (January 2009). "Regulation of the heme A biosynthetic pathway: differential regulation of heme A ...
... a methionine aminopeptidase can cleave the methionine residue. The number of genes encoding for a methionine aminopeptidase ... Korendovych IV, Kryatov SV, Reiff WM, Rybak-Akimova EV (November 2005). "Diiron(II) mu-aqua-mu-hydroxo model for non-heme iron ... The knockout of this gene in E. coli leads to cell inviability. In humans, there are two genes encoding MetAP, MetAP1 and ... leaving just the N-terminal methionine residue. For proteins with small, uncharged penultimate N-terminal residues, ...
As a type I copper protein, amicyanin contains one copper atom coordinated by two histidine residues and a cysteine residue in ... It has been shown that inactivation of amicyanin by gene replacement in vivo results in complete loss of ability to grow on ... In the electron transfer mechanism from MADH to heme, amicyanin acts as an electron-accepting intermediate. In this reaction, ... which in turn gives the electrons to the heme of the cytochrome c. In P. denitrificans, amicyanin is absolutely required for ...
... and heme, as well as the divalent metal ions zinc, copper, mercury, cadmium and nickel. Mutations in this gene lead to ... The high concentration of both histidine and proline residues has resulted in HRG also being termed 'histidine-proline-rich ... The HRG gene lies on location of 3q27 on the chromosome 3, spans approximately 11kb, and consist of 7 exons. Two common ... It is known that HRG binds heme, dyes, and divalent metal ions and it is thought to have multiple roles in the human blood, ...
The FMO family of genes is conserved across all phyla that have been studied so far, therefore some form of the FMO gene family ... The arginine residue interacts with the phosphate group of NADPH. The general function of these enzymes is to metabolise ... CYP enzymes make use of an oxygenated heme prosthetic group, while the FMO family utilizes FAD to oxidize its substrates. Prior ... "Organization and evolution of the flavin-containing monooxygenase genes of human and mouse: identification of novel gene and ...
The result is a ferric accumulation in mitochondria and insufficient heme production. Mutations in this gene can cause ... as well as a low-spin heme, both ligated to six conserved histidine residues near the outer side of four transmembrane spans ... The CuB-heme a3 (or heme o) binuclear centre, associated with the largest subunit I of cytochrome c and ubiquinol oxidases (EC ... One of 37 mitochondrial genes, the MT-CO1 gene is located from nucleotide pairs 5904 to 7444 on the guanine-rich heavy (H) ...
"Entrez Gene: FDX1 ferredoxin 1". "FDX2 ferredoxin 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 8 ... They are proteins of around one hundred amino acids with four conserved cysteine residues to which the 2Fe-2S cluster is ... Ferredoxin-2 participates in heme A and iron-sulphur protein synthesis. The [Fe4S4] ferredoxins may be further subdivided into ... In some bacterial ferredoxins, one of the duplicated domains has lost one or more of the four conserved Cys residues. These ...
"Entrez Gene: UROD uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase". Silva PJ, Ramos MJ (2005). "Density-functional study of mechanisms for the ... Its mechanism has recently been proposed to proceed through substrate protonation by an arginine residue. A 2008 report ... Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase is a homodimeric enzyme (PDB: 1URO​) that catalyzes the fifth step in heme biosynthesis, ... McManus JF, Begley CG, Sassa S, Ratnaike S (1999). "Three new mutations in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene in familial ...
"Regulation of heme oxygenase and metallothionein gene expression by the heme analogs, cobalt-, and tin-protoporphyrin". The ... The 18 tryptophan residues are arranged in four clusters, and 12 of the tryptophans are conserved in homologous positions. ... The free heme will then be oxidized into free met-heme and sooner or later the hemopexin will come to bind free met-heme ... Ma B, Day JP, Phillips H, Slootsky B, Tolosano E, Doré S (February 2016). "Deletion of the hemopexin or heme oxygenase-2 gene ...
It is a heme-containing enzyme that is acted on by NO, which binds to the heme. Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which ... A gene that increases nitric oxide production after UV radiation was described, and in the absence of this gene the bacteria ... S-nitrosation involves the (reversible) conversion of thiol groups, including cysteine residues in proteins, to form S- ... Hemoglobin is a prominent example of a heme protein that may be modified by NO by both direct attack by NO and, independently, ...
Gene Function Kelavkar and Badr (1999) stated that the ALOX15 gene product is implicated in antiinflammation, membrane ... ALOX15 adds a hydroperoxy residue to AA at carbons 15 and to a lesser extent 12 to form 15(S)-hydroperoxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,13E- ... ALOX15 and Alox15 enzymes are non-heme, iron-containing dioxygenases. They commonly catalyze the attachment of molecular oxygen ... Kelavkar and Badr (1999) stated that the ALOX15 gene maps to 17p13.3 in close proximity to the tumor-suppressor gene TP53 ( ...
When sequence alignments were performed against other mammalian peroxidases, the histidine residues responsible for heme ... Dual oxidase 1, also known as DUOX1 or ThOX1 (for thyroid oxidase), is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the DUOX1 gene. ... Surprisingly, the heme appears to have two covalent links to the C. elegans protein despite the absence of a second conserved ... "Entrez Gene: DUOX1 dual oxidase 1". Lambeth JD (2002). "Nox/Duox family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BLVRB gene. The BLVRB gene was localized to chromosome 19 ... The final step in heme metabolism in mammals is catalyzed by the cytosolic biliverdin reductase enzymes A and B (EC 1.3.1.24). ... BLVRB encodes a protein that is a 206-residue monomeric enzyme. The structure of BVR-B has a single-domain architecture ... "Entrez Gene: Biliverdin reductase B". Saito F, Yamaguchi T, Komuro A, Tobe T, Ikeuchi T, Tomita M, Nakajima H (1995). "Mapping ...
2 subfamilies, 2 genes. CYP7A1, CYP7B1 CYP8. varied. 2 subfamilies, 2 genes. CYP8A1 (prostacyclin synthase), CYP8B1 (bile acid ... Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemeproteins.[1] CYPs ... This cysteine and several flanking residues are highly conserved in known CYPs and have the formal PROSITE signature consensus ... 3 subfamilies, 3 genes. CYP26A1, CYP26B1, CYP26C1 CYP27. varied. 3 subfamilies, 3 genes. CYP27A1 (bile acid biosynthesis), ...
Two enzymes and their encoding genes, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM), are involved in ... Both the oil and the seed residue also have commercial uses. ... heme dioxygenases, and were isolated using functional genomics. ...
The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, which is encoded in the genetic code. In ... Towards the right-center among the coils, a prosthetic group called a heme group (shown in gray) with a bound oxygen molecule ( ... acidic residues red, basic residues blue, polar residues green, nonpolar residues white). ... The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. ...
heme (4) − Subunit. name. Gene. Chromosomal. locus Hb-α1. HBA1. Chr. 16 p13.3 ... The iron is bound strongly (covalently) to the globular protein via the N atoms of the imidazole ring of F8 histidine residue ( ... α and β subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme groups in green. From PDB: 1GZX​ Proteopedia Hemoglobin ... Gene expression of hemoglobin before and after birth. Also identifies the types of cells and organs in which the gene ...
It has the heme-attachment site towards the N terminus of histidine and the sixth ligand provided by a methionine residue ... "Entrez Gene: cytochrome c".. *^ Tafani M, Karpinich NO, Hurster KA, Pastorino JG, Schneider T, Russo MA, Farber JL (Mar 2002 ... While most heme proteins are attached to the prosthetic group through iron ion ligation and tertiary interactions, the heme ... Class III comprises the low redox potential multiple-heme cytochromes. The heme c groups are structurally and functionally ...
The heme constituent of hemoglobin are broken down into iron (Fe3+) and biliverdin. The biliverdin is reduced to bilirubin, ... Much of this potential appears to be contributed by the exposed sialic acid residues in the membrane: their removal results in ... remnants of hemoglobin genes can be found in their genome.[9] ... The color of red blood cells is due to the heme group of ... Vertebrate red blood cells consist mainly of hemoglobin, a complex metalloprotein containing heme groups whose iron atoms ...
The gene promoter region of ALOX5 contains 8 GC boxes but lacks TATA boxes or CAT boxes and thus resembles the gene promoters ... Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 1.13 ... ALOX5's dioxygenase activity adds a hydroperoxyl (i.e. HO2) residue to arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic ... GeneEdit. The ALOX5 gene, which occupies 71.9 kilobase pairs (kb) on chromosome 10 (all other human lipoxygenases are clustered ...
Hiner AN, Raven EL, Thorneley RN, García-Cánovas F, Rodríguez-López JN (July 2002). "Mechanisms of compound I formation in heme ... Brigelius-Flohé R, Davies KJ (July 2007). "Is vitamin E an antioxidant, a regulator of signal transduction and gene expression ... Ascorbic acid is required for the conversion of the procollagen to collagen by oxidizing proline residues to hydroxyproline. In ... the urate oxidase gene is nonfunctional, so that UA is not further broken down.[87][88] The evolutionary reasons for this loss ...
The CoRR Hypothesis proposes that this co-location of genes with their gene products is required for redox regulation of gene ... The electrons yielded are transferred to a redox-active tyrosine residue that then reduces the oxidized P680. This resets the ... "Horizontal gene transfer of the algal nuclear gene psbO to the photosynthetic sea slug Elysia chlorotica". Proceedings of the ... Like mitochondria, chloroplasts possess their own DNA, separate from the nuclear DNA of their plant host cells and the genes in ...
... roles of heme and siderophore iron transport in virulence and identification of a gene associated with multiple iron transport ... In addition, a residue that suggests the tight coupling of ATP binding and dimerization, is the conserved histidine in the H- ... Genes in this second subgroup are distinguished from ABCA1-like genes by having 37-38 exons as opposed to the 50 exons in ABCA1 ... ABC genes are essential for many processes in the cell, and mutations in human genes cause or contribute to several human ...
The iron is held in place by two histidine residues and one glutamate residue, making it a non-heme, non-iron-sulfur iron- ... Craig SP, Buckle VJ, Lamouroux A, Mallet J, Craig I (1986). "Localization of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene to 11p15: gene ... "Structure of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: alternative splicing from a single gene accounts for generation of four mRNA ... "Structure of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: alternative splicing from a single gene accounts for generation of four mRNA ...
... binds acetylated lysine residues in DNA-associated histone to regulate gene accessibility),[18] FLI1 (a transcription factor ... hemoglobin and heme. GATA1 plays a similarly critical role in the maturation of blood platelets from megakaryoblasts, ... Gene[edit]. The human GATA1 gene is located on the short (i.e. "p") arm of the X chromosome at position 11.23. It is 7.74 ... In humans and mice, it is encoded by the GATA1 and Gata1 genes, respectively. These genes are located on the X chromosome in ...
heme (4). Subunit name. Gene. Chromosomal locus Hb-α1. HBA1. Chr. 16 p13.3 ... The iron is bound strongly (covalently) to the globular protein via the N atoms of the imidazole ring of F8 histidine residue ( ... Gene expression of hemoglobin before and after birth. Also identifies the types of cells and organs in which the gene ... This process also produces one molecule of carbon monoxide for every molecule of heme degraded.[76] Heme degradation is one of ...
A heme unit of human carboxyhemoglobin, showing the carbonyl ligand at the apical position, trans to the histidine residue.[147 ... Regulation of iron uptake is impaired in some people as a result of a genetic defect that maps to the HLA-H gene region on ... Kikuchi, G.; Yoshida, T.; Noguchi, M. (2005). "Heme oxygenase and heme degradation". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... the fifth by an imidazole nitrogen in a histidine residue of one of the protein chains attached to the heme group, and the ...
"Entrez Gene. Diakses tanggal 2010-11-14.. *^ (Inggris) "Demonstration of Short-lived Complexes of Cytochrome c with Cytochrome ... Sitokrom c (bahasa Inggris: cytochrome c, cyt.c) adalah sebuah protein heme dengan berkas genetik CYCS,[1] yang menghubungkan ... "Protonation of two adjacent tyrosine residues influences the reduction of cytochrome c by diphenylacetaldehyde: a possible ... mechanism to select the reducer agent of heme iron". Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Bioquímica, Universidade de Mogi ...
Evan M.W.Duo Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1] ... HIF is synthesized constitutively, and hydroxylation of at least one of two critical proline residues mediates their ... Sahara T, Takada Y, Takeuchi Y, Yamaoka N, Fukunaga N (March 2002). "Cloning, sequencing, and expression of a gene encoding the ... Pathways connected to the citric acid cycle at Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes ...
... at 1,696 genes in one brain reward region [the nucleus accumbens] and deacetylation at 206 genes.[38][39] At least 45 genes, ... Common PTMs by residueEdit. Some common post-translational modifications to specific amino-acid residues are shown below. ... heme C attachment via thioether bonds with cysteines. *phosphopantetheinylation, the addition of a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl ... Gene. 363: 15-23. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.09.010. PMID 16289629.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ...
A potential candidate is residue His207, which lies directly between the cluster and the heme. His207 of subunit B is in direct ... The human gene named SDH5, encodes for the SdhE protein. The gene itself is located in the chromosomal position 11q13.1. Loss- ... Heme prosthetic group[edit]. Although the functionality of the heme in succinate dehydrogenase is still being researched, some ... Especially in case of heme b insertion and even its function. Heme b prosthetic group does not appear to be part of electron ...
Members of the ferroportin family consist of 400-800 amino acid residues,[5] with a highly conserved histidine at residue ... Lee PL, Gelbart T, West C, Halloran C, Felitti V, Beutler E (2001). "A study of genes that may modulate the expression of ... Human Fpn consists of 571 amino acid residues.[5] When H32 is mutated in mice, iron transport activity is impaired.[6] ... It is known that ferroportin (SLC40A1) gene is expressed at a low level in infertile women. Its mRNA levels were discovered to ...
GLUT 1 is encoded by the SLC2 gene and is one of a family of 14 genes encoding GLUT proteins.[6] ... each containing 20 amino acid residues. A helical wheel analysis shows that the membrane-spanning alpha-helices are amphipathic ... "Entrez Gene: Transmembrane protein 70". Retrieved 2018-08-14.. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the ... The SLC2A1 gene is located on the p arm of chromosome 1 in position 34.2 and has 10 exons spanning 33,802 base pairs.[3] The ...
Genes[edit]. The following is a list of humans genes that encode components of complex I: *NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 ... has been proposed using evidence of conserved Asp residues in the membrane arm.[20] The presence of Lys, Glu, and His residues ... redox intermediates in the hydrogen pumps as in heme groups of Complexes III and IV).[10] The architecture of the hydrophobic ... The N2 cluster's proximity to a nearby cysteine residue results in a conformational change upon reduction in the nearby ...
... may be divided up into three entities; a benzoic acid derivative, a coumarin residue, and the sugar novobiose.[9] X- ... The biosynthetic gene cluster for novobiocin was identified by Heide and coworkers in 1999 (published 2000) from Streptomyces ... Pojer F, Kahlich R, Kammerer B, Li SM, Heide L (August 2003). "CloR, a bifunctional non-heme iron oxygenase involved in ... NovR is a non-heme iron oxygenase with a unique bifunctional catalysis. In the first stage both oxygens are incorporated from ...
The alpha chain of hemoglobin contains 146 amino acid residues; substitution of the glutamate residue at position 6 with a ... Fruton, Joseph S. Proteins, Enzymes, Genes: The Interplay of Chemistry and Biology. Yale University Press: New Haven, 1999. ... The red and blue ribbons represent the protein globin; the green structures are the heme groups. ... Often this can be inferred by the absence of a normal component (e.g., one gene), in the study of "mutants" - organisms with a ...
Genes[edit]. The following genes are part of the chemical pathway for making heme: *ALAD: aminolevulinic acid, δ-, dehydratase ... In addition, a unique sulfonamide ion linkage between the sulfur of a methionyl amino-acid residue and the heme 2-vinyl group ... The most common type is heme B; other important types include heme A and heme C. Isolated hemes are commonly designated by ... Thus cytochrome oxidase, which has two A hemes (heme a and heme a3) in its structure, contains two moles of heme A per mole ...
Potential modifications could be oxidation of aromatic residues, binding between residues, cleavage or ring-forming.[77] These ... Cofactors can be divided into two major groups: organic Cofactors, such as flavin or heme, and inorganic cofactors, such as the ... "Microbial ubiquinones: multiple roles in respiration, gene regulation and oxidative stress management" (PDF). Microbiology ... Wijayanti N, Katz N, Immenschuh S (2004). "Biology of heme in health and disease". Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (8): 981-6. doi:10.2174/ ...
... active site contains a heme prosthetic group in which the iron is tethered to a thiolate ligand on a conserved cysteine residue ... Leroux P, Albertini C, Gautier A, Gredt M, Walker AS (July 2007). "Mutations in the CYP51 gene correlated with changes in ... These include residues in the B' helix, B'/C loop, C helix, I helix, K/β1-4 loop, and β-strand 1-4 that are responsible for ... These compounds bind as the sixth ligand to the heme group in CYP51, thereby altering the structure of the active site and ...
A Fe(II) metal ion in the active site of the enzyme is coordinated by at least two histidine residues, an aspartate residue, a ... Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) is a non-heme iron-dependent enzyme belonging to the oxidoreductase family. This enzyme ... "Microbial isopenicillin N synthase genes: structure, function, diversity and evolution". Trends Biotechnol. 8 (4): 105-11. doi: ... Just two histidine residues and one aspartic acid residue are entirely conserved. Therefore, it is highly significant that ...
Studies also indicate that a neighboring glutamate residue is necessary for activity - it is likely that the glutamate residue ... Dairi T, Nakano T, Aisaka K, Katsumata R, Hasegawa M (June 1995). "Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene responsible for ... another class of halogenases dependent on metal centers such as vanadium or heme, or perhydrolases, a class of halogenases that ... This glutamate residue is conserved in all flavin-dependent tryptophan halogenases as well. Proposed roles for this glutamate ...
... section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.,p>,a href=/help/act_site target=_top ... Putative non-heme bromoperoxidase BpoCAdd BLAST. 262. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages ... Putative non-heme bromoperoxidase BpoC (EC:1.11.1.18*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ...
... gene; that gene encodes the very first enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. The mutation is caused by a frameshift mutation ... This alters the 19th and 20th residues of the C-terminal domain thereby altering the secondary structure of the enzyme. The ... animal models and update in gene-based therapies". Curr Gene Ther. 8 (3): 176-86. doi:10.2174/156652308784746477. PMID 18537592 ... Additionally, unlike the other condition the arises out of a mutation of the ALAS2 gene, there is no anaemia. XDEPP is ...
The oxygen sensor protein, FixL, of Rhizobium meliloti: role of histidine residues in heme binding phosphorylation, and signal ... including the characteristic two Asp residues (positions 20 and 63) and a Lys residue (position 113). These residues are ... Gene cloning and regulation of gene expression of the puc operon from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum.Biochim. Biophys. Acta13511997 ... 1). The direction of transcription of the kanamycin resistance gene was the same as that of the regB gene in the RESB20 ...
The fold of the enzyme is known as the heme peroxidase fold, conserved among all members of this gene family. However, not all ... The fifth ligand of iron is a conserved histidine residue, hydrogen bonded directly to an asparagine residue. These two ... The basic mechanism of heme peroxidases consists in using hydrogen peroxide to produce an activated form of the heme cofactor, ... Cyanide binds very tightly to mammalian heme peroxidases. Tight binding directly to heme iron converts the protein to a low- ...
... such as the heme-binding consensus sequence FxxGxxxCxG (lowercase x indicates variable amino acid residue;Nelson et al., 1996 ... First, we studied gene expression of BR-related genes, including genes encoding the downstream BR-biosynthetic enzymes (BR6ox1 ... We tested the risk of cross amplification/detection before analyzing BR-related P450 genes, two CYP85 genes, four CYP90 genes, ... has revealed that two Arabidopsis genes (CYP85A genes) are putatively orthologous to the tomato Dwarf gene. We previously ...
HO-1 is a 32kDa enzyme containing 288 amino acid residues which is encoded by the HMOX1 gene. A study has found levels of HO-1 ... Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha-methene bridge to form either biliverdin or, if the heme is still attached to ... A third heme oxygenase (HO-3) is considered to be catalytically inactive and is thought to work in heme sensing or heme binding ... originating from heme via heme oxygenase and ~14% from non-heme sources including: photooxidation, lipid peroxidation, and ...
Part of the MsrPQ system that repairs oxidized periplasmic proteins containing methionine sulfoxide residues (Met-O), using ... Part of the MsrPQ system that repairs oxidized periplasmic proteins containing methionine sulfoxide residues (Met-O), using ... heme binding Source: EcoCycInferred from direct assayi*. "Structural and biochemical identification of a novel bacterial ... Protein-methionine-sulfoxide reductase heme-binding subunit MsrQAdd BLAST. 211. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of ...
Four conserved histidine residues are postulated to be the ligands of the iron atoms of these two heme groups. Cytochrome b is ... Human genes encoding cytochrome b proteins include: CYB5A - cytochrome b5 type A (microsomal) CYB5B - cytochrome b5 type B ( ... In plants and cyanobacteria, cytochrome b6 consists of two protein subunits encoded by the petB and petD genes. Cytochrome b/b6 ... Cytochrome b/b6 is an integral membrane protein of approximately 400 amino acid residues that probably has 8 transmembrane ...
In addition, phosphorylation of specific serine or threonine residues present in Nrf2 by upstream kinases may also facilitate ... These include NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, glutamate cysteine ligase, glutathione S-transferase, ... Nrf2 as a master redox switch in turning on the cellular signaling involved in the induction of cytoprotective genes by some ... Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in the coordinated induction of those genes encoding ...
Heme-binding signature motif has 10 conserved residues among which cysteine is highly conserved. This heme-iron motif has a ... Out of 145 genes, 106 genes have intron phase one and 39 genes have intron phase zero and two. It was observed that gene ... Out of 233 SlP450 genes, 23 (9.87%) genes have no intron, 108 (46.35%) genes have one intron, 37 (15.87%) genes have two ... Root specific P450 genes. Soybean GH3 gene has three auxin responsive element which are important in auxin mediated gene ...
The stronger atr4-1 allele corresponded to R438W (CGG to TGG), which alters a highly conserved residue in the heme-binding ... One of the genes that is upregulated in cyp83B1 is the ATR1 Myb transcription factor-encoding gene (Figure 1). ATR1 was ... This gene was shown to be the site of the atr4 lesions by two methods. First, the mutant alleles were sequenced, and both were ... In Arabidopsis, the α-subunit of AS is encoded by two somewhat divergent genes, ASA1 and ASA2 (Niyogi and Fink 1992). ASA1 can ...
The prosthetic heme group is shown in elemental color scheme. Truncation of the hemoglobin in icefish removes residues critical ... heme, and NO. The ablation of the majority of the Hbα gene may essentially represent a natural mutagenesis experiment where ... In the absence of Hbα scavenging NO, as evident via the exclusion of the binding sites for NOS and heme in Hbα-3f, production ... 1995). Genomic remnants of alpha-globin genes in the hemoglobinless antarctic icefishes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92, 1817-1821. ...
1A). The partial alignment highlights residues within the heme-binding region, including a distal tyrosine (Tyr105) residue and ... The original source of the C. elegans duox11-589 gene was a ProQuest C. elegans cDNA Library (Invitrogen). The wild-type ... a proposed covalent heme-binding residue. The results confirm that Glu238 covalently binds to the heme group. A second set of ... because the change in this solvent-exposed residue distant from the heme-binding region yields a protein to which heme was not ...
Each half-molecule consists of two polypeptide chains of 108 and 466 amino acid residues, a heme prosthetic group, a bound ... intra-chain disulfide bonds and the calcium binding loop suggests that the three-dimensional structures of members of this gene ... The heme environment, defined by our model for myeloperoxidase, appears to be highly conserved in these four mammalian ... A proximal ligand to the heme iron atom has been identified as histidine 336, which is in turn hydrogen-bonded to asparagine ...
Localization of histidine residues responsible for heme axial ligation in cytochrome b556 of complex II (succinate:ubiquinone ... 1B). This enabled the mutant and wild-type alleles of the SDHC gene to be experimentally distinguished. This gene was ... These data imply that mitochondrially derived ROS can mutate other genes, including tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, and ... is the main residue of CoQ-binding site. B, construction of the mev-1 mutant-type mouse SDHC transgene. As the thymine residues ...
... complex were disrupted through modifying cysteine residues of Keap1, resulting in the activation of ARE-responsive genes within ... Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a downstream target gene of Nrf2, play a vital role in scavenging ROS and attenuating ... Plasmid Vector Construction and Transfection of Ad-HO-1 Gene. The following HO-1 gene-specific primer set for PCR was used: 50- ... In brief, the gene of HA-tagged HO-1 was cut out from pcDNA3/HA-HO-1 by KpnI and XbaI enzymes and inserted into pAdTrack-CMV. ...
Based on the structure of other cytochrome P450 proteins, the conserved cysteine residue required for heme binding and P450 ... In addition, the CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 genes will be useful in clarifying the roles of the four Arabidopsis nitrilase genes (Fig ... These two genes, when expressed in Escherichia coli, can specifically convert Trp to IAOx in vitro. We also show that CYP79B2, ... However, no gene has been cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana whose product can convert Trp or indole to any of the proposed ...
Residues constituting the F-Box motif, bipartite nuclear localization sequence, cytochrome c family heme-binding site signature ... The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene, which we term atrogin-1 (for atrophy gene-1), are shown in Fig. 1A ... The mouse gene has subsequently also been identified by the RIKEN Mouse Gene Encyclopedia Project (NP_080622) (42)]. After ... Cloning and Structure of the Atrogin-1 Gene.. The gene transcript that was increased most dramatically (seven- to ninefold) on ...
In peach, some genes putatively involved in ABA synthesis and catabolism were identified and their expression patterns were ... In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in ... In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in ... The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA ...
... is an inherited blood disorder caused by a β globin gene mutation of hemoglobin (HbS). The polymerization of deoxyHbS and its ... As a consequence, a persistently higher oxidized ferryl heme is formed which irreversibly oxidizes "hotspot" residues ( ... Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder caused by a β globin gene mutation of hemoglobin (HbS). The ... TD-1 effectively blocked irreversible oxidation of this residue. In conclusion, TD-1 appears to shield βCys93 (the end point of ...
Upregulation of HO-1 gene expression by retrovirus-mediated delivery of the human HO-1 gene also attenuated heme and Ang II- ... In this regard, it is known that heme bound to histidine residues of the peroxidase binding site of COX isoforms is required ... COX-1 and COX-2 are heme proteins,6 and it is well documented that the heme prosthetic group of both COX isoforms is essential ... Heme oxygenase (HO) regulates cellular heme levels and catalyzes the formation of bilirubin and carbon monoxide. We hypothesize ...
Genes for lanosterol 14-demethylase, cytochrome P450(14DM), and a mutated inactive cytochrome P450SG1 were cloned from S. ... In this protein the 6th ligand to heme iron is a histidine residue instead of a water molecule, which may be the ligand for the ... Genes for lanosterol 14-demethylase, cytochrome P450(14DM), and a mutated inactive cytochrome P450SG1 were cloned from S. ... The mechanisms which may cause a histidine residue to gain access to the heme iron are discussed. ...
Nrf2 signaling activates the transcription of many key antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone ... Distinct cysteine residues in Keap1 are required for Keap1-dependent ubiquitination of Nrf2 and for stabilization of Nrf2 by ... but reduced Nrf2 activity and expression of Nrf2-regulated genes (catalase [25.6±0.05%], heme oxygenase-1 [21±0.1%], and NAD(P) ... HO-1 indicates heme oxygenase-1; NQO1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1; PTP, protein-tyrosine phosphatases; and PRDX, ...
... which expresses a total of 11 gcy genes, more than one-third of all receptor-type gcy genes. In addition, 6 gcy genes are ... As previously suggested, such heterodimerization may be obligatory in those cases where a given GCY protein lacks residues that ... SS, signal sequence; TM, transmembrane domain; RFLBR, receptor family ligand-binding region (PF01094); HNOB, heme nitric oxide- ... briggsae genes (gene prediction in Wormbase WS149), we suspected that C. briggsae genes may have been incorrectly predicted. We ...
Reduced level of NADH-dependent nitrate reductase activity in rice mutant M819 due to deletion of a valine residue in heme ... Some of these genes might encode proteins with the same properties of CHL1. On the other hand, the root structure of rice is ... As a first step toward that goal, we have cloned a nitrate transporter gene from rice called OsNRT1. OsNRT1 is a new member of ... As shown in Figure 8, RNA gel blotting analysis indicated that OsNRT1 is a root-specific gene with little or no expression in ...
The gene coding for cytochrome c-552 reveals that it consists of 96 amino acids with 19 residues as the signal peptide located ... An Asn residue located in H+ transfer pass way has been reported in heme-copper oxidase [47]. The conspicuous amino acid ... The gene sequence encoding cytochrome c-551 is located downstream of the gene sequence encoding cytochrome c-552. The gene ... The gene coding for cytochrome c-554 reveals that it consists of 137 amino acids with 21 residues as the signal peptide located ...
... heme-ligand sequence (RLFSYNDTX), heme-binding residues (.... Source: Journal of Thermal Biology - September 14, 2018 Category ... Identification and characterization of the catalase gene involved in resistance to thermal stress in Heortia vitessoides using ... a CAT gene (HvCAT) was identified in the transcriptome of adult H. vitessoides. Sequence analyses indicated that HvCAT encodes ...
Identification of a gene, ABCG5, important in the regulation of dietary cholesterol absorption. Nat Genet 2001. 27:79-83. View ... with loss of the heme-binding domain, essential to activity. Thus, the mutant protein is predicted to be unable to hydroxylate ... codon 413 followed immediately by a premature stop codon and results in a truncated protein lacking the C-terminal 91 residues ... After cloning of the human gene (8, 9), several polymorphisms were identified and shown to be associated with LDL levels in the ...
Furthermore, the expression of genes for heme uptake changed in response to B-cell activation and heme administration. Our ... The presence of 2 heme-binding modes is similar to Bach1.5 Although amino acid residues involved in the heme binding ... Interestingly, HRG1 expression was increased on heme treatment (Figure 6D), suggesting that extracellular heme stimulates heme ... Heme-induced degradation of endogenous Bach2. The 18-81 pre-B cells were treated with 5μM heme or without heme for the ...
... and R242A mutants were determined to understand the role of these residues for the heme binding of CgHmuT. Overall and heme ... These results suggest that the heme environmental structure stabilizes the ferric heme binding in CgHmuT, which will be ... little conformational change in the heme-binding cleft during heme transport reaction with binding and the dissociation of heme ... in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. The crystal structure ...
  • Part of the MsrPQ system that repairs oxidized periplasmic proteins containing methionine sulfoxide residues (Met-O), using respiratory chain electrons. (uniprot.org)
  • Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in the coordinated induction of those genes encoding many stress-responsive and cytoptotective enzymes and related proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Human genes encoding cytochrome b proteins include: CYB5A - cytochrome b5 type A (microsomal) CYB5B - cytochrome b5 type B (outer mitochondrial membrane) CYBASC3 - cytochrome b, ascorbate dependent 3 MT-CYB - mitochondrially encoded cytochrome b Howell N (August 1989). (wikipedia.org)
  • COX-1 and COX-2 are heme proteins, 6 and it is well documented that the heme prosthetic group of both COX isoforms is essential for the expression of catalytic activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Heme binds to proteins to modulate their function, thereby functioning as a signaling molecule in a variety of biologic events. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 11 They form heterodimers with small Maf proteins, bind to the Maf recognition element (MARE), and repress target gene expression. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Membrane proteins were isolated and stained for covalently bound heme. (asm.org)
  • The hexahistidine tag did not interfere with the activity of the proteins, as both His-tagged CcmE Ec and CcmE Bj bound heme (Fig. 1 A, lanes 5 and 6). (asm.org)
  • In addition, available iron in mammals is also severely limited because it is in heme-containing proteins and bound to extracellular carrier proteins, such as transferrin and lactoferrin, as well as to the intracellular storage protein ferritin. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that efficient heme uptake relies on a family of extracellularly-anchored proteins that serve as heme receptors, two of which, at least, are required for efficient heme utilization. (prolekare.cz)
  • Caleosin/peroxygenases, CLO/PXG , (designated PF05042 in Pfam) are a group of genes/proteins with anomalous distributions in eukaryotic taxa. (springer.com)
  • In vivo labeling with radioactive 5-aminolevulinic acid, a precursor to heme, showed that the proteins containing covalently bound heme are predominantly found in the membranes fraction. (lu.se)
  • Sequence analysis of these proteins shows that KatA, KatB and KatC share the conserved catalytic residues and metal ligand amino acids of members of monofunctional heme catalases [12]. (nih.gov)
  • Within iron containing proteins, specifically heme proteins, there are four basic levels of structure that impact the iron's function: cofactor structure, protein-supplied ligands, non-ligand active site environment, and protein features that are distant from the active site. (auburn.edu)
  • Catalase-peroxidases are unique heme proteins because they catalyze peroxide decomposition by two separate mechanisms, catalase and peroxidase, using the same active site. (auburn.edu)
  • Neudesin belongs to the MAPR (membrane-associated progesterone receptor) family which includes PGRMC1, PGRMC2, neudesin, and neuferricin, and is a subfamily of the Cyt-b5 family, which consists of heme-binding proteins with a Cyt-b5-like heme/steroid-binding domain in their central regions. (biovendor.com)
  • Globins are small heme proteins that are present in almost all extant organisms. (ijbs.com)
  • Globins (Gbs) are small heme proteins that have been found in all kingdoms of life in a wide range of different species [ 1 - 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Analysis of the distribution of conserved domains of GPX proteins showed that all these proteins contain three highly conserved motifs, as well as other conserved sequences and residues. (springer.com)
  • An S. equi genome database was blasted with the heme binding proteins Shp and HtsA of Streptococcus pyogenes , and found that S. equi has the homologue of Shp (designated SeShp) and HtsA (designated SeHtsA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gram-negative bacteria Serratia marcescens , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Haemophilus influenza , and Yersinia pestis secrete proteins called hemophores to extract heme from host hemoproteins and deliver it to the receptor in the outer membrane [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2015. In-frame amber stop codon replacement mutagenesis for the directed evolution of proteins containing non-canonical amino acids: identification of residues open to bio-orthogonal modification . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Trout Mx genes ( 41 , 42 ) and genes of the acute-phase proteins of the same species ( 18 ) constitute the main examples. (asm.org)
  • Protein‐derived cofactors are catalytic or redox‐active centres in proteins that are formed by covalent irreversible posttranslational modification of one or more amino acid residues. (els.net)
  • Cytochrome b/b6 is an integral membrane protein of approximately 400 amino acid residues that probably has 8 transmembrane segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants and cyanobacteria, cytochrome b6 consists of two protein subunits encoded by the petB and petD genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome b/b6 non-covalently binds two heme groups, known as b562 and b566. (wikipedia.org)
  • One atr complementation group consisted of mutations in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP83B1 . (genetics.org)
  • On the distal side of the heme, histidine 95 and arginine 239 are likely to participate directly in the catalytic mechanism, in a manner analogous to the distal histidine and arginine of the non-homologous enzyme cytochrome c peroxidase. (nih.gov)
  • The mev-1 gene encodes Cyt-1, the cytochrome b 560 large subunit of succinate-coenzyme Qoxidoreductase: complex II, which is homologous to SDHC in humans (10) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • We describe here the isolation and characterization of two Arabidopsis genes, CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 , that encode cytochrome P450s predicted to N -hydroxylate amino acids. (pnas.org)
  • Genes for lanosterol 14-demethylase, cytochrome P450(14DM), and a mutated inactive cytochrome P450SG1 were cloned from S. cerevisiae strains D587 and SG1, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • In this protein the 6th ligand to heme iron is a histidine residue instead of a water molecule, which may be the ligand for the active cytochrome P450(14DM). (nih.gov)
  • In members of the α and γ subclasses of proteobacteria, a set of genes has been identified that is essential for cytochrome c maturation ( 4 , 6 , 17 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • CYBA (Cytochrome B-245 Alpha Chain) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Review on Cytochrome B5 Type A, with data on DNA/RNA, on the protein encoded and the diseases in which the gene has been implicated. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The gene encodes a membrane-bound cytochrome protein. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The gene was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris , and the recombinant protein was designated carbohydrate-binding cytochrome b 562 (CBCyt. (asm.org)
  • Cytochrome c-550 of the Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, is a membrane-bound 13-kDa protein encoded by the cccA gene. (lu.se)
  • The cytochrome has been proposed to be comprised of an N-terminal membrane anchor domain (about 30 residues) which spans the cytoplasmic membrane in an alpha-helical conformation and a C-terminal heme domain (about 70 residues) which is located on the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. (lu.se)
  • The latter absorption band, together with data from amino acid sequence comparisons, strongly suggest His64 and Met99 as the fifth and sixth axial ligands to the heme iron in cytochrome c-550. (lu.se)
  • The heme domain was isolated as a tryptic fragment of 74 residues and as a protein-A-cytochrome-c-550 hybrid protein. (lu.se)
  • Both these forms were water-soluble and showed thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties indistinguishable from the membrane-bound form of cytochrome c-550 and are suitable for structural analysis of the heme domain by X-ray crystallography or NMR techniques. (lu.se)
  • Polypeptide analysis of the membrane-bound and water-soluble tryptic fragment confirmed that B. subtilis cytochrome c-550 in the membrane consists of 120 amino acid residues and has a two-domain structure. (lu.se)
  • The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c-550 as deduced from the DNA sequence consists of 120 residues and contains one heme c binding site (Cys-Ile-Ala-Cys-His) located approximately in the middle of the polypeptide. (lu.se)
  • It can also provide electron transfer to heme oxygenase and cytochrome B5. (uniprot.org)
  • Neudesin neurotrophic activity is dependent on the binding of heme to its cytochrome b5-like heme/steroid-binding domain. (biovendor.com)
  • Contains 1 cytochrome b5 heme-binding domain. (abcam.com)
  • The cytochrome b5 heme-binding domain lacks the conserved iron-binding His residues at positions 107 and 131. (abcam.com)
  • also known as NR1I2), a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors, is a key regulator of cytochrome P450-3A ( CYP3A ) gene expression in mammalian liver and small intestine ( 1-5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. (wikidoc.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • This oxidoreductase protein is encoded by the gene EPX, expressed within these myeloid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eosinophil peroxidase is a heme peroxidase, its activities including the oxidation of halide ions to bacteriocidal reactive oxygen species, the cationic disruption of bacterial cell walls, and the post-translational modification of protein amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precursor protein goes through the following processing steps before becoming active: ER signal sequence cleavage propeptide cleavage modification of heme cofactor covalent linkage of heme cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that differential expression of photosynthetic genes in response to aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions is not the result of altered redox sensing by the sensor kinase protein, RegB. (asm.org)
  • Heme oxygenase is a heme-containing member of the heat shock protein (HSP) family identified as HSP32. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global promoter analysis of Sl P450 against all the protein coding genes, coupled with expression data, revealed statistical overrepresentation of few promoter motifs in Sl P450 genes which were highly expressed in specific tissue of tomato. (springer.com)
  • As a consequence, a persistently higher oxidized ferryl heme is formed which irreversibly oxidizes "hotspot" residues (particularly βCys93) causing protein unfolding and subsequent heme loss. (rsc.org)
  • Corynebacteria contain a heme uptake system encoded in hmuTUV genes, in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. (mdpi.com)
  • The Escherichia coli CcmE protein is a periplasmic heme chaperone. (asm.org)
  • The membrane protein CcmC is required for loading CcmE with heme. (asm.org)
  • By expressing CcmE (CycJ) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum in E. coli we demonstrated that heme is bound covalently to this protein at a strictly conserved histidine residue. (asm.org)
  • The E. coli CcmE protein (CcmE Ec ) is able to bind heme in the presence of CcmABCD ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Biophysical, biochemical, and physiological characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants with amino acid substitutions at the Ala251 residue in the D1 protein that result in varying levels of photosynthetic competence. (bio.net)
  • The specific activity of CYP51(R467K) for the release of formic acid from 3β-[32- 3 H]hydroxylanost-7-en-32-ol was 70 pmol/nmol of P450/min for microsomal protein compared to 240 pmol/nmol of P450/min for microsomal fractions expressing wild-type CYP51. (asm.org)
  • Subsequently, a number of reports showing that differing genetic polymorphisms in the CYP51 gene from clinical C. albicans isolates are responsible for and/or associated with azole antifungal resistance have emerged, but no biochemical data on the isolated CYP51 protein have been available ( 11 , 14 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Our data suggest the existence of a relay system that transfers heme from one protein to the next across the cell envelope, explaining the requirement for multiple heme receptors for efficient heme-iron utilization. (prolekare.cz)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and SH3 domain binding . (genecards.org)
  • They found a 16-bp deletion in the cDNA which led to a new in-frame termination codon, thereby producing a truncated protein of 45 amino acid residues. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Studies of the location of tyrosyl and tryptophyl residues in protein. (meta.org)
  • Cytoglobin gene is mapped on chromosome 17q25.1 that contains 4 exons with the spans of 9kb which comprises 190 amino acids in human and 174 amino acids in zebrafish where in mammalian genes displays a distinctive exon-intron pattern with an additional exon resulting in a C-terminal extension of the protein. (biology-online.org)
  • HbN encoding gene of M. smegmatis was expressed in E. coli as a 12.8kD homodimeric heme protein that binds oxygen reversibly with high affinity (P50 approximately 0.081 mm Hg) and autooxidizes faster than M. tuberculosis HbN. (jove.com)
  • The protein bears (1) the heme-binding site in its N-terminal 280 residues, and (2) an FAD binding site (residues 338-344) as part of the C-terminal NADPH oxidase domain. (tcdb.org)
  • Far-UV CD and UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed that the protein was correctly folded, and that heme was bound within the active site. (auburn.edu)
  • candidate oncogene GIG47) protein comprises 172 amino acid residues including 31 residues of the hypothesised signal sequence. (biovendor.com)
  • The encoded protein has 10 of its 15 cysteine residues conserved among stanniocalcin family members and is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 exclusively on its serine residues. (genecards.org)
  • STC2 (Stanniocalcin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Here we report evidence obtained by computational analysis indicating that the protein coded by FTO is a member of the non-heme dioxygenase (Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases) superfamily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 5' open reading frame was found to be nearly identical to a recently reported phospholipase C gene derived from a mutant B. cereus strain which overexpresses the respective protein, and it conferred a lecithinase-positive phenotype to the B. subtilis host. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The data suggest that the putative cell surface protein SeShp and lipoprotein SeHtsA are part of the machinery to acquire heme in S. equi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have recently identified that the muscle ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1), a muscle-specific E3 ligase, is one of the target genes of NF-κB in vascular SMCs ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This VHSV-induced gene ( vig-1 ) encodes a 348-amino-acid protein. (asm.org)
  • Protein‐derived cofactors are formed by irreversible posttranslational modification of amino acid residues. (els.net)
  • Many of these residues are in close proximity to sites implicated in protein misfolding, loss of function or disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its structure includes an essential iron heme group centered within the protein, also common to all P450 enzymes. (wikidoc.org)
  • Keap1 contains several reactive cysteine residues that function as sensors of cellular redox changes. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the conservation of all 12 cysteine residues involved in the six intra-chain disulfide bonds and the calcium binding loop suggests that the three-dimensional structures of members of this gene family are likely to be quite similar. (nih.gov)
  • Rbt5 contains the fungal-specific CFEM domain, which is characterized by eight cysteine residues with conserved spacing [15] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Heme oxygenase or haem oxygenase (HO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme to produce biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans three isoforms of heme oxygenase are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is a stress-induced isoform present throughout the body with highest concentrations in the spleen, liver, and kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2) is a constitutive isoform that is expressed under homeostatic conditions in the testes, endothelial cells and the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third heme oxygenase (HO-3) is considered to be catalytically inactive and is thought to work in heme sensing or heme binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heme oxygenase is conserved across phylogenetic kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha-methene bridge to form either biliverdin or, if the heme is still attached to a globin, verdoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heme oxygenase (HO) regulates cellular heme levels and catalyzes the formation of bilirubin and carbon monoxide. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 According to a recent study, prostaglandin synthesis in rabbit coronary and human endothelial cells decreases in response to interventions that upregulate the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Heme oxygenase-1, which is known to be regulated by heme, was repressed by both Bach2 and Bach1 in B cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For example, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme that degrades heme, inhibits dendritic cell maturation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The cell wall mannoproteins Cig1 (in C. neoformans ) and Rbt5 and Rbt51 (in C. albicans ), as well as the heme oxygenase Hmx1 (in C. albicans ), are involved in acquiring iron from heme ( 6 - 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Together, these genetic studies suggested a pathway of heme-iron utilization in which interaction of free heme or hemoglobin with an extracellular receptor such as Rbt5 eventually leads to endocytosis, degradation of the protoporphyrin rings by heme oxygenase, and uptake of the released iron into the cytoplasm by a vacuolar iron permease. (prolekare.cz)
  • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is protective in lung injury as a key regulator of antioxidant response. (asahq.org)
  • The administration of valproic acid decreased all the parameters of lung injury, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation and some of its protection appeared to occur by increasing heme oxygenase-1 activity. (asahq.org)
  • section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis. (uniprot.org)
  • After translocation into nucleus, Nrf2 forms a heterodimer with other transcription factors, such as small Maf, which in turn binds to the 5'-upstream CIS-acting regulatory sequence, termed antioxidant response elements (ARE) or electrophile response elements (EpRE), located in the promoter region of genes encoding various antioxidant and phase 2 detoxifying enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Genes encoding tryptophan pathway enzymes are transcriptionally induced by a variety of stress signals, presumably to increase the production of both tryptophan and secondary metabolites during defense responses. (genetics.org)
  • Both enzymes are structurally stable and through altered heme interactions exhibit partial or complete loss of tyrosine cross-linking activity, explaining the blistering phenotype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • All P450 enzymes contain a heme group and one of the few conserved residues is a conserved cysteine serving as the fifth heme iron ligand. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymerdegrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes. (scribd.com)
  • The available molecular, biochemical, and structural information on sucrase genes and enzymes from various LAB and their fructan and a-glucan products is reviewed. (tudelft.nl)
  • It includes genes coding for glycolytic enzymes (e.g., lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], phosphoglyceromutase, and others) and for glucose transporters (e.g. (asm.org)
  • The mammalian heme peroxidases (MHPs) are a medically important group of enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes coding for putative RegA, RegB, and SenC homologues were identified and characterized in the purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria Rhodovulum sulfidophilum and Roseobacter denitrificans , species that demonstrate weak or no oxygen repression of photosystem synthesis. (asm.org)
  • One set of mutations investigate the roles of a putative distal tyrosine (Tyr 105 ) and Glu 238 , a proposed covalent heme-binding residue. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A gene, encoding a putative HbN homolog with conserved features of typical trHbs, has been identified within the genome sequence of fast-growing mycobacterium, Mycobacterium smegmatis. (jove.com)
  • A gene coding for a putative catalase was isolated from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) cDNA library and denoted as Ab-catalase. (nih.gov)
  • The comprehensive identification and characterization of P450 genes was lacking. (springer.com)
  • The phylogenetic analysis and expression profiles of tomato P450 gene family offers essential genomic resource for their functional characterization. (springer.com)
  • EST characterization of a large collection of cDNAs from multiple carp tissues (see carpBASE, http://legr.liv.ac.uk ) has identified cDNAs for a number of hemoproteins, including four hemoglobin isoforms, one cytoglobin isoform, and a Myg isoform that corresponded precisely to a known carp gene, here termed Myg-1 . (pnas.org)
  • We report the cloning and functional characterization of a nitrate transporter gene from rice, OsNRT1 . (plantphysiol.org)
  • Characterization and expression profiling of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase gene from Salvia. (deepdyve.com)
  • The class of insulin-sensitizing drugs known as thiazolidinediones has been identified as specific PPARγ agonists, which has allowed characterization of many genes regulated by PPARγ ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The rainbow trout therefore constitutes a good model for the identification and characterization of new genes of immunological interest. (asm.org)
  • that gene encodes the very first enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • This alters the 19th and 20th residues of the C-terminal domain thereby altering the secondary structure of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because there is a buildup of protoporphyrin IX with no malfunction of the FECH enzyme, all the available Fe 2+ is used in the production of heme, causing the FECH enzyme to use Zn 2+ in its place, causing a buildup of zinc-protoporphyrin IX. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eosinophil peroxidase is a predominately α-helical heme-containing enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fold of the enzyme is known as the heme peroxidase fold, conserved among all members of this gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before starting this study, we cloned the second BR-6-oxidase ( BR6ox2 ) gene from Arabidopsis and found that the encoded enzyme has the same substrate specificity as the enzyme encoded by the previously isolated 6-oxidase gene ( BR6ox1 ) of Arabidopsis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • These genes are important in BR biosynthesis because they encode the rate-limiting or farthest downstream enzyme in the BR biosynthesis pathway. (plantphysiol.org)
  • HO-1 is a 32kDa enzyme which contains 288 amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • HO-1 is a 32kDa enzyme containing 288 amino acid residues which is encoded by the HMOX1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of molecular mechanisms, the enzyme facilitates the intramolecular hydroxylation of one meso carbon centre in the heme. (wikipedia.org)
  • This alteration perturbed the heme environment causing an altered reduced-carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a maximum at 452 nm and reduced the affinity of the enzyme for fluconazole, as shown by ligand binding studies. (asm.org)
  • Emphasis now is on identification of residues and regions important for GS enzyme activity and product specificity (synthesis of α-glucans differing in glycosidic linkage type, degree and type of branching, glucan molecular mass, and solubility). (tudelft.nl)
  • This enzyme contains one b -type heme and one flavin adenine dinucleotide in two separate domains ( 20 , 40 ), and it can oxidize the reducing-end groups of cellobiose and higher cellooligosaccharides to the corresponding lactones ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • 35% of normal) of ferrochelatase (FECH) (E.C.4.99.1.1), the enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway that inserts ferrous iron into protoporphyrin to form heme. (springer.com)
  • A defect within the CYP21A2 gene causes a disturbance of the development of the enzyme, which leads to congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency . (wikidoc.org)
  • Surprisingly, although not among the catalytic residues, both mutations affected heme co-factor binding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • KatD shares the conserved catalytic residues and metal ligand amino acids of members of the nonheme catalases. (nih.gov)
  • Four conserved histidine residues are postulated to be the ligands of the iron atoms of these two heme groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystal structure of HmuT from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgHmuT) reveals that heme is accommodated in the central cleft with His141 and Tyr240 as the axial ligands and that Tyr240 forms a hydrogen bond with Arg242. (mdpi.com)
  • The HNOB domain is predicted to function as a heme-dependent sensor for gaseous ligands, and transduce diverse downstream signals, in both bacteria and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, the PPARγ ligands 15d-PGJ 2 and rosiglitazone repressed the expression of several inflammatory response genes in activated macrophages, including the genes encoding inducible NO synthase (iNOS), TNF-α, gelatinase B, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) ( 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Site-directed substitution of KatGNterm active site histidine residues with alanine showed that His106, normally required as a general base, had become a ligand to the heme. (auburn.edu)
  • Its C-terminus contains a cluster of histidine residues which may interact with metal ions. (genecards.org)
  • It is bound within a loop of eight residues of the heavy chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G246D mutant bound less total heme than the wild type, but a higher fraction of it was covalently bound. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Each half-molecule consists of two polypeptide chains of 108 and 466 amino acid residues, a heme prosthetic group, a bound calcium ion and at least three sites of asparagine-linked glycosylation. (nih.gov)
  • We found that heme bound to Bach2, a transcription factor essential for humoral immunity, including antibody class switch. (bloodjournal.org)
  • the 134 amino acid membrane-bound form with a predicted molecular weight of 15,3 kDa, the 98 amino acid cytoplasmic form with 11,3 kDa and a 98 residues isoform from which experimental confirmation is lacking. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • A truncated Zn(II)Har bound the promoter region of dnaA (PGN_0001), one of the up-regulated genes in the ECR455 mutant. (jove.com)
  • They sense NO by means of a heme moiety that is bound to their N-terminal extensions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Heme bound to hemoproteins constitutes the major iron reservoir in mammalian hosts and is the preferred iron source of bacterial pathogens [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 In addition to these well-established functions as a prosthetic group, recent reports have revealed that heme regulates several transcription factors, including Bach1, 2 ⇓ ⇓ - 5 NPAS2, 6 and REV-ERBs, 7 and modulates gene expression as an inter- and intracellular signaling molecule in mammals. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The overall structure of the four mammalian heme peroxidases (MPO, LPO, EPO and TPO) is almost identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining 20% of heme derived CO production is largely attributed to hepatic catabolism of hemoproteins (myoglobin, cytochromes, catalase, peroxidases, soluble guanylate cyclase, nitric oxide synthase) and ineffective erythropoiesis in bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heme environment, defined by our model for myeloperoxidase, appears to be highly conserved in these four mammalian peroxidases. (nih.gov)
  • The molecular model, built via homology modelling with crystal structures of four fungal peroxidases, highlighted the amino acid residues putatively involved in manganese binding and aromatic substrate oxidation. (ac.be)
  • Plant glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are non-heme thiol peroxidases that play vital roles in maintaining H 2 O 2 homeostasis and regulating plant response to abiotic stress. (springer.com)
  • The UNI3 gene is required for assembly of basal bodies of Chlamydomonas and encodes delta-tubulin, a new member of the tubulin superfamily. (bio.net)
  • This gene encodes the light, alpha subunit which has been proposed as a primary component of the microbicidal oxidase system of phagocytes. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a secreted, homodimeric glycoprotein that is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and may have autocrine or paracrine functions. (genecards.org)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-catalase has characteristic features of catalase family such as catalytic site motif (61FNRERIPERVVHAKGAG77), heme-ligand signature motif (351RLYSYSDT358), NADPH and heme binding residues. (nih.gov)
  • This report would enable researchers working on Tomato P450 to select appropriate candidate genes from huge repertoire of P450 genes depending on their phylogenetic class, tissue specific expression and promoter prevalence. (springer.com)
  • Phylogenetic relationships between the four catalases are represented in Figure 1, which shows that the three heme and manganese catalases constitute a distinct group, and that KatA and KatB are closely related. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated eleven amoebozoan species for the presence of globin genes by genomic and phylogenetic in silico analyses. (ijbs.com)
  • Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these globin genes were independently acquired via horizontal gene transfer from some ancestral bacteria. (ijbs.com)
  • Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the GPX genes of cucumber, Arabidopsis and rice could be classified into five groups. (springer.com)
  • The results confirm that Glu 238 covalently binds to the heme group. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • H 4 B binds to the heme domain but its role remains obscure ( Mayer and Werner, 1995 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • We studied the organ specificity of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, using two different approaches: We analyzed the expression of BR-related genes using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and analyzed endogenous BRs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (plantphysiol.org)
  • P450 genes play regulatory role in growth, development and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Enzymatic activities have been described for the steps in glucosinolate biosynthesis, but the genes encoding these activities have yet to be identified ( 1 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA biosynthesis to induce seed and bud dormancy. (frontiersin.org)
  • The non-heme iron dioxygenase PtlH from your soil organism is a member of the iron(II)/-ketoglutarateCdependent dioxygenase superfamily and catalyzes an essential reaction in the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpenoid antibiotic pentalenolactone. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • Chen, W. 2008-05-15 00:00:00 A novel cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) gene (designated as SmC4H) involved in the rosmarinic acid biosynthesis pathway is cloned from Salvia miltiorrhiza. (deepdyve.com)
  • Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) are inborn errors of heme biosynthesis with the same phenotype but resulting from autosomal recessive loss-of-function mutations in the ferrochelatase ( FECH ) gene and gain-of-function mutations in the X-linked erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase ( ALAS2 ) gene, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the expression of genes for heme uptake changed in response to B-cell activation and heme administration. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These results suggest that the heme environmental structure stabilizes the ferric heme binding in CgHmuT, which will be responsible for efficient heme uptake under aerobic conditions where Corynebacteria grow. (mdpi.com)
  • C. neoformans acquires iron by multiple mechanisms, including a ferroxidase-permease high-affinity system, siderophore uptake, and utilization of both heme and transferrin. (asm.org)
  • Fre2 may participate with the ferroxidase Cfo1 of the high-affinity uptake system for growth on heme, because a mutant lacking both genes showed a more pronounced growth defect than the fre2 single mutant. (asm.org)
  • These include a reductive high-affinity uptake system, the production and uptake of siderophores, which are low-molecular-weight iron chelators that have a high affinity specifically for ferric iron, and the use of both heme and transferrin. (asm.org)
  • Nrf2 as a master redox switch in turning on the cellular signaling involved in the induction of cytoprotective genes by some chemopreventive phytoc. (nih.gov)
  • A loss of one axial ligand or the hydrogen bonding interaction with Tyr240 resulted in an increase in the redox potential of the heme for CgHmuT to be reduced by dithionite, though the wild type was not reduced under physiological conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Amino acid residues may acquire new catalytic or redox functions from posttranslational modification. (els.net)
  • A proximal ligand to the heme iron atom has been identified as histidine 336, which is in turn hydrogen-bonded to asparagine 421. (nih.gov)
  • A central core region that includes the heme binding site is composed of five alpha-helices. (nih.gov)
  • This study extends our understanding of the pathway of host heme utilization by fungal pathogens, and provides new insights into the question of how nutrients such as heme cross the fungal cell wall. (prolekare.cz)
  • CLO/PXG -like genes are distributed across the full range of fungal groups from the basal clades, Cryptomycota and Microsporidia, to the largest and most complex Dikarya species. (springer.com)
  • However, the genes were only present in 243 out of 844 analysed fungal genomes. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptome and physiological data show that fungal CLO/PXG -like genes have complex patterns of developmental and tissue-specific expression and are upregulated in response to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses as well as participating in key metabolic and developmental processes such as lipid metabolism, signalling, reproduction and pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • While the presence of CLO/PXG orthologs in all plant genomes sequenced to date would suggest that they have core housekeeping functions in plants, the selective loss of CLO/PXGs in many fungal genomes suggests more restricted functions in fungi as accessory genes useful in particular environments or niches. (springer.com)
  • We suggest an ancient origin of CLO/PXG -like genes in the 'last eukaryotic common ancestor' (LECA) and their subsequent loss in ancestors of the Metazoa, after the latter had diverged from the ancestral fungal lineage. (springer.com)
  • Although much of the extraordinary diversity of the pan-fungal CYPome can be attributed to gene duplication and adaptive divergence, our analysis also suggests a few potential horizontal gene transfer events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fungal CYPs share little sequence similarity, except for a few conserved residues that are characteristic of CYPs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The DNA sequence of SDHC , a mouse homologue of C. elegans cyt-1 gene, was obtained from DDBJ ( http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/E-mail/homology.html ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We report the existence of a total of 27 gcy genes encoding receptor-type guanylyl cyclases and of 7 gcy genes encoding soluble guanylyl cyclases in the complete genome sequence of C. elegans . (genetics.org)
  • These newly identified genes define two sequence-distinct nitrate transporter families called NRT1 and NRT2. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In c -type cytochromes, the heme cofactor is attached covalently via two thioether bonds to a conserved CXXCH sequence motif within the apoprotein. (asm.org)
  • Sequence analysis of M. smegmatis HbN indicated that it is relatively smaller in size and lacks N-terminal pre-A region, carrying 12-residue polar sequence motif that is present in HbN of M. tuberculosis. (jove.com)
  • Recently, an analysis of the R. equi 103 genome sequence revealed the presence of four potential catalase genes. (nih.gov)
  • The in silico analysis of the genome sequence of the R. equi 103 strain [10] revealed the presence of four potential catalase genes, designated katA, katB, katC and katD. (nih.gov)
  • Profile-to-sequence and profile-to-profile based comparisons identified remote homologs of the non-heme dioxygenase family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple sequence alignment of the FTO family with known members of the non-heme dioxygenase superfamily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sequence of the DurA core and leader peptides is depicted, as well as the residues that form the cross-links. (asm.org)
  • Mutation analysis was performed by PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis of the KLF1 gene using previously described primers. (haematologica.org)
  • Molecular dynamics simulations of a CeDUOX1 1-589 homology model implicate displacements of the proximal histidine residue as the likely cause. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • All three genes were mapped to the central region of mouse chromosome 11 in a region of homology with human chromosome 17. (glycosciences.de)
  • 1 Manually assembled ESTs from NCBI [ 31 ] and homologous sequences were used in order to produce accurate gene predictions supported by homology information. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings indicate that the upregulation of tryptophan pathway genes might also contribute to the overaccumulation of IAA in mutant plants. (genetics.org)
  • In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in the regulation of vegetative and flower bud dormancy, whereas, expression patterns of ABA metabolism-related genes were different in seed dormancy showed that ABA pathway maybe different in regulating seed dormancy in peach. (frontiersin.org)
  • In E. coli , CcmE was found to be an intermediate in the heme delivery pathway specific for c -type cytochromes. (asm.org)
  • To overcome this iron limitation, C. albicans is able to extract iron from heme and hemoglobin, the largest iron pools in the human body, via a pathway that involves endocytosis into the cell. (prolekare.cz)
  • The heme iron acquisition pathway relies on Rbt5, an extracellular GPI-anchored heme receptor [14] . (prolekare.cz)
  • It also exhibits a core region of 150 residues that is structurally related to hemoglobin and myoglobin with extra segments of 20 residues at the C- and N- terminal wherein a core region host a great apolar cavity seized to offer a ligand diffusion pathway from heme to ligand docking sites. (biology-online.org)
  • However, the two chains are still intimately connected not least of all by the covalently linked heme cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYPs are defined by the absorption of light at 450nm by the heme cofactor, and oxidize a very diverse array of metabolic intermediates and environmental compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most conserved region is the binding domain for a heme cofactor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, unlike the other condition the arises out of a mutation of the ALAS2 gene, there is no anaemia . (wikipedia.org)
  • This mutation is also likely to perturb the expression of other tryptophan metabolism genes because overexpression of the ASA1 gene alone is not sufficient to confer the atr1D resistance phenotype ( N iyogi 1993 ). (genetics.org)
  • Recently, it has been reported that mutations in the SDHC gene cause some familial chromaffin cell tumors (i.e., paragangliomas) in humans (15) , but the mechanism by which these mutation cause cancer is still unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In order to determine the effects of mitochondrially derived ROS in mammals, we established a transgenic mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cell line with the equivalent mutation in the SDHC gene as C. elegans mev-1 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder caused by a β globin gene mutation of hemoglobin (HbS). (rsc.org)
  • Mutation of residue threonine-2 of the D2 polypeptide and its effect on photosystem II function in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (bio.net)
  • A homozygous splice site mutation in the CYB5A gene in a patient with type IV hereditary methemoglobinemia was identified by Steggles and colleagues. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Molecular modeling suggests that residue Asn136 located within the first mutation hot spot, could play a role during heme and azole binding. (ovid.com)
  • Functionally, the K332Q Klf1 mutation impairs binding to the BCl11A gene and activation of the γ- and β-globin promoters. (haematologica.org)
  • 1 - 4 Recently a nonsense mutation in the KLF1 gene, which ablates the DNA binding domain of this key erythroid transcriptional regulator, has been reported in a large Maltese family with hereditary persistence of HbF (HPFH). (haematologica.org)
  • In addition, phosphorylation of specific serine or threonine residues present in Nrf2 by upstream kinases may also facilitate the nuclear localization of Nrf2. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, RIBP includes residues involved in substrate oxidation: three acidic residues (E37, E41 and D183)-putatively involved in manganese binding and H83 and W172-potentially involved in oxidation of aromatic substrates. (ac.be)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), that is characterized by the failure of activated phagocytes to. (genecards.org)
  • In contrast, the D392N mutant appears to fold normally but does not bind heme. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We analyzed the ability of B. japonicum CcmE to bind heme when it was expressed in E. coli . (asm.org)
  • Both CcmE Ec and CcmE Bj were able to bind heme (Fig. 1 A, lanes 2 and 3, respectively). (asm.org)
  • These nonheme catalases utilize manganese ions instead of ferric heme in their active site and are therefore also known as manganese catalases [13]. (nih.gov)
  • 9,10 HO isoforms, particularly HO-1, play a critical role in the regulation of cellular heme levels, 11 which in turn may impact on the expression of catalytically active COX isoforms. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the basis of cellular heme content, specific nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) activity of M. smegmatis HbN was nearly one-third of that from M. tuberculosis. (jove.com)
  • The P450 gene family is third largest gene family present in Arabidopsis . (springer.com)
  • To understand the mechanism of transcriptional induction, we isolated altered tryptophan regulation ( atr ) mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana with activated transcription of tryptophan genes. (genetics.org)
  • In Arabidopsis, the α-subunit of AS is encoded by two somewhat divergent genes, ASA1 and ASA2 ( N iyogi and F ink 1992 ). (genetics.org)
  • Cao Y, Han Y, Jin Q, Lin Y, Cai Y (2016) Comparative genomic analysis of the GRF genes in Chinese pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd), poplar ( Populous ), grape ( Vitis vinifera ), Arabidopsis and rice ( Oryza sativa ). (springer.com)
  • CLO/PXG -like genes have been retained in many pathogenic or parasitic fungi that have undergone considerable genomic and structural simplification, indicating that they have important functions in these species. (springer.com)
  • The platelet-type and leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase genes were cloned from a murine 129 Sv genomic library. (glycosciences.de)
  • Here, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of the GPX gene family in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ). (springer.com)
  • HO catalyzes the degradation of heme to biliverdin/bilirubin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7,8 HO isoforms -1 and -2 catalyze the metabolisms of heme to biliverdin and carbon monoxide (CO), respectively, an antioxidant and a vasoactive mediator. (ahajournals.org)
  • Carbon monoxide induced PPARγ SUMOylation and UCP2 block inflammatory gene expression in macrophages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although the molecular basis for different responses of photosynthetic bacteria to oxygen is unknown, previous studies with Rhodobacter capsulatus and R. sphaeroides have indicated that the molecular mechanism of the oxygen inhibition of photosystem synthesis is controlled, in large part, by regulating the transcription of photosynthesis genes. (asm.org)
  • This review highlights the cytoprotective gene expression induced by some representative dietary chemopreventive phytochemicals with the Nrf2-Keap1 system as a prime molecular target. (nih.gov)
  • The full-length (2864 bp) Ab-catalase cDNA contained 1,503 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 501 amino acid residues with 56 kDa predicted molecular weight. (nih.gov)
  • A non-polar fragment, able to anchor the polypeptide chain to the membrane and a polar, heme-binding fragment with catalytic activity. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The full-length cDNA of SmC4H is 1800 bp long with an open reading frame of 1512 bp encoding a polypeptide of 504 amino acid residues. (deepdyve.com)
  • Like other C4Hs, the predicted SmC4H polypeptide includes three domains: a heme-binding domain, a proline-rich region, and a P450 (E)EFRPER-motif region, which represents a typical structure of plant C4Hs. (deepdyve.com)
  • This interaction is regulated by hydroxylation of specific prolyl residues within the HIF-α polypeptides ( 21 , 23 , 34 ), and recent work has identified a series of α-ketoglutarate-dependent non-heme iron-dependent dioxygenases that catalyze HIF-α prolyl hydroxylation and thus regulate stability of the polypeptide in accordance with oxygen availability ( 4 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • These mutants produced smaller amounts of photopigments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating that the RegA-RegB regulon controls photosynthetic gene expression in this bacterium as it does as in Rhodobacter species. (asm.org)
  • Endogenous BRs and the expression of BR-related genes were detected in all organs tested. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The highest level of endogenous BRs and the highest expression of the BR6ox1 , BR6ox2 , and DWF4 genes were observed in apical shoots, which contain actively developing tissues. (plantphysiol.org)
  • RT-qPCR analysis of selected six candidate genes were corroborated with digital expression profile. (springer.com)
  • Out of 233 Sl P450 genes, 73 showed expression evidence in 19 tissues of tomato. (springer.com)
  • Mutant plants had constitutively activated expression of the ATR1 Myb factor gene, which was identified as a positive regulator of tryptophan genes via the atr mutant screen. (genetics.org)
  • In the present study, we determined the effect of interventions that suppress HO activity or induce HO-1 gene expression on Ang II-mediated increase in 6-keto-PGF 1α and PGE 2 in cultures of human femoral artery endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Upregulation of HO-1 gene expression by retrovirus-mediated delivery of the human HO-1 gene also attenuated heme and Ang II-induced prostaglandin synthesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • We tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of interventions that suppress HO activity, or induce HO-1 gene expression, on Ang II-induced prostaglandin synthesis in cultures of human femoral endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • In peach, some genes putatively involved in ABA synthesis and catabolism were identified and their expression patterns were studied to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible crosstalk between bud dormancy and seed dormancy mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • To examine the extent of lateralization of gcy gene expression patterns in the ASE neurons, we have undertaken a genomewide analysis of all gcy genes. (genetics.org)
  • The expression of all laterally expressed gcy genes is under the control of a gene regulatory network composed of several transcription factors and miRNAs. (genetics.org)
  • The complement of gcy genes in the related nematode C. briggsae differs from C. elegans as evidenced by differences in chromosomal localization, number of gcy genes, and expression patterns. (genetics.org)
  • Functional lateralization is presumably brought about by the diversification of neuronal function on a subanatomical level, such as differential gene expression in bilaterally symmetric structures. (genetics.org)
  • but the extent of lateralization of chemoreceptor gene expression in these neurons is still unclear. (genetics.org)
  • The B. japonicum ccmE gene ( ccmE Bj ) was amplified by PCR and cloned into the arabinose-inducible expression vector pISC-2 ( 19 ), resulting in pRJ3294 (Table 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In this study, we examined the expression of eight candidate ferric reductase genes and their contributions to iron acquisition as well as to ferric and cupric reductase activities. (asm.org)
  • The expression of 35 genes was down-regulated and 9 up-regulated in a Har mutant (ECR455) relative to wild-type. (jove.com)
  • This binding decreased as hemin concentration increased which was consistent with gene expression being regulated by hemin availability. (jove.com)
  • One of the major gene expression programs triggered by hypoxia is mediated through hypoxia-responsive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). (asm.org)
  • The technique is specially perfect for useful screening, since it quickly generates expression libraries with gene-sized inserts. (columbiagypsy.net)
  • Expression of this gene is induced by estrogen and altered in some breast cancers. (genecards.org)
  • Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that controls the expression of several genes involved in metabolic homeostasis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Altunoglu YC, Baloglu P, Yer EN, Pekol S, Baloglu MC (2016) Identification and expression analysis of LEA gene family members in cucumber genome. (springer.com)
  • genome-wide identification, classification, gene expression and functional analysis. (springer.com)
  • Fu JY (2014) Cloning of a new glutathione peroxidase gene from tea plant ( Camellia sinensis ) and expression analysis under biotic and abiotic stresses. (springer.com)
  • PXR is activated by most of the xenobiotics (exogenous chemicals) that are known to induce CYP3A gene expression, including the commonly used antibiotic rifampicin, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, and the herbal antidepressant St. John's wort ( 1-4 , 7 , 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Viruses induce interferon gene expression and then the up-regulation of various downstream interferon-responsive genes (reviewed in references 32 and 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Rapid divergence in gene expression profiles of duplicates following the duplication event results in expression profiles as diverse as those of singletons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blocking both CO-induced PPARγ SUMOylation and p38 activation, completely reversed the effects of CO on inflammatory gene expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Probing tomato genome for P450 identification would provide valuable information about the functions and evolution of the P450 gene family. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, we have identified 233 P450 genes from tomato genome along with conserved motifs. (springer.com)
  • Out of 22 intron gain/loss positions, two positions were conserved in tomato P450 genes supporting intron late theory of intron evolution in Sl P450 families. (springer.com)
  • This study allows comparison of Sl P450 gene family with other Solanaceae members which are also economically important and attempt to classify functionally important Sl P450 genes into groups and families. (springer.com)
  • In position 94, there is an oxygen binding heme proximal ligand 1, 2, 4 . (leebio.com)
  • The site of the covalent linkage to the heme has been tentatively identified as glutamate 242, although the chemical nature of the link remains uncertain. (nih.gov)
  • The first of these, the HNOB ( H eme NO Binding) domain, is a predominantly α-helical domain and binds heme via a covalent linkage to histidine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Heme-binding signature motif has 10 conserved residues among which cysteine is highly conserved. (springer.com)
  • Mutagenesis and deletion of the highly conserved lipoxygenase C-terminal isoleucine (Ile663), a residue believed to be involved in the non-heme iron atom coordination of all lipoxygenases, was performed. (glycosciences.de)
  • The binding of hemin resulted in conformational changes of Zn(II)Har and residue 97Cys was involved in hemin binding as part of a predicted -97C-98P-99L- hemin binding motif. (jove.com)
  • Rhodococcus equi's extreme resistance to hydrogen peroxide is mainly conferred by one of its four catalase genes. (nih.gov)
  • However, little is known about the mechanism of the heme-mediated responses or changes in heme metabolism in the immune system. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We discovered IDO2 by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches of the human genome using IDO sequences as probes, identifying a new gene on chromosome 8p12 just downstream of the IDO gene INDO . (aacrjournals.org)
  • As a result, a total of 6 CsGPX genes were identified, which were unevenly located in four out of the seven chromosomes in cucumber genome. (springer.com)
  • The products of at least three distinct NOS genes have been identified in mammals. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Heme consists of an iron atom present at the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin ( Fig. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lacks conserved residue(s) required for the propagation of feature annotation. (uniprot.org)
  • Rhodobacter capsulatus regA - or regB -deficient mutants recovered the synthesis of a photosynthetic apparatus that still retained regulation by oxygen tension when complemented with reg genes from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum and Roseobacter denitrificans . (asm.org)
  • In this work, the crystal structures of H141A, Y240A, and R242A mutants were determined to understand the role of these residues for the heme binding of CgHmuT. (mdpi.com)
  • Overall and heme environmental structures of these mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting that there is little conformational change in the heme-binding cleft during heme transport reaction with binding and the dissociation of heme. (mdpi.com)
  • The CYB5A gene is situated on chromosome 18, starting from 74250847 and ending at 74292016 bp. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • These four genes are at separate locations on the chromosome and do not seem to share genetic links. (nih.gov)
  • The human neudesin gene was mapped to chromosome 1p33. (biovendor.com)
  • Epidemiological studies have revealed that the variability of the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene, which is localized at the short arm of chromosome 6, contributes to the development of HH. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • One group of HIF-1 target genes involved in the adaptive response facilitates O 2 delivery to oxygen-deprived tissues. (asm.org)
  • RA is a diffusible lipophilic molecule that binds to nuclear receptors [retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs)] to regulate the transcription of target genes. (biologists.org)
  • Levels of free protoporphyrin decreased significantly as there was iron available for the FECH to produce heme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binds 1 heme b (iron(II)-protoporphyrin IX) group per subunit. (uniprot.org)
  • P. gingivalis biofilm formation is dependent on environmental heme for which P. gingivalis has an obligate requirement as it is unable to synthesize protoporphyrin IX de novo, hence P. gingivalis transports iron and heme liberated from the human host. (jove.com)
  • Purified holoSeShp and holoSeHtsA bind Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX (heme) and Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX (hemin) in a 1:1 stoichiometry, respectively, and are designated hemoSeShp and hemiSeHtsA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each of the subunits of the dimer binds heme (iron protoporphyrin IX regardless of the valence and ligation states), FAD, FMN and tetrahydrobiopterin (H 4 B) as prosthetic groups. (aspetjournals.org)
  • AS genes targeted extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways, while RG genes were mainly enriched in cytokine-receptor interaction and Jak-STAT. When combined, AS/RG dependent alterations targeted pathways essential for T cell receptor signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics and cell cycle entry. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • A review of evidence supporting these hypotheses suggests that both pathways are involved in heme iron toxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, CYP79B2 is expressed in response to bacterial pathogens in a manner similar to Trp biosynthetic genes. (pnas.org)
  • Heme is a preferred iron source of bacterial pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The NO synthase 2 gene is induced by gamma interferon in macrophages ( 11 ), and the antiviral effects of NO have been described in several models ( 19 , 20 , 35 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, high levels of the ATR1 Myb transcription factor can positively regulate tryptophan genes and confer tryptophan feedback resistance. (genetics.org)
  • When added to B-cell primary cultures, heme enhanced the transcription of Blimp-1, the master regulator of plasma cells, and skewed plasma cell differentiation toward the IgM isotype, decreasing the IgG levels in vitro. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The chloroplast atpA gene cluster in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - Functional analysis of a polycistronic transcription unit. (bio.net)