An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase types A and B that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has also been used as an antitubercular agent, but its use is limited by its toxicity.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
A drug formerly used as an antipsychotic and treatment of various movement disorders. Tetrabenazine blocks neurotransmitter uptake into adrenergic storage vesicles and has been used as a high affinity label for the vesicle transport system.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
A sympathomimetic agent with specificity for alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It is used to maintain BLOOD PRESSURE in hypotensive states such as following SPINAL ANESTHESIA.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.
Bretylium compounds are pharmaceutical agents, primarily used in the treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, that work by stabilizing the cardiac membrane and inhibiting the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve endings.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.
A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.
An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
A sulfamoylbenzamide piperidine. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.
The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)

Influence of vesicular storage and monoamine oxidase activity on [11C]phenylephrine kinetics: studies in isolated rat heart. (1/855)

[11C]Phenylephrine (PHEN) is a radiolabeled analogue of norepinephrine that is transported into cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter and taken up into storage vesicles localized within the nerve varicosities by the vesicular monoamine transporter. PHEN is structurally related to two previously developed sympathetic nerve markers: [11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine and [11C]epinephrine. To better characterize the neuronal handling of PHEN, particularly its sensitivity to neuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, kinetic studies in an isolated working rat heart system were performed. METHODS: Radiotracer was administered to the isolated working heart as a 10-min constant infusion followed by a 110-min washout period. Two distinctly different approaches were used to assess the sensitivity of the kinetics of PHEN to MAO activity. In the first approach, oxidation of PHEN by MAO was inhibited at the enzymatic level with the MAO inhibitor pargyline. In the second approach, the two hydrogen atoms on the a-carbon of the side chain of PHEN were replaced with deuterium atoms ([11C](-)-alpha-alpha-dideutero-phenylephrine [D2-PHEN]) to inhibit MAO activity at the tracer level. The importance of vesicular uptake on the kinetics of PHEN and D2-PHEN was assessed by inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter-mediated storage into vesicles with reserpine. RESULTS: Under control conditions, PHEN initially accumulated into the heart at a rate of 0.72+/-0.15 mL/min/g wet. Inhibition of MAO activity with either pargyline or di-deuterium substitution did not significantly alter this rate. However, MAO inhibition did significantly slow the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during the washout phase of the study. Blocking vesicular uptake with reserpine reduced the initial uptake rates of PHEN and D2-PHEN, as well as greatly accelerated the clearance of radioactivity from the heart during washout. CONCLUSION: These studies indicate that PHEN kinetics are sensitive to neuronal MAO activity. Under normal conditions, efficient vesicular storage of PHEN serves to protect the tracer from rapid metabolism by neuronal MAO. However, it is likely that leakage of PHEN from the storage vesicles and subsequent metabolism by MAO lead to an appreciable clearance of radioactivity from the heart.  (+info)

Influence of a new antiulcer agent, ammonium 7-oxobicyclo (2, 2, 1) hept-5-ene-3-carbamoyl-2-carboxylate (KF-392) on gastric lesions and gastric mucosal barrier in rats. (2/855)

Antiulcer effects of KF-392 were studied in several experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. It was found that KF-392 given orally at 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg had a marked suppression on the developments of Shay ulcer as well as the aspirin-, stress-, and reserpine-induced gastric lesions. The influence of KF-392 on gastric mucosal barrier was also studied. A back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa and a fall of transmucosal potential difference were induced with KF-392 given orally at the above mentioned doses. KF-392 given s.c. at 5.0 mg/kg showed no inhibition of Shay ulcer and no induction of back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa.  (+info)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine in dogs. (3/855)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine was studied using ephedrine. In the dog pretreated with repeated administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 40 or 80 mg/kg, i.v.) or with combined administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 90 mg/kg, s.c. and i.v.) and reserpine (2 mg/kg, s.c., 24 hr previously), pressor responses to dopamine were eliminated and reversed to depressor responses whereas depressor responses to dopamine were potentiated. Positive chronotropic effects of dopamine were almost eliminated. Pressor and positive chronotropic effects of tyramine were almost abolished. Sympathomimetic effect of noradrenaline and adrenaline were potentiated while those of isoprenaline were inhibited. In the heart-lung preparation of ephedrine-treated dogs (total dose, 40 mg/kg, i.v.), cardiac stimulating effects of dopamine and tyramine were strongly depressed, and those of noradrenaline, adrenaline and isoprenaline were reduced to some extent. In the open-chest dogs, after pretreatment of cocaine (4 mg/kg, i.v.), pressor, positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of noradrenaline were potentiated, whilst those of tyramine were inhibited. Those of dopamine were not visibly altered, but depressor, negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of dopamine appeared at small doses. In the ephedrine-pretreated dogs, these sympathomimetic effects of dopamine and tyramine after cocaine were strongly depressed and those of noradrenaline were inhibited to a certain degree. The results obtained with ephedrine suggest that dopamine differs from other catecholamines and tyramine in the mode of cardiovascular actions.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (4/855)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

The role of the sympathetic nervous system in the regulation of leptin synthesis in C57BL/6 mice. (5/855)

The objectives of this study were to determine whether leptin synthesis is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and if so whether beta-adrenergic receptors mediate this effect. We show that sympathetic blockade by reserpine increases leptin mRNA levels in brown but not white adipose tissue, while acute cold-exposure decreases leptin expression 10-fold in brown adipose tissue and 2-fold in white adipose tissue. The cold-induced reduction in leptin mRNA can be prevented by a combination of propranolol and SR 59230A but not by either antagonist alone, indicating that beta3-adrenergic receptors and classical beta1/beta2-adrenergic receptors both mediate responses to sympathetic stimulation. Circulating leptin levels reflect synthesis in white adipose tissue but not in brown adipose tissue.  (+info)

The effect of reserpine, an inhibitor of multidrug efflux pumps, on the in-vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin and moxifloxacin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. (6/855)

In Staphylococcus aureus, in addition to mutations in the grl and gyr gene loci, multidrug efflux pumps like NorA contribute to decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility. Efflux pumps can be inhibited by the plant alkaloid reserpine, which, at 20 mg/L, reduced sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin IC50s and MICs by up to four-fold in 11, 21 and 48 of the 102 unrelated clinical isolates tested, respectively. The effect was less pronounced with the hydrophobic drugs sparfloxacin and moxifloxacin than with the hydrophilic drug ciprofloxacin and was stable in all 25 clonally related isolates tested.  (+info)

Increased methamphetamine neurotoxicity in heterozygous vesicular monoamine transporter 2 knock-out mice. (7/855)

Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant that is increasingly abused worldwide. Although it is commonly accepted that the dopaminergic system and oxidation of dopamine (DA) play pivotal roles in the neurotoxicity produced by this phenylethylamine, the primary source of DA responsible for this effect has remained elusive. In this study, we used mice heterozygous for vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 +/- mice) to determine whether impaired vesicular function alters the effects of METH. METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity was increased in striatum of VMAT2 +/- mice compared with wild-type mice as revealed by a more consistent DA and metabolite depletion and a greater decrease in dopamine transporter expression. Interestingly, increased METH neurotoxicity in VMAT2 +/- mice was accompanied by less pronounced increase in extracellular DA and indices of free radical formation compared with wild-type mice. These results indicate that disruption of vesicular monoamine transport potentiates METH-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and point, albeit indirectly, to a greater contribution of intraneuronal DA redistribution rather than extraneuronal overflow on mediating this effect.  (+info)

Inhibition of the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae by the multidrug efflux inhibitor reserpine. (8/855)

Recent evidence supports the contribution of a multidrug efflux mechanism to fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this paper I show that reserpine, an inhibitor of multidrug transporters in gram-positive bacteria, dramatically suppresses the in vitro emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant variants of S. pneumoniae, suggesting that the combination of a fluoroquinolone with an inhibitor of multidrug transport may help preserve the efficacy of this class of antibiotics.  (+info)

Reserpine is an alkaloid derived from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant, which has been used in traditional medicine for its sedative and hypotensive effects. In modern medicine, reserpine is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) due to its ability to lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Reserpine works by depleting catecholamines, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, from nerve terminals in the sympathetic nervous system. This leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and heart rate, ultimately resulting in reduced blood pressure.

Reserpine is available in various forms, such as tablets or capsules, and is typically administered orally. Common side effects include nasal congestion, dizziness, sedation, and gastrointestinal disturbances like diarrhea and nausea. Long-term use of reserpine may also lead to depression in some individuals. Due to its potential for causing depression, other antihypertensive medications are often preferred over reserpine when possible.

Iproniazid is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) drug that was initially used as an antitubercular agent but later found to have antidepressant properties. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, in the brain which helps to elevate mood and improve symptoms of depression. However, its use is limited due to the risk of serious side effects, including hypertensive crisis and serotonin syndrome, when taken with certain foods or other medications.

Tyramine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a biogenic amine, which is formed from the amino acid tyrosine during the fermentation or decay of certain foods. Medically, tyramine is significant because it can interact with certain medications, particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), used to treat depression and other conditions.

The interaction between tyramine and MAOIs can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, individuals taking MAOIs are often advised to follow a low-tyramine diet, avoiding foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented foods, and some types of beer and wine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Methyltyrosines" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept in the field of medicine or biochemistry. It seems that there might be some misunderstanding or typo in your question.

If you are referring to "3-Methoxytyrosine" or "3-MT," it is a metabolite of dopamine, which is formed in the body by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). 3-MT can be measured in various biological samples, such as urine or plasma, to evaluate the activity of COMT and assess the exposure to drugs that inhibit this enzyme.

If you meant something else by "Methyltyrosines," please provide more context or clarify your question so I can give a more accurate answer.

Alpha-Methyltyrosine (α-MT) is a synthetic amino acid that acts as an inhibitor of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. This enzyme is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, including neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine. By inhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase, α-MT reduces the synthesis of these catecholamines, which can lead to various effects on the nervous system.

In medical contexts, α-MT has been used in research settings to study the functions of catecholamines and their role in various physiological processes. It has also been investigated as a potential treatment for certain conditions, such as hypertension and anxiety disorders, although its clinical use is not widespread due to its side effects and limited efficacy.

It's important to note that α-MT should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional, as it can have significant effects on the nervous system and may interact with other medications or health conditions.

Adrenergic uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and dopamine, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increase in the amount of neurotransmitter available to bind to postsynaptic receptors, leading to an enhancement of adrenergic transmission.

These medications are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy. Some examples of adrenergic uptake inhibitors include:

* Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs): These medications, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, were developed in the 1950s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): These medications, such as venlafaxine and duloxetine, were developed in the 1990s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs): These medications, such as bupropion, are used to treat depression and ADHD.

It's important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydroxydopamines" is not a recognized term in medical physiology or pharmacology. However, I believe you might be referring to "Catecholamines," which are a group of neurotransmitters and hormones that include dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and adrenaline (epinephrine). These substances are derived from the amino acid tyrosine and have a catechol nucleus (two hydroxyl groups on a benzene ring) and an amine group.

If you meant something else, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I will be happy to help.

Tetrabenazine is a prescription medication used to treat conditions associated with abnormal involuntary movements, such as chorea in Huntington's disease. It works by depleting the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, which helps to reduce the severity and frequency of these movements.

Here is the medical definition:

Tetrabenazine is a selective monoamine-depleting agent, with preferential uptake by dopamine neurons. It is used in the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington's disease. Tetrabenazine inhibits vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), leading to depletion of presynaptic dopamine and subsequent reduction in post-synaptic dopamine receptor activation. This mechanism of action is thought to underlie its therapeutic effect in reducing chorea severity and frequency.

(Definitions provided by Stedman's Medical Dictionary and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists)

Chlorpromazine is a type of antipsychotic medication, also known as a phenothiazine. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Chlorpromazine is used to treat various mental health conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe behavioral problems in children. It may also be used for the short-term management of severe anxiety or agitation, and to control nausea and vomiting.

Like all medications, chlorpromazine can have side effects, which can include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, or abnormal movements, as well as cardiovascular problems such as low blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms. It is important for patients to be monitored closely by their healthcare provider while taking chlorpromazine, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Mephentermine is a sympathomimetic amine, which is a type of medication that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. It is primarily used as a short-acting nasal decongestant and bronchodilator to relieve symptoms associated with conditions such as allergies, sinus congestion, and bronchial asthma.

Mephentermine works by narrowing blood vessels in the nasal passages and lungs, which helps to reduce swelling and congestion. It also relaxes muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe.

It is important to note that mephentermine is a controlled substance due to its potential for abuse and dependence. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider and according to their instructions.

Pargyline is an antihypertensive drug and a irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type B. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, which can help improve mood and behavior in people with depression.

Pargyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects, including interactions with certain foods and medications that can lead to dangerously high blood pressure. It is also associated with a risk of serotonin syndrome when taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain.

Pargyline is available only through a prescription and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as neurotransmitter transporters or simply transporters, are a type of membrane protein responsible for the reuptake of catecholamines (such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron. These proteins play a crucial role in regulating neurotransmitter concentrations in the synapse and terminating neurotransmission. They are targets for various psychoactive drugs, including antidepressants, psychostimulants, and cocaine.

Secologanin tryptamine alkaloids are a type of alkaloid compound that is derived from the combination of secologanin (a metabolite found in certain plants) and tryptamine (an organic compound that is a building block for several neurotransmitters). These alkaloids have been identified in various plant species, including those in the genera *Psychotria* and *Uncaria*, and are known to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities. Some examples of secologanin tryptamine alkaloids include ajmalicine, reserpine, and yohimbine, which have been used in traditional medicine for their sedative, antihypertensive, and aphrodisiac properties, respectively. However, it is important to note that these compounds can also have toxic effects and should only be used under the guidance of a medical professional.

Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The most well-known catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. They play important roles in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. In addition to their role as hormones, catecholamines also function as neurotransmitters, transmitting signals in the nervous system. Disorders of catecholamine regulation can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, mood disorders, and neurological disorders.

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic or stimulate the actions of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates various automatic physiological functions in the body. The sympathetic nervous system's primary function is to prepare the body for the "fight-or-flight" response, which includes increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and metabolism while decreasing digestive activity.

Sympathomimetic drugs can exert their effects through various mechanisms, including directly stimulating adrenergic receptors (alpha and beta receptors) or indirectly causing the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine from nerve endings. These drugs are used in various clinical settings to treat conditions such as asthma, nasal congestion, low blood pressure, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Examples of sympathomimetic drugs include epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, dobutamine, albuterol, pseudoephedrine, and methylphenidate.

It is important to note that sympathomimetic drugs can also have adverse effects, particularly when used in high doses or in individuals with certain medical conditions. These adverse effects may include anxiety, tremors, palpitations, hypertension, arrhythmias, and seizures. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Nialamide is not typically considered in modern medical definitions as it is an older, first-generation monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that has largely been replaced by newer and safer medications. However, for the sake of completeness:

Nialamide is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) antidepressant. It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain. This increases the availability of these neurotransmitters, which can help to elevate mood in individuals with depression.

It's important to note that MAOIs like Nialamide have significant dietary and medication restrictions due to their potential for serious and life-threatening interactions with certain foods and medications. Their use is generally reserved for treatment-resistant cases of depression and other psychiatric disorders, when other treatment options have been exhausted.

The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It is responsible for producing and releasing hormones such as epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) and norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline). These hormones play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response, preparing the body for immediate action in response to stress.

Epinephrine increases heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, while also increasing blood flow to muscles and decreasing blood flow to the skin and digestive system. Norepinephrine has similar effects but is generally less potent than epinephrine. Together, these hormones help to prepare the body for physical activity and increase alertness and focus.

Disorders of the adrenal medulla can lead to a variety of symptoms, including high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, anxiety, and tremors. Some conditions that affect the adrenal medulla include pheochromocytoma, a tumor that causes excessive production of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and neuroblastoma, a cancerous tumor that arises from immature nerve cells in the adrenal gland.

Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of monoamines, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. There are two main isoforms of VMATs, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and function.

VMAT1 (also known as SLC18A1) is primarily found in neuroendocrine cells and is responsible for transporting monoamines into large dense-core vesicles. VMAT2 (also known as SLC18A2), on the other hand, is mainly expressed in presynaptic neurons and is involved in the transport of monoamines into small synaptic vesicles.

Both VMAT1 and VMAT2 are integral membrane proteins that utilize a proton gradient to drive the uptake of monoamines against their concentration gradient, allowing for their storage and subsequent release during neurotransmission. Dysregulation of VMAT function has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.

Pituitary irradiation is a medical procedure that involves the use of targeted radiation therapy to treat conditions affecting the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland controls various hormonal functions in the body, and any abnormalities or tumors in this area can lead to hormonal imbalances and other related health issues.

In pituitary irradiation, a radiation oncologist uses external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to deliver precise and focused doses of high-energy radiation to the pituitary gland. The goal is to destroy or shrink the tumor while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues. This procedure can be used as a primary treatment option, an adjuvant therapy following surgery, or in cases where surgical intervention is not feasible or has been unsuccessful.

The effects of pituitary irradiation on hormone production may take months or even years to manifest fully. Patients will typically require regular follow-ups with their healthcare team to monitor hormonal levels and manage any potential side effects, which can include fatigue, headaches, vision changes, and cognitive impairment. In some cases, hormone replacement therapy might be necessary to address hormonal deficiencies resulting from the treatment.

Bretylium compounds are a class of medications that are primarily used in the management of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms). Bretylium tosylate is the most commonly used formulation. It works by stabilizing the membranes of certain types of heart cells, which can help to prevent or stop ventricular fibrillation and other dangerous arrhythmias.

Bretylium compounds are typically administered intravenously in a hospital setting under close medical supervision. They may be used in conjunction with other medications and treatments for the management of cardiac emergencies. It's important to note that bretylium compounds have a narrow therapeutic index, which means that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic one is relatively small. Therefore, they should only be administered by healthcare professionals who are experienced in their use.

Like all medications, bretylium compounds can cause side effects, including but not limited to:
- Increased heart rate
- Low blood pressure
- Nausea and vomiting
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Headache
- Tremors or muscle twitching
- Changes in mental status or behavior

Healthcare providers will monitor patients closely for any signs of adverse reactions while they are receiving bretylium compounds.

Vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of biogenic amines, such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. These proteins are located on the membranes of neurosecretory vesicles and function to regulate the concentration of these neurotransmitters in the cytoplasm and maintain their storage in vesicles until they are released into the synapse during neurotransmission. VMATs are members of the solute carrier family 18 (SLC18) and consist of two isoforms, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and substrate specificity. VMAT1 is primarily found in non-neuronal cells, such as endocrine and neuroendocrine cells, while VMAT2 is predominantly expressed in neurons. Dysregulation of VMATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Normetanephrine is defined as a major metabolite of epinephrine (adrenaline), which is formed by the action of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) on metanephrine. It is primarily produced in the adrenal gland and is also found in the sympathetic nervous system. Normetanephrine is often measured in clinical testing to help diagnose pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal glands that can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms due to excessive production of catecholamines. Increased levels of normetanephrine in the urine or plasma may indicate the presence of a pheochromocytoma or other conditions associated with increased catecholamine release.

Fenclonine is not a commonly used medical term or a medication in clinical practice. It's possible that you may have encountered this term in the context of research or scientific studies. Fenclonine is an experimental drug that has been investigated for its potential role as an inhibitor of bacterial enzymes, specifically the D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (DD-transpeptidase) involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

Inhibiting this enzyme can disrupt the integrity and growth of bacteria, making fenclonine a potential antibiotic agent. However, further research is required to establish its safety, efficacy, and therapeutic applications. As such, it's not currently used as a standard treatment option in human medicine.

For accurate information regarding medical definitions or treatments, consult with healthcare professionals or refer to reputable medical resources.

Chromaffin granules are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of chromaffin cells, which are a type of neuroendocrine cell. These cells are located in the adrenal medulla and some sympathetic ganglia and play a crucial role in the body's stress response.

Chromaffin granules contain a variety of substances, including catecholamines such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), as well as proteins and other molecules. When the chromaffin cell is stimulated, the granules fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space, where they can bind to receptors on nearby cells and trigger a variety of physiological responses.

The name "chromaffin" comes from the fact that these granules contain enzymes that can react with chromium salts to produce a brown color, which is why they are also sometimes referred to as "black-brown granules."

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

17-Hydroxycorticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal gland. They are formed from the metabolism of cortisol, which is a hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response. 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids include compounds such as cortisone and corticosterone.

These hormones have various functions in the body, including:

* Regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism
* Suppression of the immune system
* Modulation of the stress response
* Influence on blood pressure and electrolyte balance

Abnormal levels of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids can indicate problems with the adrenal gland or pituitary gland, which regulates adrenal function. They are often measured in urine or blood tests to help diagnose conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (overproduction of cortisol) and Addison's disease (underproduction of cortisol).

Methyldopa is a centrally acting antihypertensive drug, which means it works in the brain to lower blood pressure. It is a synthetic derivative of the amino acid L-DOPA and acts as a false neurotransmitter, mimicking the action of norepinephrine in the brain. This results in decreased sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system, leading to vasodilation and reduced blood pressure. Methyldopa is used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) and is available in oral formulations.

Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drugs, their actions, and their uses. It involves understanding how drugs interact with biological systems to produce desired effects, as well as any adverse or unwanted effects. This includes studying the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs (often referred to as ADME), the receptors and biochemical pathways that drugs affect, and the therapeutic benefits and risks of drug use. Pharmacologists may also be involved in the development and testing of new medications.

Phenoxybenzamine is an antihypertensive medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as non-selective alpha blockers. It works by blocking both alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors, which results in the relaxation of smooth muscle tissue in blood vessel walls and other organs. This leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and a reduction in blood pressure.

Phenoxybenzamine is primarily used for the preoperative management of patients with pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor that produces excessive amounts of catecholamines, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline. By blocking alpha receptors, phenoxybenzamine prevents the hypertensive crisis that can occur during surgery to remove the tumor.

It's important to note that phenoxybenzamine has a long duration of action (up to 14 days) and can cause orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, and other side effects. Therefore, it should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Synephrine is an alkaloid compound that naturally occurs in some plants, such as bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). It is similar in structure to ephedrine and is often used as a dietary supplement for weight loss, as a stimulant, and to treat low blood pressure. Synephrine acts on the adrenergic receptors, particularly the α1-adrenergic receptor, leading to vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. It also has mild stimulatory effects on the central nervous system.

It is important to note that synephrine can have potential side effects, including increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and interactions with other medications. Its use should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Methysergide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is primarily used for the prophylaxis (prevention) of migraine headaches. Methysergide works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain, which is thought to help prevent migraines.

The medical definition of Methysergide is:
A semisynthetic ergot alkaloid derivative used in the prophylaxis of migraine and cluster headaches. It has both agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin receptors, and its therapeutic effects are thought to be related to its ability to block the binding of serotonin to its receptors. However, methysergide can have serious side effects, including fibrotic reactions in various organs, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys, so it is usually used only for short periods of time and under close medical supervision.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

The chromaffin system is a part of the autonomic nervous system that consists of specialized cells called chromaffin cells. These cells are found in two main locations: the adrenal medulla, which is the inner portion of the adrenal glands located on top of the kidneys; and scattered throughout various nerve ganglia along the sympathetic trunk, a chain of ganglia that runs parallel to the spinal cord.

Chromaffin cells are responsible for synthesizing, storing, and releasing catecholamines, which are hormones and neurotransmitters that help regulate various bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism. The most well-known catecholamines are adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which are released in response to stress or excitement.

The term "chromaffin" refers to the ability of these cells to take up chromium salts and produce a brown coloration, which is why they are called chromaffin cells. The chromaffin system plays an important role in the body's fight-or-flight response, helping to prepare the body for immediate action in response to perceived threats or stressors.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Clopamide" is not a recognized medication or term in current medical practice. It's possible that there may be a spelling error or misunderstanding of the name. I would be happy to help you search for information on a different topic or provide clarification if you have more context or details about what you are looking for.

The vas deferens is a muscular tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra during ejaculation in males. It is a part of the male reproductive system and is often targeted in surgical procedures like vasectomy, which is a form of permanent birth control.

Tranylcypromine is a type of antidepressant known as a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain such as serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline. This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Tranylcypromine is used primarily for the treatment of major depressive disorder that has not responded to other antidepressants. It is also used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

It's important to note that MAOIs like tranylcypromine have several dietary and medication restrictions due to their potential to cause serious or life-threatening reactions when combined with certain foods or medications. Therefore, careful monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary while taking this medication.

Chlorisondamine is a type of drug called an anticholinergic, which works by blocking the action of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine in the body. It is a type of ganglionic blocker, which means that it blocks the activity of the ganglia, clusters of nerve cells that help transmit signals throughout the nervous system. Chlorisondamine has been used in the past to treat conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and certain types of muscle spasms. However, it is not commonly used today due to the availability of safer and more effective treatment options.

Chlorisondamine is a synthetic compound that was first synthesized in the 1940s. It has a number of effects on the body, including decreasing heart rate and reducing the force of heart contractions. It also causes relaxation of smooth muscle tissue, which can lead to decreased blood pressure and reduced secretions from glands such as the sweat glands and salivary glands.

Like other anticholinergic drugs, chlorisondamine can cause a number of side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty urinating, and dizziness. It can also cause more serious side effects such as rapid heartbeat, confusion, hallucinations, and seizures. Chlorisondamine should be used with caution and only under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Tranquilizing agents, also known as major tranquilizers or antipsychotic drugs, are a class of medications used primarily to manage psychosis, including schizophrenia, and other mental health disorders. These agents work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.

Tranquilizing agents can be further divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). FGAs, also known as typical antipsychotics, were developed earlier and have a higher risk of side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which include involuntary movements, stiffness, and tremors. SGAs, also known as atypical antipsychotics, were developed more recently and have a lower risk of EPS but may have other side effects such as weight gain and metabolic issues.

It's important to note that tranquilizing agents should only be prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, as they can have significant risks and benefits.

Guanethidine is an antihypertensive medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as ganglionic blockers or autonomic nervous system (ANS) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of certain chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the body, which results in decreased blood pressure and heart rate.

Guanethidine is not commonly used today due to its side effects and the availability of safer and more effective antihypertensive medications. Its medical definition can be stated as:

A synthetic antihypertensive agent that acts by depleting norepinephrine stores in postganglionic adrenergic neurons, thereby blocking their activity. Guanethidine is used primarily in the treatment of hypertension and occasionally in the management of sympathetic nervous system-mediated conditions such as essential tremor or neurogenic pain.

Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are important for maintaining mood, emotion, and behavior.

Desipramine is also sometimes used off-label to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is available in oral form and is typically taken one to three times a day.

Like all medications, desipramine can cause side effects, which can include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. More serious side effects are rare but can include heart rhythm problems, seizures, and increased suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly children and adolescents.

It is important to take desipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or unusual symptoms promptly. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are also recommended to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the medication.

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a chemical compound that is produced by the body as a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain sensation. 5-HTP is not present in food but can be derived from the amino acid tryptophan, which is found in high-protein foods such as turkey, chicken, milk, and cheese.

5-HTP supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions related to low serotonin levels, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, migraines, and fibromyalgia. However, the effectiveness of 5-HTP for these conditions is not well established, and it can have side effects and interact with certain medications. Therefore, it's important to consult a healthcare provider before taking 5-HTP supplements.

Dextroamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. Dextroamphetamine is available as a prescription medication and is sold under various brand names, including Adderall and Dexedrine. It is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare professional, as it can have potentially serious side effects if used improperly.

Ephedrine is a medication that stimulates the nervous system and is used to treat low blood pressure, asthma, and nasal congestion. It works by narrowing the blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which can help to increase blood pressure and open up the airways in the lungs. Ephedrine may also be used as a bronchodilator to treat COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Ephedrine is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and solutions for injection. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking ephedrine, as it can have side effects such as rapid heart rate, anxiety, headache, and dizziness. Ephedrine should not be used by people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, or narrow-angle glaucoma, and it should not be taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding without consulting a healthcare provider.

In addition to its medical uses, ephedrine has been used as a performance-enhancing drug and is banned by many sports organizations. It can also be found in some over-the-counter cold and allergy medications, although these products are required to carry warnings about the potential for misuse and addiction.

Metaraminol is a synthetic vasoconstrictor and sympathomimetic agent, which is primarily used in clinical medicine to raise blood pressure in hypotensive states. It is a direct-acting alpha-adrenergic agonist, with some mild beta-adrenergic activity as well.

Metaraminol works by stimulating the alpha-adrenergic receptors in the smooth muscle of blood vessels, causing them to contract and narrow, leading to an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and systolic blood pressure. It also has a positive inotropic effect on the heart, increasing its contractility and stroke volume.

The drug is administered intravenously, and its effects are usually rapid in onset but short-lived, typically lasting for 5 to 10 minutes. Common side effects of metaraminol include hypertension, reflex bradycardia, arrhythmias, headache, anxiety, and tremors. It should be used with caution in patients with ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and other cardiovascular conditions.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

Dihydroxyphenylalanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that is often referred to in the context of biochemistry and neuroscience. It is also known as levodopa or L-DOPA for short.

L-DOPA is a precursor to dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in regulating movement, emotion, and cognition. In the brain, L-DOPA is converted into dopamine through the action of an enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase.

L-DOPA is used medically to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement). In Parkinson's disease, the dopamine-producing neurons in the brain gradually degenerate, leading to a deficiency of dopamine. By providing L-DOPA as a replacement therapy, doctors can help alleviate some of the symptoms of the disease.

It is important to note that L-DOPA has potential side effects and risks, including nausea, dizziness, and behavioral changes. Long-term use of L-DOPA can also lead to motor complications such as dyskinesias (involuntary movements) and fluctuations in response to the medication. Therefore, it is typically used in combination with other medications and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Adrenergic agents are a class of drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors, which are cell surface receptors found in the nervous system and other tissues. These receptors are activated by neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), which are released by the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress or excitement.

Adrenergic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and the specific receptors they bind to. There are two main types of adrenergic receptors: alpha and beta receptors, each with several subtypes. Some adrenergic agents bind to both alpha and beta receptors, while others are selective for one or the other.

Adrenergic agents have a wide range of therapeutic uses, including the treatment of asthma, cardiovascular diseases, glaucoma, and neurological disorders. They can also be used as diagnostic tools to test the function of the sympathetic nervous system. Some examples of adrenergic agents include:

* Alpha-agonists: These drugs bind to alpha receptors and cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), which can be useful in the treatment of hypotension (low blood pressure) or nasal congestion. Examples include phenylephrine and oxymetazoline.
* Alpha-antagonists: These drugs block the action of alpha receptors, leading to vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) and a decrease in blood pressure. Examples include prazosin and doxazosin.
* Beta-agonists: These drugs bind to beta receptors and cause bronchodilation (opening of the airways), increased heart rate, and increased force of heart contractions. They are used in the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory disorders. Examples include albuterol and salmeterol.
* Beta-antagonists: These drugs block the action of beta receptors, leading to a decrease in heart rate, blood pressure, and bronchodilation. They are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina (chest pain), and heart failure. Examples include metoprolol and atenolol.
* Nonselective alpha- and beta-antagonists: These drugs block both alpha and beta receptors and are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, and heart failure. Examples include labetalol and carvedilol.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.

Examples of biogenic monoamines include:

1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.

Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

Antihypertensive agents are a class of medications used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by reducing the force and rate of heart contractions, dilating blood vessels, or altering neurohormonal activation to lower blood pressure. Examples include diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, and direct vasodilators. These medications may be used alone or in combination to achieve optimal blood pressure control.

Indole alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compound that contain an indole structural unit, which is a heterocyclic aromatic ring system consisting of a benzene ring fused to a pyrrole ring. These compounds are produced by various plants and animals as secondary metabolites, and they have diverse biological activities. Some indole alkaloids have important pharmacological properties and are used in medicine as drugs or lead compounds for drug discovery. Examples of medically relevant indole alkaloids include reserpine, which is used to treat hypertension, and vinblastine and vincristine, which are used to treat various types of cancer.

... has also been used for relief of psychotic symptoms. A review found that in persons with schizophrenia, reserpine and ... Reserpine is recommended as an alternative drug for treating hypertension by the JNC 8. A 2016 Cochrane review found reserpine ... The daily dose of reserpine in antihypertensive treatment is as low as 0.05 to 0.25 mg. The use of reserpine as an ... At doses of less than 0.2 mg/day, reserpine has few adverse effects, the most common of which is nasal congestion. Reserpine ...
AMPT prevents the conversion of tyrosine to L-DOPA, the precursor to dopamine; reserpine prevents dopamine storage within ... Indirect-acting antagonist- drugs that inhibit the release/production of neurotransmitters (e.g., Reserpine). An antagonist ...
"reserpine". drugcentral.org. Retrieved 2020-05-31. Arora, R., Malhotra, P., Mathur, A.K., Mathur, A., Govil, C.M., Ahuja, P.S ... Rauvolfia serpentina (Indian snakeroot) contains the alkaloid reserpine, which has been used as an antihypertensive and an ...
Reserpine • Tetrabenazine Morpholines: Fenbutrazate • Morazone • Phendimetrazine • Phenmetrazine Oxazolines: 4-Methylaminorex ( ...
Methoserpidine, Reserpine and Deserpidine. HPLC analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids and aldehydes in Eucalyptus spp. E. ...
"Effect of reserpine on the heart". The Lancet, 2(7269), 22 December 1962, 1330-1331. PMID 13965902 (1962) with M. K. Gaitonde; ...
AMPT prevents the conversion of tyrosine to L-DOPA, the precursor to dopamine; reserpine prevents dopamine storage within ...
... is an antagonist to reserpine. Ibogaine affects many different neurotransmitter systems simultaneously. Noribogaine is ...
A synthesis of reserpine uses a Diels-Alder reaction to set the cis-decalin framework of the D and E rings. In another ... Total synthesis of (±)-reserpine and (±)-α-yohimbine". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 109 (20): 6124-6134. doi: ... Synthesis of reserpine". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102 (19): 6157-6159. doi:10.1021/ja00539a038. Martin, S. F ... synthesis of reserpine, the cis-fused D and E rings was formed by a Diels-Alder reaction. Intramolecular Diels-Alder of the ...
... is a drug, derived from reserpine. It is used (since about 1960) to treat hypertension. A combination of the ... "Comparison of syrosingopine and reserpine in the treatment of ambulatory hypertensive patients". The American Journal of the ...
... (INN), or 1-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]reserpine, is a derivative of reserpine used as an antihypertensive agent. Like ... reserpine, bietaserpine is a VMAT inhibitor. Buckingham J et al. (eds.) (1993). Dictionary of Natural Products, vol. 5, p. 4923 ...
... is an antihypertensive drug related to reserpine. Jones, D. L.; Michael, A. M.; Ommer, J. P. (1961). "Clinical ...
Reserpine was the second (after chlorpromazine) antipsychotic drug; however, it showed relatively weak action and strong side ... Rauvolfia serpentina, which contains reserpine as the active substance, was used for over 3000 years in India to treat snake ... The flowering plant Rauvolfia serpentina which contains reserpine was a common medicine in India around 1000 BC. Africans used ... So, harmine and harmaline are reversible selective inhibitors of monoamine oxidase-A. Reserpine reduces concentration of ...
Adrian P. Meehan (December 1980). "The rodenticidal activity of reserpine and related compounds". Pesticide Science. 11 (6): ...
In the 1970s, the bark from stems and roots was harvested from which reserpine was extracted and sold for human use. Reserpine ... The plant contains a number of chemical compounds used by the pharmaceutical industry; these include reserpine, reserpinine, ...
Reserpine List of herbs with known adverse effects Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rauvolfia serpentina. "Appendices". ... Rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet who took reserpine for 6 weeks had their total cholesterol levels reduced by 42% and their ... The reserpine in R. serpentina is associated with diverse adverse effects, including vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, ... According to a 2016 review by Canadian researchers, 4 different high-quality clinical trials on humans suggest that reserpine ...
Although in 1955, Reserpine was shown to be more effective than a placebo in alleviating anxious depression, neuroleptics were ... In addition to this review, a 2003 literature review and a 2022 systematic review, both of reserpine and mood, found that there ... Strawbridge R, Javed RR, Cave J, Jauhar S, Young AH (August 2022). "The effects of reserpine on depression: A systematic review ... Instead, the results were highly mixed, with similar proportions of studies finding that reserpine had no influence on mood, ...
4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-Hydroxytryptophan as Reserpine Antagonists". Nature. 180 (4596): 1200. Bibcode:1957Natur. ...
Muscholl, Erich; Vogt, Marthe (1958). "The action of reserpine on the peripheral sympathetic system". Journal of Physiology. ... publishing research on serotonin and reserpine. In 1948, Vogt published a seminal work with William Feldberg: "Acetylcholine ...
Erickson JD, Eiden LE, Hoffman BJ (November 1992). "Expression cloning of a reserpine-sensitive vesicular monoamine transporter ... Several reuptake inhibitors of VMATs are known to exist, including reserpine (RES), tetrabenazine (TBZ), dihydrotetrabenazine ( ...
Historically important syntheses include cholesterol, cortisone, morphine, and reserpine. A large scale industrial application ...
He pioneered the use of reserpine to control hypertension. Reserpine is derived from Indian Snakeroot, Rauwolfia serpentina, ...
He then showed that giving animals the drug reserpine caused a decrease in dopamine levels and a loss of movement control. ... 4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan as reserpine antagonists". Nature. 180 (4596): 1200. Bibcode:1957Natur. ...
Reimann W, Schneider F (May 1998). "Induction of 5-hydroxytryptamine release by tramadol, fenfluramine and reserpine". European ...
... alpha-methyldopa and reserpine, used to control hypertension; and TRH. The use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives are ...
Reimann W, Schneider F (May 1998). "Induction of 5-hydroxytryptamine release by tramadol, fenfluramine and reserpine". European ...
Further testing was able to reveal that reserpine causes a depletion of monoamine concentrations in the brain. Reserpine's ... When reserpine (an alkaloid with uses in the treatment of hypertension and psychosis) was first introduced to the West from ... This was based on similar evidence to that which produced the NA theory as reserpine, imipramine, and iproniazid affect the 5- ... Tetrabenazine, a similar agent to reserpine, which also depletes catecholamine stores, and to a lesser degree 5-HT, was shown ...
Treatment with amphetamine or reserpine causes a reduction in vesicle content. Inserting the heavy metals Lead(II), Cadmium(II ...
Ajmalicine Corynanthine Deserpidine Mitragynine Rauwolscine Spegatrine Reserpine Rescinnamine Yohimbine Elisabetsky, E; Costa- ...
The repletion of dopamine after reserpine administration is slower than AMPT. Additionally, administration of reserpine when ... For these reasons AMPT seems to be a better treatment drug in methamphetamine addicts than reserpine, which is also being ... Reserpine causes almost full loss of dopamine from the striatum by disrupting vesicle storage. ...
Reserpine has also been used for relief of psychotic symptoms. A review found that in persons with schizophrenia, reserpine and ... Reserpine is recommended as an alternative drug for treating hypertension by the JNC 8. A 2016 Cochrane review found reserpine ... The daily dose of reserpine in antihypertensive treatment is as low as 0.05 to 0.25 mg. The use of reserpine as an ... At doses of less than 0.2 mg/day, reserpine has few adverse effects, the most common of which is nasal congestion. Reserpine ...
... , Gao Wen Li, Ling Zhang, Qing Xia Dong Ying Tao and ... Onjisaponin B Attenuates Experimental Reserpine-Induced Depression in Mice. Gao Wen Li, Ling Zhang, Qing Xia Dong Ying Tao and ... Reserpine was administered to mice intraperitoneally with a dose of 1 mg/kg/d for 3 consecutive days, according to a published ... Reserpine (purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in the vehicle (phosphatebuffered saline (PBS) ...
... reserpine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, ... encoded search term (reserpine (Serpasil)) and reserpine (Serpasil) What to Read Next on Medscape ... reserpine increases toxicity of deutetrabenazine by pharmacodynamic synergism. Contraindicated. Reserpine binds irreversibly to ... Reserpine binds irreversibly to VMAT2 and the duration of its effect is several days. Wait for chorea to reemerge before ...
Reserpine (50-55-5) online from Glentham Life Sciences, a manufacturer and supplier of fine chemicals. View catalogue prices, ... GP9098 Reserpine. (3β, 16β, 17α, 18β, 20α)-11,17-Dimethoxy-18-[(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)oxy]yohimban-16-carboxylic acid methyl ...
Reserpine and Rabbit Ears While Blaschko and Hornykiewicz were puzzling over dopamines physiologic role in the body, across ... In one of his experiments, Carlsson injected a pair of rabbits with reserpine, which caused the animals to become catatonic ... Spoiler alert: Brodies work showed that a new psychiatric drug known as reserpine was capable of fully depleting the brains ... Carlsson realized that other catecholamines must be involved in reserpines side effects, and he began to search for the ...
Reserpine.--I never noticed an effect whatever from this drug except a slight depression. Tolserol.--Negligible results. ... reserpine, even shock (can lobotomy be far behind?) have all been used with results usually described as encouraging. My own ...
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.. ...
... reserpine; ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra); certain medications for seizures such as ethosuximide (Zarontin), phenobarbital, and ...
Reserpine. For more information on this medication choose from the list of selections below. ...
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Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY. * Kasiske BL, Ma JZ, Kalil RS, Louis TA "Effects ... Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY. * Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics ... Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY. * Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics ... Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY. * Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics ...
Interaction of Cannabis Extract with Reserpine, Phenobarbital, Ampheta... Indian Journal of Bi.... 1975. ...
reserpine. 5.3.1.3. phenothiazine. 5.3.1.4. metoclopramide. 5.3.1.5. tetrabenazine. 5.3.1.6. butyrophenones ...
The concentrations of jatrorrhizine and reserpine ranged from 2-64 mg/l and the concentration of NFX ranged from 0.5-64 mg/l. ... However, reserpine demonstrated a better synergistic effect with an FICI of 0.250. ... Jatrorrhizine or reserpine exhibited synergistic effect with NFX against MRSA. ... reserpine or a combination of two (Fig. 2). Jatrorrhizine did not significantly inhibit the SA1199B strain at 16 mg/l (1/4 MIC ...
Natural polyphenolic coffee extract administration relieves chronic nociplastic pain in a reserpine-induced fibromyalgia-like ...
You can now access full text articles from research journals published by CSIR-NIScPR! Full text facility is provided for all nineteen research journals viz. ALIS, AIR, BVAAP, IJBB, IJBT, IJCA, IJCB, IJCT, IJEB, IJEMS, IJFTR, IJMS, IJNPR, IJPAP, IJRSP, IJTK, JIPR, JSIR & JST. NOPR also hosts three Popular Science Magazines viz. Science Reporter (SR), Vigyan Pragati (VP) & Science Ki Duniya (SKD) and a Natural Products Repository (NPARR ...
The effect of LSD and reserpine on the central nervous system of the c... Jap. J. Pharmacol.. 1958. ...
that can affect the metabolism like chlorpromazine, methylphenidate and reserpine.. *which work on the same receptor as ...
Hydroxyzine pamoate is unrelated chemically to the phenothiazines, reserpine, meprobamate, or the benzodiazepines. ...
Antihypertensives (e.g., alpha blockers, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, clonidine, methyldopa, reserpine). ...
On the mechanism of action of reserpine: effect of reserpine on capacity of tissues to bind serotonin. The Journal of ... Interaction of reserpine, serotonin, and lysergic acid diethylamide in brain. Science (New York, N.Y.). 122: 284-5. PMID ... Persistence of reserpine action after the disappearance of drug from brain: effect on serotonin. The Journal of Pharmacology ... Serotonin release as a possible mechanism of reserpine action. Science (New York, N.Y.). 122: 374-5. PMID 13246642 DOI: 10.1126 ...
... these actions were readily antagonized by haloperidol but were not affected by a pretreatment of reserpine plus alpha- ...
In some instances, this drug is also used to control severe reactions to other drugs such as reserpine or phenothiazines. Side ...
However, guanethidine and reserpine cannot be used in the presence of cardiovascular collapse or shock. 1993 Jun;22(2):263-77 ...
Rats were injected intraperitoneally with reserpine to create an FD model and then treated by intragastric administration. ...
  • Reserpine irreversibly blocks the H+-coupled vesicular monoamine transporters, VMAT1 and VMAT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reserpine binds irreversibly to VMAT2 and the duration of its effect is several days. (medscape.com)
  • The use of reserpine as an antipsychotic drug had been nearly completely abandoned, but more recently it made a comeback as adjunctive treatment, in combination with other antipsychotics, so that more refractory patients get dopamine blockade from the other antipsychotic, and dopamine depletion from reserpine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reserpine-hydrochlorothiazide combo pill was the 17th most commonly prescribed of the 43 combination antihypertensive pills available In 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antihypertensive actions of reserpine are largely due to its antinoradrenergic effects, which are a result of its ability to deplete catecholamines (among other monoamine neurotransmitters) from peripheral sympathetic nerve endings. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2016 Cochrane review found reserpine to be as effective as other first-line antihypertensive drugs for lowering of blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, reserpine was included as a secondary antihypertensive option for patients who did not achieve blood pressure lowering targets in the ALLHAT study. (wikipedia.org)
  • The daily dose of reserpine in antihypertensive treatment is as low as 0.05 to 0.25 mg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reserpine produces its antihypertensive effect by binding to the catecholamine in the nerve cells, which depresses the central and peripheral nervous systems. (nutracarepharma.com)
  • A review found that in persons with schizophrenia, reserpine and chlorpromazine had similar rates of adverse effects, but that reserpine was less effective than chlorpromazine for improving a person's global state. (wikipedia.org)
  • that can affect the metabolism like chlorpromazine, methylphenidate and reserpine. (medicines.org.uk)
  • reserpine increases levels of berotralstat by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. (medscape.com)
  • Resistance to fluoroquinolones in S . pneu- with MIC 4-8 µg/mL) was caused by a reserpine-sensitive moniae can be acquired by point mutations, intraspecific efflux phenotype (n = 4) or single topoisomerase IV ( parC [n = 24] or parE [n = 1]) changes. (cdc.gov)
  • One isolate did not show recombination ( 3 ) or interspecific recombination with the reserpine-sensitive efflux or mutations. (cdc.gov)
  • Large clinical trials have shown that combined treatment with reserpine plus a thiazide diuretic reduces mortality of people with hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reserpine is recommended as an alternative drug for treating hypertension by the JNC 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reserpine - thiazide diuretic combination is one of the few drug treatments shown to reduce mortality in randomized controlled trials: The Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program, the Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group in Anti-hypertensive Agents, and the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. (wikipedia.org)
  • At doses of less than 0.2 mg/day, reserpine has few adverse effects, the most common of which is nasal congestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spoiler alert: Brodie's work showed that a new psychiatric drug known as reserpine was capable of fully depleting the brain's stores of serotonin and ― of greatest significance, as it turned out - mimicking the neuromuscular symptoms typical of Parkinson's disease. (medscape.com)
  • BOL-148, 1-methyl-medmain and reserpine behave as antagonists of serotonin. (erowid.org)
  • The 'twitch' phase was relatively susceptible to blockade by LSD and reserpine and the 'secondary' phase to phentolamine. (erowid.org)
  • Interestingly sulpiride, or DA store-depletion using reserpine, potentiated both the frequency and magnitude of the secondary Δ[Ca2+]i in type II cells. (mcmaster.ca)
  • u003ca href=\"https:\/\/pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/13207143\/\"\u003e\u003csup\u003e2\u003c\/sup\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003csup\u003e \u003c\/sup\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eAccording to 2016 review by Canadian researchers, 4 different high-quality clinical trials on humans concluded that reserpine can support normal systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels. (peak.health)
  • Drugs used in studies included pancuronium bromide (Organon), reserpine (Koch-Light), guanethidine (CIBA-Geigy), hexErmethonium (Koch - Light), LSD (Sandoz), noradrenaline (Koch-Light), phentolamine (CIBA-Geigy) and yohimbine (BTL). (erowid.org)
  • Reserpine has also been used for relief of psychotic symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms reserpine caused in the laboratory animals were reminiscent of symptoms experienced by patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. (lu.se)
  • High dose studies in rodents found reserpine to cause fibroadenoma of the breast and malignant tumors of the seminal vesicles among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alkaloid reserpine present in the root extracts of Rauwolfia serpentina is a valuable agent that helps treat blood pressure and other neurological disorders. (nutracarepharma.com)
  • The main compounds reserpine and yohimbine work to relax your heart muscles and promote an sense of overall tranquility. (peak.health)
  • Reserpine is a drug that is used for the treatment of high blood pressure, usually in combination with a thiazide diuretic or vasodilator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the use of reserpine as a solo drug has declined since it was first approved by the FDA in 1955, the combined use of reserpine and a thiazide diuretic or vasodilator is still recommended in patients who do not achieve adequate lowering of blood pressure with first-line drug treatment alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • u003ca href=\"https:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/12072579\"\u003e\u003csup\u003e4\u003c\/sup\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003csup\u003e \u003c\/sup\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eAnother animal study concluded that reserpine is effective at decreasing cholesterol in the plasma, arteries, and heart by increasing high-affinity LDL receptors in the liver. (peak.health)
  • When he gave reserpine to laboratory animals, they lost their capacity for spontaneous movement. (lu.se)
  • For example, one of the patients response to pain, but it usually takes less than 16 months, the child from climbing over the subsequent advice given, and both prostaglandin antagonists and carboxylic acid none glycosides: Other cyanogenic glycoside 922 ptaquiloside ranunculin, protoanemonin reserpine quinidine frangulins rhein anthrones oxalates grayanotoxins ricin, curcin robinia lectin terpenoid alkaloid cardioactive steroid phenol or phenylpropanoid alkaloid cardioactive. (reflectionsbodysolutions.com)
  • Les étudiants en année de doctorat affectés dans le service de médecine interne étaient responsables de la gestion quotidienne du CTE sous la supervision des spécialistes en médecine interne Ce service était subdivisé en deux parties: le CTE qui prenait en charge les cas de Covid -19 et le reste du service qui devait continuer à accueillir les patients atteints d'autres affections ou qui y étaient régulièrement suivies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion: La mise en place du CTE au niveau du service de Médecine interne , a permis une adaptation efficiente dans la prise en charge des patients concernés mais aussi de ceux qui étaient suivis pour des pathologies chroniques comme les urgences médicales reçues durant la période. (bvsalud.org)
  • acrivastine and reserpine both increase sedation. (medscape.com)
  • asenapine transdermal and reserpine both increase sedation. (medscape.com)
  • benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen and reserpine both increase sedation. (medscape.com)
  • brivaracetam and reserpine both increase sedation. (medscape.com)
  • buprenorphine subdermal implant and reserpine both increase sedation. (medscape.com)
  • buprenorphine, long-acting injection and reserpine both increase sedation. (medscape.com)
  • reserpine and ganaxolone both increase sedation. (medscape.com)
  • Hypotensive agents (e.g., reserpine, MAO inhibitors, clonidine) may increase the risk of hypotension and/or severe bradycardia. (nih.gov)
  • Methods] To set up the animal model of splenic asthenia with reserpine.Experimental rats were randomly divided into six groups:the control group,the model group,the positive control group.Xiao Shi Jian Er Syrup,and Yun-Pi Prescription treatment groups including high,middle and low dose.Changes of body weight,food intake and swimming time were measured to determine the endurance of rats. (whocc.org.cn)
  • Brodie observed that when reserpine was injected, animals became completely immobile. (medscape.com)
  • Derived from Rauwolfia serpentina (a plant that for centuries has been used in India for the treatment of mental illness, insomnia, and snake bites), reserpine was introduced in the West as a treatment for schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
  • Older adults should not usually take high doses of reserpine because it is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat the same condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The indole ring system is found in Indomethacin (that is, anti-inflammatory agent) vinca alkaloids, employed in the treatment of different cancers, reserpine (that is, an antihypertensive agent), serotonin (a neurotransmitter) and tryptophan (a necessary amino acid) to state but few. (tutorsglobe.com)
  • Decontaminate spill area with hydrate lime scattered over the spill prior to rinsing off with phenothiazines or reserpine alkaloids or oils. (medpdfarticles.com)
  • Reserpine (re ser' peen) was one of the first antihypertensive agents developed for use in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Reserpine is in a class of medications called rauwolfia alkaloids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Others comprise, ergot alkaloids, reserpine and vinca alkaloids. (tutorsglobe.com)
  • The signs of hypoglycemia may be reduced or absent in patients taking sympatholytic products such as beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine ( 7 ). (nih.gov)
  • BETOPTIC 0.5% may have effects on other medicines that you are also taking for heart disease or high blood pressure, such as other beta-blockers taken by mouth or reserpine and some medicines used to treat emotional, behavioural or mental disorders such as anxiety or depression . (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • Reserpine is thought to act by binding to adrenergic storage vesicles in neurons, inhibiting their capacity to concentrate and store norepinephrine and dopamine. (nih.gov)
  • Reserpine depletes norepinephrine and epinephrine. (medscape.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to reserpine, aspirin, any other medications, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and medications), or any of the ingredients in reserpine tablets. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reserpine continues to be available in generic forms as tablets of 0.1 and 0.25 mg. (nih.gov)
  • 6681. Reserpine tablets. (nih.gov)
  • Reserpine is effective in lowering blood pressure and can be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive medications. (nih.gov)
  • Reserpine was approved for use in the United States in 1955 but is currently rarely used, largely because of its central nervous system effects and the availability of many better tolerated and more potent antihypertensive medications. (nih.gov)
  • The antihypertensive effect of reserpine correlates with the depletion of sympathetic amines in both the central nervous system and periphery. (nih.gov)
  • Histochemical alterations of sympathetic ganglia of the rat after reserpine administation. (mysciencework.com)
  • Serum aminotransferase elevations during reserpine therapy are uncommon, but specific rates of such elevations in comparison to placebo treatment have not been reported. (nih.gov)
  • Reserpine is an oral antihypertensive medication that acts through inhibitor of alpha-adrenergic transmission and was one of the first antihypertensive agents introduced into clinical practice. (nih.gov)
  • In this article, Freis and Ari presented the clinical data on their research for the ganglionic-blocking agent reserpine. (nih.gov)
  • Reserpine is used to treat high blood pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reserpine controls high blood pressure or symptoms of agitation, but does not cure them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you suddenly stop taking reserpine you may develop high blood pressure and experience unwanted side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because no information is available on the use of reserpine during breastfeeding and it might adversely affect the breastfed infant, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. (nih.gov)
  • reserpine increases levels of berotralstat by P-glycoprotein (MDR1) efflux transporter. (medscape.com)
  • Published cases were marked by jaundice and abdominal pain arising a year after starting reserpine, but in combination with other known hepatotoxic agents (dihydrazine, phenobarbital, quinidine). (nih.gov)
  • talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking reserpine if you are 65 years of age or older. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Despite widescale use for many years, reserpine has not been shown to cause clinically apparent liver injury. (nih.gov)
  • The last case of suspected reserpine associated liver injury was published more than 50 years ago. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Reserpine in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)