Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.
Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A formal process of examination of patient care or research proposals for conformity with ethical standards. The review is usually conducted by an organized clinical or research ethics committee (CLINICAL ETHICS COMMITTEES or RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES), sometimes by a subset of such a committee, an ad hoc group, or an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS).
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.
Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.
Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.
Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.
Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from http://clinicalcenter.nih.gov/recruit/volunteers.html, accessed 2/14/2013)
Those individuals engaged in research.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Financial support of research activities.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
Research carried out by nurses in the clinical setting and designed to provide information that will help improve patient care. Other professional staff may also participate in the research.
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)

Selecting subjects for participation in clinical research: one sphere of justice. (1/498)

Recent guidelines from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandate the inclusion of adequate numbers of women in clinical trials. Ought such standards to apply internationally? Walzer's theory of justice is brought to bear on the problem, the first use of the theory in research ethics, and it argues for broad application of the principle of adequate representation. A number of practical conclusions for research ethics committees (RECs) are outlined. Eligibility criteria in clinical trials ought to be justified by trial designers. Research ethics committees ought to question criteria that seem to exclude unnecessarily women from research participation. The issue of adequate representation should be construed broadly, so as to include consideration of the representation of the elderly, persons with HIV, mental illness and substance abuse disorders in clinical research.  (+info)

Attitudes, knowledge, and risk perceptions of women with breast and/or ovarian cancer considering testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. (2/498)

PURPOSE: This study examined baseline knowledge, beliefs, and risk perceptions among a group of 200 women with breast and/or ovarian cancer who participated in a trial designed to improve decision making about genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women were identified by self-referral, physician referral, and tumor registry extraction and invited to participate in a randomized trial in which testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was offered free of charge. Subjects completed baseline questionnaires and interviews that assessed knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risk of having an alteration in BRCA1 or BRCA2. RESULTS: Sixty percent of women overestimated their chances of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with estimates from a BRCA1/BRCA2 risk model. Women who have at least three relatives with breast or ovarian cancer were one third (95% confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.6) as likely to overestimate their risk of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with women who have two or fewer affected relatives. Knowledge was limited about BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and cancer risk associated with gene mutations. Eighty-four percent of the women indicated a probable or definite interest in testing. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of the high-risk women in this study had knowledge deficits about BRCA1 and BRCA2 and overestimated their risk of having a mutation. Although some degree of caution should be used in generalizing the results of this study to practice settings, the data provide insight into the challenges clinicians will face in communicating with patients about cancer genetics.  (+info)

An evaluation of "informed consent" with volunteer prisoner subjects. (3/498)

"Informed consent" sets a goal for investigators experimenting with human subjects, but little is known about how to achieve or evaluate it in an experiment. In a 3-year, double-blind study with incarcerated men, we attempted to provide a "free and informed consent" and evaluated our efforts with an unannounced questionnaire administered to subjects after they completed the experiment. At that time, approximately two-thirds had sufficient information for an informed consent, but only one-third was well informed about all key aspects of the experiment and one-third was insufficiently informed to give an informed consent. We found that institution- or study-based coercion was minimal in our experiment. From our evaluation of the questionnaire and experience at the study institution, we conclude that an experiment with human subjects should be designed to include an ongoing evaluation of informed consent, and active attempts should be made to avoid or minimize coercive inducements. Experiments with significant risk, which require a long duration and/or large sample size relative to the institution's population, should probably not be performed on prisoner subjects. The experimenter should be independent of the penal institution's power structure. Presenting and explaining a consent form to volunteers on one occasion is probably an in adequate procedure for obtaining and maintaining an informed consent.  (+info)

Is recruitment more difficult with a placebo arm in randomised controlled trials? A quasirandomised, interview based study. (4/498)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether including a placebo arm in a clinical trial of hormone replacement therapy influenced women's stated willingness to participate. DESIGN: Quasirandomised, interview based study. SETTING: 10 group practices in the Medical Research Council's General Practice Research Framework. PARTICIPANTS: 436 postmenopausal women aged 45-64 who had not had a hysterectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stated willingness to enter a trial and reasons for the decisions made. RESULTS: Of 218 women told about the trial without a placebo arm, 85 (39%) indicated their willingness to enter compared with 65 (30%) of the 218 women told about the trial with the placebo arm (P=0.06). Part of this difference was due to explicit reluctance to take a placebo. Altruism and personal benefit were the reasons most frequently given for wanting to take part in a trial. The reasons most frequently cited for not wanting to take part were reluctance to restart periods, not wanting to take unknown or unnecessary tablets, or not wanting to interfere with present good health. CONCLUSION: For preventive trials the inclusion of a placebo arm may reduce patients' willingness to participate.  (+info)

Impact of therapeutic research on informed consent and the ethics of clinical trials: a medical oncology perspective. (5/498)

PURPOSE: To create a more meaningful understanding of the informed consent process as it has come to be practiced and regulated in clinical trials, this discussion uses the experience gained from the conduct of therapeutic research that involves cancer patients. DESIGN: After an introduction of the ethical tenets of the consent process in clinical research that involves potentially vulnerable patients as research subjects, background that details the use of written consent documents and of the term "informed consent" is provided. Studies from the cancer setting that examine the inadequacies of written consent documents, and the outcome of the consent process itself, are reviewed. Two ethically challenging areas of cancer clinical research, the phase I trial and the randomized controlled trial, are discussed briefly as a means of highlighting many dilemmas present in clinical trials. Before concluding, areas for future research are discussed. RESULTS: Through an exclusive cancer research perspective, many current deficiencies in the informed consent process for therapeutic clinical trials can be critically examined. Also, new directions for improvements and areas of further research can be outlined and discussed objectively. The goals of such improvements and research should be prevention of further misguided or ineffective efforts to regulate the informed consent process. CONCLUSION: To ignore this rich and interesting perspective potentially contributes to continued misunderstanding and apathy toward fulfilling the regulatory and ethically obligatory requirements involved in an essential communication process between a clinician-investigator and a potentially vulnerable patient who is considering clinical trial participation.  (+info)

Research, ethics and conflicts of interest. (6/498)

In this paper, I have tried to develop a critique of committee procedures and conflict of interest within research advisory committees and ethical review committees (ERCs). There are specific features of conflict of interest in medical research. Scientists, communities and the subjects of research all have legitimate stakeholdings. The interests of medical scientists are particularly complex, since they are justified by the moral and physical welfare of their research subjects, while the reputations and incomes of scientists depend on the success of their science. Tensions of this kind must at times produce conflict of interest. It is important to recognise that conflicts of interest may unwittingly lead to manipulation of research subjects and their lay representatives on research committees. It is equally important to recognise distinctions between the legal and moral aspects of conflict of interest. Some practical suggestions are made which may go some way towards resolving these difficulties. They indicate what might be needed to ensure the validity of ethical discourse, and to reduce the risks associated with conflict of interest.  (+info)

Can the written information to research subjects be improved?--an empirical study. (7/498)

OBJECTIVES: To study whether linguistic analysis and changes in information leaflets can improve readability and understanding. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled study. Two information leaflets concerned with trials of drugs for conditions/diseases which are commonly known were modified, and the original was tested against the revised version. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 235 persons in the relevant age groups. MAIN MEASURES: Readability and understanding of contents. RESULTS: Both readability and understanding of contents was improved: readability with regard to both information leaflets and understanding with regard to one of the leaflets. CONCLUSION: The results show that both readability and understanding can be improved by increased attention to the linguistic features of the information.  (+info)

Responses by four Local Research Ethics Committees to submitted proposals. (8/498)

BACKGROUND: There is relatively little research concerning the processes whereby Local Research Ethics Committees discharge their responsibilities towards society, potential participants and investigators. OBJECTIVES: To examine the criteria used by LRECs in arriving at their decisions concerning approval of research protocols through an analysis of letters sent to investigators. DESIGN: Four LRECs each provided copies of 50 letters sent to investigators after their submitted proposals had been considered by the committees. These letters were subjected to a content analysis, in which specific comments and requests for additional information and changes in the protocols were recorded and compared. FINDINGS: Overall 24% of proposals were approved without request for changes or clarifications, but this varied by committee: one committee approved only 6% of proposals without change or clarification while the others ranged from 26% to 32%. The content analyses of responses indicated that they could be placed into four categories: (i) further information for the committee to aid in their deliberations; (ii) requests for changes to the design or justification for the design used; (iii) changes to the information sheets provided to potential participants; and (iv) changes to consent procedures. Of these, alterations to information sheets were the most common type of request. These four types of response could be seen as safeguarding the wellbeing of potential participants (the principle of non-maleficence), of promoting the scientific validity of the research (the principle of beneficence), and of enhancing the rights of potential participants (the principle of autonomy). CONCLUSIONS: The committees were consistent in the types of requests they made of investigators, which can be seen as attempts to protect participants' rights and ensure the scientific validity of studies. Without an analysis of the proposals sent to the committees, however, it is difficult to account for the variation in the requirements set by the committees before approval was given.  (+info)

A research subject, also commonly referred to as a "human subject" or "participant," is an individual who takes part in a research study or clinical trial. Research subjects are essential for the advancement of medical and scientific knowledge, as they provide data that can help researchers understand various phenomena, develop new treatments, and improve existing ones.

The term "research subject" emphasizes the ethical considerations involved in conducting research with human participants. It highlights the importance of protecting their rights, dignity, and well-being throughout the study. Researchers must obtain informed consent from subjects before enrolling them in a study, ensuring that they understand the purpose, procedures, potential risks, and benefits associated with the research.

Additionally, researchers are required to follow strict guidelines and regulations to minimize any harm or discomfort to the research subjects during the study. These guidelines may include requirements for data confidentiality, privacy protection, and monitoring of adverse events. Overall, treating research subjects with respect and care is crucial in maintaining the integrity of medical research and ensuring its societal benefits.

Human experimentation is a branch of medical research that involves conducting experiments on human subjects. According to the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki, which sets ethical standards for medical research involving human subjects, human experimentation is defined as "systematic study designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge."

Human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials of new drugs or medical devices, observational studies, and interventional studies. In all cases, the principles of informed consent, risk minimization, and respect for the autonomy and dignity of the research subjects must be strictly adhered to.

Human experimentation has a controversial history, with many instances of unethical practices and abuse, such as the notorious Tuskegee syphilis study in which African American men were deliberately left untreated for syphilis without their informed consent. As a result, there are strict regulations and guidelines governing human experimentation to ensure that it is conducted ethically and with the utmost respect for the rights and welfare of research subjects.

Research ethics refers to the principles and guidelines that govern the conduct of research involving human participants or animals. The overarching goal of research ethics is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that respects the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of all those involved. Research ethics are designed to prevent harm, promote fairness, and maintain trust between researchers and study participants.

Some key principles of research ethics include:

1. Respect for Persons: This means treating all individuals with respect and dignity, and recognizing their autonomy and right to make informed decisions about participating in research.
2. Beneficence: Researchers have a duty to maximize the benefits of research while minimizing potential harms.
3. Justice: Research should be conducted fairly, without discrimination or bias, and should benefit all those who are affected by it.
4. Confidentiality: Researchers must protect the privacy and confidentiality of study participants, including their personal information and data.
5. Informed Consent: Participants must give their voluntary and informed consent to participate in research, after being fully informed about the nature of the study, its risks and benefits, and their rights as a participant.

Research ethics are typically overseen by institutional review boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees (RECs), which review research proposals and monitor ongoing studies to ensure that they comply with ethical guidelines. Researchers who violate these guidelines may face sanctions, including loss of funding, suspension or revocation of their research privileges, or legal action.

Nontherapeutic human experimentation refers to medical research studies in which the primary goal is not to directly benefit the participants, but rather to advance scientific knowledge or develop new medical technologies. These studies often involve some level of risk or discomfort for the participants, and may include the administration of experimental treatments, procedures, or interventions.

Nontherapeutic human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials, observational studies, and other types of research involving human subjects. In these studies, researchers must carefully weigh the potential benefits of the research against the risks to the participants, and ensure that all participants are fully informed of the nature of the study, its purposes, and any potential risks or benefits before providing their consent to participate.

It's important to note that nontherapeutic human experimentation is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, designed to protect the rights and welfare of research participants. These guidelines and regulations are intended to ensure that all research involving human subjects is conducted in a responsible and ethical manner, with the goal of advancing scientific knowledge while minimizing harm to participants.

An Ethics Committee for Research, also known as an Institutional Review Board (IRB), is a group that has been formally designated to review, approve, monitor, and revise biomedical and behavioral research involving humans. The purpose of the committee is to ensure that the rights and welfare of the participants are protected and that the risks involved in the research are minimized and reasonable in relation to the anticipated benefits.

The committee typically includes members with various backgrounds, including scientists, non-scientists, and community members. They review the research protocol, informed consent documents, and any other relevant materials to ensure that they meet ethical standards and regulations. The committee also monitors the progress of the research to ensure that it continues to be conducted in an ethical manner.

The role of ethics committees for research is critical in protecting human subjects from harm and ensuring that research is conducted with integrity, respect, and transparency.

Informed consent is a process in medical care where patients are provided with all relevant information about their health status, proposed treatments, potential risks and benefits, and alternative options. This allows patients to make informed decisions regarding their healthcare and understand the consequences of their choices. The process includes ensuring that the patient has adequate mental capacity to make such decisions, is fully aware of the implications, and gives their voluntary agreement for the proposed treatment or procedure. It's a fundamental principle in medical ethics and is required by law in many jurisdictions to protect patients' rights.

Therapeutic human experimentation, also known as clinical research or clinical trials, is a branch of medical research that involves the testing of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or procedures on human subjects. The goal of this type of research is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these interventions in order to determine whether they should be approved for use in clinical practice.

The term "therapeutic" is used to distinguish this type of research from non-therapeutic research, which does not involve direct medical benefit to the participant. In therapeutic human experimentation, participants may receive some potential direct medical benefit from their participation, although they may also experience risks or side effects.

Therapeutic human experimentation is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, including informed consent, risk-benefit analysis, and independent review by ethics committees or institutional review boards (IRBs). These safeguards are designed to protect the rights and welfare of research participants and ensure that the research is conducted in a responsible and transparent manner.

Consent forms are documents used in medical settings to obtain a patient's voluntary and informed agreement to undergo a specific medical procedure, treatment, or participate in research. These forms typically outline the nature of the proposed intervention, its purpose, risks, benefits, alternatives, and any potential complications or side effects. The patient is provided with sufficient time and opportunity to ask questions, seek clarification, and discuss concerns with their healthcare provider before making a decision. By signing the consent form, the patient acknowledges that they have been fully informed about the proposed intervention and understand its implications. Consent forms serve as legal records of the patient's authorization for the medical procedure or treatment, protecting both the patient and the healthcare provider in case of any disputes or complications.

Patient rights refer to the ethical principles, legal regulations, and professional guidelines that protect and ensure the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of patients during healthcare encounters. These rights encompass various aspects of patient care, including informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, access to medical records, freedom from abuse and discrimination, pain management, and communication with healthcare providers.

The specific components of patient rights may vary depending on the jurisdiction and legal framework but generally include:

1. Right to receive information: Patients have the right to obtain accurate, clear, and comprehensive information about their health status, diagnosis, treatment options, benefits, risks, and prognosis in a manner they can understand. This includes the right to ask questions and seek clarification.
2. Informed consent: Patients have the right to make informed decisions about their care based on complete and accurate information. They must be given sufficient time and support to consider their options and provide voluntary, informed consent before any treatment or procedure is performed.
3. Privacy and confidentiality: Patients have the right to privacy during medical examinations and treatments. Healthcare providers must protect patients' personal and medical information from unauthorized access, disclosure, or use.
4. Access to medical records: Patients have the right to access their medical records and obtain copies of them in a timely manner. They can also request amendments to their records if they believe there are errors or inaccuracies.
5. Freedom from discrimination: Patients have the right to receive care without discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, disability, or socioeconomic status.
6. Pain management: Patients have the right to appropriate pain assessment and management, including access to palliative and hospice care when appropriate.
7. Refusal of treatment: Patients have the right to refuse any treatment or procedure, even if it may be life-saving, as long as they are competent to make that decision and understand the consequences.
8. Communication and language assistance: Patients have the right to clear, effective communication with their healthcare providers, including access to interpreters or other necessary language assistance services.
9. Respect and dignity: Patients have the right to be treated with respect, dignity, and consideration during all aspects of their care.
10. Complaint resolution: Patients have the right to voice concerns about their care and receive timely responses from healthcare providers or institutions. They also have the right to file complaints with regulatory bodies if necessary.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

An ethical review is the process of evaluating and assessing a research study or project that involves human participants, medical interventions, or personal data, to ensure that it is conducted in accordance with ethical principles and standards. The purpose of an ethical review is to protect the rights and welfare of the participants and to minimize any potential harm or risks associated with the research.

The ethical review is typically conducted by an independent committee called an Institutional Review Board (IRB), Research Ethics Committee (REC), or Ethics Review Board (ERB). The committee reviews the study protocol, informed consent procedures, recruitment methods, data collection and management plans, and potential conflicts of interest.

The ethical review process is guided by several key principles, including respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. These principles require that researchers obtain informed consent from participants, avoid causing harm, minimize risks, maximize benefits, and ensure fairness in the selection and treatment of research participants.

Overall, an ethical review is a critical component of responsible conduct in research and helps to ensure that studies are conducted with integrity, transparency, and respect for the rights and welfare of human participants.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization has dual loyalties or is in a position to exploit their professional or personal relationships for personal or institutional gain. In the medical field, COIs can arise when healthcare providers, researchers, or institutions have financial or other interests that may influence their judgment or actions in providing care, conducting research, or making recommendations.

Examples of conflicts of interest in medicine include:

* A physician who has a financial relationship with a pharmaceutical company and receives compensation for promoting the company's products to patients or colleagues.
* A researcher who owns stock in a company that is funding their study and may stand to benefit financially from positive results.
* An institution that accepts funding from industry partners for research or educational programs, which could potentially influence the outcomes of the research or bias the education provided.

COIs can compromise the integrity of medical research, patient care, and professional judgment. Therefore, it is essential to disclose and manage COIs transparently to maintain trust in the healthcare system and ensure that decisions are made in the best interests of patients and society as a whole.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Moral Obligations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "moral obligations" is more related to ethics and philosophy, referring to the duties or actions that are considered right or wrong based on a set of moral principles or values.

However, in a broader sense, healthcare professionals may use the term "moral obligations" to refer to their professional responsibility and commitment to providing compassionate, respectful, and high-quality care to all patients, regardless of their background, beliefs, or circumstances. This concept is closely related to medical ethics and professionalism, which provide guidelines for ethical decision-making in clinical practice.

Therapeutic misconception is a term used in medical ethics to describe the situation where research subjects fail to understand the primary purpose of a clinical trial and instead view it as a treatment for their personal illness. This can occur when participants do not fully comprehend the difference between standard medical care and experimental treatments, and they may believe that the experimental treatment is specifically tailored to their needs or that it has greater benefits than it actually does.

Therapeutic misconception can lead to participants making uninformed decisions about participating in clinical trials, potentially compromising their ability to provide informed consent. It can also result in unrealistic expectations and disappointment if the experimental treatment is not as effective as they hoped. Therefore, it is essential for researchers to ensure that potential trial participants fully understand the nature of the study and the distinction between therapeutic and research objectives before obtaining their informed consent.

Patient advocacy refers to the process of supporting and empowering patients to make informed decisions about their healthcare. Patient advocates may help patients communicate with healthcare providers, access necessary resources and services, understand their health conditions and treatment options, and navigate complex healthcare systems. They may also work to promote patient-centered care, raise awareness of patient rights and concerns, and advocate for policies that improve the quality and accessibility of healthcare services. Patient advocacy can be provided by healthcare professionals, family members, friends, or dedicated patient advocates.

"Compensation and redress" are terms often used in the context of medical law and ethics to refer to the process of addressing harm or injury caused to a patient as a result of medical negligence or malpractice.

Compensation refers to the financial reparation awarded to the victim or their family to cover damages such as medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering. The aim of compensation is to restore the victim to the position they were in before the harm occurred, to the extent that money can.

Redress, on the other hand, refers to the broader process of addressing and remedying the harm caused. This may include an apology, changes to hospital policies or procedures, or disciplinary action against the healthcare provider responsible for the negligence. The goal of redress is to acknowledge the harm that was caused and to take steps to prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future.

Together, compensation and redress aim to provide a measure of justice and closure for victims of medical harm, while also promoting accountability and transparency within the healthcare system.

Genetic research is a branch of biomedical science that involves the study of genes, their functions, and heredity. It aims to understand how genetic variations contribute to human health and disease by using various scientific approaches such as genetics, genomics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and bioinformatics.

Genetic research can be conducted on humans, animals, or plants, and it can focus on a variety of areas including:

1. Identifying genes associated with specific diseases or traits
2. Understanding how genes are regulated and expressed
3. Investigating the role of genetic mutations in disease development
4. Developing new diagnostic tests and treatments based on genetic information
5. Exploring evolutionary relationships between species
6. Examining ethical, legal, and social implications of genetic research.

Genetic research has led to significant advances in our understanding of many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. It also holds great promise for personalized medicine, which tailors treatments to individual patients based on their genetic makeup.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government organization that oversees and provides funding for many public health initiatives, services, and institutions in the United States. Here's a brief definition:

The HHS is a cabinet-level department in the US federal government responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It achieves this by promoting effective and efficient delivery of high-quality healthcare, conducting critical medical research through its agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and enforcing public health laws and regulations, including those related to food safety, through its agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additionally, HHS oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide healthcare coverage for millions of elderly, disabled, and low-income Americans.

Medical ethics is a branch of ethics that deals with moral issues in medical care, research, and practice. It provides a framework for addressing questions related to patient autonomy, informed consent, confidentiality, distributive justice, beneficentia (doing good), and non-maleficence (not doing harm). Medical ethics also involves the application of ethical principles such as respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to specific medical cases and situations. It is a crucial component of medical education and practice, helping healthcare professionals make informed decisions that promote patient well-being while respecting their rights and dignity.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

"Healthy volunteers" are individuals who are free from any disease or illness and are typically used as controls in clinical trials or research studies. They are often required to have normal or stable laboratory test results, no significant medical history, and meet certain age and physical fitness criteria. Their role is to provide a baseline for comparison with subjects who have the condition or disease being studied. It's important to note that while healthy volunteers may not have any known health issues at the time of the study, this does not guarantee they will remain in good health throughout the duration of the trial.

Research personnel, in the context of medical and scientific research, refers to individuals who are involved in the design, conduct, or reporting of research studies. This can include, but is not limited to, principal investigators, co-investigators, research assistants, research coordinators, data managers, biostatisticians, and laboratory technicians. These individuals may have various levels of education, training, and expertise, and their roles and responsibilities will depend on the specific research study and their individual qualifications. It is important for research personnel to adhere to ethical guidelines and regulations in order to ensure the integrity and validity of research findings.

Confidentiality is a legal and ethical principle in medicine that refers to the obligation of healthcare professionals to protect the personal and sensitive information of their patients. This information, which can include medical history, diagnosis, treatment plans, and other private details, is shared between the patient and the healthcare provider with the expectation that it will be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties without the patient's consent.

Confidentiality is a fundamental component of the trust relationship between patients and healthcare providers, as it helps to ensure that patients feel safe and comfortable sharing sensitive information with their doctors, nurses, and other members of their healthcare team. It also helps to protect patients' privacy rights and uphold their autonomy in making informed decisions about their healthcare.

There are some limited circumstances in which confidentiality may be breached, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of information (e.g., suspected child abuse or neglect), or when the disclosure is necessary to protect the health and safety of the patient or others. However, these exceptions are typically narrowly defined and subject to strict guidelines and safeguards to ensure that confidentiality is protected as much as possible.

Parental consent refers to the legal right and obligation of parents or guardians to make decisions on behalf of a minor child, including providing authorization for medical treatment. The specific requirements for parental consent may vary depending on jurisdiction, but generally, it involves providing written permission for a medical procedure or treatment after being fully informed about the nature, risks, benefits, and alternatives of the proposed care.

In some cases, parental consent may be required for routine medical procedures, while in other situations, it may only be necessary for more invasive or higher-risk treatments. Healthcare providers must obtain appropriate parental consent before performing medical procedures on minors to ensure that they are acting within the bounds of the law and protecting the best interests of their patients.

It's important to note that in some circumstances, such as when a minor is mature enough to make their own healthcare decisions or if seeking treatment for certain sensitive issues (such as reproductive health), parental consent may not be required, and the minor may be able to provide informed consent themselves.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

In medical terms, disclosure generally refers to the act of revealing or sharing confidential or sensitive information with another person or entity. This can include disclosing a patient's medical history, diagnosis, treatment plan, or other personal health information to the patient themselves, their family members, or other healthcare providers involved in their care.

Disclosure is an important aspect of informed consent, as patients have the right to know their medical condition and the risks and benefits of various treatment options. Healthcare providers are required to disclose relevant information to their patients in a clear and understandable manner, so that they can make informed decisions about their healthcare.

In some cases, disclosure may also be required by law or professional ethical standards, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of injuries or illnesses, or when there is a concern for patient safety. It is important for healthcare providers to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of disclosure in each individual case, and to ensure that they are acting in the best interests of their patients while also protecting their privacy and confidentiality.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

Comprehension, in a medical context, usually refers to the ability to understand and interpret spoken or written language, as well as gestures and expressions. It is a key component of communication and cognitive functioning. Difficulties with comprehension can be a symptom of various neurological conditions, such as aphasia (a disorder caused by damage to the language areas of the brain), learning disabilities, or dementia. Assessment of comprehension is often part of neuropsychological evaluations and speech-language pathology assessments.

'Vulnerable populations' is a term used in public health and medicine to refer to groups of individuals who are at a higher risk of negative health outcomes or have limited access to healthcare services. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic, economic, and environmental factors, including:

1. Age: Older adults and children, especially those with chronic medical conditions, are often considered vulnerable populations due to their increased susceptibility to illness and reduced ability to access care.
2. Race/Ethnicity: Racial and ethnic minorities may face barriers to healthcare access, discrimination, and systemic inequities that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
3. Socioeconomic status: Individuals with low income, limited education, or unstable housing are more likely to experience health disparities due to reduced access to quality healthcare, nutritious food, and safe living environments.
4. Disability status: People with disabilities may face physical, communication, or attitudinal barriers that limit their ability to access healthcare services and contribute to poorer health outcomes.
5. Sexual orientation and gender identity: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals often experience discrimination and stigma in healthcare settings, which can negatively impact their health and access to care.
6. Immigration status: Undocumented immigrants and refugees may face legal barriers to healthcare access, language barriers, and fear of deportation that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
7. Geographic location: Rural areas and urban "food deserts" often lack adequate healthcare resources and access, leading to health disparities for residents in these regions.
8. Incarceration status: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system may experience limited access to healthcare services and face unique health challenges related to their incarceration.
9. Mental health status: People with mental illness or substance use disorders are often considered vulnerable populations due to stigma, discrimination, and reduced access to quality care.

It is important to note that these factors can intersect and compound the vulnerabilities faced by individuals within these groups. Addressing the needs of vulnerable populations requires a comprehensive approach that addresses social determinants of health, systemic inequities, and barriers to healthcare access.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

Nursing research is a scientific investigation that systematically studies nursing phenomena and related outcomes to establish best practices, improve patient care, and advance the profession of nursing. It utilizes various research methods and theories to address questions and problems relevant to nursing practice, education, administration, and policy-making. The ultimate goal of nursing research is to generate evidence-based knowledge that informs nursing interventions, enhances patient outcomes, and contributes to the development of nursing science.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

Translational medical research, also known as "translational research," refers to the process of turning basic scientific discoveries into clinical interventions that improve human health and well-being. This type of research aims to "translate" findings from laboratory, animal, or cellular studies into practical applications for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases.

Translational medical research typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, bringing together researchers from various fields such as biology, chemistry, engineering, genetics, and medicine to work collaboratively on solving complex health problems. The process often includes several stages, including:

1. Identifying basic scientific discoveries that have the potential to be translated into clinical applications.
2. Developing and optimizing new diagnostic tools, drugs, or therapies based on these discoveries.
3. Conducting preclinical studies in the laboratory or with animal models to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these interventions.
4. Designing and implementing clinical trials to test the effectiveness and safety of the new interventions in human patients.
5. Disseminating research findings to the scientific community, healthcare providers, and the public to facilitate the adoption of new practices or treatments.

Translational medical research is essential for bridging the gap between basic scientific discoveries and clinical applications, ultimately improving patient care and outcomes.

Clinical nursing research is a branch of scientific inquiry that focuses on the design, implementation, and evaluation of studies aimed at improving patient care and outcomes through the development of evidence-based practices within the nursing profession. This type of research is conducted in clinical settings such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, and often involves collaboration between nurses, other healthcare professionals, and researchers from various disciplines.

The goals of clinical nursing research include:

1. Identifying patient care needs and priorities
2. Developing and testing innovative interventions to improve patient outcomes
3. Evaluating the effectiveness of current practices and treatments
4. Disseminating research findings to inform evidence-based practice
5. Advancing nursing knowledge and theory

Clinical nursing research can encompass a wide range of topics, including symptom management, patient safety, quality improvement, health promotion, and end-of-life care. The ultimate aim of this research is to improve the quality of care delivered to patients and their families, as well as to enhance the professional practice of nursing.

Dental research is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of teeth, oral health, and related diseases. It involves various aspects of dental sciences such as oral biology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology, biomaterials, and biotechnology. The main aim of dental research is to improve oral health care, develop new diagnostic tools, prevent dental diseases, and create better treatment options for various dental conditions. Dental researchers may study topics such as tooth development, oral cancer, periodontal disease, dental caries (cavities), saliva composition, and the effects of nutrition on oral health. The findings from dental research can help improve dental care practices, inform public health policies, and advance our understanding of overall human health.

Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a collaborative research approach that involves community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process. It is a partnership between researchers and communities that equitably involves all parties in the research to address and respond to community-identified issues. CBPR aims to combine knowledge and action for social change to improve community health and wellbeing. This approach recognizes the strengths and expertise of both community members and researchers, and it integrates scientific research methods with community knowledge and experiential wisdom. CBPR is guided by specific principles, including co-learning, capacity building, and reciprocal sharing of power and resources, to ensure that the research is relevant, accessible, and beneficial to the community.

Behavioral research is a branch of scientific study that focuses on observing and analyzing the behaviors of humans and animals in various situations. This type of research aims to understand the underlying factors that influence, shape, and motivate behavior, including cognitive processes, emotional responses, and environmental influences. In medical terms, behavioral research can be used to investigate how certain behaviors or lifestyle factors may contribute to the development, prevention, or management of health conditions. This may include studying patterns of substance use, dietary habits, physical activity levels, adherence to medical treatments, and other health-related behaviors. The goal of behavioral research in a medical context is often to develop interventions or strategies that can help promote positive health behaviors and improve overall health outcomes.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

... then the research is unlikely to qualify as human subjects research. Defining features of human subject research, according to ... and involves human beings as research subjects, commonly known as test subjects. Human subject research can be either medical ( ... Human subject research, Clinical research, Research ethics, Ethics and statistics, Articles containing video clips). ... In recent years, however, there has been a steady shift away from the use of the term 'research subject' in favour of 'research ...
Combined Single-subject research is used to gain added knowledge on the research question and are used to make group research ... Single-subject research is a group of research methods that are used extensively in the experimental analysis of behavior and ... Popular in Verbal Behavior research, the multipleprobe research design has elements of the other research designs.[citation ... Single-subject research allows researchers to track changes in an individual over a large stretch of time instead of observing ...
Various organizations have created guidelines for human subject research for various kinds of research involving human subjects ... "Human Subjects Research (45 CFR 46)". Office for Human Research Protections. Retrieved 1 June 2011. (Articles with short ... The study was influential in shaping public perceptions of research involving human subjects. After the press exposed the study ... The panel recommended that federal regulations be designed and implemented to protect human research subjects in the future. ...
... can be traced to the early 20th century. Human subject research in the ... research where subjects were subject to experimentation without being fully informed of their status as research subjects, and ... Some of the research subjects died or were permanently crippled as a result of that research. One of the cases analyzed was the ... Office for the Protection of Research Subjects. "History of Research Ethics". Retrieved 19 April 2010. Paul Murray McNeill, The ...
Human subject research in the United States, United States national commissions, Ethics commissions, Clinical research ethics, ... Research on the Fetus (1975) Research Involving Prisoners (1976) Research Involving Children (1977) Psychosurgery Report and ... National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was the first public national ... However research on a dead fetus or dead fetal tissue was approved. Lastly, non-therapeutic research upon a pregnant woman or ...
There can be large numbers of subjects in a research study using single-subject design, however-because the subject serves as ... In design of experiments, single-subject curriculum or single-case research design is a research design most often used in ... N of 1 trial Single-subject research Segmented regression Meta-analysis Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). ... doi:10.1037/arc0000027 Backman, C.L. & Harris, S.R. (1999). Case Studies, Single-Subject Research, and N of 1 Randomized Trials ...
"Research subjects , Research degrees , University of Leicester". "Queen's University Belfast , Academic Affairs , Postgraduate ... it is recognized as a terminal research degree that requires a substantial original thesis. In North America, the only ... University College Cork Maynooth University Formerly Offered by The New School for Social Research, but abolished Wilmington ... The University of Leicester The Queen's University Belfast http://www.americangraduateeducation.com/articles/en/research- ...
"Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815." Research Subjects: French Generals. Napoleon Series. ... "Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815." Research Subjects: French Generals. Napoleon Series. ...
Christgau, Robert (2000). "Subjects for Further Research". Christgau's Consumer Guide: Albums of the '90s. Macmillan Publishers ...
"Research Paper Allowable Subjects". Archived from the original on 3 September 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2006. D. P. O'Brien ( ...
... at AllMusic Christgau, Robert (1990). "Subjects for Further Research". Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s. ...
Christgau, Robert (1981). "Subjects for Further Research". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & ...
... which ask authors of research papers and expository articles to list subject codes from the Mathematics Subject Classification ... A typical MSC subject class line on a research paper looks like MSC Primary 03C90; Secondary 03-02; According to the American ... Due to the large overlap between mathematics and physics research it is quite common to see both PACS and MSC codes on research ... The Zentralblatt MATH page on the Mathematics Subject Classification. MSC2020 can be seen here. Mathematics Subject ...
181-182". Office of Human Subjects Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1949. Archived from the ... After subjects were frozen, they then underwent different methods for rewarming. Many subjects died in this process. Others ... Nazi human subject research, Political repression in Nazi Germany, Nazi war crimes, Medical experimentation on prisoners). ... "the human subject was a minor or not competent for other reasons", or if the subject had not given his or her "unambiguous ...
... subjects for research include exoplanets. The main challenge astronomers and scientists face is image distortions due to ...
Rubenfeld, Sheldon; Benedict, Susan (2014). Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust. Springer. p. 13. ISBN 978-3-319-05701- ... Scholarly research has determined that people who found themselves targets of the eugenics movement were those who were seen as ... "Take stock of research ethics in human genome editing". Nature. 549 (7672): 307. September 2017. Bibcode:2017Natur.549..307.. ... By 1933, California had subjected more people to forceful sterilization than all other U.S. states combined. The forced ...
Related subjects of research include skyrmions. Sutcliffe was awarded the LMS Whitehead Prize in 2006 for contributions to the ... Meet the Research Programme Team, retrieved 28 February 2016. Mathematics People, AMS Notices, September 2006 Home Page (Use ... He serves as the Project Director of the SPOCK (Scientific Properties of Complex Knots) research programme dedicated to the ...
Clavel, T; Doré, J; Blaut, M (2006). "Bioavailability of lignans in human subjects". Nutrition Research Reviews. 19 (2): 187-96 ...
"Generals Who Served in the French Army 1789-1815." Research Subjects: Generals in French Service. Napoleon Series. Robert ...
The AHRP raises public awareness about the issue through educational campaigns; informing research subjects about their rights ... The Alliance for Human Research Protection (AHRP) is non-profit and tax-exempt organization with a group of professional people ... Singh, Jatinder (2011). "Alliance for human research protection". Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics. 2 (3): 212- ... who aim: to develop practices of ethical medical research to minimize the risks related to those practices and to ensure the ...
Rubenfeld, Sheldon; Benedict, Susan (2014). Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust. Springer. p. 13. ISBN 978-3319057019. ... My own research into the history of Wilhelmine eugenics suggest that German eugenics can best be understood as a sometimes ... but more research needs to be done to determine if their views represented Wilhelmine eugenics as a whole. Weiss wrote that the ...
Christgau, Robert (1990). "CG 80s: Subjects for Further Research". Robert Christgau. Retrieved 2012-03-29. Evans et al. ...
traces DNA research involving 13,000 subjects. The study identifies several genes potentially[qualify evidence] connected with ... Most of the subjects were ascertained in the 1980's and early 1990's. With the exception of the Minnesota twins reared apart ... A study of subjects' reported level of disgust linked to various scenarios showed that people who scored highly on the "disgust ... Cross-cultural research found this to be the case; for females, their physical strength had no influence on their political ...
Research ethics, Human subject research in the United States, Stuttering, 1939 in Iowa, Human subject research in psychiatry, ... The research began with a selection of twenty-two subjects from a sold a black person veterans' orphanage in Iowa. None were ... Human Subjects Research. Symposium on Ethics & the Tudor Study, Graduate Center, CUNY. Archived from the original on 2013-01-22 ... Orphans Subjected To Intense Ridicule In Bid To Make Them Stutter Ethics and Orphans: The `Monster Study' (CS1 maint: archived ...
Petersson B (1993). The mentally retarded as research subjects. A research ethics study of the Vipeholm investigations of 1945- ... Her research describes how the scientists found themselves caught between the divergent goals of research and patient care as ... In: Studies in Research Ethics. No. 3. Hallberg M, editor. Göteborg: Centre for Research Ethics, pp. 1-32.[verification needed ... Human subject research in Sweden, Medical ethics, Intellectual disability). ...
"Arborisculpture". Loterre (scientific terminology database). Loterre Terminologie Subjects (Getty Research Institute. Retrieved ... Frontiers of Architectural Research. The authors go on to state that Reames has "inspired many architects," His book, ... Frontiers of Architectural Research. 6 (3): 318-328. doi:10.1016/j.foar.2017.05.003. " ...
"ShanghaiRanking's Global Ranking of Academic Subjects". "Research Centers & Executive Programs". Boston College. Archived from ... Much of its research is freely available to the public, and can be downloaded from its website. The Center for Corporate ... It offers research, tools, conferences, networking, and executive education programs pertaining to issues of corporate ... Center for Corporate Citizenship Center for Retirement Research Winston Center for Leadership and Ethics Center for Work and ...
The introduction covers the research subjects. The book described the gacaca trials and argues that such involved forced ... The author interviewed 37 people from Rwanda as part of her research. The interviews were done in 2006. The book includes an ... Krause praised the book as being "an innovative approach to research in post-genocide Rwandan society." Silke Oldenburg of the ...
Holmberg, Tom; Max Sewell (2005). "The Infernal Machine". The Napoleon Series - Research subjects: miscellaneous. www.napoleon- ...
"African Studies & African History". Research & Subject Guides. Washington DC: Georgetown University Library. "African Studies ... While research focus on Africa decreased in the United Kingdom during the 1980s, this was counterbalanced by an increasing ... Additionally, research focuses became increasingly narrowed to what would be the most likely to attract grant money. With the ... Nolte, Insa (2019). "The future of African Studies: what we can do to keep Africa at the heart of our research". Journal of ...
... then the research is unlikely to qualify as human subjects research. Defining features of human subject research, according to ... and involves human beings as research subjects, commonly known as test subjects. Human subject research can be either medical ( ... Human subject research, Clinical research, Research ethics, Ethics and statistics, Articles containing video clips). ... In recent years, however, there has been a steady shift away from the use of the term research subject in favour of research ...
Research Call Number. *LZR 41080 Program notes on container.. .css-1qvjh2s{transition-property:var(--nypl-transition-property- ...
... who are conducting or part of a research group to take the research-appropriate course on the CITI Program Webpage and complete ... Populations in Research Requiring Additional Considerations and/or Protections. * History and Ethics of Human Subjects Research ... 7. Scroll Down to Question 1 - Human Subjects Research and choose either "Group 1: Biomedical Research Investigators and Key ... directly involved in research with human subjects are required to complete an education program in human subjects protection. ...
Preview of Ron K. Browns Walking out the dark by members of Evidence Dance Company. Performed at NYU Tisch. ...
Wait for approval before beginning any research with animal subjects.. If you have any questions about this process or about ... In order to determine whether your work is "research" that involves "animal subjects" according to federal policies, use the ... At Goshen College all research involving vertebrate animal subjects should be approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use ... Will the animal be used for the purposes of research or study, including classroom exercises or student research projects? ...
Research Projects Subjects of Investigation at this Location Each ARS research project has related subjects of investigation. ... Clicking on a subject of investigation will list the research projects within that subject of investigation. ... Plant research, general Sugar cane Sweet potato Wine grapes Research Projects within Peach Characterization and Detection of ... Research » Research Projects Subjects of Investigation at this Location ...
Research Projects Subjects of Investigation at this Location Each ARS research project has related subjects of investigation. ... Clicking on a subject of investigation will list the research projects within that subject of investigation. ... ARS Home » Northeast Area » Ithaca, New York » Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture & Health » Research » Research Projects ... Subjects of Investigation Bacteria Barley Beans (dry) Citrus, general/other Climate Cole crops (includes cabbage, kale, ...
The Protection of Non-Subjects from Research Harm ... Human Subject:. Meets the definition of human research subject. ... Non-Subject:. Exposed to research risk but does not meet the definition of human research subject.. Exposed to research risk ... Definition of "Non-Subjects Exposed to Research Risk". These recommendations focus on non-subjects exposed to research risk; ... Such research does not constitute human subjects research or fall within categories of research that are exempt or otherwise ...
Research Projects Subjects of Investigation at this Location Each ARS research project has related subjects of investigation. ... Clicking on a subject of investigation will list the research projects within that subject of investigation. ... Research » Research Projects Subjects of Investigation at this Location ... Subjects of Investigation Animal research, general Apple Blueberry Coffee Greens and leafy vegetables (includes endive, lettuce ...
Full Board It is important for Investigators to understand that the Federal office that oversees research with human subjects ( ... Research involving prisoners as subjects except for research aimed at involving a broader subject population that only ... Research activities that (1) present no more than minimal risk* to human subjects and (2) involve only procedures listed in one ... Exempt research activities are those in which the only involvement of human subjects fall into specific categories defined in ...
Home » Office of Sponsored Projects, Academic Research and Compliance (SPARC) » Research Involving Human Subjects ...
When engaged in research that is not subject to the Common Rule (because, e.g., the research is not federally funded), each UC ... Human Subjects. External Requirements Federal. 18-F12 Federal Regulations on the Protection of Human Research Subjects ... 7) An explanation of whom to contact for answers to pertinent questions about the research and research subjects rights, and ... The Universitys commitment to protecting human subjects applies to all human subjects research in which it is engaged, ...
Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and ... This Article fleshes out several ideas presented in my chapter, Protecting Human Research Subjects as Human Research Workers, ... human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. Like other workers protected under worklaw ... Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and ...
First in human trials are a necessary and important aspect of drug development. And for some patients, they are also the best and sometimes only treatment option. However, participation comes with a high cost. Were clinical trials viewed through a different lens-one that placed an emphasis on humanity-many if the current barriers to participation could be addressed.
What is research with human subjects?. In the Common Rule (45 CFR 46) and in SD 606, human subject research is defined as an ... "Research involving Human Subjects," is to ensure that all Smithsonian research activities involving human subjects comply with ... The IRB reviews all protocols for research involving Human Subjects and has authority to approve or disapprove the research. ... Human subject: A living individual about whom an investigator conducting research *(i) obtains information or biospecimens ...
Research. Research subjectsResearch nodesResearch projectsResearchersPhD StudiesPublic DefencesPublicationsPublication series ...
Our research. Film and Television Studies at Glasgow is a vibrant community of scholars with diverse research interests. These ... This research is propelled by research clusters which are formed to support areas of collaborative energy, such as the Images ... Our individual Research Profiles provide full details.. Film and Television Studies was first established at the University of ... Our research is extremely outward-facing, and often involves partnerships with organisations beyond the University. In this we ...
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Army Research Office (page images at HathiTrust). *. Research note January, 1968-. (Division of Research, Peace Corps, 1962), ... Canadian journal of research. (National Research Council of Canada, 1929), by National Research Council of Canada (page images ... How to do research work; a manual of research procedure presenting a simple explanation of the principles underlying research ... Annual report - Research Council of Alberta.. (Research Council of Alberta., 1920), by Research Council of Alberta (page images ...
INDIAN ARTS RESEARCH CENTER *IARC INFORMATION *About the Indian Arts Research Center ... Indian Subjects. Hemispheric Perspectives on the History of Indigenous Education. Edited by Brenda J. Child and Brian Klopotek ... Indian Arts Research Center. SAR Press. Catherine McElvain Library. Media Center. Board Documents ... Indian Subjects should be required reading for students and educators to deepen their understanding of what Indigenous people ...
... ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects ... principles for medical research involving human subjects JAMA. ...
The trade research pursued at Stockholm University covers a range of topics, but often combines theory and data in attempts to ... Research in economics seeks to answer fundamental questions related to the workings of the economy, how to best utilize limited ... Research within the field of public economics at Stockholm University covers theoretical and empirical work on core issues such ... Finance research at Stockholm University covers an array of topics in household finance, corporate finance, asset pricing, and ...
Research -- North America. Filed under: Stellers sea lion -- Research -- North America*. Steller sea lion research : a report ... Research, a national resource.. (GPO, 1938), by Social Science Research Council (U.S.), National Research Council (U.S.), ... AFOSR research: the current research program, and a summary of research accomplishments. (Arlington, Va., 1967), by United ... Browsing subject area: Stellers sea lion -- Research -- North America (Exclude extended shelves). You can also browse an ...
... human subjects must provide certification of the completion of an education program in the protection of human subjects. ... Human Subjects Education It is NIHs policy that researchers involved in any study that involves human subjects must provide ... NIH Office of Research on Womens Health (ORWH). 6707 Democracy Boulevard. Suite 400. Bethesda, MD 20817. Phone: 301-402-1770 ... You are subject to that sites privacy policy when you leave our site. We proudly comply with 508 accessibility regulations, ...
... issues regulations and guidelines governing HHS-supported human subjects research. ... To ensure that human subject participation is voluntary and does not pose undue risk, the U.S. Department of Health and Human ... Human Subjects Protections Clinical research may involve risk to participants. To ensure that human subject participation is ... issues regulations and guidelines governing HHS-supported human subjects research. In general, human subjects in NIH-funded ...
About Research Participation: Resources for the public on participating in research and making informed decisions. ... U.S. Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP). OHRP Division of Education and Development: DED conducts outreach and ... Office of Research Integrity ~ 1101 Wootton Parkway ~ Suite 240 ~ Rockville MD 20852 ...
We cant resist playing them - but the Research Excellence Framework (REF) is our favourite. As the results of the UKs 2014 ... From the outset, concerns were raised on the effect of the REF on interdisciplinary research that crosses different subjects. ... Tom McLeish receives funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ... decided to take four new measures to support interdisciplinary research in 2014. The fewer, broader, units of subject ...
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  • Group 1: Biomedical research Investigators and Key Personnel - Basic Course. (umass.edu)
  • 7. Scroll Down to Question 1 - Human Subjects Research and choose either " Group 1: Biomedical Research Investigators and Key Personnel " OR " Group 2: Social and Behavioral Research Investigators and Key Personnel . (umass.edu)
  • Biomedical research involving human subjects has traditionally been treated as a unique endeavor, presenting special risks and demanding special protections. (ssrn.com)
  • Like other workers protected under worklaw, biomedical research subjects often have interests that diverge from those in positions of control but little bargaining power for change. (ssrn.com)
  • SENATE Pediatric research---The Committee recognizes the substantial benefits that biomedical research offers to the health and well-being of our Nation's children. (nih.gov)
  • All human subjects researchers at UMass are required to complete a CITI Training refresher every 5 years. (umass.edu)
  • Faculty, staff and student researchers at Goshen College should use the steps below to determine what kinds of procedures they will need to follow if they plan to do any research involving vertebrate animal subjects. (goshen.edu)
  • This means the proposed activity doesn't fall under the scope of the IRB and researchers aren't required to adhere to the Code of Federal Regulations relating to the protection of human subjects. (rit.edu)
  • The research environment includes numerous activities for scholars, doctoral and post-doctoral researchers, including the sixty-year-old journal Screen's annual conference and seminar series. (gla.ac.uk)
  • IIES researchers engage in research aimed at broad international impact. (su.se)
  • It is NIH's policy that researchers involved in any study that involves human subjects must provide certification of the completion of an education program in the protection of human subjects. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers sometimes have difficulty deciding if their study qualifies as human subjects research. (columbia.edu)
  • On this page, you can search for researchers or research groups at the Faculty of Medicine using the Swedish Higher Education Authority's subject classification. (lu.se)
  • The links lead to researchers and research groups in our research portal. (lu.se)
  • It is important for Investigators to understand that the Federal office that oversees research with human subjects (OHRP) has consistently stated that the regulations are a floor and not a ceiling in terms of human subjects' protections. (rit.edu)
  • Chapter 18 provides guidance on policies and administrative procedures that comply with governmental regulations applicable to research subjects protections. (ucop.edu)
  • When engaged in research that is not subject to the Common Rule (because, e.g., the research is not federally funded), each UC location may replace specific Common Rule requirements with commensurate protections for human subjects so long as the University follows the ethical principles referenced above and that those commensurate protections are consistent with other applicable federal or state laws. (ucop.edu)
  • Our Institutional Review Board is registered with the Office of Human Research Protections as IORG 0005809, IRB 00007004. (si.edu)
  • Human subjects protections are designed to give potential participants the information they need when deciding whether to participate in clinical research. (nih.gov)
  • Lim, 1990) As defined by HHS regulations (45 CFR 46.102): Intervention - physical procedures by which data is gathered and the manipulation of the subject and/or their environment for research purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal regulations govern the conduct of research and define a framework for the protection of human research subjects from research-related harm. (hhs.gov)
  • Exempt research activities are those in which the only involvement of human subjects fall into specific categories defined in the Federal Regulations (45CFR46). (rit.edu)
  • The University has established policies and administrative procedures which comply with governmental regulations applicable to human research subjects. (ucop.edu)
  • In addition, the University is committed to maintaining high standards for the care and use of animals in research and teaching and has adopted policies and procedures which conform to governmental regulations on the humane care and use of laboratory animals. (ucop.edu)
  • In order to safeguard the rights and welfare of human subjects in research, UC follows the ethical principles of the Belmont Report and adheres to all applicable federal or state law or regulations, and University policies and guidelines governing the participation and protection of human subjects in research. (ucop.edu)
  • With regard to unrestricted payment, eligibility for a minimum wage, compensation for injury, and rights to engage in concerted activity, the answer is no - and human subjects regulations ought to be revised accordingly. (ssrn.com)
  • The purpose of Smithsonian Directive 606, "Research involving Human Subjects," is to ensure that all Smithsonian research activities involving human subjects comply with applicable laws, regulations and ethical principles. (si.edu)
  • To ensure that human subject participation is voluntary and does not pose undue risk, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issues regulations and guidelines governing HHS-supported human subjects research. (nih.gov)
  • The Office of Extramural Research website provides up-to-date information and guidance on human subjects policies and regulations. (nih.gov)
  • The ABIM should be aware that the Department of Health and Human Services has VERY specific rules and regulations (45 CFR 46) about how "research" is to be conducted, particularly as it pertains to the protection of human subjects like myself who have increasingly found their ability to practice medicine in a hospital setting compromised unless we participate in the ABIM's Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. (blogspot.com)
  • Richard Baron, MD, ABIM President and CEO, needs to explain to all ABIM diplomats why they are ignoring Health and Human Services regulations on the protection of human subjects (physicians) in their collection of "practice characteristics" for the purpose of improving health care. (blogspot.com)
  • Research belonging to any of the above categories must comply with the Federal Regulations and the institution's policies for the protection of human subjects. (columbia.edu)
  • Nevertheless, the inclusion of children as participants in research must be in compliance with all applicable subparts of 45 CFR 46 as well as with other pertinent federal laws and regulations whether or not the research is otherwise exempted from 45 CFR 46. (nih.gov)
  • CDC/ATSDR investigators, supervisors, Associate Directors for Science (ADS), and Human Subjects Contacts (HSC) are required to maintain competency in research ethics and human research regulations by completing specific trainings on a regular basis. (cdc.gov)
  • The fellowship programme seeks to bridge the emergency public health management and research-to-policy gaps and produce well-equipped, versatile managers and leaders as required by the WHO Emergency Response Framework and the International Health Regulations (2005) for emergency response. (who.int)
  • Group 2: Social Behavioral and Education Research Investigators and Key Personnel - Basic Course. (umass.edu)
  • Investigators, including faculty, staff, and students, directly involved in research with human subjects are required to complete an education program in human subjects protection. (umass.edu)
  • The Belmont Report supports the position that IRBs and investigators each have an obligation to identify and consider risks to non-subjects. (hhs.gov)
  • Investigators are not permitted to conduct research involving Human Subjects until the IRB has reviewed their protocols. (si.edu)
  • CDC investigators, study staff, supervisors, ADSs, and HSCs involved in the conduct of federally conducted or supported human subjects research, must complete one or both of the following courses based on the type of research on which study staff are involved (Instructions to access CITI are located below). (cdc.gov)
  • This course is required for medical, physiological or pharmacological studies that includes, but is not limited to, research with drugs, devices or other interventions. (umass.edu)
  • Interventions or interactions with individuals to collect data for research purposes (e.g., evaluation of teaching methods and programs, internet surveys about sugar consumption, research involving risky behaviors or attitudes, and open-ended interviews with minors about family values in a foreign country that contribute to generalizable knowledge). (columbia.edu)
  • Examples of such research include surveys, evaluation of educational interventions, and studies of existing data or specimens that should include children as participants. (nih.gov)
  • The Committee strongly encourages the NIH to strengthen its portfolio of basic, behavioral and clinical research conducted and supported by all of its relevant Institutes, to establish priorities for pediatric research, and to ensure the adequacy of translational research from the laboratory to the clinical setting. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of the CBPR process used in ECL was to build infrastructure to conduct translational research, design materials and methods salient to the community, recruit and train lay health advisors and role models, and develop an assessment instrument. (cdc.gov)
  • As a result, the Nuremberg Code was drafted to provide international guidance regarding the ethics of medical (and specifically clinical) research. (wikipedia.org)
  • This international scrutiny and condemnation of the Nazi experiments are considered by many as a seminal moment for the emergence of research ethics as a field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) conducted by Dr Cutler in Guatemala (1946-48) is another violation of research ethics that was exposed more recently by the media and then analyzed by the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other international codes of research ethics (Declaration of Helsinki, CIOMS, TCPS among others) directly and indirectly reference duties to non-subjects, both individuals and their communities. (hhs.gov)
  • Acknowledgement of the legitimate concerns about IRB over-reach, "mission creep," or burden does not, in and of itself, preclude meaningful ethics review of risks to non-subjects or justify inattention to them. (hhs.gov)
  • Historically, Scientific Ethics Verification (SEV) numbers have served as documentation of training completion by the Office of Scientific Integrity's Human Research Protection Office (HRPO) in the Office of Science. (cdc.gov)
  • The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) defines a human research subject as a living individual about whom a research investigator (whether a professional or a student) obtains data through 1) intervention or interaction with the individual, or 2) identifiable private information (32 CFR 219.102). (wikipedia.org)
  • Coupled with this responsibility, each University of California location, which includes all 10 campuses and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, holds a current Federalwide Assurance filed with the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) for the protection of human subjects. (ucop.edu)
  • in a number of ways, human research subjects ought to be fundamentally recast as human research workers. (ssrn.com)
  • For the purposes of this NIH policy, studies involving human subjects include categories of research that would otherwise be exempted from the DHHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects. (nih.gov)
  • We have extensive experience in developing successful funding proposals for doctoral projects, including for both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. (gla.ac.uk)
  • From the outset, concerns were raised on the effect of the REF on interdisciplinary research that crosses different subjects. (theconversation.com)
  • Asking more than one panel to review interdisciplinary research outputs didn't help - fragmented pieces never look impressive. (theconversation.com)
  • Many high profile academics argue that since "interdisciplinary research often lacks rigour", it turns into a "safe-haven for the lesser-talented", suggested Ismael Rafols of Sussex University's Science and Technology Policy Research Unit (SPRU) in a 2012 blog post . (theconversation.com)
  • In response to criticism, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), which runs the REF, decided to take four new measures to support interdisciplinary research in 2014. (theconversation.com)
  • The fewer, broader, units of subject assessment would contain a wider range of expertise and additional assessors with experience in interdisciplinary research would be co-opted to panels. (theconversation.com)
  • In addition to this, probably the greatest positive incentive in support of interdisciplinary research was the inclusion of "impact" outside of academia in the way the REF 2014 was calculated. (theconversation.com)
  • They felt much more able to evaluate radical new interdisciplinary research such as in medical humanities, and noted that a huge increase in creative writings opened up a panorama of subject matter. (theconversation.com)
  • To what extent should IRBs identify and consider risks to non-subjects during the process of review and approval of research involving human subjects? (hhs.gov)
  • The IRB reviews all protocols for research involving Human Subjects and has authority to approve or disapprove the research. (si.edu)
  • All applications to NIH for research involving human subjects or additions to existing awards must include a Protection of Human Subjects section according to instructions for NIH applications. (nih.gov)
  • Studies involving human subjects to test or design devices, products, or materials developed through research for human use (e.g., testing if interactive virtual reality (VR) experiences using biometric information contribute to individual mindfulness and relaxation). (columbia.edu)
  • P.T. National Institutes of Health SUMMARY: With this notice, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) establishes guidelines on the inclusion of children in research involving human subjects, including, but not limited to, clinical trials, supported or conducted by the NIH. (nih.gov)
  • I. Introduction This document sets forth the policy and guidelines on the inclusion of children in research involving human subjects that is supported or conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (nih.gov)
  • We are now entering the final phases of implementation of these initiatives - so, if you are contemplating research involving human subjects, please read on . (boisestate.edu)
  • The Committee intends to work with the Office of the Director as it explores ways to take advantage of such opportunities and strengthen the NIH's capacity to support and encourage extramural pediatric research. (nih.gov)
  • By developing and sharing robust data, we maximize the value of NIH's investment in research by allowing scientists to build upon solid results. (boisestate.edu)
  • 3] The Tuskegee study, initiated in 1932, is one of the most notable and discriminatory research projects undertaken in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is particularly surprising about this study is that it lasted until 1973, some 20 years after the development of penicillin (a very effective treatment for syphilis), which was withheld from the research subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Will the animal be used for the purposes of research or study , including classroom exercises or student research projects? (goshen.edu)
  • While they may be an expert in their own field, they review research activities from multiple areas of study within RIT. (rit.edu)
  • Research on applied econometrics at Stockholm University develops novel statistical techniques to study causal effects in the social sciences. (su.se)
  • This process of informed consent (or assent, if someone else gives permission for an individual to participate, such as for a child) assumes that the potential risks and benefits of research are balanced and that no coercion is involved in a person's decision to participate in the study. (nih.gov)
  • Not only would many public benefits of research be naturally interdisciplinary, but resulting case studies could in principle be submitted under all the relevant subject panels - and contributing as an entire case study for each one. (theconversation.com)
  • To answer this question, the behavioral economist conducted an elaborate study using 300 test subjects. (phys.org)
  • Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. (phys.org)
  • After reviewing reports, background papers, and a study of a sample of NIH-sponsored clinical research abstracts that suggested that 10-20% inappropriately excluded children, the conveners concluded that there is a need to enhance the inclusion of children in clinical research. (nih.gov)
  • Inadequacy and underreporting of study subjects' race and ethnicity in federally funded pelvic floor research. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to describe the reporting of race and ethnicity in federally funded research published by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development -funded Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study was conducted as a human subjects research project. (cdc.gov)
  • This study was deemed not human subjects research by the institutional review board. (cdc.gov)
  • Sometimes, humans are involved in research but they are not considered subjects. (columbia.edu)
  • Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects, commonly known as test subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each ARS research project has related subjects of investigation. (usda.gov)
  • Listed below are the subjects of investigation currently conducted at this location. (usda.gov)
  • Clicking on a subject of investigation will list the research projects within that subject of investigation. (usda.gov)
  • The inclusion of participants who are Black, Indigenous people of color , and participants of various ethnicities is a priority of federally sponsored research . (bvsalud.org)
  • Federally funded Pelvic Floor Disorders Network research does not consistently report the race and ethnicity of participants. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effective January 1, 2019, SEV numbers no longer serve as documentation of completion of mandatory CDC human subject research training. (cdc.gov)
  • Please request the Application form for Review of Human Subjects Research from the IRB office (see below), and return it along with any survey instruments, interview guides, informed consent documents or other relevant materials, at least two to four weeks prior to your desired start date. (si.edu)
  • Historically Film and Television Studies has established key areas of research excellence in such areas as: film in Scotland, television and society, and world cinemas. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We can't resist playing them - but the Research Excellence Framework (REF) is our favourite. (theconversation.com)
  • Panels observed increasing trends towards inter- and multi-disciplinary research and recognised excellence in these outputs. (theconversation.com)
  • This course is required for studies on sociological, psychological, anthropological or educational phenomena including observational and survey research and work with population and/or epidemiological studies. (umass.edu)
  • Climate economics at Stockholm University researches the economic consequences of climate change as well as economic policies to reduce emissions and abate climate change. (su.se)
  • Case histories that are published and/or presented at national or regional meetings are often not considered research if the case is limited to a description of the clinical features and/or outcome of a single patient and do not contribute to generalizable knowledge. (columbia.edu)
  • Studies that intend to produce generalizable knowledge about categories or classes of subjects from individually identifiable information . (columbia.edu)
  • The Social and Behavioral Responsible Conduct of Research and the Biomedical Responsible Conduct of Research courses do NOT satisfy the human subjects training requirement. (umass.edu)
  • This assurance applies to all research with human subjects in which the University is engaged and that is funded or supported by a federal agency that has adopted the Common Rule, regardless of the site of the activity. (ucop.edu)
  • In general, human subjects in NIH-funded clinical research, whether healthy volunteers or patient volunteers, are protected under the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects at 45 CFR 46 , also called the Common Rule. (nih.gov)
  • To enhance characterization of airway injury in subjects enrolled in the Bellevue Hospital WTC EHC by evaluating spirometry and assessment of distal airway function utilizing oscillometry. (cdc.gov)
  • Subpart A alludes to non-subjects in the requirement for the reporting of "unanticipated problems involving risks to subjects or others ," and Subpart B requires IRB consideration of risks to fetuses or neonates in research involving pregnant individuals, but otherwise does not explicitly address harm to non-subjects or describe the scope of IRB responsibility in the review and mitigation of these risks. (hhs.gov)
  • If you have questions on the CDC human subjects research training requirement or CITI access, please contact [email protected] or via fax to 404-639-3249. (cdc.gov)
  • Ahdab, MA , Knudsen, T , Stoustrup, J & Leth, J-J 2023, Blood Glucose Reference Personalization for Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes . (aau.dk)
  • Journal of Ophthalmic and Vision Research;18(3): 306-317, 23/07/2023. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ultimately, the contribution of Indian Subjects is that it offers new counter-narratives to the history of education of Indigenous peoples by incorporating untold perspectives of gender, sexuality, wage labor, and the stories of resistance by Indigenous communities as they attempted to control the education of their children. (sarweb.org)
  • At Goshen College all research involving vertebrate animal subjects should be approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee or IACUC. (goshen.edu)
  • Even research on animals requires approval by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). (blogspot.com)
  • Information-gathering interview are typically not human subjects research (e.g., when individuals ask professionals product description questions, conduct office policy inquiries, or gain information from teacher-trainers about their upcoming workshop plans). (columbia.edu)
  • This most often happens when a proposed activity is a quality improvement activity, or "practice" instead of research. (rit.edu)
  • Yet I have no idea what the ABIM's "research" entails, I have not been informed how that "research" will be conducted, nor how it might affect my ability to practice medicine, or if my information will be sold to other entities for a price on the basis of the ABIM's valuable "research. (blogspot.com)
  • ABSTRACT We evaluated the documentation of ethical conduct (obtaining institutional review board approval and consent and following ethical guidelines) of human subject research studies published in Saudi Arabian medical journals between 1979 and 2007. (who.int)
  • The changes in this chapter, specifically 18-200, conform with the revised Protection of Human Subjects in Research Policy issued on November 6, 2020. (ucop.edu)
  • The revised Presidential Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects in Research was issued on November 6, 2020. (ucop.edu)
  • The results of this research effort drive the recommendation by Adaptive Technologies to abandon this technology as a commercially viable in field assessment tool for insert hearing protection performance measurements. (cdc.gov)
  • This case is a particularly striking example of racism and deception in research, a failure to respect individual autonomy, and the unjustified withholding of effective treatment even when it had become available. (wikipedia.org)
  • While HHS and FDA regulation do not otherwise explicitly address harm to non-subjects or describe the scope of IRB responsibility in the review and mitigation of these risks, IRBs commonly consider research risk as it impacts non-subjects and their communities as a logical extension of their oversight responsibilities. (hhs.gov)
  • Future research should investigate the reasons for consumers' inattention to ingredient information and develop more effective strategies of conveying information to consumers. (lu.se)
  • Interaction - communication or interpersonal contact between investigator and subject. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical human subject research often involves analysis of biological specimens, epidemiological and behavioral studies and medical chart review studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step in identifying the appropriate category of review is determining if the proposed activity meets the Federal definition of research with human subjects. (rit.edu)
  • Research activities that (1) present no more than minimal risk * to human subjects and (2) involve only procedures listed in one or more of the categories below may be reviewed by the IRB through the expedited review procedure. (rit.edu)
  • Each committee meets separately to review research activities. (rit.edu)
  • The University's commitment to protecting human subjects applies to all human subjects research in which it is engaged, regardless of funding source or the institution that provided the IRB review. (ucop.edu)
  • I would love to see a copy of the report from the institutional review board responsible for approving this research. (blogspot.com)
  • We will also review how to activate subject visits on a calendar, check in subject visits, and discuss what to do when procedures are added, missed, or not applicable. (unc.edu)
  • Objective: To review the literature on mental health research with "participating children as subjects" as well as the investigative methods employed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Community and academic partners collaborated to develop research infrastructure, intervention materials and methods, and the assessment instrument. (cdc.gov)
  • Project outcomes were strengthened community-academic partnerships, certification of community partners in conducting human subjects research, development of a randomized controlled design to test the intervention's efficacy, an interactive PowerPoint presentation, an informational pamphlet, the certification of 6 lay health advisors and 22 role models to provide the intervention, and an assessment tool using an audience response system. (cdc.gov)
  • These concerns were specifically articulated in Congressional directives to the NIH as reflected in language from the FY 1996 House and Senate Appropriations Committee reports as follows: HOUSE The Committee is concerned that inadequate attention and resources are devoted to pediatric research conducted and supported by the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • The Committee encourages the NIH to establish guidelines to include children in clinical research trials conducted and supported by NIH. (nih.gov)
  • The U.S. government's provision of reparations to the infected partners and offspring of the subjects of the PHS syphilis studies at Tuskegee and the U.S. led syphilis experiments in Guatemala provide examples of formal recognition that the ethical responsibilities of research extend beyond those owed to research subjects alone. (hhs.gov)
  • Film and Television Studies at Glasgow is a vibrant community of scholars with diverse research interests. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In particular, Film and Television Studies has strong historical links with Theatre Studies and the Centre for Cultural Policy Research. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Indian Subjects brings together an outstanding group of scholars from the fields of anthropology, history, law, education, literature, and Native studies to address indigenous education throughout different regions and eras. (sarweb.org)
  • Students are popular test subjects for many studies in behavioral sciences. (phys.org)
  • Contrary to previous studies, the incentive was actually given to the subjects afterwards, because theoretical earnings could falsify the results: If participants knew they would not get any money, they might have shown a greater degree of socially desirable behavior. (phys.org)
  • Studies that use human subjects to evaluate environmental alterations (i.e., weatherization options, travel patterns, or habitat modifications). (columbia.edu)
  • These categories of research are exempted from the DHHS policy because they pose minimal risk to the participants, and not because the studies should not include children. (nih.gov)
  • Background The policy was developed because medical treatments applied to children are often based upon testing done only in adults, and scientifically evaluated treatments are less available to children due to barriers to their inclusion in research studies. (nih.gov)
  • Because the prototypes did not allow the research team to pull signals or inject anything apart from the hardcoded sounds and levels, representative test systems were manufactured to allow for longitudinal studies of operational order, stimulus sounds, and environmental conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • This objective is closely linked the mission of IIES - a mission condensing the three broad goals of Stockholm University at a top level: to train PhD economists, conduct cutting-edge research, and actively engage in high-level public policy discussions in Sweden and beyond. (su.se)
  • As the results of the UK's 2014 assessment of university research are digested, academics have been torn between worry at how damaging this huge waste of time and money is, and pride that their university has done well. (theconversation.com)
  • There were many concerns voiced following the previous assessment of research in 2008 that the highly discipline-focused judging panels found it difficult to favourably assess research that spanned a number of subject areas. (theconversation.com)
  • This research was designed to address several specific aims associated with the assessment, design refinement, and field applicability of a product based on the NIOSH designed QuickFit earplug fit evaluation system. (cdc.gov)
  • Most research on the cause, treatment and cure of diseases which affect children rely primarily on adults as subjects in clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • Last September , and in January of this year, we wrote about a suite of initiatives aimed at improving the quality and transparency of the NIH-supported research that most directly engages human participants - clinical trials. (boisestate.edu)
  • However, Public Health Service (PHS) physicians never informed subjects of the presence of syphilis, of its transmissibility through sexual intercourse or from the mother to fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subpart A requires the reporting of "unanticipated problems involving risks to subjects or others ," and Subpart B requires IRB consideration of risks to fetuses or neonates (who may not be subjects). (hhs.gov)
  • IRBs bring unique expertise to the consideration of the harms associated with research that may affect individuals who are not human subjects, and this function falls reasonably within its purview and expertise. (hhs.gov)
  • By focusing on collaboration with communities disproportionately affected by disease to improve health, community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a promising approach to prevent colorectal cancer in underserved populations (7). (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of this policy is to increase the participation of children in research so that adequate data will be developed to support the treatment modalities for disorders and conditions that affect adults and may also affect children. (nih.gov)