Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.United StatesHospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.IndiaHealth Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.CambodiaNational Health Insurance, United StatesLegislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Employee Incentive Plans: Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Great BritainKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.BrazilHealth Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.PakistanUrban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Sri LankaCanada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)VietnamCommunity Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Clinical Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses in the clinical setting and designed to provide information that will help improve patient care. Other professional staff may also participate in the research.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Foreign Medical Graduates: Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.AfricaForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Nursing, Private Duty: The practice of nursing by a registered or licensed nurse to care for a specific patient in a health facility or in the home.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.EnglandPrimary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.
OPEC Fund for International Development
"Private Sector". ofid.org. "Trade Finance Facility". ofid.org. "Technical Assistance". ofid.org. "Research". ofid.org. " ... Telecommunications: The majority of funding to this sector was extended under OFID's private sector facility, with financing ... The Private sector facility (PSF) was established in 1998 in response to growing demand among partner countries for investment ... These cover a wide range of development sectors, with women and children given high priority. Research and similar activities: ...
Agriculture in Jordan
... the Society of Friends of Scientific Research, the Farmers' Union). The private sector. Regional institutions and research ... Although the agricultural sector's share of GNP declined in comparison with other sectors of the economy, farming remained ... In 2007 the integration of research and extension under the name of the National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension ... Established the first agricultural research station in Deir Alla in 1958. In 1985 the establishment of the National Center for ...
Private sector operators. Taste showcases products related to culture and food research. It's held at the Stazione Leopolda in ... Private sector operators. Collections of artistic perfumes and essential oils for the body and for the home. Held at the ... Private sector operators; at certain times also open to the public. Women's ready-to-wear and accessories collections, held in ... Private sector operators. During the three days of SUPER 8 in September 2016, more than 5,100 buyers from nearly 50 countries ...
Science and technology in Botswana
The government considers private-sector participation as being 'critical' to the Tenth Plan's success and enhancing the role of ... research and development (R&D) as being the most effective way of fuelling entrepreneurship and private-sector growth. In 2010 ... together with slow private-sector growth. The Botswana Education Hub will be co-ordinating its activities with those of the ... private sector development; and statistics. Targets include: ensuring that 50% of decision-making positions in the public ...
Science and technology in Malawi
... private sector development; and statistics. Targets include: ensuring that 50% of decision-making positions in the public ... improvement in biomedical research capacity through the five-year Health Research Capacity Strengthening Initiative (2008-2013 ... develop human capital and empower the private sector to drive economic growth. FDI has been growing since 2011, thanks to a ... to foster technology transfer and empower the private sector to serve as an engine of economic growth. Having enjoyed stable ...
Science and technology in Zimbabwe
... private non-profit organizations (2%) and the business enterprise sector (1%). Zimbabwe has a long research tradition dating ... Public-private linkages remain weak. With the exception of the long-standing tobacco industry and agricultural sector, there ... The National Survey of Research and Development (2012) also provided a rough estimate of the share of research spending ... In 2013, the government approved four national research priorities proposed by the Research Council of Zimbabwe: The social ...
Leaky condo crisis
A private sector group was also established to facilitate discussion and building envelope research. In 1995 the BERC was ... a private sector research company; development and construction industry associations; trades unions; contractors and materials ... In 2003 BERC merged with the B.C. Building Envelope Council (BCBEC) and was renamed the Building Research Committee (BRC)). In ... The commissions' findings have been accepted as accurate and fair by many sectors of the related professions and the ...
"Private-sector universities in Pakistan". HEC. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2013. ... The Abasyn University is a private research university located in the residential neighborhood of Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa ... Founded with the efforts led by the provincial government of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in 2007, the university is a private-sector ... "Research in Abasyn university". Abasyn University. Abasyn University. Retrieved 30 December 2013. "Introduction » Abasyn ...
"Corporate social responsibility in private sector". Project Guru. 10 December 2011. "ICRISAT Media Releases 2003: Sehgal ... His research and professional successes in the areas of plant breeding and genetics, agbiotechnology, intellectual property, ... The Sehgal (Family) Foundation is based in Des Moines, Iowa, as a private donor foundation with the primary intent of making a ... which became a leading private seed company on the Indian subcontinent over the next ten years. During the same period, Sehgal ...
... (1982). Model of Private Sector Earnings Behaviour. HM Treasury. Simon Wren-Lewis (1984). Policy Rules in an ... he was a Senior Research Officer and Senior Research Fellow at the National Institute of Economic and Social Research. From ... Simon Wren-Lewis; National Institute of Economic and Social Research (1990). Buffer Stocks and the Company Sector in ... Public Sector Pay and Corruption: Measuring Bribery from Micro Data. Centre for Economic Policy Research. CS1 maint: Multiple ...
Bloomberg Research. Retrieved 18 November 2017. Website of the Kenya Private Sector Alliance You're young; take chances and ... KEPSA (18 November 2017). "Kenya Private Sector Alliance: Our Focus". Nairobi: Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA). Retrieved ... Kenya Private Sector Alliance: Short Biography". Nairobi: Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA). Retrieved 18 November 2017. ... who serves as the chief executive officer of Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA), an industry group that represents and ...
World Investment Forum
... representatives from the private sector, including CEOs; international organisations working in the area of sustainable ... development and poverty reduction; thought leaders from academia and research institutions; and other members of the ... It focused on the future of foreign direct investment (FDI) flows: where FDI will come from and which sectors and regions will ... The WIF also recognizes outstanding public and private achievements in the investment arena: The 2012 Investment Promotion ...
Committee on World Food Security
Wall Street West (organization)
In the private sector, professional economists are employed as consultants and in industry, including banking and finance. ... Symposium on Operations Research. National Bureau of Economic Research. doi:10.3386/w6306. Ziliak, Stephen T.; McCloskey, ... Hoover & Siegler (2008). Loungani, Prakash (April 2000). "How Accurate Are Private Sector Forecasts? Cross-Country Evidence ... the government use resources that otherwise would have been used by the private sector, so there is no increase in overall ...
A research institute was founded in his honor at the College of Management. Private sector - Heading various financial and ... From 1977 onwards, Sanbar held many duties in the private sector, as head of industrial and financial institutions: ... His comprehensive research in the latter field served as a basis for a series of articles printed in The Economic Quarterly. ... Public sector - In various activities in the fields of education, culture, sports and science. He was for many years associated ...
Its link to private sector investment is via the Breakthrough Energy Coalition group of private investors, also spearheaded by ... At the launch, 20 countries committed to double their respective clean energy research and development over the five years to ... Moniz, Ernest (30 November 2015). "Government, private sector need to invest in clean energy". The Boston Globe. Boston Globe ... Mission Innovation is a global initiative to accelerate public and private clean energy innovation to address climate change, ...
She left for the private sector in May 2007. On June 13, 2007, the Senate and House judiciary committees issued a subpoena to ... a cross-media research company. She is a technology and data entrepreneur, and former political aide to George W. Bush. In 2008 ... Fagen graduated from Wahlert High School, a private, co-educational, Roman Catholic school in Dubuque, Iowa, in 1992. She then ... and opinion research. After Bush's 2004 re-election, Fagen returned to work in the White House, where she served as the ...
Science policy of the United States
The USA devoted 2.81% of GDP to research and development (R&D) in 2012. The private sector contributed two-thirds of the total ... National Research Council (2014). Strategic Engagement in Global S&T: Opportunities for Defense Research. Washington, DC: The ... 5 10 15 20 25 30 Air Force Navy Army MDA DARPA OSD Other Basic Research (6.1) Applied Research (6.2) Advanced Technology ... List of United States research and development agencies Science and technology in the United States Biomedical research in the ...
"Dispatch - National Police Foundations Project: Establishing Private Sector Partnerships". cops.usdoj.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-12 ... Police Executive Research Forum (PERF). December 2010. Retrieved November 12, 2016. "Police foundations, like the new one in ... Establishing Private Sector Partnerships". cops.usdoj.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-12. "Georgia Power Foundation's donation to ... and special needs that cannot be readily provided through public sector funds-offer a promising source of support in bridging ...
Pardis Technology Park
To promote research and development activities in private sector. Information & Communication technology Services Training and ... To create synergy between private and state sectors. To commercialize know-how and innovations generated by research centers. ... of investments in the park came from the private sector, and 150 new technologies have been developed and registered there. As ... It has been cited as a booming private industry marvel, under the supervision of the Presidency and a 14-entity Board of ...
Rotem's research also focuses on private international law (conflict of laws, in US terms). His research focuses on the effects ... Rotem also provides legal counseling to the private sector. He is married to Anat Rotem, a lawyer, and the father of three ... Rotem's research focuses on governmental or regulatory concessions extended by the government to businesses in financial ... He is an expert in the fields of private international law (conflict of laws), corporate bankruptcy and reorganization law and ...
He has also "engineered" innovative agreements between NASA Ames and a variety of private sector and public sector partners. ... NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. April 2005-April 2006, Research Professor of Planetary Sciences and Research ... Berger, Brian; Leone, Dan (26 February 2015). "Pete Worden Leaving NASA To Pursue Private Sector Dreams". Space News. Retrieved ... "some long-held dreams in the private sector". On July 20, 2015 at the Royal Society in London, Yuri Milner and Stephen Hawking ...
Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy
... the public roles of the private sector; and inter-governmental organisations. The energy governance programme examines the ... The magazine also features research by faculty, PhD students and the School's research centres, on areas of public interest ... and governance in Asia China-India and Asian security The LKY School has four research centres, providing research on the ... "Private Dialogue Session with Tony Blair , Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy". Lkyspp.nus.edu.sg. 2013-08-16. Retrieved 2015 ...
Turkish Industry and Business Association
... of private sector employment; and 80% of corporate tax revenue. TÜSİAD headquarters are in Istanbul and there are seven ... The Association supports independent research and policy discussions on important social and economic issues in Turkey and ... non-governmental organization dedicated to promoting public welfare through private enterprise. TÜSİAD promotes principles of ...
Rafael Hernández Airport
"Center for Research in Water Resources, The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on February 4, 2007. ... The original Goose Creek Library opened in 1925; the first county library in Texas, it was funded by the private donations of ... employment sectors Construction. 20% Manufacturing. 14% Retail trade. 14% Education/health/. social services. 12% ... The immediate area has four private schools. These include: Baytown Christian Academy, Chinquapin Preparatory School, Light ...
... density was 14.1% in the private sector and 56.5% in the public sector. ... Some research, such as that conducted by the Australian Centre for Industrial Relations Research and Training, argues that ... Private sector unions faced plant closures in many manufacturing industries and demands to reduce wages and increase ... Union workers in the private sector average 10-30% higher pay than non-union in America after controlling for individual, job, ...
Many alternative medical treatments are not patentable, which may lead to less research funding from the private sector. ... Use of health and research resources. Research into alternative therapies has been criticized for "...diverting research time, ... Proposed research for CAM are rejected by most private funding agencies because the results of research are not reliable. ... Research into alternative therapies often fails to follow proper research protocols (such as placebo-controlled trials, blind ...
Higher education in Poland
Poland has been at the forefront of the development of the private higher education sector. Private educational institutions ... Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (August 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... The systems in use for managing public universities and colleges vary substantially from those used in the private sector. The ... Private higher education institutions are decidedly more expensive for students than are the public. Private institutions are ...
Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Medicaid. *"Medicaid Research" and "Medicaid Primer" from ... private coverage is more expensive than Medicaid and the states would not have to contribute as much to the cost of private ... "The Impact of the Affordable Care Act: Evidence from California's Hospital Sector". NBER Working Paper. National Bureau of ... Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.. *^ a b c Jiang HJ, Barrett ML, Sheng M (November 2014). " ...
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
The Duke is also Patron of Fight for Sight, a charity dedicated to research into the prevention and treatment of blindness and ... At the London office of UKTI the arms sector has more staff than all the others put together. We are concerned that Prince ... "This was a private sale between two trusts. There was never any impropriety on the part of The Duke of York". ...
Códigos de classificação JEL - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
JEL: J45 - Public Sector Labor Markets. JEL: J48 - Políticas Públicas. JEL: J49 - Outros. JEL: J5 - Labor-Management Relations ... JEL: H42 - Publicly Provided Private Goods. JEL: H43 - Avaliação do projeto; Taxa de desconto social. JEL: H49 - Outros. JEL: ... JEL: I23 - Higher Education Research Institutions. JEL: I28 - Government Policy. JEL: I29 - Outros. JEL: I3 - Welfare and ... JEL: L33 - Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises; Privatization; Contracting out. JEL: L39 - Outros. JEL: L4 - Antitrust ...
Health in Nepal
Health care services in Nepal are provided by both the public and private sector and fare poorly by international standards. ... Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 2005). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the ... The government has provided all vaccines and immunization related logistics without any cost to hospitals, the private ... Multi-sector Nutrition Plan 2013-2017 (2023). http://scalingupnutrition.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Nepal_MSNP_2013-2017.pdf ...
Healthcare in Brazil
... of its 723 specialized hospitals belonged to the private sector. In the area of diagnostic support and therapy, 95% of the ... training of human resources and research studies. An estimated 25% of the population is covered by at least one form of health ... which assigns specific responsibilities to the health and agriculture sectors. In the health sector, health inspection ... Healthcare in Brazil is a constitutional right. It is provided by both private and government institutions. The Health ...
Internet of things
... transport or energy sector are related to privacy and cybersecurity which necessitate an adequate response from research and ... Most successful pilots share common characteristics (public-private partnership, local, leadership). Criticism, problems and ... "Gartner research report G00106518.. *^ Magrassi, P.; Berg, T (12 August 2002). "A World of Smart Objects". Gartner research ... "CCDC Army Research Laboratory. Retrieved 31 October 2019.. *^ "DARPA Floats a Proposal for the Ocean of Things". MeriTalk. 3 ...
Imam ar-Ridha', A Historical and Biographical Research. Al-islam.org. Yasin T. Al-Jibouri. Retrieved 18 Jun 2014.. ... Resource Mobilization in Sri Lanka's Health Sector - Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P. & De Mel, Nishan, Harvard School of Public Health & ... Delivery may be via private medical practices or by state-owned hospitals and clinics, or by charities, most commonly by a ... The father of modern medicine: the first research of the physical factor of tetanus Archived 18 November 2011 at the Wayback ...
... private-sector meteorologists, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research are some of the organizations very active in ... both private and public, a chief entity being the National Science Foundation. The pace of research is partly ... National Center for Atmospheric Research (2008). "Tornadoes". University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Archived from ... "Tornado and Storm Research Organisation. Retrieved 2009-12-13.. *^ a b National Severe Storms Laboratory (2006-11-15). " ...
Bengal famine of 1943
Workers in prioritised sectors - private and government wartime industries, military and civilian construction, paper and ... An earlier and somewhat different version is available in a conference paper at UCD Centre for Economic Research (Working Paper ... Both private and public relief efforts were neglected, abused, misdirected or disputed in some manner: private relief was ... Public and private medical staff at all levels were transferred to military duty, while medical supplies were monopolised. ...
Wat Phra Dhammakaya
... organizing training programs for both the private and public sector, and promoting Buddhist scholarship such as by ... "Journal of Education and Vocational Research. 4 (8): 233-4.. *^ a b ภาพมุมสูงของวัดพระธรรมกาย. [Top view of Wat Phra Dhammakaya ... "The ur-text of the Pali Tipiṭaka: Some reflections based on new research into the manuscript tradition". Oxford Centre for ... Field research also confirms that the temple's practitioners believe the individual's lack of virtue to be
Since the colonial era, Dagupan has always been the center of education in Ilocos Region (Region 1). The private sector-driven ... Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.. *^ "Aquaculture in Dagupan City, ... 19 secondary schools and 53 elementary schools both in public and private. ...
This strengthened the protection for users of Notes outside the US against private-sector industrial espionage, but not against ... "Response to Daniel Lyons: "IBM In Denial Over Lotus Notes"" Blogpost by Michael Sampson, Research Director at Shared Spaces ... While the future of any product in the technology sector cannot be predicted, IBM has made announcements that indicate that it ... Public roadmaps have shown a commitment by IBM to continue research and development of IBM Notes and Domino through 2021. ...
Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. 1962-1963 Absorbed into next New title Minister in charge of Commonwealth ... He believed that private schools should have equal access to federal government funding, and in 1964 announced that the ... government would fund science laboratories for private schools. This stance, supported by the Catholic education sector but ... His reasons were never stated publicly, but in a private meeting with McMahon, he said "I will not serve under you because I do ...
Through translations made available by Danilo Montaldi and others, the Italian autonomists drew upon previous activist research ... was devoted to the East German revolt of June 1953 and the strikes which erupted amongst several sectors of French workers that ... "Anna Freud's work on the ego and the mechanisms of defense developed from Reich's early research (A. Freud, 1936/1948)." *For ... based on his research and clinical experience, for parents, psychologists, and educators striving to develop libertarian ...
... "research degree". Research degrees in the study of law include the Master of Laws (LL.M.), which ordinarily requires the J ... 9. The following qualifications currently offered by the university sector are recognised globally. These award titles will ... as at the private law schools, or through a rigorous scientific method, such as that developed by Story and Langdell. ... It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate (in contrast to a research doctorate) in the United States, a ...
Twenty-four national research programmes group public and private research and training institutions around a common research ... The work force took a hit, especially in the private sector, during the early 2000s due to the numerous economic crises since ... I think it's the proverbial all-hands-on-deck: government, civil society, the private sector.'He pauses, taking in his own ... the fragmentation of research organizations and a failure to exploit and protect research results. ...
United States Cyber Command
Private Sector Cooperation". DoD News. United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015.. ... chief of staff of the United States Army Research, Development and Engineering Command) stated that the three major services ... government administration and the private sector in providing cyber security. Incoming President Trump has indicated that ... "In supersecret cyberwar game, civilian-sector techies pummel active-duty cyberwarriors". www.armytimes.com. Gannett Government ...
... and modifying schedules can reduce stress and burnout among multiple sectors of health care providers. Research is ongoing in ... Some provide care and treatment services for patients in private homes. Many countries have a large number of community health ... workers sector to estimate and compare the prevalence of hearing loss by subsector within the sector. Most of the HSA subsector ... as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention ...
... including individuals in the private sector, corporations, fellow legislators or government officials, or advocacy groups ( ... Research has documented these tactics well. They include front groups, lobbies, promises of self-regulation, lawsuits, and ... "Public Sector Commission - Register of Lobbyists. Government of Western Australia. 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2015-04-15.. ... Not only private companies but even the Indian government has been paying a fee every year since 2005 to a US firm to lobby for ...
Healthcare in Cuba
Medical research. The Cuban Ministry of Health produces a number of medical journals including the ACIMED, the Cuban ... Team-work that works is much more evident both in the community and the hospital sector and the mental-health and care of the ... Cuba is obliged to make payments in cash and in advance, and is precluded from obtaining credit funding, even from private ... By 1998, according to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the Cuban health sector had risen to occupy ...
Tulane University, a private, major research university founded in 1834.. *Loyola University New Orleans, a Jesuit university ... Other energy producers and oilfield services companies are headquartered in the city or region, and the sector supports a large ... "Williams Research Center". Historic New Orleans Collection. Retrieved May 17, 2006.. *^ "Old US Mint". Louisiana State Museum. ... Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection and the Old U.S. Mint. ...
United States Department of State
The Franklin Fellows Program was established in 2006 by the DoS to bring in mid-level executives from the private sector and ... "Study/Research Grant Application Statistics". us.fulbrightonline.org. Archived from the original on December 25, 2015. ... For example, grants were awarded to 30% of Americans applying to teach English in Laos and 50% of applicants to do research in ... In the 2015-16 cycle, 17% and 24% of American applicants were successful in securing research and English Teaching Assistance ...
"Private Career Colleges (PCCs)". Tcu.gov.on.ca. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016.. ... the pressure on the manufacturing sector has intensified, since many firms in this sector were already dealing with growing ... where the world headquarters of Research in Motion (the developers of the BlackBerry smartphone) is located. BlackBerry once ... "Private Universities". Tcu.gov.on.ca. Archived from the original on July 3, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016.. ...
... 's economy is driven by the private sector. Some of South Africa's largest retail companies have headquarters ... an astronomical research observatory erected by Harvard University. ... Private tertiary institutions. Some major national private educational brands maintain a presence in Bloemfontein, namely ... Festival activities take place in private gardens all over Bloemfontein, as local residents of the city open their gardens to ...
... density was 14.1% in the private sector and 56.5% in the public sector. ... "Highbeam Research. Retrieved 14 June 2006.. *^ a b Griffiths, Phil (4 July 2002). "Towards White Australia: The shadow of Mill ... Private sector unions faced plant closures in many manufacturing industries and demands to reduce wages and increase ... Union workers in the private sector average 10-30% higher pay than non-union in America after controlling for individual, job, ...
Education in Hungary
Public-sector institutions may only charge for services additional to their basic tasks, including for example extracurricular ... Today there are 67 higher education institutions in Hungary, ranging from small colleges to top research universities. These ... universities and colleges are maintained either by the state, private organizations or a church. In accordance with the ... PhD courses, research work and dissertation DLA, doctoral degree in liberal arts ...
Finance & Private Sector Research - Entrepreneurship
Policy Research Working Papers. For more policy research working papers from the World Banks institutional archives, search ... This research includes randomized experiments designed to identify the constraints to small-scale microenterprise growth in a ... This project is joint effort by the Kauffman Foundation, World Bank Development Research Group, and the International Finance ...
Finance & Private Sector Research - Deposit Insurance
Home , Data & Research , Research , Programs , Finance & Private Se... , Site Map , Deposit Insurance ... Policy Research Working Papers. For more policy research working papers from the World Banks institutional archives, search ... The results of this research project were presented at the. Deposit Insurance Conference (agenda, papers, database, conference ... Deposit insurance as private club - Is Germany a model?. Beck, Thorsten. 2001/02. ...
Finance & Private Sector Research - Background Papers
Private sector should support research institutions-Agambila
Deputy Minister Designate for Science and Environment on Tuesday called on the private sector to support research institutions ... He said the bank is committed to cooperate with research institutions and the private sector to bring governments dream of ... Deputy Minister Designate for Science and Environment on Tuesday called on the private sector to support research institutions ... "Our scientists need the active support of our private sector to develop technologies which can be used for national wealth ...
COVID-19, Public-Private Sector Partnerships, Community-Based Participatory Research, Public Health Practice, Health Care...
Engage for equity: a long-term study of community-based participatory research and community-engaged research practices and ... Distrust, race, and research. Arch Intern Med 2002;162(21):2458-63. CrossRefexternal icon PubMedexternal icon ... 3Health Equity Research and Policy, Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, District of Columbia. 4Director of ... Leveraging community engaged research partnerships for crisis and emergency risk communication to vulnerable populations in the ...
Research, Policy, and the Private Sector: Sir Richard Feachem on Malaria - NextBillion
Research, Policy, and the Private Sector: Sir Richard Feachem on Malaria. Tuesday, January 6, 2015 ... policymakers and the private sector in the global malaria response.. The following is a condensed version of their conversation ... The malaria research community is quite large and very active. And since Bill and Melinda Gates became seriously committed to ... Richard: Well, I think the research dimension to the malaria story is an interesting mixture of good news and less good news. ...
United States Private-Sector Physicians and Pharmaceutical Contract Research: A Qualitative Study
Jill Fisher and Corey Kalbaugh describe their findings from a qualitative research study evaluating the motivations of private- ... sector physicians conducting contract research for the pharmaceutical industry. ... PLOS Medicine publishes research and commentary of general interest with clear implications for patient care, public policy or ...
Physiotherapy practice in the private sector: organizational characteristics and models | BMC Health Services Research | Full...
... describe characteristics of organizations where physiotherapists practice in the private sector, and 2) explore the existence ... Further research examining the influences of these organizational characteristics and models on outcomes such as ... Even if a large proportion of physiotherapists work in the private sector worldwide, very little is known of the organizations ... Private sector physiotherapy is also reality on all continents .. The private sector is often central in offering ...
Sabinet | Age of diagnosis of congenital hearing loss : private v. public healthcare sector : research
Children in the Free State are diagnosed with CHL at a younger age in the private healthcare sector than in the public ... Data obtained from this study in the private healthcare sector were compared with data from a previous study in the public ... To determine whether the age of diagnosis of congenital hearing loss (CHL) in children seen in the private healthcare sector in ... The median age of diagnosis of DHI in the private healthcare sector was 2.24 years, and this was statistically significantly ...
Understanding consumer and clinician preferences and decision making for rehabilitation following arthroplasty in the private...
... whether from the private or public health sector. As one OS stated:. I think [outpatient rehabilitation] works very well for ... Health Services Research. 2015. doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12345.. *. Onwuegbuzie A, Leech N. Sampling designs in qualitative ... the private sector.. This study indicates that no one mode of rehabilitation provided following knee or hip arthroplasty is ... suggesting that factors other than need drive the high utilization rate in the private sector. In the absence of conclusive ...
Globalization, university transformation and economic regeneration : a UK case study of public/private sector partnership. -...
Durham Research Online. *Globalization, university transformation and economic regeneration : a UK case study of public/private ... a UK case study of public/private sector partnership., International journal of public sector management., 15 (3). pp. 204-218 ... Globalization, university transformation and economic regeneration : a UK case study of public/private sector partnership. ... The process is promoted as an exemplar to inform the increasing number of public/private sector partnerships. ...
Economic Impacts of Unionization on Private Sector Employers: 1984-2001
Research Programs. Working Groups. Research Disclosure Policy. Employment and Fellowships. Sitemap. Links to other Resources. ... Economic Impacts of Unionization on Private Sector Employers: 1984-2001. John DiNardo, David S. Lee. NBER Working Paper No. ... "Economic Impacts of New Unionization on U.S. Private Sector Employers: 1984-2001." Quarterly Journal of Economics 119, 4 (2004 ... Boston Census Research Data Center (BRDC). Public Use Data Archive Frequently Requested:. Business Cycle Memos, FAQ, Members. ...
Changes in the Structure of Wages in the Public and Private Sectors
Research Programs. Working Groups. Research Disclosure Policy. Employment and Fellowships. Sitemap. Links to other Resources. ... The wage structure in the U.S. public sector responded sluggishly to substantial changes in private sector wages during the ... Although wage differentials by skill, in the public sector were fairly unresponsive to changes in the private sector, overall ... Changes in the Structure of Wages in the Public and Private Sectors. Lawrence F. Katz, Alan B. Krueger. NBER Working Paper No. ...
Public-Private Sector Wage Differentials in Australia
... we show that on average workers in the public sector earn about 5.1% percent more hourly wages than those in the private sector ... Using a panel data quantile regression model with fixed effects, we show that the positive wage effects of public sector ... We also find evidence of heterogeneity in the public sector wage premiums by qualification, time period, occupation and state/ ... This paper examines wage differentials between public sector and private sector workers in Australia. After controlling for ...
Public-Private Sector Partnerships in Developing Countries: Prospects and Drawbacks
... and quality provision of the public services through increasing competition and active participation of the private sector, ... considering public-private partnerships (PPPs) as the appropriate instrument to attain such endeavour. Accordingly, PPPs have ... Related research. Keywords: Contracting out; public services; market/government failure; infrastructures; public-private ... "Reviewing Public-Private Partnership Performance in Developing Economies," Chapters,in: International Handbook on Public- ...
As Private Sector Bleeds Jobs, Government Gets a Pass (for now) | Reason Foundation
More Research. * Using Asset Recycling To Rebuild Americas Infrastructure Study finds $720 billion to $885 billion could be ... even as the private sector bleeds jobs in the current recession:. While the private sector has shed 6.9 million jobs since the ... As Private Sector Bleeds Jobs, Government Gets a Pass (for now). By Leonard Gilroy. August 20, 2009 ... Government jobs are always more stable than private sector jobs during downturns, but their ability to weather the current deep ...
What is the private sector? Understanding private provision in the health systems of low-income and middle-income countries |...
How good is this research?. Assessing the quality of research can be a tricky business. This blog from our editor offers some ... What is the private sector? Understanding private provision in the health systems of low-income and middle-income countries ... What is the private sector? Understanding private provision in the health systems of low-income and middle-income countries ... that private sectors cannot be understood except within their context of mixed health systems since private and public sectors ...
Comparing the Costs of the Veterans' Health Care System with Private-Sector Costs | Congressional Budget Office
Research suggests that VHA-provided care has been cheaper than private-sector care, but future costs are uncertain. ... Research suggests that VHA-provided care has been cheaper than private-sector care, but future costs are uncertain. ... Even if VHA currently provided care at a lower cost than the private sector, expanding the VHA system might not be cheaper in ... Another complication is that past studies do not fully explain why VHA care might be less expensive than private-sector care- ...
The policy on public-private mix in the Ugandan health sector: Catching up with reality | Population Council
An informal public-private mix in the health sector has always existed in Uganda, and policymakers, planners and the public in ... The policy on public-private mix in the Ugandan health sector: Catching up with reality. ... whether in the public or the private sector, to play roles in which they have clear comparative advantage over others. ...
Risk Management in Commercial Banks (a Case Study of Public and Private Sector Banks) by Rekha Arunkumar, G. Kotreshwar :: SSRN
S&P Global Market Intelligence Research Paper Series. Subscribe to this free journal for more curated articles on this topic ... Risk Management in Commercial Banks (a Case Study of Public and Private Sector Banks). Indian Institute of Capital Markets 9th ... Arunkumar, Rekha and Kotreshwar, G., Risk Management in Commercial Banks (a Case Study of Public and Private Sector Banks). ... credit risk as empirically evidenced by direct relationship between concentration credit risk profile and NPAs of public sector ...
China grants immunity to executives to bolster private sector | China Economic Review
The decision to offer private sector executives immunity from punishment for criminal activities, including assault, hints… ... is dropping criminal charges against business owners in a desperate effort to rescue the countrys ailing private sector, ... China grants immunity to executives to bolster private sector. on: December 16, 2019. In: Brief, Law & RegulationTags: No ... The decision to offer private sector executives immunity from punishment for criminal activities, including assault, hints at ...
Public versus Private Sector Procurement - Why Public Is Better (Maybe …) - Spend Matters UK/Europe
M&A P2P P2P and Working Capital Payments Procurement Procurement Financials Procurement Research Procurement Strategy & ... which is what most privates sector people have now). Most private sector people - unless they are on major six figure salaries ... Some of the best procurement I have seen has been in the private sector - as has much of the very worst. At least the public ... We then presented the arguments here as to why we might consider the private sector to be "better" in some sense. Today we will ...
The BMJ: leading general medical journal. Research. Education. Comment | The BMJ
Champion of better research, clinical practice & healthcare policy since 1840. For GPs, hospital doctors, educators & ... Private sector needs extensive reform to protect patients, says think tank News Northern Irish GPs warn patients that workforce ... Research paper Upright versus lying down position in second stage of labour in nulliparous women with low dose epidural ... Research news Acupuncture does not reduce C section rate but may improve cervical maturity, review finds ...
Human Trafficking and the Private Sector: A Role for Corporate Counsel by Jonathan Todres :: SSRN
The private sector plays a critical role in the area of human trafficking. It can both facilitate exploitation and help prevent ... Georgia State University College of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series. Subscribe to this free journal for more curated ... The private sector plays a critical role in the area of human trafficking. It can both facilitate exploitation and help prevent ... Human Trafficking and the Private Sector: A Role for Corporate Counsel. International Law News (ABA Section of International ...
USC02] 7 USC CHAPTER 64, SUBCHAPTER II: COORDINATION AND PLANNING OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING
ix) private sector organizations involved in international development; or. (x) a national association of agricultural ... 7) Equal representation of public and private sector members. In appointing members to serve on the Advisory Board, the ... C) the development of mechanisms for the assessment of emerging public and private agricultural research and technology ... for agricultural research, extension, education, and economics; and. (ii) priority areas of the Agriculture and Food Research ...
New tuberculosis technologies: importance of access in the private health sector
Prof Madhukar Pai, MD, PhD is a Canada Research Chair in Epidemiology & Global Health at McGill University, Montreal. He is the ... Benefits of private sector access to subsidies. In many countries, the private health sector is a dominant provider of medical ... Our survey showed that Xpert availability in the private sector is low, and, with some exclusions, private sector patients pay ... eligibility is restricted to the private sector for the subsidized $9.98 per test price. For the private sector in developing ...
The pitfalls of private sector investment in infrastructure financing | SAIIA
The virtues of private sector financing in infrastructure development are widely promoted, yet much research glosses over the ... Characteristics of private sector financing. The drawbacks of private investment in infrastructure are typically neglected. The ... Unlike public sector or MDB lenders, private financiers often favour profit considerations over development impact. Private ... Yet most research and dialogue gloss over the shortcomings of private sector financing of infrastructure: the interest rate ...
A new perspective on private sector adaptation: the case of multinational corporations Event Type: Grantham Workshop Speaker: ... About Research Policy Books Events News Alina joined the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment in ... Is there a role for the private sector in improving climate resilience? Alina Averchenkova and Florence Crick relfect on recent ... Keep in touch with the Grantham Research Institute at LSE Sign up to our newsletters and get the latest analysis, research, ...
Research ethics must still apply in disaster zones - SciDev.Net
p,Disaster research can help future interventions, but urgency should never excuse exploitation of survivors, says ,em,Athula ... Focus on Private Sector: An end to tech tax dodging 26/02/16 ... Research ethics must still apply in disaster zones. By: Athula ... Research ethics must still apply in disaster zones. By Athula Sumathipala. Disaster research can help future interventions, but ... More research is needed on disaster-related interventions.. But research in the aftermath of a disaster must consider the needs ...
Private Sector Provision of Oral Rehydration Therapy for Child Diarrhea in Sub-Saharan Africa | The American Journal of...
As private healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa continues to expand, interventions to increase private sector provision of ORT ... across 29 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 2003 to 2011 to measure differences in child diarrhea treatment between private ... As private healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa continues to expand, interventions to increase private sector provision of ORT ... 6th World Conference on Research Integrity JOIN ASTMH. Learn more about ASTMH ...
Quality of Artemisinin-Containing Antimalarials in Tanzania's Private Sector-Results from a Nationally Representative...
During a nationally representative survey in Tanzania, ACAs were purchased from private retail drug outlets, and the active ... 1 Departments of Clinical Research, Disease Control, Global Health and Development and Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London ... Got ACTs? Availability, price, market share and provider knowledge of anti-malarial medicines in public and private sector ... oa Quality of Artemisinin-Containing Antimalarials in Tanzania's Private Sector-Results from a Nationally Representative ...
CentreCountry's ailing privateGovernments2019Practice2020PolicymakersCGIAR Research ProgramAssessingOrganizationMetricsGrowthWorkersGovernanceHospitalsHighlightsClinical researchHealthcareLivestockInstitutionsStakeholdersPovertyBiomedicalFoundationsNonprofitInnovationInterventionsExaminesInvolvementEstablishmentsCorporationsPiecemealNational ResearcPolicyHealth careFrameworkImpactsUnderstandingFirmsWage premiumDefined contributionAgenciesClimateProvisionEconomicPensionAgricultureGlobalLargelyUnderstoodSubstantialStrengthen
Country's ailing private1
- The Supreme People's Procuratorate, the highest national level agency in China responsible for investigating and prosecuting crimes, is dropping criminal charges against business owners in a desperate effort to rescue the country's ailing private sector, reported the Financial Times . (chinaeconomicreview.com)
- While the private sector has shed 6.9 million jobs since the beginning of the recession, state and local governments have expanded their payrolls and added 110,000 jobs, according to a report issued Thursday by the Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government. (reason.org)
- In recent years, governments of several low-income countries have taken decisive action by removing fully or partially user fees in the health sector. (eldis.org)
- Where governments lack the experience or technical capacity to ensure private financing delivers on development objectives, MDBs could be a better alternative. (saiia.org.za)
- Alina has extensive experience in providing advisory and capacity building services to governments, UN organisations and private sector, and in facilitating interministerial and multi-stakeholder dialogues on climate change. (lse.ac.uk)
- What types of policies can developing country governments use to help mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 on the private sector, and to spur a subsequent recovery? (worldbank.org)
- The Global Smart Grid Federation (GSGF) has emphasised the importance of expanding collaboration between the private sector and global governments to increase investment in smart grids worldwide. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
- This assessment includes a discussion on emerging trends in SDI development, with particular reference to the increasingly important role played by sub‐national governments and the private sector within the framework of SDI development. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Although MEPS-IC surveys state and local government employers, we have limited this analysis to the private sector since a very large share of governments offer health benefits to their workers. (kff.org)
- Creamer Media Reporter 18th June 2019 "The PMR.africa awards are the culmination of an independent research process, where companies are rated based on respondents' perceptions, with a strong focus on evaluating and measuring client service and satisfaction," explains Gert Fourie, Gauteng's Regional Director, Bosch Projects - a. (engineeringnews.co.za)
- Even if a large proportion of physiotherapists work in the private sector worldwide, very little is known of the organizations within which they practice. (biomedcentral.com)
- The purpose of this study was to: 1) describe characteristics of organizations where physiotherapists practice in the private sector, and 2) explore the existence of a taxonomy of organizational models. (biomedcentral.com)
- At least the public regulations give a structure and a framework for good procurement practice, whereas in the private sector, there are no limits on how amateurish, non-existent or even corrupt procurement might be. (spendmatters.com)
- Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research , 77:1-8. (upenn.edu)
- This volume presents a state-of-the-art overview of the rapidly evolving field of agribusiness, highlighting the most current issues, concepts, trends and themes in research, practice and policy. (springer.com)
- The researchers had to track down the career paths of more than 1,000 private practice lawyers who had prior experience as U.S. assistant attorneys. (innovations-report.com)
- Lawyers get more trial practice as assistant attorneys than as private lawyers," Boylan said. (innovations-report.com)
- If you work in the top private practice, it's very hard to get trial experience. (innovations-report.com)
- The same lawyer is going to try more cases while they're a federal prosecutor than when they're in private practice," Boylan said. (innovations-report.com)
- Boylan noted, for example, that the starting salary for a highly regarded large private practice in New York City might be $140,000, and an assistant attorney's salary in the same city might be only $50,000 to $60,000. (innovations-report.com)
- Kitchen Appliances Market report, published by Allied Market Research, forecasts that the global market is expected to garner a revenue of $253.4 billion by 2020, registering a CAGR of 6.4% during the forecast period 2014 - 2020.The growth of the kitchen appliances market is supplemented by rising disposable incomes, changing lifestyles, increasing health concerns and the growing food and services industry. (openpr.com)
- Following the event, Professor Gabriele Bammer of the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health at ANU interviewed Sir Richard on the role of researchers, policymakers and the private sector in the global malaria response. (nextbillion.net)
- An informal public-private mix in the health sector has always existed in Uganda, and policymakers, planners and the public in general have taken this for granted. (popcouncil.org)
- Its mission is to identify key developments in technology innovation, undertake cutting-edge research, disseminate best practices broadly, inform policymakers at the local, state, and federal levels about actions needed to improve innovation, and enhance the public's and media's understanding of technology innovation. (brookings.edu)
- Featuring case studies of innovative initiatives across the industry, this book will appeal to researchers, business leaders, university administrators and policymakers concerned with the multi-faceted implications of this dynamic and controversial sector. (springer.com)
- EPI's research helps policymakers, opinion leaders, advocates, journalists, and the public understand the bread-and-butter issues affecting ordinary Americans. (epi.org)
CGIAR Research Program1
- This research includes randomized experiments designed to identify the constraints to small-scale microenterprise growth in a number of countries. (worldbank.org)
- A well-functioning financial system and a vigorous private sector are important drivers of growth and poverty reduction. (worldbank.org)
- This pledge from the private sector could reduce the growth in health care spending by 1.5 percentage points a year, for a savings of $2 trillion over 10 years, a letter from the groups will promise, according to a senior administration official. (cnn.com)
- The rapid growth of the private health sector in low-resource countries is widely recognized. (who.int)
- Physiotherapy services received in this sector are funded by the service users themselves or via third party payers (e.g. insurance companies or workers compensation boards). (biomedcentral.com)
- Although wage differentials by skill, in the public sector were fairly unresponsive to changes in the private sector, overall pay levels for state and local government workers were quite sensitive to local labor market conditions. (nber.org)
- Are Public Sector Workers Paid More Than Their Alternative Wage? (nber.org)
- This paper examines wage differentials between public sector and private sector workers in Australia. (repec.org)
- After controlling for observed characteristics and individual fixed effects, we show that on average workers in the public sector earn about 5.1% percent more hourly wages than those in the private sector. (repec.org)
- Chinese prosecutors have abandoned 8,565 cases while 10,973 lawbreaking private company workers, mostly business owners, have been spared jail in the first nine months of this year, according to the Supreme People's Procuratorate. (chinaeconomicreview.com)
- Solid waste collector injuries were characterized in terms of injury risk and employment industry sector (public versus private) using Kentucky workers' compensation first reports of injury and claims data. (cdc.gov)
- The probability that a workers' compensation first report of injury or claim would result in an awarded benefit was higher if the worker was employed as a solid waste collector in the private sector compared to the public sector, or was injured due to a motor vehicle-related injury or a push-or-pull type of injury. (cdc.gov)
- The recent release of 2015 information from the Insurance Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS-IC) shows continuation of the fairly long-term decline in the share of private-sector workers in small firms that are offered coverage and that receive coverage at their job. (kff.org)
- This is part of a larger, long-term trend that shows a decline among all private-sector workers in the percentage who are covered by their own employer. (kff.org)
- Among workers aged 18 to 64 at private industries, 28 percent of workers without an offer of employer sponsored insurance (ESI) were uninsured compared to only 4 percent of workers with an offer of ESI 1 . (kff.org)
- In 2015, about 84% of private-sector workers worked in a business that offered health insurance to at least some of the employees working at the firm, about three-quarters (76%) of those workers were eligible to enroll in the coverage, and of those eligible, three-quarters (75%) enrolled in the coverage. (kff.org)
- Both private- and public-sector workers struck. (globalresearch.ca)
- Some 15 percent of the 7,000 municipal garbage collectors, along with workers from private garbage companies, are on strike. (globalresearch.ca)
- The BLS' "visual essay" documents the decline in defined benefit pensions, which now cover 18 percent of private-sector workers, down from 35 percent in the early 1990s. (epi.org)
- Thus, a separate household survey conducted by the Federal Reserve found that 31 percent of households were covered by a defined benefit pension in 2010, though this includes households with workers employed in the public sector as well as retirees and workers covered under plans from previous jobs who are no longer accruing benefits. (epi.org)
- The BLS overview shows that pension coverage is much higher in the public sector (78 percent) and among unionized workers (67 percent) in the private sector. (epi.org)
- In contrast, only 13 percent of non-union private-sector workers are covered. (epi.org)
- The drop in private-sector coverage reflects both a decline in unionization and a decline in coverage among both groups of workers (union and non-union), though the decline was more pronounced among non-union workers. (epi.org)
- Thus, 48 percent of private-sector establishments with 500 or more workers offered a pension plan, compared to only 8 percent of establishments with 50 or fewer workers. (epi.org)
- IIED has published a report that identifies research that can shed light on the positive and negative effects of Chinese investment in African forests, and show how to improve governance of the timber trade. (iied.org)
- 4 March 2013 Experts in forest governance from ten countries in Africa and Asia will meet this week in China to take stock of their successes and frustrations over the past decade and learn how their hosts handle issues in the sector. (iied.org)
- This proliferation of soft-law efforts can be interpreted as a governance response to advanced research into AI, whose research output and market size have drastically increased 22 in recent years. (nature.com)
- One useful analytic approach, which was most carefully and comprehensively employed by researchers in 2004, estimates what costs would be if private-sector doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers supplied the same number and types of services as those actually delivered by VHA. (cbo.gov)
- Similar to earlier studies, those researchers concluded that the health care provided by VHA generally cost less than would equivalent care provided in the private sector, even though the comparison used Medicare's relatively low payment rates for private-sector doctors and hospitals. (cbo.gov)
- In addition to any differences in prices per service, veterans might receive a larger amount or more complex mix of services if they were treated by private-sector doctors and hospitals than by VHA because those providers have stronger financial incentives to deliver more expensive care. (cbo.gov)
- Following a court ruling that babies born to mainlanders in Hong Kong are permanent residents, private hospitals cashed in by expanding services and raising fees, leading to an outburst of anti-mainland Chinese sentiment. (eduhk.hk)
- To determine whether the age of diagnosis of congenital hearing loss (CHL) in children seen in the private healthcare sector in Bloemfontein, Free State Province, SA, was lower than that in the public healthcare system in the same city. (journals.co.za)
- Data obtained from this study in the private healthcare sector were compared with data from a previous study in the public healthcare sector using the same study design. (journals.co.za)
- The median age of diagnosis of CHL in the private healthcare sector was 3.01years in children who were not screened at birth, and 1.25 years in those who were screened at birth. (journals.co.za)
- We also compared the median age of diagnosis of CHL in children from the private healthcare sector who were not screened at birth (median 3.01 years) with that in children in the public healthcare sector (median 3.71 years). (journals.co.za)
- Children in the Free State are diagnosed with CHL at a younger age in the private healthcare sector than in the public healthcare sector. (journals.co.za)
- With the social and economic benefits of early intervention in cases of DHI well established internationally, SA healthcare providers in both the public and private sectors need to develop screening, diagnostic and (re)habilitation services for children with hearing impairment. (journals.co.za)
- In Australia, inpatient rehabilitation following arthroplasty surgery is most commonly utilised by private consumers i.e. those who are privately insured or elect to cover some or all of the costs of their healthcare, in contrast to public patients who have their healthcare needs met within the public health system, without payment. (biomedcentral.com)
- As private healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa continues to expand, interventions to increase private sector provision of ORT should be explored. (ajtmh.org)
- Whether the reason is convenience, proximity or the perceived higher quality and confidential nature of private healthcare providers, the fact remains that a considerable number of women turn to the private sector for their reproductive health needs. (who.int)
- a member of the CGIAR Consortium which conducts livestock, food andenvironmental research to help alleviate poverty and improve food security, health & nutrition, While protecting the natural resource base. (slideshare.net)
- The FAO Regional Meeting on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Asia-Pacific will bring the dialogue and exchange of knowledge and experiences regarding biotechnologies to the regional level, using a multisector approach covering the crop, livestock, forestry and fishery sectors. (fao.org)
- He said the bank is committed to cooperate with research institutions and the private sector to bring government's dream of commercialising CSRI. (modernghana.com)
- Finally, a long-term mistrust of government, research, and health care institutions, built on decades to centuries of neglect and abuse, including but far from restricted to the Tuskegee syphilis study (11), make it less likely that some racial/ethnic communities and historically marginalized communities will trust public health messaging by these bodies, or will believe that they will receive equal access to testing, treatment, and vaccines (12). (cdc.gov)
- While significant differences in opinion on the mix still remain, it is becoming clear that the new policy should enable health institutions, whether in the public or the private sector, to play roles in which they have clear comparative advantage over others. (popcouncil.org)
- 11) which required the Secretary to 'take the initiative in overcoming barriers to long-range planning by developing, in conjunction with the States, State cooperative institutions, the Joint Council, the Advisory Board, and other appropriate institutions, a long-term needs assessment for food, fiber, and forest products, and by determining the research requirements necessary to meet the identified needs. (house.gov)
- Dr. Aning Director of CSRI -ARI said the primary objective of the Animal Research Institute is to develop and transfer to farmers entrepreneurial technologies that would promote sustainable animal farming to reduce poverty. (modernghana.com)
- ERS research in this topic area focuses on the economic, social, spatial, and demographic factors that affect the income and poverty status of rural residents. (usda.gov)
- At the request of the NIH and in response to congressional inquiry, the IOM, in collaboration with the National Research Council, conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific necessity of chimpanzees for NIH-funded biomedical and behavioral research. (nationalacademies.org)
- The committee evaluated ongoing biomedical and behavioral research to determine whether chimpanzees are necessary for research discoveries. (nationalacademies.org)
- The committee described chimpanzees' unique attributes in order to determine when to use chimpanzees in biomedical and behavioral research. (nationalacademies.org)
- The committee concludes that while the chimpanzee has been a valuable animal model in the past, most current biomedical research use of chimpanzees is not necessary, though made clear that it is impossible to predict whether research on emerging or new diseases may necessitate chimpanzees in the future. (nationalacademies.org)
- Strong innovation and research are making a major difference in how people are living with, and battling, cancer. (nationalpost.com)
- It is vital, say industry leaders, for Canada to remain a welcoming environment for research and innovation. (nationalpost.com)
- This study, commissioned by the AFD Innovation, Research and Knowledge department, provides a retrospective analysis of the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) that has been managing the urban water supply sub-sector in Senegal since 1995. (afd.fr)
- It also examines the available evidence about the relative costs of VHA and private-sector care and explores possible reasons why costs might differ in the two settings and why they can be difficult to compare. (cbo.gov)
- This study examines the role of regulation in the private rented sector across 11 European countries. (cam.ac.uk)
- the previous experience of self or known others, the perceived benefits of the chosen mode, a sense of entitlement, the role of orthopaedic surgeons and influence of patient preference, a patient's clinical status post-surgery, the private hospital business model and insurance provider involvement. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, no agreed measures exist to assess the scale and scope of the private health sector in these countries, and policy makers tasked with managing and regulating mixed health systems struggle to identify the key features of their private sectors. (eldis.org)
- She is responsible for the engagement with policy and decision makers worldwide, and research on international climate change policy. (lse.ac.uk)
- In this Policy Research Talk, World Bank economist Claudia Ruiz-Ortega discussed access to novel datasets from banks, credit bureaus, and credit registries that help us better understand the dynamics of bank lending and the intended (and unintended) effects of public policies affecting banks drawing on research in Mexico, Peru, and Brazil. (worldbank.org)
- In this Policy Research Talk, economist Colin Xu provided a sweeping account of the history of wars, rebellions, and epidemics from the perspective of economics and political economy. (worldbank.org)
- The Economic Research Service (ERS) shapes its research program and products to assist those who routinely make or influence public policy and program decisions. (usda.gov)
- The unit, designed for grades 10-12, helps students understand existing gun policy research. (rand.org)
- Michael Van Beek is director of research for the Mackinac Center for Public Policy. (mackinac.org)
- Private health care in low-income and middle-income countries is very extensive and very heterogeneous, ranging from itinerant medicine sellers, through millions of independent practitioners - both unlicensed and licensed - to corporate hospital chains and large private insurers. (eldis.org)
- CBO has conducted a limited examination of how the costs of health care provided by VHA compare with the costs of care provided in the private sector. (cbo.gov)
- Although the structure of VHA and published studies suggest that VHA care has been cheaper than care provided by the private sector, limited evidence and substantial uncertainty make it difficult to reach firm conclusions about those relative costs or about whether it would be cheaper to expand veterans' access to health care in the future through VHA facilities or the private sector. (cbo.gov)
- This report briefly describes some of the features that distinguish the health care system run by VHA from health care provided in the private sector. (cbo.gov)
- In addition, previous research has generally relied on cost information from 1999 or earlier, but changes since then in the VHA system and the health care sector as a whole could produce different results today. (cbo.gov)
- CBO's analysis indicates that VHA pays lower prices for pharmaceutical products than private-sector health care systems do (largely because of federal price controls) and may also pay less to doctors. (cbo.gov)
- In these countries, even underprivileged TB patients prefer to seek care from private health-care providers. (news-medical.net)
- Engaging the Private-Sector Health Care System in Building Capacity to. (nationalacademies.org)
- An international framework should be developed by both agencies funding research and host countries to prevent unethical data collection and exploitation of disaster survivors. (scidev.net)
- The workshop discussions considered the current state of the science for soliciting and incorporating patient input into medical product R&D, explored gaps in knowledge and other barriers that impede progress, and discussed a potential framework for a research agenda for addressing gaps and barriers that could help move the field forward. (nationalacademies.org)
- A better understanding of the differences in the contributing factors for an injury that results in a first report of injury or claim with awarded benefits (e.g., job activities, new and refresher worker safety training, type of equipment used, differences in collection vehicle automation, and differential reporting of injuries on the job) between the public and private sectors is necessary to target injury prevention strategies in this high-risk occupation. (cdc.gov)
- The aim is to gain a better understanding of the determinants of the scale and use of private rented sectors across Northern Europe and particularly the role of regulation both historically since 1980 and in the future. (cam.ac.uk)
- As a result, positions of federal prosecutors are often sought by lawyers who want the trial experience needed to secure employment in large, high-paying law firms in the private sector. (innovations-report.com)
- Boylan and Long concluded that some lawyers will work for the government as assistant attorneys so they can take a case to trial and get the courtroom experience that will make them attractive to private firms. (innovations-report.com)
- Globalization, university transformation and economic regeneration : a UK case study of public/private sector partnership. (dur.ac.uk)
- James Poterba is President of the National Bureau of Economic Research. (nber.org)
- How Do Public Sector Wages and Employment Respond to Economic Conditions? (nber.org)
- How on earth will we be able to right the economic ship if we're growing jobs in the sector of the economy that is utterly reliant on the productive activity of the sector that's bleeding (and in a number of states, raising taxes to boot)? (reason.org)
- Yes, this could be undermined in the future but given how hard Francis Maude had to work to make public sector pension changes that basically saved f*** all for the public purse, I wouldn't worry too much about that! (spendmatters.com)
- To bridge this deficit, copious dialogues and policymaking efforts are aimed at attracting private financiers - corporates, infrastructure funds, pension funds and sovereign wealth funds, among others - to infrastructure investment. (saiia.org.za)
- We wrote to TB experts in 12 countries largely within the private sector, and enquired whether Xpert was available in the private sector within their country. (news-medical.net)
- However, recent advances in alternate research tools have rendered chimpanzees largely unnecessary as research subjects. (nationalacademies.org)
- The wage structure in the U.S. public sector responded sluggishly to substantial changes in private sector wages during the 1970s and 1980s. (nber.org)
- Private providers commonly deliver a substantial proportion of health services in most settings, particularly outpatient primary care, that include reproductive health services. (who.int)
- In an effort to strengthen its partnership with the private sector, the Commission is also inviting representatives of industry, including the Union of Industrial and Employers Confederations of Europe (UNICE), to strengthen their response to the epidemic and to play their part in implementing the EU's HIV/AIDS prevention strategy. (europa.eu)