Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.United StatesHospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.IndiaHealth Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Contraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.CambodiaNational Health Insurance, United StatesLegislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Employee Incentive Plans: Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Great BritainKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.BrazilHealth Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.PakistanUrban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Sri LankaCanada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)VietnamCommunity Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Clinical Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses in the clinical setting and designed to provide information that will help improve patient care. Other professional staff may also participate in the research.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Foreign Medical Graduates: Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.AfricaForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Nursing, Private Duty: The practice of nursing by a registered or licensed nurse to care for a specific patient in a health facility or in the home.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.EnglandPrimary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.
  • The Supreme People's Procuratorate, the highest national level agency in China responsible for investigating and prosecuting crimes, is dropping criminal charges against business owners in a desperate effort to rescue the country's ailing private sector, reported the Financial Times . (chinaeconomicreview.com)
  • Creamer Media Reporter 18th June 2019 "The PMR.africa awards are the culmination of an independent research process, where companies are rated based on respondents' perceptions, with a strong focus on evaluating and measuring client service and satisfaction," explains Gert Fourie, Gauteng's Regional Director, Bosch Projects - a. (engineeringnews.co.za)
  • Kitchen Appliances Market report, published by Allied Market Research, forecasts that the global market is expected to garner a revenue of $253.4 billion by 2020, registering a CAGR of 6.4% during the forecast period 2014 - 2020.The growth of the kitchen appliances market is supplemented by rising disposable incomes, changing lifestyles, increasing health concerns and the growing food and services industry. (openpr.com)
  • The organization started working at CCRES Research facility in the year 2013 and has been involved with giving farmers free seeds, training farmers and community at large on more about agroforestry techniques and environmental conservation awareness. (wordpress.com)
  • The authors develop an illustrative and partial country typology, using the metrics and other country information, to illustrate how the scale and operation of the public sector can shape the private sector's structure and behaviour, and vice versa. (eldis.org)
  • IIED has published a report that identifies research that can shed light on the positive and negative effects of Chinese investment in African forests, and show how to improve governance of the timber trade. (iied.org)
  • 4 March 2013 Experts in forest governance from ten countries in Africa and Asia will meet this week in China to take stock of their successes and frustrations over the past decade and learn how their hosts handle issues in the sector. (iied.org)
  • This proliferation of soft-law efforts can be interpreted as a governance response to advanced research into AI, whose research output and market size have drastically increased 22 in recent years. (nature.com)
  • One useful analytic approach, which was most carefully and comprehensively employed by researchers in 2004, estimates what costs would be if private-sector doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers supplied the same number and types of services as those actually delivered by VHA. (cbo.gov)
  • Similar to earlier studies, those researchers concluded that the health care provided by VHA generally cost less than would equivalent care provided in the private sector, even though the comparison used Medicare's relatively low payment rates for private-sector doctors and hospitals. (cbo.gov)
  • In addition to any differences in prices per service, veterans might receive a larger amount or more complex mix of services if they were treated by private-sector doctors and hospitals than by VHA because those providers have stronger financial incentives to deliver more expensive care. (cbo.gov)
  • Following a court ruling that babies born to mainlanders in Hong Kong are permanent residents, private hospitals cashed in by expanding services and raising fees, leading to an outburst of anti-mainland Chinese sentiment. (eduhk.hk)
  • PLOS Medicine publishes research and commentary of general interest with clear implications for patient care, public policy or clinical research agendas. (plos.org)
  • a member of the CGIAR Consortium which conducts livestock, food andenvironmental research  to help alleviate poverty  and improve food security, health & nutrition,  While protecting the natural resource base. (slideshare.net)
  • The FAO Regional Meeting on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Asia-Pacific will bring the dialogue and exchange of knowledge and experiences regarding biotechnologies to the regional level, using a multisector approach covering the crop, livestock, forestry and fishery sectors. (fao.org)
  • He said the bank is committed to cooperate with research institutions and the private sector to bring government's dream of commercialising CSRI. (modernghana.com)
  • Finally, a long-term mistrust of government, research, and health care institutions, built on decades to centuries of neglect and abuse, including but far from restricted to the Tuskegee syphilis study (11), make it less likely that some racial/ethnic communities and historically marginalized communities will trust public health messaging by these bodies, or will believe that they will receive equal access to testing, treatment, and vaccines (12). (cdc.gov)
  • While significant differences in opinion on the mix still remain, it is becoming clear that the new policy should enable health institutions, whether in the public or the private sector, to play roles in which they have clear comparative advantage over others. (popcouncil.org)
  • 11) which required the Secretary to 'take the initiative in overcoming barriers to long-range planning by developing, in conjunction with the States, State cooperative institutions, the Joint Council, the Advisory Board, and other appropriate institutions, a long-term needs assessment for food, fiber, and forest products, and by determining the research requirements necessary to meet the identified needs. (house.gov)
  • Dr. Aning Director of CSRI -ARI said the primary objective of the Animal Research Institute is to develop and transfer to farmers entrepreneurial technologies that would promote sustainable animal farming to reduce poverty. (modernghana.com)
  • ERS research in this topic area focuses on the economic, social, spatial, and demographic factors that affect the income and poverty status of rural residents. (usda.gov)
  • At the request of the NIH and in response to congressional inquiry, the IOM, in collaboration with the National Research Council, conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific necessity of chimpanzees for NIH-funded biomedical and behavioral research. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The committee evaluated ongoing biomedical and behavioral research to determine whether chimpanzees are necessary for research discoveries. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The committee described chimpanzees' unique attributes in order to determine when to use chimpanzees in biomedical and behavioral research. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The committee concludes that while the chimpanzee has been a valuable animal model in the past, most current biomedical research use of chimpanzees is not necessary, though made clear that it is impossible to predict whether research on emerging or new diseases may necessitate chimpanzees in the future. (nationalacademies.org)
  • the previous experience of self or known others, the perceived benefits of the chosen mode, a sense of entitlement, the role of orthopaedic surgeons and influence of patient preference, a patient's clinical status post-surgery, the private hospital business model and insurance provider involvement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Piecemeal rather than comprehensive use of private financing could be more cost effective. (saiia.org.za)
  • However, no agreed measures exist to assess the scale and scope of the private health sector in these countries, and policy makers tasked with managing and regulating mixed health systems struggle to identify the key features of their private sectors. (eldis.org)
  • She is responsible for the engagement with policy and decision makers worldwide, and research on international climate change policy. (lse.ac.uk)
  • In this Policy Research Talk, World Bank economist Claudia Ruiz-Ortega discussed access to novel datasets from banks, credit bureaus, and credit registries that help us better understand the dynamics of bank lending and the intended (and unintended) effects of public policies affecting banks drawing on research in Mexico, Peru, and Brazil. (worldbank.org)
  • In this Policy Research Talk, economist Colin Xu provided a sweeping account of the history of wars, rebellions, and epidemics from the perspective of economics and political economy. (worldbank.org)
  • The Economic Research Service (ERS) shapes its research program and products to assist those who routinely make or influence public policy and program decisions. (usda.gov)
  • The unit, designed for grades 10-12, helps students understand existing gun policy research. (rand.org)
  • Michael Van Beek is director of research for the Mackinac Center for Public Policy. (mackinac.org)
  • Private health care in low-income and middle-income countries is very extensive and very heterogeneous, ranging from itinerant medicine sellers, through millions of independent practitioners - both unlicensed and licensed - to corporate hospital chains and large private insurers. (eldis.org)
  • CBO has conducted a limited examination of how the costs of health care provided by VHA compare with the costs of care provided in the private sector. (cbo.gov)
  • Although the structure of VHA and published studies suggest that VHA care has been cheaper than care provided by the private sector, limited evidence and substantial uncertainty make it difficult to reach firm conclusions about those relative costs or about whether it would be cheaper to expand veterans' access to health care in the future through VHA facilities or the private sector. (cbo.gov)
  • This report briefly describes some of the features that distinguish the health care system run by VHA from health care provided in the private sector. (cbo.gov)
  • In addition, previous research has generally relied on cost information from 1999 or earlier, but changes since then in the VHA system and the health care sector as a whole could produce different results today. (cbo.gov)
  • CBO's analysis indicates that VHA pays lower prices for pharmaceutical products than private-sector health care systems do (largely because of federal price controls) and may also pay less to doctors. (cbo.gov)
  • In these countries, even underprivileged TB patients prefer to seek care from private health-care providers. (news-medical.net)
  • Engaging the Private-Sector Health Care System in Building Capacity to. (nationalacademies.org)
  • An international framework should be developed by both agencies funding research and host countries to prevent unethical data collection and exploitation of disaster survivors. (scidev.net)
  • The workshop discussions considered the current state of the science for soliciting and incorporating patient input into medical product R&D, explored gaps in knowledge and other barriers that impede progress, and discussed a potential framework for a research agenda for addressing gaps and barriers that could help move the field forward. (nationalacademies.org)
  • The observed changes in climate are already having wide-ranging impacts on ecosystems, economic sectors and human health and well-being in Europe. (europa.eu)
  • A better understanding of the differences in the contributing factors for an injury that results in a first report of injury or claim with awarded benefits (e.g., job activities, new and refresher worker safety training, type of equipment used, differences in collection vehicle automation, and differential reporting of injuries on the job) between the public and private sectors is necessary to target injury prevention strategies in this high-risk occupation. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim is to gain a better understanding of the determinants of the scale and use of private rented sectors across Northern Europe and particularly the role of regulation both historically since 1980 and in the future. (cam.ac.uk)
  • As a result, positions of federal prosecutors are often sought by lawyers who want the trial experience needed to secure employment in large, high-paying law firms in the private sector. (innovations-report.com)
  • Boylan and Long concluded that some lawyers will work for the government as assistant attorneys so they can take a case to trial and get the courtroom experience that will make them attractive to private firms. (innovations-report.com)
  • The News items relate to applications of biotechnologies in food and agriculture in developing countries and their major focus is on the activities of FAO, other UN agencies/bodies and the 15 CGIAR research centres. (fao.org)
  • Factors other than the belief that a particular mode was more effective than another appear to dominate the pathway followed by private arthroplasty consumers, indicating evidence-based policies around rehabilitation provision may have limited appeal in the private sector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yes, this could be undermined in the future but given how hard Francis Maude had to work to make public sector pension changes that basically saved f*** all for the public purse, I wouldn't worry too much about that! (spendmatters.com)
  • To bridge this deficit, copious dialogues and policymaking efforts are aimed at attracting private financiers - corporates, infrastructure funds, pension funds and sovereign wealth funds, among others - to infrastructure investment. (saiia.org.za)
  • Global solar photovoltaic (PV) inverter revenues reached US$1.6 billion in Q4'10, 24% lower than the previous quarter, but 30% higher than in Q4'09, according to IMS Research. (renewableenergyfocus.com)
  • In an effort to strengthen its partnership with the private sector, the Commission is also inviting representatives of industry, including the Union of Industrial and Employers Confederations of Europe (UNICE), to strengthen their response to the epidemic and to play their part in implementing the EU's HIV/AIDS prevention strategy. (europa.eu)