Those individuals engaged in research.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The individuals employed by the hospital.
Financial support of research activities.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.
Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.
The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.
Research carried out by nurses in the clinical setting and designed to provide information that will help improve patient care. Other professional staff may also participate in the research.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.
The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.
An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.
Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.
Computer-based systems for use in personnel management in a facility, e.g., distribution of caregivers with relation to patient needs.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is a country located in the Middle East and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!
To entrust to the care or management of another, to transfer or to assign tasks within an organizational or administrative unit or structure
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Afghanistan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in South-Central Asia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help answer those!
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
A vehicle equipped for transporting patients in need of emergency care.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
'Laboratory animals' are non-human creatures that are intentionally used in scientific research, testing, and education settings to investigate physiological processes, evaluate the safety and efficacy of drugs or medical devices, and teach anatomy, surgical techniques, and other healthcare-related skills.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.
Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Outcomes research: collaboration among academic researchers, managed care organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers. (1/730)

Medical and pharmaceutical outcomes research has been of increasing interest in the past 10 to 15 years among healthcare providers, payers, and regulatory agencies. Outcomes research has become a multidisciplinary field involving clinicians, health services researchers, epidemiologists, psychometricians, statisticians, psychologists, sociologists, economists, and ethicists. Collaboration among researchers in different organizations that offer different types of services and various research expertise is the essential element for any successful outcomes project. In this article we discuss collaboration on outcomes research among academic researchers (mainly those who work in colleges of pharmacy), managed care organizations, and research-based pharmaceutical manufacturers, with a focus on the opportunities and challenges facing each party. The pharmaceutical industry needs information to make product and promotion decisions; the managed care industry has data to offer but needs analysis of these data; and pharmacy schools, among other academic institutions, have skilled researchers and data-processing capacity but require projects for revenue, research training, experience, and publications. Challenges do exist with such endeavors, but collaboration could be beneficial in satisfying the needs of the individual parties.  (+info)

The involvement of genome researchers in high school science education. (2/730)

The rapid accumulation of genetic information generated by the Human Genome Project and related research has heightened public awareness of genetics issues. Education in genome science is needed at all levels in our society by specific audiences and the general public so that individuals can make well-informed decisions related to public policy and issues such as genetic testing. Many scientists have found that an effective vehicle for reaching a broad sector of society is through high school biology courses. From an educational perspective, genome science offers many ways to meet emerging science learning goals, which are influencing science teaching nationally. To effectively meet the goals of the science and education communities, genome education needs to include several major components-accurate and current information about genomics, hands-on experience with DNA techniques, education in ethical decision-making, and career counseling and preparation. To be most successful, we have found that genome education programs require the collaborative efforts of science teachers, genome researchers, ethicists, genetic counselors, and business partners. This report is intended as a guide for genome researchers with an interest in participating in pre-college education, providing rationale for their involvement and recommendations for ways they can contribute, and highlighting a few exemplary programs. World Wide Web addresses for all of the programs discussed in this report are given in Table 1. We are developing a database of outreach programs offering genetics education () and request that readers submit an entry describing their programs. We invite researchers to contact us for more information about activities in their local area.  (+info)

Lymphopoietic cancer and other major causes of death among petrochemical researchers: an update. (3/730)

This study updates lymphopoietic cancer (LHC) mortality statistics and other major causes of death through 1992 for 13,188 petrochemical researchers employed between 1964 and 1986. Significant deficits of deaths were observed for all causes, all cancers, ischaemic heart disease and all external causes. The subcategory of 'all other LHC' was elevated among males in an exposure class containing scientists and engineers. This finding was statistically significant based on national but not state comparison rates. Poisson regression analyses showed that increasing exposure classes were not associated with LHC, but a relationship was noted for total years worked. A non-significant increase in breast cancer among females was also observed but was concentrated among the lowest exposure class. This study and other similar investigations suggest various subcategories of LHC deaths are marginally elevated among chemical researchers and engineers. Evidence for a work-related LHC hazard for this population, however, has not been identified.  (+info)

Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part I. Analysis of overall patterns of mortality among refining, research, and petrochemical workers. (4/730)

OBJECTIVE: To update information on the workers of the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns of mortality have changed with 16 additional years of follow up. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All workers were employed for > or = 5 years at company refineries, petrochemical plants, and research laboratories from 1947-93. The cohort now consists of 28,480 employees with an average of > or = 20 years of follow up. RESULTS: The overall mortality, and most cause specific mortalities were lower than or similar to those for the general population of the United States. For white men (86% of the cohort), there were 8873 observed deaths and 11,181 expected resulting in a significantly lower standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 79. There were significant deficits for all the leading causes of death in the United States including all cancers, cancer of the lung, stroke, heart disease, respiratory disease, and accidents. Slightly increased mortality was found for cancer of the pancreas, cancer of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and cancer of other lymphatic tissue. For cancer of the bone, the SMR was 162 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 86 to 278), and for benign and unspecified neoplasms, it was 152 (95% CI 109 to 206). Overall mortality patterns for non-white men and women were similar to those for white men. Mortality patterns for white men were also examined by duration of employment, time first employed, location, and by job and process unit. There were significantly increased SMRs for brain cancer for those people employed as laboratory workers and on units with motor oil and for cancer of other lymphatic tissue for people employed on the fluid catalytic cracking unit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the updated study showed a favourable mortality experience for employees in the Texaco mortality study compared with the United States population. There were a few increases found consistently including, but not limited to, brain cancer and cancer of other lymphatic tissue. These increases led to additional analyses that will be discussed in the accompanying paper.  (+info)

Update of the Texaco mortality study 1947-93: Part II. Analyses of specific causes of death for white men employed in refining, research, and petrochemicals. (5/730)

OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of mortality for specific causes of death with increases in the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns are related to employment in the petroleum industry. METHODS: Mortality patterns by duration of employment in various job groups were examined for mesothelioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, cell type specific leukaemia, and brain tumours. RESULTS: Mortality from mesothelioma was examined for the total cohort and for two maintenance groups with the greatest potential for exposure to asbestos. The insulator group had a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 3029, and a larger group consisting of insulators, carpenters, labourers, electricians, pipefitters, boiler-makers, and welders had an SMR of 411. The mortalities from mesothelioma increased with increasing duration of employment. Mortality was lower for those first employed after 1950. An analysis of all brain tumours for the total cohort and some job and unit subgroups resulted in an SMR of 178 for those employed on the units related to motor oil and 166 for those employed as laboratory workers. Mortality from brain tumours in both of these job groups was higher for those employed > or = 5 years in the group. An analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed no consistent patterns among the various employment groups. Mortality from multiple myeloma was non-significantly increased among people employed on the crude (SMR = 155) and fluid catalytic cracking units (SMR = 198). Leukaemia mortality was not increased for the total cohort, and a cell type analysis of leukaemia mortality for the total cohort showed no significant increases for the major cell types. However, there were significant increases for acute unspecified leukaemia (SMR = 276) and leukaemia of unknown cell type (SMR = 231). CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of specific causes of death by duration of employment in various job and process units did not show any patterns which suggest that, other than for mesothelioma, any of these increases in mortalities were likely to have resulted from workplace exposures or from employment at one of the places included in the Texaco mortality study.  (+info)

Fraud, misconduct or normal science in medical research--an empirical study of demarcation. (6/730)

OBJECTIVES: To study and describe how a group of senior researchers and a group of postgraduate students perceived the so-called "grey zone" between normal scientific practice and obvious misconduct. DESIGN: A questionnaire concerning various practices including dishonesty and obvious misconduct. The answers were obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). The central (two quarters) of the VAS were designated as a grey zone. SETTING: A Swedish medical faculty. SURVEY SAMPLE: 30 senior researchers and 30 postgraduate students. RESULTS: Twenty of the senior researchers and 25 of the postgraduate students answered the questionnaire. In five cases out of 14 the senior researchers' median was found to be clearly within the interval of the grey zone, compared with three cases for the postgraduate students. Three examples of experienced misconduct were provided. Compared with postgraduate students, established researchers do not call for more research ethical guidelines and restrictions. CONCLUSION: Although the results indicate that consensus exists regarding certain obvious types of misconduct the response pattern also indicates that there is no general consensus on several procedures.  (+info)

Conflict-of-interest policies for investigators in clinical trials. (7/730)

BACKGROUND: There is substantial concern that financial conflicts of interest on the part of investigators conducting clinical trials may compromise the well-being of research subjects. METHODS: We analyzed policies governing conflicts of interest at the 10 medical schools in the United States that receive the largest amount of research funding from the National Institutes of Health. These institutions are Baylor College of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Harvard Medical School, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, the University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine, the University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, the University of Washington School of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine at St. Louis, and Yale University School of Medicine. RESULTS: All 10 universities required that faculty members disclose financial interests to university officials. Only four required disclosure by all members of the research staff. Five universities required disclosure of all financial interests, even though federal regulations specify a threshold for disclosure. Six universities required disclosure to the institutional review board as well as to a committee on conflicts of interest or a university official. Four universities had stricter requirements for investigators conducting clinical trials than required by federal regulations. One university prohibited investigators from having stock, stock options, consulting agreements, or decision-making positions involving a company that sponsored the research. A second university prohibited researchers from trading stock or stock options in a company that sponsored the research or sold the product or device under study. Two universities ordinarily did not allow faculty members to participate in clinical research if they had what federal regulations refer to as a "significant" financial interest in the company owning the product or device being studied, but exceptions were allowed. CONCLUSIONS: Policies governing conflicts of interest at leading medical schools in the United States vary widely. We suggest that university-based investigators and research staff be prohibited from holding stock, stock options, or decision-making positions in a company that may reasonably appear to be affected by the results of their clinical research. Of the 10 medical schools we studied, only 1 had a policy that was close to this standard.  (+info)

A national survey of policies on disclosure of conflicts of interest in biomedical research. (8/730)

BACKGROUND: Conflicts of interest pose a threat to the integrity of scientific research. The current regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation require that medical schools and other research institutions report the existence of conflicts of interest to the funding agency but allow the institutions to manage conflicts internally. The regulations do not specify how to do so. METHODS: We surveyed all medical schools (127) and other research institutions (170) that received more than $5 million in total grants annually from the National Institutes of Health or the National Science Foundation; 48 journals in basic science and clinical medicine; and 17 federal agencies in order to analyze their policies on conflicts of interest. RESULTS: Of the 297 institutions, 250 (84 percent) responded by March 2000, as did 47 of the 48 journals and 16 of the 17 federal agencies. Fifteen of the 250 institutions (6 percent)--5 medical schools and 10 other research institutions--reported that they had no policy on conflicts of interest. Among the institutions that had policies, there was marked variation in the definition and management of conflicts. Ninety-one percent had policies that adhered to the federal threshold for disclosure ($10,000 in annual income or equity in a relevant company or 5 percent ownership), and 9 percent had policies that exceeded the federal guidelines. Only 8 percent had policies requiring disclosure to funding agencies, only 7 percent had such policies regarding journals, and only 1 percent had policies requiring the disclosure of information to the relevant institutional review boards or to research subjects. Twenty journals (43 percent) reported that they had policies requiring disclosure of conflicts of interest. Only four federal agencies had policies that explicitly addressed conflicts of interest in extramural research, and all but one of the agencies relied primarily on institutional discretion. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial variation among policies on conflicts of interest at medical schools and other research institutions. This variation, combined with the fact that many scientific journals and funding agencies do not require disclosure of conflicts of interest, suggests that the current standards may not be adequate to maintain a high level of scientific integrity.  (+info)

Research personnel, in the context of medical and scientific research, refers to individuals who are involved in the design, conduct, or reporting of research studies. This can include, but is not limited to, principal investigators, co-investigators, research assistants, research coordinators, data managers, biostatisticians, and laboratory technicians. These individuals may have various levels of education, training, and expertise, and their roles and responsibilities will depend on the specific research study and their individual qualifications. It is important for research personnel to adhere to ethical guidelines and regulations in order to ensure the integrity and validity of research findings.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Military Personnel" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who serve in the military forces of a country, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Medical terms typically refer to specific conditions, diagnoses, treatments, or anatomical features related to healthcare. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify!

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

'Hospital Personnel' is a general term that refers to all individuals who are employed by or provide services on behalf of a hospital. This can include, but is not limited to:

1. Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, and technicians.
2. Administrative staff who manage the hospital's operations, including human resources, finance, and management.
3. Support services personnel such as maintenance workers, food service workers, housekeeping staff, and volunteers.
4. Medical students, interns, and trainees who are gaining clinical experience in the hospital setting.

All of these individuals play a critical role in ensuring that the hospital runs smoothly and provides high-quality care to its patients.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

Research ethics refers to the principles and guidelines that govern the conduct of research involving human participants or animals. The overarching goal of research ethics is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that respects the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of all those involved. Research ethics are designed to prevent harm, promote fairness, and maintain trust between researchers and study participants.

Some key principles of research ethics include:

1. Respect for Persons: This means treating all individuals with respect and dignity, and recognizing their autonomy and right to make informed decisions about participating in research.
2. Beneficence: Researchers have a duty to maximize the benefits of research while minimizing potential harms.
3. Justice: Research should be conducted fairly, without discrimination or bias, and should benefit all those who are affected by it.
4. Confidentiality: Researchers must protect the privacy and confidentiality of study participants, including their personal information and data.
5. Informed Consent: Participants must give their voluntary and informed consent to participate in research, after being fully informed about the nature of the study, its risks and benefits, and their rights as a participant.

Research ethics are typically overseen by institutional review boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees (RECs), which review research proposals and monitor ongoing studies to ensure that they comply with ethical guidelines. Researchers who violate these guidelines may face sanctions, including loss of funding, suspension or revocation of their research privileges, or legal action.

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

Nursing research is a scientific investigation that systematically studies nursing phenomena and related outcomes to establish best practices, improve patient care, and advance the profession of nursing. It utilizes various research methods and theories to address questions and problems relevant to nursing practice, education, administration, and policy-making. The ultimate goal of nursing research is to generate evidence-based knowledge that informs nursing interventions, enhances patient outcomes, and contributes to the development of nursing science.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Personnel Management" and "medical definition" are two separate concepts that don't typically intersect.

Personnel management is a function of management concerned with hiring, training, developing, compensating, and motivating employees, as well as maintaining appropriate records and ensuring legal compliance. It's a crucial aspect of human resource management in any organization, including healthcare institutions.

However, if you're looking for a medical term related to the management of personnel in a healthcare setting, you might consider "Healthcare Human Resources Management" or "Clinical Workforce Management." These terms refer to the specific application of personnel management principles and practices within the context of healthcare organizations.

Translational medical research, also known as "translational research," refers to the process of turning basic scientific discoveries into clinical interventions that improve human health and well-being. This type of research aims to "translate" findings from laboratory, animal, or cellular studies into practical applications for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases.

Translational medical research typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, bringing together researchers from various fields such as biology, chemistry, engineering, genetics, and medicine to work collaboratively on solving complex health problems. The process often includes several stages, including:

1. Identifying basic scientific discoveries that have the potential to be translated into clinical applications.
2. Developing and optimizing new diagnostic tools, drugs, or therapies based on these discoveries.
3. Conducting preclinical studies in the laboratory or with animal models to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these interventions.
4. Designing and implementing clinical trials to test the effectiveness and safety of the new interventions in human patients.
5. Disseminating research findings to the scientific community, healthcare providers, and the public to facilitate the adoption of new practices or treatments.

Translational medical research is essential for bridging the gap between basic scientific discoveries and clinical applications, ultimately improving patient care and outcomes.

Allied health personnel refers to a group of healthcare professionals who are licensed or regulated to provide specific services within the healthcare system. They work in collaboration with physicians and other healthcare providers to deliver comprehensive medical care. Allied health personnel include various disciplines such as:

1. Occupational therapists
2. Physical therapists
3. Speech-language pathologists
4. Audiologists
5. Respiratory therapists
6. Dietitians and nutritionists
7. Social workers
8. Diagnostic medical sonographers
9. Radiologic technologists
10. Clinical laboratory scientists
11. Genetic counselors
12. Rehabilitation counselors
13. Therapeutic recreation specialists

These professionals play a crucial role in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions and are essential members of the healthcare team.

"Military medicine" is a specific branch of medical practice that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and injuries in military populations. It encompasses the provision of healthcare services to military personnel, both in peacetime and during times of conflict or emergency situations. This may include providing care in combat zones, managing mass casualties, delivering preventive medicine programs, conducting medical research, and providing medical support during peacekeeping missions and humanitarian assistance efforts. Military medicine also places a strong emphasis on the development and use of specialized equipment, techniques, and protocols to ensure the best possible medical care for military personnel in challenging environments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Medical Laboratory Personnel are professionals who perform and interpret various laboratory tests to assist physicians in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating diseases and other medical conditions. They work in different areas of the clinical laboratory such as chemistry, hematology, immunology, microbiology, and transfusion medicine.

Their responsibilities may include collecting and processing specimens, operating and maintaining laboratory equipment, performing tests and procedures, analyzing results, conducting quality control, maintaining records, and reporting findings to healthcare providers. Medical Laboratory Personnel play a critical role in ensuring the accuracy and timeliness of diagnostic information, which is essential for providing effective medical care.

Medical Laboratory Personnel may hold various job titles, including Medical Laboratory Technologist (MLT), Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS), Clinical Laboratory Scientist (CLS), Medical Technologist (MT), Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT), and Clinical Laboratory Technician (CLT). The specific duties and educational requirements for these positions may vary depending on the laboratory setting, state regulations, and professional certification.

Genetic research is a branch of biomedical science that involves the study of genes, their functions, and heredity. It aims to understand how genetic variations contribute to human health and disease by using various scientific approaches such as genetics, genomics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and bioinformatics.

Genetic research can be conducted on humans, animals, or plants, and it can focus on a variety of areas including:

1. Identifying genes associated with specific diseases or traits
2. Understanding how genes are regulated and expressed
3. Investigating the role of genetic mutations in disease development
4. Developing new diagnostic tests and treatments based on genetic information
5. Exploring evolutionary relationships between species
6. Examining ethical, legal, and social implications of genetic research.

Genetic research has led to significant advances in our understanding of many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. It also holds great promise for personalized medicine, which tailors treatments to individual patients based on their genetic makeup.

Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) are healthcare professionals who provide emergency medical services to critically ill or injured individuals. They are trained to assess a patient's condition, manage respiratory, cardiac, and trauma emergencies, and administer basic life support care. EMTs may also perform emergency procedures such as spinal immobilization, automated external defibrillation, and administer medications under certain circumstances.

EMTs typically work in ambulances, fire departments, hospitals, and other emergency medical settings. They must be able to work in high-stress situations, make quick decisions, and communicate effectively with other healthcare providers. EMTs are required to obtain certification and maintain continuing education to ensure they are up-to-date on the latest practices and protocols in emergency medicine.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "Personnel Staffing and Scheduling," but I can provide you with a general definition that is widely used in the healthcare industry.

"Personnel Staffing and Scheduling" refers to the process of managing and allocating healthcare personnel resources to ensure appropriate staffing levels and schedules to meet the demand for patient care services. It involves determining the right number and mix of qualified healthcare professionals, such as physicians, nurses, therapists, and other support staff, required to provide safe and high-quality patient care.

Effective personnel staffing and scheduling aim to match the supply of healthcare personnel with the demand for patient care services while considering factors such as patient acuity, skill mix, workload, and productivity. It also involves addressing issues related to employee satisfaction, work-life balance, fatigue management, and regulatory compliance.

Proper personnel staffing and scheduling are critical in ensuring that healthcare organizations can deliver safe, high-quality care to their patients while maintaining the well-being and job satisfaction of their employees.

Clinical nursing research is a branch of scientific inquiry that focuses on the design, implementation, and evaluation of studies aimed at improving patient care and outcomes through the development of evidence-based practices within the nursing profession. This type of research is conducted in clinical settings such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, and often involves collaboration between nurses, other healthcare professionals, and researchers from various disciplines.

The goals of clinical nursing research include:

1. Identifying patient care needs and priorities
2. Developing and testing innovative interventions to improve patient outcomes
3. Evaluating the effectiveness of current practices and treatments
4. Disseminating research findings to inform evidence-based practice
5. Advancing nursing knowledge and theory

Clinical nursing research can encompass a wide range of topics, including symptom management, patient safety, quality improvement, health promotion, and end-of-life care. The ultimate aim of this research is to improve the quality of care delivered to patients and their families, as well as to enhance the professional practice of nursing.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a collaborative research approach that involves community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process. It is a partnership between researchers and communities that equitably involves all parties in the research to address and respond to community-identified issues. CBPR aims to combine knowledge and action for social change to improve community health and wellbeing. This approach recognizes the strengths and expertise of both community members and researchers, and it integrates scientific research methods with community knowledge and experiential wisdom. CBPR is guided by specific principles, including co-learning, capacity building, and reciprocal sharing of power and resources, to ensure that the research is relevant, accessible, and beneficial to the community.

Dental research is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of teeth, oral health, and related diseases. It involves various aspects of dental sciences such as oral biology, microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology, biomaterials, and biotechnology. The main aim of dental research is to improve oral health care, develop new diagnostic tools, prevent dental diseases, and create better treatment options for various dental conditions. Dental researchers may study topics such as tooth development, oral cancer, periodontal disease, dental caries (cavities), saliva composition, and the effects of nutrition on oral health. The findings from dental research can help improve dental care practices, inform public health policies, and advance our understanding of overall human health.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

Behavioral research is a branch of scientific study that focuses on observing and analyzing the behaviors of humans and animals in various situations. This type of research aims to understand the underlying factors that influence, shape, and motivate behavior, including cognitive processes, emotional responses, and environmental influences. In medical terms, behavioral research can be used to investigate how certain behaviors or lifestyle factors may contribute to the development, prevention, or management of health conditions. This may include studying patterns of substance use, dietary habits, physical activity levels, adherence to medical treatments, and other health-related behaviors. The goal of behavioral research in a medical context is often to develop interventions or strategies that can help promote positive health behaviors and improve overall health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "war" is not a medical term. It refers to a state of armed conflict between different nations or states or between political or social groups, usually with large-scale violence and loss of life. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Naval medicine, also known as marine medicine or maritime medicine, is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries that occur in naval or maritime environments. This can include conditions related to sea travel, such as motion sickness, decompression sickness, and infectious diseases spread through contaminated water or food. It also covers occupational health concerns for naval personnel, including hearing loss from exposure to loud noises, respiratory problems from inhaling fumes, and musculoskeletal injuries from heavy lifting. Additionally, naval medicine may address the unique mental health challenges faced by naval personnel, such as those related to isolation, stress, and combat.

The Iraq War (2003-2011) is not a medical term or concept. It refers to a military intervention and subsequent occupation of Iraq by the United States and its allies, which began on March 20, 2003, with the invasion of Iraq by U.S.-led forces. The stated reasons for the invasion included the presence of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq, which were never found, and the alleged links between the government of Saddam Hussein and terrorist organizations such as al-Qaeda, which were also not substantiated.

However, it is worth noting that the Iraq War had significant medical and public health consequences for both the Iraqi population and U.S. military personnel. The conflict resulted in widespread destruction of infrastructure, displacement of civilians, and a breakdown of healthcare services, leading to increased rates of infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mental health disorders among Iraqis. Additionally, U.S. soldiers were exposed to various health hazards during their deployment, including traumatic brain injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and exposure to toxic substances such as burn pits.

Therefore, while the term "Iraq War, 2003-2011" is not a medical definition, it does have important implications for medical research, practice, and policy related to military conflicts and their health impacts.

Laboratory personnel are individuals who work in a laboratory setting and are responsible for conducting various types of tests, experiments, and research activities. They may include, but are not limited to, the following roles:

1. Medical Technologists/Clinical Scientists: These professionals typically have a bachelor's or master's degree in medical technology or a related field and are responsible for performing complex laboratory tests, analyzing specimens, and reporting results. They may specialize in areas such as hematology, microbiology, chemistry, immunology, or molecular biology.

2. Laboratory Technicians: These individuals typically have an associate's degree or a certificate in medical laboratory technology and assist medical technologists in performing routine tests and maintaining laboratory equipment. They may prepare specimens, operate automated instruments, and perform quality control checks.

3. Research Assistants/Associates: These professionals work under the supervision of principal investigators or research scientists and are responsible for conducting experiments, collecting data, and analyzing samples in support of scientific research.

4. Laboratory Managers/Supervisors: These individuals oversee the day-to-day operations of the laboratory, ensuring that all procedures are followed correctly, maintaining quality control, managing staff, and handling administrative tasks such as ordering supplies and maintaining records.

5. Pathologists' Assistants: They work under the direction of pathologists to provide support in autopsy and surgical specimen examination, preparation, and histology.

6. Histotechnicians/Histology Technicians: These professionals prepare tissue samples for microscopic examination by cutting thin sections, staining them with dyes, and mounting them on slides. They work closely with pathologists and laboratory technologists to ensure accurate results.

7. Phlebotomists: Although not strictly laboratory personnel, phlebotomists are essential members of the healthcare team who draw blood samples from patients for laboratory testing. They must follow strict protocols to ensure proper specimen collection and handling.

8. Other Specialist Roles: Depending on the specific laboratory setting, there may be additional specialist roles such as cytogenetic technologists, virologists, or toxicologists who have specialized knowledge and skills in their respective fields.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Personnel Staffing and Scheduling Information Systems" as it is more related to healthcare management and human resources. However, I can provide you with a general definition and explain its relevance to the medical field:

Personnel Staffing and Scheduling Information Systems refer to automated or computerized systems designed to manage and optimize staffing and scheduling processes within an organization. These systems help streamline workforce management by tracking employee availability, qualifications, and schedules while ensuring adequate coverage for various shifts, departments, or positions.

In the medical field, these systems are particularly important for managing healthcare personnel, such as nurses, doctors, and allied health professionals. Proper staffing and scheduling are crucial for maintaining high-quality patient care, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements, and optimizing resource allocation. Personnel Staffing and Scheduling Information Systems in healthcare can help:

1. Match staff skills and qualifications to patient needs and unit requirements.
2. Ensure adequate coverage during peak demand periods or emergencies.
3. Minimize overstaffing and reduce labor costs.
4. Prevent scheduling conflicts, fatigue, and burnout by tracking employee work hours and mandatory rest periods.
5. Facilitate communication between staff members, managers, and human resources departments.
6. Monitor compliance with labor laws, union rules, and organizational policies related to staffing and scheduling.
7. Provide data for workforce planning, performance evaluation, and continuous improvement initiatives.

Human experimentation is a branch of medical research that involves conducting experiments on human subjects. According to the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki, which sets ethical standards for medical research involving human subjects, human experimentation is defined as "systematic study designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge."

Human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials of new drugs or medical devices, observational studies, and interventional studies. In all cases, the principles of informed consent, risk minimization, and respect for the autonomy and dignity of the research subjects must be strictly adhered to.

Human experimentation has a controversial history, with many instances of unethical practices and abuse, such as the notorious Tuskegee syphilis study in which African American men were deliberately left untreated for syphilis without their informed consent. As a result, there are strict regulations and guidelines governing human experimentation to ensure that it is conducted ethically and with the utmost respect for the rights and welfare of research subjects.

The "Afghan Campaign" is a term commonly used to refer to the military intervention and ongoing efforts in Afghanistan, led by the United States and NATO forces, which began in October 2001. The campaign was launched in response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, with the primary objective of defeating al-Qaeda and removing the Taliban regime that had provided them safe haven.

The military intervention, known as Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), started with airstrikes against al-Qaeda and Taliban targets in Afghanistan. The ground invasion followed, led by the United States and supported by coalition forces from various countries, including NATO members. The initial success of the campaign resulted in the overthrow of the Taliban regime and the establishment of a new government in Afghanistan.

However, despite the initial victory, the situation in Afghanistan has remained volatile due to the ongoing insurgency led by the resurgent Taliban and other militant groups. The mission in Afghanistan has evolved over time, with the focus shifting from combat operations to training and advising Afghan security forces, counterinsurgency, and counterterrorism efforts.

The "Afghan Campaign" is also referred to as the "War in Afghanistan," and it represents one of the longest military conflicts in United States history. The campaign has involved various phases, including Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS), and NATO's Resolute Support Mission (RSM).

The medical aspects of the Afghan Campaign have been significant, with thousands of coalition forces injured or killed during the conflict. Additionally, the campaign has had a substantial impact on the healthcare system in Afghanistan, as well as the overall health and well-being of its population. The ongoing efforts to improve healthcare infrastructure, train medical personnel, and provide essential services to the Afghan people remain an important part of the broader mission in the region.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iraq" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Middle East. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "personnel delegation" is not a medical term. It is a general management or organizational concept that refers to the assignment of authority and responsibility to make decisions or take actions to specific individuals or teams within an organization. This allows for more efficient use of resources, clearer accountability, and increased autonomy for those to whom responsibilities are delegated.

In a medical setting, you might find this concept applied in various ways, such as when hospital administrators delegate certain decision-making authorities related to patient care or resource allocation to specific clinical departments or individual healthcare providers. However, the term "personnel delegation" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Informed consent is a process in medical care where patients are provided with all relevant information about their health status, proposed treatments, potential risks and benefits, and alternative options. This allows patients to make informed decisions regarding their healthcare and understand the consequences of their choices. The process includes ensuring that the patient has adequate mental capacity to make such decisions, is fully aware of the implications, and gives their voluntary agreement for the proposed treatment or procedure. It's a fundamental principle in medical ethics and is required by law in many jurisdictions to protect patients' rights.

'Afghanistan' is a country and not a medical term or condition. It is located in Central Asia and is bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, and the Arabian Sea. The country has a complex history with ongoing political and security challenges. If you are looking for information related to medical tourism or healthcare in Afghanistan, I can provide some general insights. However, please note that the medical facilities and services in Afghanistan may not be comparable to those in developed countries due to various factors such as infrastructure, resources, and expertise.

Cooperative behavior, in a medical or healthcare context, refers to the actions and attitudes displayed by individuals or groups working together to achieve a common goal related to health and well-being. This may involve patients following their healthcare providers' advice, healthcare professionals collaborating to diagnose and treat medical conditions, or communities coming together to promote healthy behaviors and environments. Cooperative behavior is essential for positive health outcomes, as it fosters trust, communication, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers, and helps to ensure that everyone involved in the care process is working towards the same goal.

An operating room, also known as an operating theatre or surgery suite, is a specially equipped and staffed hospital department where surgical procedures are performed. It is a sterile environment with controlled temperature, humidity, and air quality to minimize the risk of infection during surgeries. The room is typically equipped with medical equipment such as an operating table, surgical lights, anesthesia machines, monitoring equipment, and various surgical instruments. Access to the operating room is usually restricted to trained medical personnel to maintain a sterile environment and ensure patient safety.

An ambulance is a vehicle specifically equipped to provide emergency medical care and transportation to sick or injured individuals. The term "ambulance" generally refers to the vehicle itself, as well as the medical services provided within it.

The primary function of an ambulance is to quickly transport patients to a hospital or other medical facility where they can receive further treatment. However, many ambulances are also staffed with trained medical professionals, such as paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs), who can provide basic life support and advanced life support during transportation.

Ambulances may be equipped with a variety of medical equipment, including stretchers, oxygen tanks, heart monitors, defibrillators, and medication to treat various medical emergencies. Some ambulances may also have specialized equipment for transporting patients with specific needs, such as bariatric patients or those requiring critical care.

There are several types of ambulances, including:

1. Ground Ambulance: These are the most common type of ambulance and are designed to travel on roads and highways. They can range from basic transport vans to advanced mobile intensive care units (MICUs).
2. Air Ambulance: These are helicopters or fixed-wing aircraft that are used to transport patients over long distances or in remote areas where ground transportation is not feasible.
3. Water Ambulance: These are specialized boats or ships that are used to transport patients in coastal or aquatic environments, such as offshore oil rigs or cruise ships.
4. Bariatric Ambulance: These are specially designed ambulances that can accommodate patients who weigh over 300 pounds (136 kg). They typically have reinforced floors and walls, wider doors, and specialized lifting equipment to safely move the patient.
5. Critical Care Ambulance: These are advanced mobile intensive care units that are staffed with critical care nurses and paramedics. They are equipped with sophisticated medical equipment, such as ventilators and monitoring devices, to provide critical care during transportation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

"Personnel Selection," in a medical context, refers to the process of choosing and hiring healthcare professionals for various positions within a healthcare organization or setting. This process typically involves several steps, including job analysis, recruitment, application screening, interviews, testing, background checks, and reference checks. The goal is to identify and select the most qualified, competent, and suitable candidates who possess the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors to perform the job duties effectively and safely, while also aligning with the organization's mission, values, and culture. Personnel selection in healthcare aims to ensure high-quality patient care, improve patient outcomes, reduce medical errors, and enhance overall organizational performance.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

"Academies and Institutes" in a medical context typically refer to organizations that are dedicated to advancing knowledge, research, and education in a specific field of medicine or healthcare. These organizations often bring together experts and leaders in the field to share knowledge, conduct research, and develop guidelines or policies. They may also provide training and certification for healthcare professionals.

Examples of medical academies and institutes include:

* The National Academy of Medicine (NAM) in the United States, which provides independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation on medical and health issues.
* The Royal College of Physicians (RCP) in the United Kingdom, which is a professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, with a particular focus on physicians.
* The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC), which are two leading organizations focused on cardiovascular disease and healthcare.
* The World Health Organization (WHO) is an international organization that coordinates and directs global health activities, including research, policy-making, and service delivery.

These institutions play a crucial role in shaping medical practice and policy by providing evidence-based recommendations and guidelines, as well as training and certification for healthcare professionals.

'Laboratory animals' are defined as non-human creatures that are used in scientific research and experiments to study various biological phenomena, develop new medical treatments and therapies, test the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical devices, and other products. These animals are kept under controlled conditions in laboratory settings and are typically purpose-bred for research purposes.

The use of laboratory animals is subject to strict regulations and guidelines to ensure their humane treatment and welfare. The most commonly used species include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and fish. Other less common species may also be used depending on the specific research question being studied.

The primary goal of using laboratory animals in research is to advance our understanding of basic biological processes and develop new medical treatments that can improve human and animal health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding their welfare and potential for suffering.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

Empirical research is a type of scientific investigation that involves the collection and analysis of observable and measurable data to draw conclusions about patterns or relationships in reality. It is based on empirical evidence, which means evidence obtained through direct observation or experience, rather than theoretical reasoning or deduction. In medical research, empirical studies often involve the use of controlled experiments, surveys, or observational studies to test hypotheses and generate new knowledge about health, disease, and treatment outcomes. The results of empirical research can help inform clinical decision-making, public health policy, and future research directions.

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a system that provides immediate and urgent medical care, transportation, and treatment to patients who are experiencing an acute illness or injury that poses an immediate threat to their health, safety, or life. EMS is typically composed of trained professionals, such as emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and first responders, who work together to assess a patient's condition, administer appropriate medical interventions, and transport the patient to a hospital or other medical facility for further treatment.

The goal of EMS is to quickly and effectively stabilize patients in emergency situations, prevent further injury or illness, and ensure that they receive timely and appropriate medical care. This may involve providing basic life support (BLS) measures such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), controlling bleeding, and managing airway obstructions, as well as more advanced interventions such as administering medications, establishing intravenous lines, and performing emergency procedures like intubation or defibrillation.

EMS systems are typically organized and managed at the local or regional level, with coordination and oversight provided by public health agencies, hospitals, and other healthcare organizations. EMS providers may work for private companies, non-profit organizations, or government agencies, and they may be dispatched to emergencies via 911 or other emergency response systems.

In summary, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a critical component of the healthcare system that provides urgent medical care and transportation to patients who are experiencing acute illnesses or injuries. EMS professionals work together to quickly assess, stabilize, and transport patients to appropriate medical facilities for further treatment.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Laboratory Animal Science (also known as Experimental Animal Science) is a multidisciplinary field that involves the care, use, and breeding of animals for scientific research. It encompasses various disciplines such as veterinary medicine, biology, genetics, nutrition, and ethology to ensure the humane treatment, proper husbandry, and experimental validity when using animals in research.

The primary goal of laboratory animal science is to support and advance biological and medical knowledge by providing well-characterized and healthy animals for research purposes. This field also includes the development and implementation of guidelines, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research to ensure their welfare and minimize any potential distress or harm.

Embryo research refers to the scientific study and experimentation that involves human embryos. This research is conducted in order to gain a better understanding of human development during the earliest stages of life, as well as to investigate potential treatments for various diseases and conditions.

Human embryos used in research are typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures, in which sperm and eggs are combined in a laboratory dish to form an embryo. These embryos may be donated by individuals or couples who have undergone IVF treatments and have excess embryos that they do not plan to use for reproduction.

Embryo research can involve a variety of techniques, including stem cell research, genetic testing, and cloning. The goal of this research is to advance our knowledge of human development and disease, as well as to develop new treatments and therapies for a wide range of medical conditions. However, embryo research is a controversial topic, and there are ethical concerns surrounding the use of human embryos in scientific research.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Animal experimentation, also known as animal testing, refers to the use of non-human animals in scientific research and testing to understand the effects of various substances, treatments, or procedures on living organisms. This practice is performed with the goal of advancing medical and veterinary knowledge, developing new medications, treatments, and surgical techniques, as well as studying basic biological processes and diseases.

In animal experimentation, researchers expose animals to specific conditions, treatments, or substances and then analyze their responses, behaviors, physiological changes, or other outcomes. The selection of animal species for these experiments depends on the research question and the similarities between the animal model and the human or target species under investigation. Commonly used animals include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, primates, and dogs.

Animal experimentation has been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs and medical advancements throughout history. However, it remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding the treatment and welfare of animals used in research. Many organizations advocate for the reduction, refinement, or replacement (3Rs) of animal testing, aiming to minimize animal suffering and find alternative methods whenever possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational policy" is not a medical term. It falls under the broader category of management or administrative terminology.

An organizational policy generally refers to a formal statement or set of guidelines that outline an organization's approved course of action or conduct regarding various matters. These policies guide decision-making and help ensure consistent action across the organization. They can cover a wide range of topics, including (but not limited to) employee behavior, data security, patient care standards, and operational procedures.

In a healthcare setting, organizational policies play a crucial role in maintaining quality of care, ensuring patient safety, and complying with relevant laws and regulations.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

A laboratory (often abbreviated as lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurements may be performed. In the medical field, laboratories are specialized spaces for conducting diagnostic tests and analyzing samples of bodily fluids, tissues, or other substances to gain insights into patients' health status.

There are various types of medical laboratories, including:

1. Clinical Laboratories: These labs perform tests on patient specimens to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. They analyze blood, urine, stool, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and other samples for chemical components, cell counts, microorganisms, and genetic material.
2. Pathology Laboratories: These labs focus on the study of disease processes, causes, and effects. Histopathology involves examining tissue samples under a microscope to identify abnormalities or signs of diseases, while cytopathology deals with individual cells.
3. Microbiology Laboratories: In these labs, microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are cultured, identified, and studied to help diagnose infections and determine appropriate treatments.
4. Molecular Biology Laboratories: These labs deal with the study of biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, to understand their structure, function, and interactions. They often use techniques like PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and gene sequencing for diagnostic purposes.
5. Immunology Laboratories: These labs specialize in the study of the immune system and its responses to various stimuli, including infectious agents and allergens. They perform tests to diagnose immunological disorders, monitor immune function, and assess vaccine effectiveness.
6. Toxicology Laboratories: These labs analyze biological samples for the presence and concentration of chemicals, drugs, or toxins that may be harmful to human health. They help identify potential causes of poisoning, drug interactions, and substance abuse.
7. Blood Banks: Although not traditionally considered laboratories, blood banks are specialized facilities that collect, test, store, and distribute blood and its components for transfusion purposes.

Medical laboratories play a crucial role in diagnosing diseases, monitoring disease progression, guiding treatment decisions, and assessing patient outcomes. They must adhere to strict quality control measures and regulatory guidelines to ensure accurate and reliable results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "publishing" is not a term that has a medical definition. Publishing typically refers to the process of preparing and disseminating information, such as books, journals, or articles, to the public or a specific audience. It could involve both print and digital media. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

An Animal Technician, also known as a Laboratory Animal Technician, is a professional who cares for and handles animals in a research or testing facility. They are responsible for ensuring the welfare and well-being of the animals, which includes providing them with proper housing, feeding, and medical care. They also assist researchers and veterinarians with procedures and experiments involving animals, and help to maintain accurate records of animal health and behavior.

Animal Technicians must have a strong understanding of animal biology, husbandry, and ethology, as well as knowledge of relevant regulations and guidelines governing the use of animals in research. They may work with a variety of species, including rodents, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and farm animals.

In addition to their technical skills, Animal Technicians must also have excellent observational and communication skills, as they are often responsible for monitoring animal behavior and reporting any changes or concerns to researchers or veterinarians. They must be able to work independently and as part of a team, and may need to work flexible hours, including evenings and weekends, to meet the needs of the animals in their care.

"Health manpower" is a term that refers to the number and type of healthcare professionals (such as doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, and support staff) who are available to provide healthcare services in a particular area or system. It's an important consideration in healthcare planning and policy, as the availability and distribution of health manpower can have a significant impact on access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes.

Therefore, medical definition of 'Health Manpower' could be: "The composition and distribution of healthcare professionals who are available to deliver healthcare services, including their skills, training, and experience. Health manpower is an essential component of healthcare systems and is influenced by factors such as population needs, workforce supply, and government policies."

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Occupational health is a branch of medicine that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all types of jobs. The goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities, while also promoting the overall health and safety of employees. This may involve identifying and assessing potential hazards in the workplace, implementing controls to reduce or eliminate those hazards, providing education and training to workers on safe practices, and conducting medical surveillance and screenings to detect early signs of work-related health problems.

Occupational health also involves working closely with employers, employees, and other stakeholders to develop policies and programs that support the health and well-being of workers. This may include promoting healthy lifestyles, providing access to mental health resources, and supporting return-to-work programs for injured or ill workers. Ultimately, the goal of occupational health is to create a safe and healthy work environment that enables employees to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently, while also protecting their long-term health and well-being.

Combat disorders are a category of mental health conditions that can occur in military personnel as a result of their experiences during combat. These disorders can include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders, among others. Combat disorders may be caused by exposure to traumatic events, such as experiencing or witnessing combat, the threat of death or serious injury, or the loss of fellow soldiers. Symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance of reminders of the trauma, difficulty sleeping, irritability, and feelings of detachment or numbness. Treatment for combat disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy.

A "Research Report" in the medical context is a comprehensive and systematic documentation of the entire process, findings, and conclusions of a scientific research study. It typically includes an abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion sections. The report may also contain information about the funding sources, potential conflicts of interest, and ethical considerations related to the research. The purpose of a research report is to allow other researchers to critically evaluate the study, replicate its findings, and build upon its knowledge. It should adhere to strict standards of scientific reporting and be written in a clear, concise, and objective manner.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Program Development" is not a medical term. It is a general term that refers to the process of creating, planning, and implementing a new program or project, typically in a business, education, or community setting. In a healthcare context, it might refer to the development of a new healthcare service, treatment program, or educational initiative.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to try and help!

Stem cell research is a branch of medical science that focuses on the study and application of stem cells, which are undifferentiated or unspecialized cells with the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types in the body. These cells have the potential to regenerate and repair damaged tissues and organs, making them a promising area of research for the development of new treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, heart disease, and more.

Stem cell research involves several key areas, such as:

1. Isolation and culture: Scientists isolate stem cells from various sources, such as embryos, umbilical cord blood, or adult tissues, and grow them in a lab to study their properties and behaviors.
2. Differentiation: Researchers induce stem cells to differentiate into specific cell types, such as heart cells, brain cells, or pancreatic cells, by exposing them to various growth factors and other chemical signals.
3. Genetic modification: Scientists may modify the genes of stem cells to enhance their therapeutic potential or to study the effects of genetic mutations on cell behavior and development.
4. Transplantation: In some cases, researchers transplant stem cells into animal models or human patients to investigate their ability to repair damaged tissues and organs.
5. Ethical considerations: Stem cell research raises several ethical concerns related to the use of embryonic stem cells, which are derived from human embryos. These concerns have led to ongoing debates about the limits and regulations surrounding this area of research.

Overall, stem cell research holds great promise for the development of new medical treatments and therapies, but it also requires careful consideration of ethical issues and rigorous scientific investigation to ensure its safety and effectiveness.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

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Hare, A.P. (1976). Handbook of small group research (2nd ed.). New York: Free Press. Hoyle, R. H. & Crawford, A.M. (1994). "Use ... Van Zelst, R.H. (1952). "Sociometrically selected work teams increase production". Personnel Psychology. 5 (3): 175-185. doi: ... Carron A. V. & Spink, K.S. (1995). "The group-size cohesion relationship in minimal groups". Small Group Research. 26 (1): 86- ... Carron, A.V.; Brawley, L.R. (2000). "Cohesion: Conceptual and measurement issues". Small Group Research. 31 (1): 89-106. doi: ...
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"Recruitment in personnel psychology and beyond: Where we've been working, and where we might work next". Personnel Psychology. ... Bowers, Deborah; Kleiner, Brian H. (2005-01-01). "Behavioural interviewing". Management Research News. 28 (11/12): 107-114. doi ... Career Research. 2015-01-29. Retrieved 2020-04-17. Tippins, James L. Farr, Nancy T., ed. (2017-03-30). Handbook of Employee ... Review of Public Personnel Administration. 40 (2): 245-271. doi:10.1177/0734371X18804016. ISSN 0734-371X. Lavigna, Robert J.; ...
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A Meta-Analysis and Future Research Agenda". Personnel Assessment and Decisions. 2 (1). doi:10.25035/pad.2016.002. Sears, J. ... This research needs to be done across various domains outside of the education sector. Research also needs to clarify ... Research has found different findings based on interviewers' perceptions of the disability. For example, some research has ... Narrative and Quantitative Review of the Research Literature". Personnel Psychology. 67 (1): 241-293. doi:10.1111/peps.12052. ...
Red Kite / Air Research. ISBN 978-0-9546201-1-0. "Personnel Database". Air Transport Auxiliary. Retrieved 4 January 2023. " ... Polish female military personnel, Polish military personnel of World War II, Polish military aviators). ...
Research, and Practice (2010) Robert Killoren (2014) The Toll of Workplace Bullying - Research Management Review, Volume 20, ... While not all places with high personnel turnover are sites of workplace bullying, nearly every place that has a bully in ... Research suggests that organizational justice plays a significant role in an employee's intention to exit an organization. ... International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 6(5), 2371-2382. e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Getachew, Y. (2017). ...
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Industrial Psychology Research Centre 1-26. Pidgeon, N.; O'Leary, M. (2000). "Man-Made Disasters: why technology and ... Under 6% of incidents were due to front-line personnel deliberately not following procedures.). There can be no objection to ... Although the overall culture of an organization may affect the behaviour of employees, much research has focused on the effect ... "Safe Science: Promoting a Culture of Safety in Academic Chemical Research (2014) : Division on Earth and Life Studies". dels. ...
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Research shows that teachers create a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy in their assessment of students, granting those they ... 1988). The Personnel Evaluation Standards: How to Assess Systems for Evaluating Educators. Archived 2005-12-12 at the Wayback ... The longitudinal research conducted by scientists shows that students with high test scores are more likely to take the ... A longitudinal research in 2007 has demonstrated that major life accomplishments, such as publishing a novel or patenting ...
Personnel Office 31. Main office block 32. Works Pay Stations 33. The Research Pilot Plant. 34. The Green Ore Store. 35. Works ...
"EROS Research Group - Tools". Elliot, Andrew J.; Thrash, Todd M. (2002). "Approach-avoidance motivation in personality: ... Personnel Psychology. 66: 261-286. doi:10.1111/peps.12010. S2CID 54056768. Hofmann, Stefan G. (2014-05-23). "Interpersonal ... Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 208-227. Mackay, H. C.; Barkham, M.; Stiles, W. B.; Goldfried ... The concept of interpersonal emotion regulation stems from earlier research into emotional self-regulation, which is the within ...
Some research suggests an association between personality and job satisfaction. Specifically, this research describes the role ... Kornhauser, A. W. (1930). "Industrial psychology in England, Germany and the United States". Personnel Journal. 8: 421-434. ... Some research suggests moods are related to overall job satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be ... Some research suggests genetics also play a role in the intrinsic, direct experiences of job satisfaction like challenge or ...
"Personnel". College and Research Libraries. 16 (3): 305-306. July 1955. Retrieved 6 January 2020. Hylton, Raymond (2014). ...
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There is research that suggests that the negative effects can be mediated if teams are managed appropriately. Research in this ... Personnel Psychology. 76: 249-278. doi:10.1111/peps.12501. S2CID 246348816. Hollingshead, A. B., Wittenbaum, G. M., Paulus, P. ... Williams, K., & O'Reilly, C. (1998). Demography and diversity in organizations: A review of 40 years of research. Research in ... There is some research that indicates diverse groups have increased information-processing power that can result in a net gain ...
Personnel and Readiness). This DoD research center: Conducts applied research and development to improve personnel suitability ... v t e v t e The Defense Personnel Security Research Center (PERSEREC) is an entity of the United States Department of Defense ( ... Defense Personnel Security Research Center. Retrieved 7 October 2020. Lisa A. Kramer; Kent S. Crawford; David A. Richmond (May ... Defense Personnel Security Research Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 1, 2022. Retrieved 7 October 2020. James A ...
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ORCID: 0000-0003-2664-2194 (2010). Ex-armed forces personnel and the criminal justice system. Probation Journal, 57(4), pp. 424 ... Taylor, E., Ex-armed forces personnel and the criminal justice system, Probation Journal 57 (4) pp. 424-425. Copyright © 2010 ...
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The Personnel Research and Analysis section guides the Human Resources work in the areas of certificated classification and ... Personnel Research and Analysis is responsible for the following work in certificated service: ... compensation, administrator recruitment and assessment, and personnel policy guides.. ...
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PERSONNEL TODAY. About us. Contact us. Browse all HR topics. Email newsletters. Content feeds. Cookies policy. Privacy policy. ... The Personnel Today Awards. The RAD Awards. Employee Benefits. Forum for Expatriate Management. OHW+. Whatmedia ...
Industrial Relations and Personnel Management: Selected Information Sources (Book Review) ... College & Research Libraries (C&RL) is the official, bi-monthly, online-only scholarly research journal of. the Association of ... Research is an Activity and a Subject of Study: A Proposed Metaconcept and Its Practical Application. (58814 views) ... Industrial Relations and Personnel Management: Selected Information Sources (Book Review). Barbara R. Healy ...
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... perceptions regarding clinician attire and recommend research to improve understanding about its potential to spread pathogens. ... Healthcare personnel attire in non-operating-room settings. Citation Text:. Bearman G, Bryant K, Leekha S, et al. Healthcare ... Healthcare personnel attire in non-operating-room settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35(2):107-21. doi:10.1086/ ... Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 5600 Fishers Lane. Rockville, MD 20857. Telephone: (301) 427-1364 ...
To preserve our military advantage we must ensure both our technology and defense personnel remain capable of succeeding ... Support Research Like This. With your support, BPC can continue to fund important research like this by combining the best ... Losing Our Edge: Pentagon Personnel Reform and the Dangers of Inaction Subscribe Share. ... Despite ongoing efforts to support military and civilian defense personnel, our nation risks failing to recruit, retain, and ...
Research & Innovation Health Care Technology Article Around MHS. Dec 27, 2022 Tele-Critical Care Brings New Capability to ... ADVISOR brings support to medical personnel in austere environments ADVISOR provides support to medical personnel in remote ... Air Force Research Laboratory Launches Wearable Biomolecular Sensors Program. Its like an aircrafts "black box" - that ... Field personnel are not on the Moon, but handling a medical crisis in faraway, resource-constrained locations can feel that way ...
Research and Evaluation of Personnel System. Records, Reports, Research and Evaluation of Personnel System. 1-13-1. (Authorized ... Content of employees official personnel records. (a) The official personnel record of each state employee shall include the ... the appropriate personnel from these agencies shall be permitted to access the other employees personnel record:. (1) the ... c) The official personnel record of each state employee shall be transferred with the employee if the employee is appointed to ...
How to set up a research space at the U of A for work with hazardous materials. ... Personnel in the space.. *Equipment in the space (e.g., lasers, x-rays, scintillation counters, biological safety cabinets, ... Research groups that generate hazardous waste should enroll in CHEMATIX, a web-based system to manage waste disposal. Based on ... This person should be a member of one of the research groups in the space and may be a chair, director, supervisor, foreman or ...
Job satisfaction and turnover among nurses: integrating research findings across studies. Nursing Research 1995;44:246-253.. 10 ... opportunity to write and publish and opportunity to participate in research 6 . Nurses were satisfied with personnel policy of ... Nursing Research 1993; 42:36-40.. 8. McNeese-Smith DK. The influence of manager behavior on nurses' job satisfaction, ... The present study is aimed to find out the levels of job satisfaction among nursing personnel. Materials and methods A state ...
Research Personnel. Fragopoulou Paraskevi , Affiliated Researcher Varlamis Iraklis , Affiliated Researcher Ιωαννίδης Σωτήριος ...
  • This is qualitative research on the perception of smoking in healthcare professionals assigned to psycho-rehabilitation programs for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. (
  • a qualitative research whose participants were 8 adolescents who self-injured, and 15 education professionals from a school in the inland of São Paulo. (
  • The economic turmoil has socked states just as many are attempting to move forward with ambitious new personnel models that could have big implications for those entrenched cost centers. (
  • Key research issues were discussed extensively. (
  • Industry-specific and extensively researched technical data (partially from exclusive partnerships). (
  • v t e v t e The Defense Personnel Security Research Center (PERSEREC) is an entity of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), based in Monterey, California, which seeks to improve the "effectiveness, efficiency, and fairness of DoD personnel suitability, security, and reliability systems. (
  • The Personnel Research and Analysis section guides the Human Resources work in the areas of certificated classification and compensation, administrator recruitment and assessment, and personnel policy guides. (
  • The Bipartisan Policy Center established its Task Force on Defense Personnel to identify opportunities to support the recruitment, retention, management, and training of the total force (military and defense civil servants) to better face the demands of a complex future national security environment. (
  • Race as a social construct in psychiatry research and practice. (
  • The following information includes speech-language pathology and audiology support personnel requirements in educational and other practice settings. (
  • 27 April 2015 - A workshop organized by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Nursing Development at the College of Health Sciences at the University of Bahrain, in collaboration with the WHO Regional Office, brought together 40 nursing leaders to determine nursing research priorities from 9 to 10 February 2015. (
  • It was also agreed to establish a national research network to be hosted by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Nursing Development at the College of Health Sciences. (
  • On returning to Sydney, Jodie spent several years working for Travel Research Centre prior to joining the Cameron Research group. (
  • Should JYNNEOS® be recommended for research and clinical laboratory personnel performing diagnostic testing for orthopoxviruses* and for designated response teams # at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses? (
  • Essential Duties and Responsibilities: Responsible for the technical and scientific oversight of the laboratory including testing personnel and personnel reporting test results Develops and maintains department objectives and services Develops and. (
  • She moved with her family to the United States in November of 1997, and participated in several research projects over the course of four years at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (
  • Currently, her focus is managing the mouse-breeding colony for the laboratory, and other research projects. (
  • She is a Lab Researcher in the Day Lab, maintaining various analytical instruments and working on research projects involving oxidative injury and protection in the lung. (
  • The meeting also discussed the establishment of a national nursing research network. (
  • Several background documents were used to guide the discussions, including: the Bahrain national research strategy, the Gulf Cooperation Council nursing strategic directions (governance, education, human resources, research and services development) and WHO's regional nursing strategic directions. (
  • It was recommeneded that a small task force prepare a proposal for the establishment of a Bahrain nursing research network. (
  • Abstract: A study was conducted in a tertiary level hospital of a state government to find out job satisfaction among nursing personnel. (
  • The present study is aimed to find out the levels of job satisfaction among nursing personnel. (
  • Nurses were asked to answer each statement Nursing and Midwifery Research Journal, Vol-1, No. 2, Jan. 2005 25 on five points Likert Scale i.e. strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. (
  • Amerikan Bord Heyeti (American Board), Istanbul, "Personnel records for Mary C. Rogers Nute," American Research Institute in Turkey, Istanbul Center Library, online in Digital Library for International Research Archive, Item #15338, (accessed September 22, 2023). (
  • Amerikan Bord Heyeti (American Board), Istanbul, "Personnel records for Doris Roberts," American Research Institute in Turkey, Istanbul Center Library, online in Digital Library for International Research Archive, Item #15507, (accessed December 11, 2023). (
  • PERSEREC reports to the Office of People Analytics (OPA), which reports to the Defense Human Resources Activity (DHRA), which reports to the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness). (
  • With respect to military fitness levels and performance, tobacco use impairs troop readiness and undermines the ability of active-duty personnel to complete a multitude of tasks that lie at the core of the military's mission. (
  • To address possible capability gaps in its systems, the U.S. Army should examine options for countering long-range rockets, support research and development in robotics, consider approaches to lighten the loads for infantrymen, and examine the need for a new specialized manned reconnaissance aircraft. (
  • Human and financial resources for research and experimental development in the medical sciences / Division of Statistics on Science and Technology, Office of Statistics. (
  • This statistic represents the number of people paid for research and development (R&D) activities in full-time equivalent research in France between 2008 and 2019. (
  • In 2019, 461,891 full-time equivalent people worked in research and development. (
  • The research and development expenditures and personnel information is used by federal, provincial and territorial governments and agencies, academics and international organizations for statistical analyses and policy purposes. (
  • These data also contribute to national totals of research and development activities. (
  • The shared data will be limited to information on in-house research and development expenditures (Question 18) and in-house research and development personnel (Question 26) pertaining to business establishments located within the jurisdiction of the respective province or territory. (
  • Healthcare personnel attire in non-operating-room settings. (
  • Are the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality obstetric trauma indicators valid measures of hospital safety? (
  • Ethics and regulation of clinical research / Robert J. Levine. (
  • Position Overview Apex Dermatology & Skin Surgery Center and Apex Clinical Research Center Team is a rapidly growing skincare facility that empowers employees to deliver exceptional patient experiences. (
  • Required annually* for employees who work with hazardous materials in Technical Research Areas. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Research personnel. (
  • Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. (
  • Cameron Research , founded in 1992, specialises in providing marketing research and strategy services to large businesses seeking to develop their understanding and insight into small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and their business owners. (
  • The Nkoranza South District Director of Agricultural Services, Mr Mac-Lawrence Ahiadu, who presided, emphasized the need for service personnel to exhibit good morals to win the trust and confidence of the people. (
  • DoD chose Monterey to locate PERSEREC near the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) West and the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to take advantage of an existing group of personnel security researchers. (
  • Use of human primary cells in advanced in vitro models, high-content screening, high-throughput technologies, omics and data curation and analysis will form the methodological basis of research. (
  • Closing and locking doors deters property theft, prevents unwanted visitors and protects research data and information. (
  • And all told, personnel costs consume about 80 percent of school districts' budgets, according to the Educational Research Service , an Alexandria, Va., nonprofit that examines K-12 data and policy. (
  • Ross has worked in the market research and marketing consultancy areas for 30 years. (
  • CHACs Research Consultancy is a Market Research Consultancy specializing in end-to-end market research, insight generation and application to drive business growth. (
  • A leader in the scientific community, Dr. Simpkins has more than 400 publications and has had continuous research support for nearly four decades. (
  • Conduct scientific research on corresponding topics and publish high-level scientific research papers. (
  • The Malawi Medical Journal is a peer reviewed publication of scientific medical research and serves as a forum for the dissemination of findings of health-related research undertaken in Malawi to health workers in Malawi. (
  • We believe that there is an important role for MMJ to publish research that is relevant in the Malawian context and to encourage and stimulate scientific debate amongst health personnel. (
  • Several Huawei Technologies Co. employees have collaborated on research projects with Chinese armed forces personnel, indicating closer ties to the country's military than previously acknowledged by the smartphone and networking powerhouse. (
  • Those projects are just a few of the publicly disclosed studies that shed light on how staff at China's largest technology company teamed with the People's Liberation Army on research into an array of potential military and security applications. (
  • The key operational executive of Cameron Research is Ross Cameron , who personally conducts or directs all projects. (
  • Since joining Cameron Research, Jodie has been involved in most of the privately commissioned and syndicate research projects we have conducted since the mid 1990s. (
  • Awardees receive guidance and mentorship from our Research Education Core and projects receive additional 'in-kind' support from our innovative Resource Cores ( Design Core , Measurement Core , Analytics Core ). (
  • The idea was also to propose a framework where the SWEGENE platform users would get computerised support for their research projects. (
  • programs offered at an independent public policy research organization-the RAND Corporation. (
  • This would include training dedicated personnel to capture and analyse costs as well as a system for better collaboration among policy stakeholders both within and without the ministry. (
  • It incorporates original research studies, policy analysis, case reports, literature reviews and occasional special features. (
  • Starting out as a labor economist I have over the years published research on labor market policy, unemployment, the welfare state and the economic position of women. (
  • Content of employees' official personnel records. (
  • Bloomberg culled the papers from published periodicals and online research databases used mainly by Chinese academics and industry specialists. (
  • The main purpose of a bioinformatics platform within SWEGENE should be to provide com- putational facilities and logistical support [databases & infrastructure] for scientists whose primary research in biology and medicine benefit from computational approaches. (
  • ADVISOR provides support to medical personnel in remote operating locations (Courtesy of DHA Connected Health). (
  • Providing a single point of contact makes it easier for those frontline personnel to get the immediate assistance they need, which is why the Military Health System offers the Advanced Virtual Support for Operational Forces program, or ADVISOR. (
  • Think of ADVISOR as a "phone-a-friend" capability that connects field medical personnel with the MHS' best experts for when medical situations require assistance far from home - similar in spirit to NASA's Mission Control. (
  • Despite ongoing efforts to support military and civilian defense personnel, our nation risks failing to recruit, retain, and prepare a force adequate to meet future demands. (
  • With your support, BPC can continue to fund important research like this by combining the best ideas from both parties to promote health, security, and opportunity for all Americans. (
  • Audiology support personnel are not regulated in this setting. (
  • I have over the years taken part in a large number of outreach activities, i.a. in connection with my participation in different research councils, public commissions and public lectures. (
  • Monterey, California: Defense Personnel Security Research Center. (
  • A lot of state agencies and school districts are at a particular point where they barely have the money to cover the basic cost escalators in salaries," says Raegen T. Miller, the associate director for education research at the Center for American Progress, a Washington think tank. (
  • This is done by addressing 4 research topics: 1) the immunological mechanisms of inflammatory and infectious diseases, with particular focus on the pathological derangements of innate immunity and inflammation. (
  • Appeal Board and Personal Appearance Procedures for Adverse Personnel Security Determinations in the Department of Defense (PDF) (Report). (
  • POSITION SUMMARY: Tax Intern During your internship at Grant Thornton, you will be exposed to tax procedures including tax consulting and tax return preparation which will involve tax research, tax planning, and the preparation of supporting work. (
  • Taylor, E., Ex-armed forces personnel and the criminal justice system, Probation Journal 57 (4) pp. 424-425. (
  • College & Research Libraries ( C&RL ) is the official, bi-monthly, online-only scholarly research journal of the Association of College & Research Libraries, a division of the American Library Association. (
  • We have no cooperation with the military on research," he told reporters in Shenzhen in January, according to a transcript that Huawei provided. (
  • Studying military personnel with mild TBI, researchers found that an increased risk of suicide was significantly associated with depression and the interaction of depression with the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. (
  • U.S. military medical personnel often serve in remote operating locations with limited external communications and often a sparse health care infrastructure. (
  • James A. Riedel has been a director of research and supervised many publications. (
  • The coordinating director stressed the need for the service personnel to respect and obey the rules of organisations they had been posted to and to work hard to earn better testimonies for themselves. (
  • Mr Stephen S.B. Said, Nkoranza South District Director of the National Service Scheme, announced that a total number of 178 personnel made up of 137 service personnel and 41 volunteers had been posted to serve in the district. (
  • This reports provides a model to predict the supply and demand for researchers and research personnel required to meet Ireland's target for contributing to the European Research Area 3% Initiative. (
  • These risk analysis are presented to scouting personnel and management to allow them to understand the full scope of their current health condition. (
  • Personnel management -- Handbooks, manuals, etc. (
  • A strong translational effort will be made for transferring the research outputs into new preventive and therapeutic strategies. (
  • The research path was carried out in two assisted therapeutic communities that are clinics for the rehabilitation of serious mental illness in the period between November and July 2022. (
  • The point of view of health personnel (Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Pedagogists, and Nurses) about cigarette smoking in these patients was analyzed, focusing on their implications in disturbance and comparing them with e-cigarettes too. (
  • Huawei workers have teamed with members of various organs of the People's Liberation Army on at least 10 research endeavors spanning artificial intelligence to radio communications. (
  • Over the past decade, Huawei workers have teamed with members of various organs of the People's Liberation Army on at least 10 research endeavors spanning artificial intelligence to radio communications. (
  • The investigators reveal patients' and health care workers' perceptions regarding clinician attire and recommend research to improve understanding about its potential to spread pathogens. (
  • The first 18 months into the SWEGENE project, the fourth main effort within SWEGENE, bioinformatics, has not produced a proposal on how to meet the needs of the current bio- logical problem domain, or how they should advance into the near, and long term, future research areas within computational biology. (
  • and amendments thereto, the information contained in each state employee's official personnel record shall not be open to public inspection. (
  • The aim of this study is to present a mathematical formulation that integrates process scheduling and personnel allocation decisions for job shop large-scale plants. (
  • Your information may also be used by Statistics Canada for other statistical and research purposes. (
  • Additional safety training requirements apply for work with regulated and high-hazard materials, human subjects, and research animals. (
  • Huawei is not aware of its employees publishing research papers in their individual capacity," spokesman Glenn Schloss said in a messaged statement. (
  • structured interviews are usually more accurate predictors of which applicants will make suitable employees, according to research studies. (
  • Recommended for those who oversee safety and compliance in a UC San Diego research facility. (