Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.United StatesResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.JapanTumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Self-Examination: The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).
  • The next steps, now that a proof of principle has been established, are to identify specific microRNAs that can signal the presence of a variety of solid-tumor cancers at an early stage, and to further develop the technology to detect the microRNAs in minute quantities. (fredhutch.org)
  • The paper details the step-by-step approach that led to discovering microRNAs in plasma and serum components of blood, that microRNAs remain stable even after incubation at room temperature for 24 hours and after eight freeze/thaw cycles, and finally that tumor-derived microRNAs enter the circulation at levels sufficient to be measured as biomarkers for cancer. (fredhutch.org)
  • The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Currently, early detection is limited to few tumor entities and employs techniques like physical examination (skin), laboratory analyses (prostate) or endoscopy (colon). (unimedizin-mainz.de)
  • To allow detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), TRON has developed a highly sensitive and specific NGS-based method. (unimedizin-mainz.de)
  • The aberrant DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes is well documented in esophageal cancer, including adenocarcinoma (EAC) and squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) as well as in Barrett's esophagus (BE), a pre-malignant condition that is associated with chronic acid reflux. (nih.gov)
  • Ovarian cancer is when abnormal cells in the ovary begin to multiply out of control and form a tumor. (healthline.com)
  • Not everyone with a particular type of cancer will have a higher level of a tumor marker associated with that cancer, for example. (cancer.gov)
  • Moreover, tumor markers have not been identified for every type of cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • My lab also investigates pancreatic cancer genetics , epigenetics, molecular pathology, tumor stromal interactions and functional analysis of candidate genes and miRNAs. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In this area, our recent research has included studying cutaneous shave biopsies for diagnosing primary colonic adenocarcinoma as well as growth inhibition and apoptosis in human brain tumor cell lines using selenium. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The Atul Bedi Lab in the Head and Neck cancer research program provides fundamental insights into the molecular determinants and mechanisms by which tumor cells evade death signals entrained by the immune system and anticancer agents. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Their recent studies show that tumor -induced immune tolerance limits the in vivo anti- tumor efficacy of tumor -targeted antibodies and that the tumor cell-autonomous expression of transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) is a key molecular determinant of the de novo or acquired resistance of cancers to EGFR-targeted antibody. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Their laboratory has developed novel bi-functional antibody-based strategies to simultaneously counteract immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment and to enhance the anti- tumor efficacy of targeted antibody therapies for the treatment of cancer. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • For instance, KRAS mutations are present in up to 90% or more pancreatic cancers, yet developing a drug that specifically inhibits this abnormal tumor-specific signature has proven to be challenging. (mdanderson.org)
  • Samir Iqbal, an associate professor in the Electrical Engineering Department, detailed his team's results in a recent Nature s Scientific Reports paper ( 'Effects of Nanotexture on Electrical Profiling of Single Tumor Cell and Detection of Cancer from Blood in Microfluidic Channels' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • Using human plasma samples, tumor tissue, cancer cell lines, and genetically engineered mouse models, the origins of these proteins are being investigated. (stanford.edu)
  • Survival rates are high with surgical resection (removal of the tumor) but only if detected at an early stage. (northwestern.edu)
  • PWS is a paradigm shift, in that we don't need to examine the tumor itself to determine the presence of cancer," added Hariharan Subramanian, a research associate in Backman's lab who played a central role in the development of the technology. (northwestern.edu)
  • The mission of the Institute for Applied Cancer Science is to apply scientific knowledge of mechanisms driving tumor development and maintenance into the development of impactful small molecule cancer therapies. (mdanderson.org)
  • This subtype of tumor is frequently found in the junction between the stomach and the esophagus - a type of stomach cancer that has been dramatically increasing in the United States, he said. (medindia.net)
  • Virtual and conventional cystoscopy were comparable in detection of tumor growth in urinary bladder. (hindawi.com)
  • The detection of tumor-specific markers in urine has paved the way for new early noninvasive diagnostic approaches for prostate cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Prostate cancer represents the most common tumor in men in Europe and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer in men [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, while mutation-based assays are challenged by the rarity of tumor DNA within non-mutated DNA, analyzing the proteomic profile, is expected to enable earlier detection, as it reveals perturbations in both the tumor as well as in its microenvironment. (mcponline.org)
  • The Sherman Lab aims to understand the transcriptional and epigenetic gene-regulatory networks that underlie tumor-stroma interactions in pancreatic cancer, and to target these networks for therapeutic benefit. (ohsu.edu)
  • Our research focuses on the tumor-permissive molecular mechanisms underlying cancer-associated fibroblast function, and how these stromal mechanisms affect cell fate and function in the pancreatic epithelium with respect to gene expression, metabolism, and growth. (ohsu.edu)
  • Our laboratory uses a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the mechanistic underpinnings of the pancreatic tumor microenvironment, including mouse models of pancreatic cancer, three-dimensional cell culture systems such as patient-derived organoids, and diverse molecular- and cell-biological techniques focused on gene regulation. (ohsu.edu)
  • They recommend that men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer receive testing for inherited and tumor mutations, which could help direct treatment. (cancer.net)
  • Recognizing this, Tang is working with fellow members of Associate Professor Yu Chen's Biophotonic Imaging Laboratory to develop new diagnostic tools - including novel high-resolution imaging techniques - that could aid early colorectal cancer detection, and guide biopsy procedures to improve sampling accuracy. (umd.edu)
  • When a mammogram detects a suspicious lesion, a needle biopsy is performed to determine if it is cancer. (mit.edu)
  • In some cases, doctors need to take repeated biopsies if the cancer returns or if a treatment fails, and the patient is exposed to the risks of tissue biopsy again and again. (cancer.ca)
  • One potential way to improve early cancer detection is through liquid biopsy, which looks for signs of cancer in blood or other bodily fluids. (cancer.ca)
  • A liquid biopsy looks for signs of cancer in a person's bodily fluid - most often blood, but also urine, saliva, semen or other fluids. (cancer.ca)
  • In recent years, research into liquid biopsy has flourished. (cancer.ca)
  • Liquid biopsy is a relatively quick and easy test, especially compared to a tissue biopsy, and doctors do not need to access the tumour directly to get information about the cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • Because liquid biopsy looks for signs of cancer that have come directly from the tumour, some tests can analyze the tumour's genetic material. (cancer.ca)
  • Liquid biopsy is already being used for treatment selection, but the applications for it will expand," says Dr Shana Kelley , a professor and researcher at the University of Toronto who leads research developing liquid biopsy technology. (cancer.ca)
  • Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed by a combination of medical imaging techniques such as ultrasound or computed tomography , blood tests, and examination of tissue samples ( biopsy ). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a multicenter study comparing several groups of subjects with and without lung cancer by CT scan, biopsy and the breath test. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Fifteen years later, in 2013, Goggins and his colleagues, Marcia Canto, MD, and Anil Rustgi, MD, received one of two inaugural $1 million Research Acceleration Network (RAN) Grants from us, funded to honor the legacy of Skip Viragh. (pancan.org)
  • Glasgow, UK: Breast cancer could be detected up to five years before there are any clinical signs of it, using a blood test that identifies the body's immune response to substances produced by tumour cells, according to new research presented at the 2019 NCRI Cancer Conference today (Sunday). (eurekalert.org)
  • Be scientists, clinicians or healthcare workers in UK universities, medical schools, hospitals, CRUK Institutes or other research institutions. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • So, many scientists are researching early detection for pancreatic cancer. (pancan.org)
  • The three-year funding supports a collaborative effort involving around 25 physicists, biologists, statisticians, computational scientists and health-care professionals from William and Mary, Eastern Virginia Medical School (EVMS), the Applied Research Center and INCOGEN, a Williamsburg bioinformatics firm. (wm.edu)
  • Dariya Malyarenko and Tina Bunai, research scientists at William and Mary, are principal investigators on the project, along with Maciek Sasinowski of INCOGEN and John Semmes of EVMS. (wm.edu)
  • Dr. Vogelstein's other earlier detection project involves bringing together scientists from a broad range of disciplines such as radiology, physics, and vision science, which encompasses areas including how visual information is understood and how artificial systems can also process this information. (lustgarten.org)
  • Scientists and medical specialists at the BC Cancer Agency are eagerly looking forward to working with investigators from Hebrew University. (vancouverobserver.com)
  • In addition to those from the Hutchinson Center, scientists from the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, the Department of Urology at the University of Washington School of Medicine and the Department of Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System contributed to the research. (fredhutch.org)
  • Weill Cornell physicians and scientists are engaged in both basic and clinical research in the cutting-edge areas of genetics and gene therapy, neuroscience, structural biology, cancer, and cardiovascular medicine, among many other areas. (nyp.org)
  • At AACR 2017, thousands of doctors and scientists shared progress in cancer research. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Scientists have developed a new test to identify patients who are at risk of suffering a relapse from testicular cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • When examining the levels in all subjects, the scientists discovered that the patients with cancer had different levels of 18 metabolites than the others. (fromdoctor.com)
  • University of Otago scientists have discovered a way to view the immune cell 'landscape' of bowel cancer tumours, paving the way towards more individualised medicine and treatment for many other diseases in future. (otago.ac.nz)
  • University of Otago scientists have unravelled the 3D structure of two proteins, potentially providing answers as to why some people may be at risk of developing specific cancers. (otago.ac.nz)
  • A world-first discovery by University of Otago scientists may change the way children suffering from a rare form of kidney cancer are treated. (otago.ac.nz)
  • For nearly a century, scientists have recognized that cancer cells shift the way they generate energy. (frontiersin.org)
  • A new radioactive bacteria is being developed by scientists that could help treat patients who are suffering from pancreatic cancer. (medindia.net)
  • Scientists studied the treatment using mice with a highly aggressive form of pancreatic cancer. (medindia.net)
  • Several years ago scientists found that a weakened form of Listeria monocytogenes bacteria can infect cancer cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. (medindia.net)
  • Scientists have identified that pancreatic cancer cells growth and spread are fueled by an unusual metabolic pathway that someday might be blocked with targeted drugs to control the deadly cancer. (medindia.net)
  • MD Anderson Cancer Center promotes a nurturing environment to enhance collaboration among clinicians, physician scientists and basic scientists. (mdanderson.org)
  • NIEHS intramural scientists have defined descriptive terms of particular relevance to their own research, and have ranked those terms accordingly. (nih.gov)
  • Use the search box to see research highlights from NIEHS scientists since its founding in 1966. (nih.gov)
  • On April 22, at a Gala Celebration dinner , co-sponsored by Canadian Friends of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem together with the BC Cancer Foundation , Dr Gelmon will be honoured for her continuing commitment to accelerating discovery and implementation of critical advances. (vancouverobserver.com)
  • This page highlights some of the latest research in breast cancer, including clinical advances that may soon translate into improved care, NCI-supported programs that are fueling progress, and research findings from recent studies. (cancer.gov)
  • Research priorities were selected through a rigorous, consultative process to ensure agreement that each of these research advances would benefit Canadians and improve Canada's global competitiveness in cancer research. (cbcfontarioreport.ca)
  • It is of importance because it may precede the development of gastric cancer (GC). (hra.nhs.uk)
  • Early detection of gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • DESIGN--Prospective study of gastric cancer in dyspeptic patients aged over 40 from a defined population. (bmj.com)
  • Fifty seven were found to have gastric cancer, 36 being treated by potentially curative resection, including 15 with early cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Such a policy has the potential to reduce mortality from gastric cancer in the population. (bmj.com)
  • Hallissey M T , Allum W H , Jewkes A J , Ellis D J , Fielding J W . Early detection of gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • While the major cause of gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori , I thought there must be another specific bacteria associated with colorectal cancer. (titech.ac.jp)
  • He is director for translational research for the Center for Esophageal and Gastric Cancer at Dana-Farber, and an associate member of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. (medindia.net)
  • The gastric cancer research team collected fresh, frozen tissue specimens and blood samples from 295 patients from hospitals around the world who had not been treated with chemotherapy or radiation. (medindia.net)
  • To achieve these goals, the DMCC is expected to provide multi-disciplinary expertise in liver cancer research, biomarkers for cancer detection, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and the information technology infrastructure to support data management for the Consortium. (nih.gov)
  • New research has revealed that motorists pay more attention to their bumpers than their bumps with a new study revealing that a third of British adults (33 per cent) are not checking themselves as much as medically recommended for signs of treatable health conditions including breast cancer and testicular cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • The Consortium will consist of a Data Management and Coordinating Center (DMCC, to be supported by this U24 FOA) and several Translational Research Centers (TRCs, to be supported by the companion U01 FOA, RFA-CA-17-025). (nih.gov)
  • Dr Danielson explains that tumour cells release small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that circulate in the blood plasma which have recently been identified as novel biomarkers for bowel cancer. (voxy.co.nz)
  • Doctors take a sample directly from the suspected tumour and look at the tissue through a microscope to look for cancer cells. (cancer.ca)
  • Cancers can be immensely different from each other - not just different types of cancer, but also the same type of cancer in different people, and even different cells within the same tumour. (cancer.ca)
  • Assessing just three features of a common kind of testicular cancer - called non-seminomatous germ cell tumour - can identify those at most at risk of relapse even where there is no evidence of tumour spread. (news-medical.net)
  • The work of Professor Parry Guilford and his team at the University of Otago has received a major funding boost with a $50,000 donation from the Hugo Charitable Trust to support their work on circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) and cancer research. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Later they showed that it could be harnessed to carry an anti-cancer drug into tumour cells in laboratory cultures, but the approach was never tested in animals. (medindia.net)
  • Presenting the research at the NCRI Conference, Ms Daniyah Alfattani, a PhD student in the group, said: "The results of our study showed that breast cancer does induce autoantibodies against panels of specific tumour-associated antigens. (eurekalert.org)
  • Early detection of oral cancer: how do I ensure I don't miss a tumour? (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Early detection of oral cancer: how do I ensure I don't miss a tumour? (dundee.ac.uk)
  • A critical drawback, however, is that nearly all of the identified risk factors are associated predominantly with the less common and less lethal ovarian cancer subtypes and not with the most common and lethal type-high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). (nap.edu)
  • The oral rinse samples were tested for 36 different subtypes of HPV, including HPV16, the type responsible for most HPV-OPC cases as well as a variety of other cancers. (eurekalert.org)
  • The classification tree analysis for discrimination of benign condition from ovarian cancer resulted in 90% sensitivity and 91% specificity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • And finally, imaging cannot accurately differentiate a benign cyst in the pancreas from a growth that is likely to progress to invasive cancer. (pancan.org)
  • Specifically, the new model diagnosed 97 percent of cancers compared to 79 percent. (mit.edu)