Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.
A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)
The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.
Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.
Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.
Historically, the treatment of disease by the administration of animal organs or their extracts (after Brown-Sequard). At present synthetic preparations substitute for the extracts of a gland. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/408)

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

Evidence for a correlation between the number of marginal band microtubules and the size of vertebrate erthrocytes. (2/408)

In 23 species of vertebrates the dimensions of erythrocytes and the number of their marginal band microtubules were examined. A positive correlation was found between the size of erythrocytes and the number of microtubules. The absence of microtubules in diskoid erythrocytes of mammals-Camelidae-is discussed.  (+info)

Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates. (3/408)

1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate.  (+info)

Morphological and histochemical variations of mucous and oxynticopeptic cells in the stomach of the seps, Chalcides chalcides. (4/408)

Mucous and oxynticopeptic cells in the gastric mucosa of the seps, Chalcides chalcides (Linnaeus, 1758) were examined by standard histochemical staining methods and by lectin histochemistry. The epithelial mucous cells lining the surface of the stomach and the mucous cells of the fundic glands elaborated mainly neutral glycoproteins with beta(1,4)GlcNAc oligomers, GalNAc glycosidic residues and Gal beta1,3GalNAc terminal sequences. The mucous cells of the fundic glands were stained specifically with the Paradoxical Con A method. The mucosecreting cells of the pyloric glands produced neutral glycoproteins, with beta(1,4)GlcNAc oligomers, GalNAc residues and Gal beta1,3GalNAc terminal sequences. Terminal L-fucose bound to the penultimate GlcNAc residues, and/or difucosylated oligosaccharides were also present. The pyloric glands did not stain with the Paradoxical Con A procedure. The morphology of the oxynticopeptic cells changes from the oral to the aboral region of the fundic mucosa. In the oral fundic tract the oxynticopeptic cells showed cytoplasm filled with zymogen granules, while in the aboral fundic region these cells contained few zymogen granules and showed cytoplasm full of empty vesicles, typical of the acid secreting cells. A secretion gradient of proteolytic enzymes and hydrochloric acid along the fundic mucosa of the seps can be hypothesised.  (+info)

Genetic structure of natural populations of Escherichia coli in wild hosts on different continents. (5/408)

Current knowledge of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in the species Escherichia coli is based almost entirely on strains recovered from humans or zoo animals. In this study, we analyzed a collection of 202 strains obtained from 81 mammalian species representing 39 families and 14 orders in Australia and the Americas, as well as several reference strains; we also included a strain from a reptile and 10 from different families of birds collected in Mexico. The strains were characterized genotypically by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and phenotypically by patterns of sugar utilization, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid profile. MLEE analysis yielded an estimated genetic diversity (H) of 0.682 for 11 loci. The observed genetic diversity in this sample is the greatest yet reported for E. coli. However, this genetic diversity is not randomly distributed; geographic effects and host taxonomic group accounted for most of the genetic differentiation. The genetic relationship among the strains showed that they are more associated by origin and host order than is expected by chance. In a dendrogram, the ancestral cluster includes primarily strains from Australia and ECOR strains from groups B and C. The most differentiated E. coli in our analysis are strains from Mexican carnivores and strains from humans, including those in the ECOR group A. The kinds and numbers of sugars utilized by the strains varied by host taxonomic group and country of origin. Strains isolated from bats were found to exploit the greatest range of sugars, while those from primates utilized the fewest. Toxins are more frequent in strains from rodents from both continents than in any other taxonomic group. Strains from Mexican wild mammals were, on average, as resistant to antibiotics as strains from humans in cities. On average, the Australian strains presented a lower antibiotic resistance than the Mexican strains. However, strains recovered from hosts in cities carried significantly more plasmids than did strains isolated from wild mammals. Previous studies have shown that natural populations of E. coli harbor an extensive genetic diversity that is organized in a limited number of clones. However, knowledge of this worldwide bacterium has been limited. Here, we suggest that the strains from a wide range of wild hosts from different regions of the world are organized in an ecotypic structure where adaptation to the host plays an important role in the population structure.  (+info)

Developmental evolution: this side of paradise. (6/408)

It has long been appreciated that the evolution of snakes involved the loss of limbs and axis elongation, but their developmental basis has been obscure. It has now been shown that alterations in the deployment of Hox genes and an early block in the formation of hindlimb primordia underpin these modifications.  (+info)

Reptile-associated salmonellosis--selected states, 1996-1998. (7/408)

During 1996-1998, CDC received reports from approximately 16 state health departments of Salmonella infections in persons who had direct or indirect contact with reptiles (i.e., lizards, snakes, or turtles). Salmonella infection can result in invasive illness including sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Despite educational efforts, some reptile owners remain unaware that reptiles place them and their children at risk for salmonellosis. This report summarizes clinical and epidemiologic information in four cases and provides information about state regulations to prevent transmission of Salmonella spp. from reptiles to humans.  (+info)

Comparative development of the mammalian isocortex and the reptilian dorsal ventricular ridge. Evolutionary considerations. (8/408)

There has been a long debate about a possible homology between parts of the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) of reptiles and birds, and parts of the mammalian isocortex. Correspondence between these structures was originally proposed on the basis of connectional similarities between the DVR of birds and the mammalian auditory and extrastriate visual isocortical areas. Furthermore, the proposal of homology includes the possible embryological similarity of cells that give rise to the DVR and cells that give rise to the isocortex. Against this concept it has been claimed that the DVR and the isocortex originate in topographically different pallial compartments, an interpretation that is supported by recent developmental and molecular data. Other studies indicate that migrating cells can cross the borders between adjacent developmental compartments: cells that originate in subcortical components contribute a number of interneurons to the developing isocortex via tangential migration. This mechanism might reconcile the proposed homology with the developmental evidence, since cells originating in one compartment (the one corresponding to DVR) may become included in structures generated in a different compartment (the one corresponding to isocortex). However, there is no evidence in mammals of a structure homologous to the embryonic DVR that can produce isocortical neurons. In order to fully clarify the problem of isocortical origins, further comparative studies are needed of the embryonic development of the lateral and dorsal aspects of the cerebral hemispheres in amphibians, reptiles and mammals.  (+info)

The common name tuatara comes from Maori words meaning spines on back, in reference to the crest on the backs of males and females. Tuatara have a lizard-like appearance: both groups are elongate with four limbs (most lizards) and both lizards and tuatara are known to shed their tails (caudal autotomy). The groups diverge, however, on the presence or lack of a paired hemipenes, the morphology of the teeth and skull, and other important features. Tuatara are long-lived species, reaching sexual maturity at about 20 years. Two species of tuatara, Sphenodon guntheri and Sphenodon punctatus, are located in New Zealand, and are the only species known to exist ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Developmental stages and molecular phylogeny of Hepatozoon tuatarae, a parasite infecting the New Zealand tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus and the tick, Amblyomma sphenodonti. AU - Herbert, James. AU - Godfrey, Stephanie. AU - Bull, Christopher. AU - Menz, Robert. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - The developmental stages of Hepatozoon tuatarae were elucidated in both the tuatara host, Sphenodon punctatus and the tick, Amblyomma sphenodonti. PCR amplicons from A. sphenodonti samples identified DNA matching H. tuatarae. Dissection of tick samples showed oogenesis and sporogony occurring in the haemocoel of A. sphenodonti with the average mature oocyst size being 236 × 228 μm. Partial sequence data of the parasites small subunit ribosomal gene, obtained by PCR, was used for phylogenetic comparison. Characterisation of the H. tuatarae lifecycle will help in conservation management of the tuatara.. AB - The developmental stages of Hepatozoon tuatarae were elucidated in both the tuatara ...
Cotylosauria is considered as stem - reptiles. They closely resemble the Labyrinthodont amphibians. It is not easy to distinguish these two groups separately. In the Mesozoic era giant dinosaurs dominated the earth. In the late cretaceous period of Mesozoic era they became extinct In the present day world nearly 5,000 known species of reptiles are living. Reptiles are poikiothennic vertebrates. They are first true land vertebrates. They are the first amniotic group of vertebrate animals. The Present day reptiles are sphenodon, lizards, snakes, turtles and crocodiles. GENERAL CHARACTERS OF REPTILES The Reptiles origin from labyrinthodont Amphibians in the carboniferous period of Paleozoic era. Present day living Reptiles are 5,000 species. They have an endoskeleton of dry epidermal scales and in some, bony dermal plates are present. The Reptiles flourished in the Mesozoic era. Gant Dinosaurs dominated the earth and seas. Mesozoic era is the Golden age of Reptiies. Most of the giant Reptiles ...
Reptiles have become increasingly common as domestic pets, and with them reptile-associated Salmonella infections in humans. From 1990 to 2000, a total of 339 reptile-associated Salmonella cases were reported in Sweden. In 1996, as part of its efforts to adapt its import regulations to those of the European Union, Sweden no longer required certificates stating that imported animals were free of Salmonella. A subsequent increase was noted in the incidence of reptile-associated cases from 0.15/100,000 in the period 1990-1994 to 0.79/100,000 in 1996 and 1997. After a public education campaign directed toward the general public was begun through the news media, the incidence dropped to 0.46/100,000. Children were the most affected age group among patients (incidence 1.3/100,000). Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was the most frequent serotype (24% of isolates), followed by S. Typhimurium (9% of isolates). Import restrictions and public information campaigns are effective public health measures
Reptile is the common name for one of the main groups of land vertebrates. It is not used so much by biologists, who use more accurate terms. The name reptile comes from Latin and means one who creeps. All living reptile species are cold blooded, have scaly skin, and lay cleidoic eggs.[1][2] They excrete uric acid (instead of urea), and have a cloaca. A cloaca is a shared opening for the anus, urinary tract and reproductive ducts. Reptiles also share an arrangement of the heart and major blood vessels which is different from that of mammals.[3] Many important groups of reptiles are now extinct, for example the mosasaurs. We used to say the dinosaurs were extinct, but they survive in the form of their feathered descendants (birds). Ancient reptiles that do survive include the turtles, the crocodiles and the Tuatara, the lone survivor of its group. The great majority of present-day reptiles are snakes and lizards. The study of living reptiles is called herpetology. ...
Reptile is the common name for one of the main groups of land vertebrates. It is not used so much by biologists, who use more accurate terms. The name reptile comes from Latin and means one who creeps. All living reptile species are cold blooded, have scaly skin, and lay cleidoic eggs.[1][2] They excrete uric acid (instead of urea), and have a cloaca. A cloaca is a shared opening for the anus, urinary tract and reproductive ducts. Reptiles also share an arrangement of the heart and major blood vessels which is different from that of mammals.[3] Many important groups of reptiles are now extinct, for example the mosasaurs. We used to say the dinosaurs were extinct, but they survive in the form of their feathered descendants (birds). Ancient reptiles that do survive include the turtles, the crocodiles and the Tuatara, the lone survivor of its group. The great majority of present-day reptiles are snakes and lizards. The study of living reptiles is called herpetology. ...
There are countless species and varieties of reptiles around the world. Even though there are many differences, reptiles do share a few common traits.For starters, they use lungs to breathe. Lizards might breathe using the same muscles they use to run and crocodiles have a more flexible diaphragm, but overall, reptiles have lungs that are more advanced than amphibians, but not as refined as mammals. Reptiles also have scales made of keratin protein. Scales provide protection from predators, help retain water, and can play a role in courtship and territorial clashes. Reptiles are not the only animals to have scales, but it is a common characteristic among all reptiles.Another characteristic is that theyre all four-legged vertebrates (or descended from four-limbed animals, like snakes). This is another shared trait with other types of animals, which indicates that reptiles are an evolutionary middle ground of sorts between amphibians and mammals. For the most part, female reptiles lay eggs but ...
A very common myth is that reptiles are cold-blooded. In addition to describing a general temperature of reptilian blood, the term also entails the negative connotations of evil and lifelessness. To be sure, in the Biblical story of Adam and Eve, it was a serpent that deceived mankind. However, reptiles are not cold-blooded. On occasion, they are quite the contrary and can even be hot-blooded. This gradation results in reptiles being poikilothermic. Poikilotherms have a body temperature that is variable with environmental conditions. If the ambient temperature is warm or even hot, that leads to a reptile having warm or hot blood. Another physiological term that accurately depicts reptiles is ectothemy. Ectotherms control the uptake of heat from the environment as a way to control internal body temperature. Reptiles are both poikilothermic and ectothemic, but are not cold-blooded. Moreover, some larger reptiles, such as large crocodilians, sea turtles and large monitor lizards approach ...
The results presented here add a critical lineage to the emerging picture of MHC evolution in amniotes, with a genome-level characterization of MHC organization in an evolutionarily divergent reptile, the tuatara. The tuatara MHC region appears to be large with a high repeat content. We found a total of seven class I sequences and 11 class II β sequences, but some appeared to represent pseudogenes. Chromosome 13q appears to contain the core MHC, as clones containing classical class I, class II beta, and class II alpha chain genes map to here, but additional class I genes were located chromosome 4p.. The MHC in tuatara has low gene density compared with other species. We found at most five genes on individual BAC clones, and many clones contained only one or two genes and a high number of repetitive elements. The low density of tuatara MHC genes is a likely reason for challenges in identifying other MHC-associated genes like TAP1, TAP2, TAPBP, or C4 or framework genes like DAXX, BRD2, or TNXB on ...
Circulatory systems in fish, amphibians and mammals. Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals (Double Circulation).The circulatory system of a Frog forms a double loop. Adult frogs develop an apparatus and a digestive tract.Recall some of the adaptations each group has and how they help the animals better.RESPIRATION IN BIRDS-REPTILES-MAMMALS Respiratory System in Bird Respiratory System in Reptile Respiratory System in Mammals---a comparative anatomy.While something as basic as breathing may sound universal, the fact is that amphibians, birds, and mammals all do it differently.. The digestive system of birds is. the reproductive habits or mammals and those of reptiles, birds, and amphibians.Order Squamata Since reptiles were the first to inhabit dry land, several evolutionary changes were required in the.Many people who care for reptiles will at some point hear or read about the renal portal system. amphibians, birds and reptiles.). come from the digestive.. Animal genitalia: amphibians, reptiles and. ...
When we think of reptiles and their parasites, we tend to (or should be!) thinking about how the presence of bloodsucking ectoparasites and the many different types of endoparasites may harm our reptile. While a healthy reptile can sustain a certain number of endo- and ectoparasites, a stressed or already compromised reptile cannot. Since captivity is, in and of itself, stressful, experienced herpers learn that it is better to deal with the issue right from the start, rather than wait for a problem to develop and to spread throughout all their other enclosures and reptiles.. What most herpers - and other pet owners - fail to realize is that humans may become infected with diseases borne by the ectoparasites, as well as become infected with organisms that pass through the reptiles digestive tract (nicely known as the fecal-oral route). What follows are abstracts and other information on some of the tickborne and other zoonoses from reptile hosts.. Seasonal activity and host associations of ...
During 1994-1995, health departments in 13 states reported to CDC persons infected with unusual Salmonella serotypes in which the patients had direct or indirect contact with reptiles (i.e., lizards, snakes, or turtles). In many of those cases, the same serotype of Salmonella was isolated from patients and from reptiles with which they had had contact or a common contact. For some cases, infection resulted in invasive illness, such as sepsis and meningitis. This report summarizes clinical and epidemiologic information for six of these cases. Connecticut. During January 1995, a 40-year-old man was hospitalized because of an acute illness characterized by constipation, lower back pain, chills, and fever. He reported having taken ranitidine and an antacid for symptoms of heartburn before onset of mild diarrhea 3 days before hospitalization. A blood culture yielded Salmonella serotype Wassenaar. A magnetic resonance image scan of the right sacrum suggested osteomyelitis. Ciprofloxacin therapy was ...
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Reptiles have dry scaly skin rather than hair or feathers. But they dont need moisturizer! Their special covering actually helps them hold in moisture and lets them live in dry places.. Reptile scales are connected in a sheet, which is the outermost layer of skin. Every so often, this layer of skin is shed and replaced. In some reptiles the skin flakes off in chunks. In snakes, the skin is usually shed in one piece. You may not think of turtle and tortoise shells as being scaly, but they are! Theyre shells are complex structures made up of bones and scales that develop from the outer layer of skin. Its natural body armor!. Heating Up and Cooling Down. Reptiles, like amphibians, are ectotherms ( cold-blooded). This means that they cant produce sufficient internal heat to maintain a constant body temperature. Instead, reptiles are responsible for regulating their own body temperature. When its cold outside and they need to warm up, they often bask in the sun to raise their body ...
Diseases of reptiles eyes are frequently seen in veterinary practice. The causes of these lesions are often identical to those responsible for inducing ophthalmic disease in mammals and birds. Although the approach to treatment is similar to that in mammals, anatomic differences in the reptile eye cause special conditions to reptiles. Because ciliary muscles of reptiles are composed of striated muscle rather than smooth muscle fibers, conventional mydriatic agents (parasympatholytics) such as tropicamide and atropine are ineffective in producing pupillary dilation. The second difference is that in those reptiles lacking movable eyelids, the corneas are covered by a clear protective epidermally derived structure called spectacle. This structure appears impervious to topical medications, thus making treatment of the globe difficult. The spectacle is periodically replaced during molting cycles (ecdysis).. Congenital ocular malformations (especially microphthalmos) occur with some frequency in ...
However, while reptiles are often easier to maintain and require less attention than a dog or cat, their convenience comes at a price. Reptiles usually require specialized food and specific living conditions. Quite often, potential owners must have their cages custom built and have to monitor things such as lighting and heat within the cage at all times.. Reptiles have very specific husbandry needs and, if those needs are not met, are prone to a variety of illnesses and disorders. Some of the more common problems include ball pythons who are picky eaters and refuse food, iguanas who do not properly digest their food because of temperatures, boas who become listless and refuse food when it becomes too cold, and many reptiles run the high risk of calcium deficiencies.. Also, people often become un-enamored with their scaly friends when they realize that reptiles do not offer forth the same kind of warmth and affection as their warm-blooded cousins. With more instinctive behaviorisms and smaller ...
The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with
Scientists have discovered a fossil of a new ancient marine animal that resembles present-day dolphins. The said fossil gives a hint of how marine reptiles survived mass extinction 250 million years ago.
The skeleton of an elasmosaur dinosaur, a rare 25-foot-long marine reptile, has been found for the first time in the mountains of Alaska.
The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995-2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles in zoological gardens or similar, while a minor number was from reptiles kept in private homes. A total of 43 serovars were detected, most of them being what is usually called exotic serotypes, and many not having a trivial name, while a few isolates belonged to well-known human pathogenic serovars, such as S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Bovismorbificans. One isolate was rough and two were non-typeable. Isolates from turtles belonged to the subspecies enterica, while many isolates from both sauria and snakes belonged to other subspecies. The findings underline the potential zoonotic risk by handling reptiles in zoological garden or other public settings, or keeping pet reptiles in private homes ...
Ticks can be removed by grasping them at the point of attachment and slowly pulling their mouth parts out of the reptiles skin.. To eliminate mites, pesticides and medications are used to kill the parasites both on the reptiles body and within the terrarium. Be very careful when using these chemicals around reptiles because they can cause serious illness or death if pets overdose from the medication, drink from contaminated water, or if ventilation is inadequate. Throw out all substrates and cage furnishings that could be harboring mites. Use newspaper as a floor covering throughout the treatment period and then refurnish the cage with mite-free substrates, branches, rocks, hide boxes, etc.. Bot larvae can be removed from their chamber within the skin by gently enlarging their breathing hole and pulling them out with a pair of tweezers. Maggots must be picked out of or flushed from a reptiles damaged skin. If the reptile has open wounds, it should be treated with topical antiseptics. ...
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GENERAL INFORMATION. This article provides an introduction to reptilian therapeutics. There are few drug preparations licensed for use in reptiles. Drugs authorized for use in other species or for humans may be administered under the responsibility of the veterinarian. It is important to note that some drugs may be very safe in certain species and fatal in another. For example, ivermectin while apparently safe in most snakes and lizards, causes death in most chelonia.. All reptiles should be accurately weighed before being medicated to avoid overdosage, and during treatment to monitor response.. All reptiles are ectothermic and a change in temperature may have profound influences on drug distribution, metabolism, excretion, and hence elimination half-life. Some therapeutic regimens state a fixed temperature at which the reptile should be held during treatment. The advantage of this approach is that where pharmacokinetic evidence exists the elimination of the drug will be known and constant. ...
Between the later part of the Triassic and the very end of the Cretaceous, the seas of the world (and some of its rivers, lakes and estuaries as well) were inhabited by the remarkable group of swimming reptiles known as the plesiosaurs.
British paleontologists say theyve worked with international colleagues to identify fossil remains as those of a new kind of extinct flying reptile.
This course covers the identification, distribution, natural history, ecology, conservation history and conservation status of all the Northern and Southern California amphibian and reptile species and subspecies that are listed as threatened or endangered by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This course also covers all Northern California and selected Southern California species included in the current (2016) edition of the UC Press/CDFW publication California Amphibian and Reptile Species of Special Concern, such as the western pond turtle and the coast horned lizard. Also included is introductory material on survey techniques. The course is designed for agency biologists, consultants, planners, public utilities staff and others who are interested in the natural history and conservation biology of Northern California amphibians and reptiles.. ...
The identification of species boundaries for allopatric populations is important for setting conservation priorities and can affect conservation management decisions. Tuatara ( Sphenodon) are the...
Introduction. The Biology and Diversity of Extant Reptiles. The word reptile itself does not describe a monophyletic group of vertebrates, like the mammals or birds. It is used to classify a polyphyletic group of animals that are a subset of the larger group of Amniotes. The term is best described through a cladogram: Dr. Paul M. Barrett 2001 The reptiles first appeared in the early Carboniferous, having evolved from labyrinthodont amphibians. They had several distinct advantages over the amphibians that allowed them to flourish during the cold, dry Permian period. These lead them to be the most successful group of vertebrates and this period was referred to as the age of reptiles. They exploited all terrestrial niches, a few marine and even one group took to the air. No other group of vertebrates had ever displayed such diversity and mammals today are their only match. They were the first group of tetrapods to successfully overcome the major problems of terrestrial life, namely desiccation, ...
He also shared his two books, Reptiles Up Close and More Reptiles Up Close. When Nieves was 8 years old, he became interested in reptiles while caring for a a garter snake that his brother brought home. He spends most of time his time educating others about reptiles and amphibians at schools, libraries and zoos. His books have become an additional way to share and David is currently working on Amphibians Up Close ...
The worlds most poisonous snakes belong to a family called elapids, which includes cobras, taipans, mambas and sea snakes (like Belchers sea snake). Plants for reptile and amphibians vivariums. Hatchlings are greenish in color and boldly marked with round spots and an orange ring around the carapace. A: Dinosaurs evolved from more primitive reptiles about 230 million years ago. The word alligator is taken from the Greek word meaning Crocodilos lizard. These illnesses and outbreaks are why CDC recommends that turtles and other reptiles are not kept as pets in households with young children. [775 KB] Gastrointestinal (Enteric) Diseases from Animals: Information about zoonotic outbreaks, prevention messages, and helpful resources ...
Substrates commonly used in reptile enclosures include those in the list below. Some of these substrates are inappropriate for some reptiles. Some are inappropriate for all reptiles and are included here so that you will be forewarned against buying them despite pet store recommendations and the implied or explicit wording on product packaging and advertisements.. Substrates should not be collected in the wild as the soil, leaves, sand, gravel, etc., may contain organisms that are harmful to your reptile. Even if you dont use herbicides and pesticides in your yard, these chemicals are transported through the air as both dry and wet deposits, and so contaminate soil, leaves, and the woody parts of plants, even those at some distance from the point of application.. Particulate substrates, even when made from natural or biodegradable products such as plant fibers, should not be used for any lizard who smells with its tongue. Particles become stuck to the tongue and are swallowed. Over time, ...
Drinking. Drinking. As. Thus they pay a price for their efficient water retention.Organisms in different environments utilize different structures in osmoregulation and excretion.Like birds, many reptiles excrete ni-trogenous waste as insoluble uric acid or urate salts (Minnich, 1972).. In all reptiles, birds, and mammals, the process of excretion, water and salt balance and the regulation of pH in body fluids are controlled by the kidneys.Fish utilize kidneys to filter out the wastes from their blood and then use their skin and gills to excrete. excretory system.Reptiles tend to have a broad innate immune response followed by a more moderate adaptive response, and as an ectotherm, their immune response is strongly affected by.I hope this helps you to understand the differences in excretion between humans and reptiles ...
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Reptiles generally reproduce sexually, though some are capable of asexual reproduction. All reproductive activity occurs through the cloaca, the single exit/entrance at the base of the tail where waste is also eliminated. Most reptiles have copulatory organs, which are usually retracted or inverted and stored inside the body. In turtles and crocodilians, the male has a single median penis, while squamates, including snakes and lizards, possess a pair of hemipenes, only one of which is typically used in each session. Tuatara, however, lack copulatory organs, and so the male and female simply press their cloacas together as the male discharges sperm.[113]. Most reptiles lay amniotic eggs covered with leathery or calcareous shells. An amnion, chorion, and allantois are present during embryonic life. The eggshell (1) protects the crocodile embryo (11) and keeps it from drying out, but it is flexible to allow gas exchange. The chorion (6) aids in gas exchange between the inside and outside of the ...
Reptiles generally reproduce sexually, though some are capable of asexual reproduction. All reproductive activity occurs through the cloaca, the single exit/entrance at the base of the tail where waste is also eliminated. Most reptiles have copulatory organs, which are usually retracted or inverted and stored inside the body. In turtles and crocodilians, the male has a single median penis, while squamates, including snakes and lizards, possess a pair of hemipenes, only one of which is typically used in each session. Tuatara, however, lack copulatory organs, and so the male and female simply press their cloacas together as the male discharges sperm.[106]. Most reptiles lay amniotic eggs covered with leathery or calcareous shells. An amnion, chorion, and allantois are present during embryonic life. The eggshell (1) protects the crocodile embryo (11) and keeps it from drying out, but it is flexible to allow gas exchange. The chorion (6) aids in gas exchange between the inside and outside of the ...
Suture zones, shared regions of secondary contact between long-isolated lineages, are natural laboratories for studying divergence and speciation. For tropical rainforest, the existence of suture zones and their significance for speciation has been controversial. Using comparative phylogeographic evidence, we locate a morphologically cryptic suture zone in the Australian Wet Tropics rainforest. Fourteen out of 18 contacts involve morphologically cryptic phylogeographic lineages, with mtDNA sequence divergences ranging from 2 to 15 per cent. Contact zones are significantly clustered in a suture zone located between two major Quaternary refugia. Within this area, there is a trend for secondary contacts to occur in regions with low environmental suitability relative to both adjacent refugia and, by inference, the parental lineages. The extent and form of reproductive isolation among interacting lineages varies across species, ranging from random admixture to speciation, in one case via ...
Scientists have uncovered a new species of gigantic reptile that flew the skies over Brazil 115 million years ago, the BBC reports. The reptile, by far the largest of its kind ever found, had a wing... Science News Summaries. | Newser
Salmonella can often be found in the intestinal tract of reptiles. A reptile with Salmonella can possibly infect its owner.Salmonella in iguanas is a health problem that can affect their owners sometimes more than the reptile itself. Beneficial bacteria, known as probiotics, have long been known to aid the intestinal tract of humans. Now a product is available for salmonella-positive reptiles. Many reptile-related diseases can be traced to the health of the reptiles intestinal tract. A good, well-balanced probiotic offers a safe approach for the gut of reptiles. Many have said that the use of NutriBAC has increased their reptiles appetite, reversed constipation, and stopped regurgitation following feedings. A good probiotic or beneficial bacteria, like NutriBAC, is simply a tool in the husbandry of reptiles and amphibians. NutriBAC is the only probiotic patented for use in reptiles and amphibians ...
Amphisbaenia (called amphisbaenians or worm lizards) is a group of usually legless squamates, comprising over 180 extant species. Amphisbaenians are characterized by their long bodies, the reduction or loss of the limbs, and rudimentary eyes. As many species have a pink body and scales arranged in rings, they have a superficial resemblance to earthworms. While the genus Bipes retains forelimbs, all other genera are limbless. Although superficially similar to the snakes and Dibamidae, recent phylogenetic studies suggest that they are most closely related to the Lacertidae. Amphisbaenians are widely distributed, occurring in North America, Europe, Africa, South America, and the Caribbean. Most species are less than 6 inches (150 mm) long. Despite a superficial resemblance to some primitive snakes, amphisbaenians have many unique features that distinguish them from other reptiles. Internally, their right lung is reduced in size to fit their narrow bodies, whereas in snakes, it is always the left ...
A popular get well card shows a raccoon saying to a snake, You wouldnt get these stomach aches if you chewed your food properly. Vets know, however, that indigestion in snakes and other reptiles often results not from swallowing food whole but from a parasitic infection. The gastrointestinal disease cryptosporidiosis represents a particularly severe problem: although it is rarely otherwise serious in mammals, reptiles seem especially prone to it and the condition is often fatal. Furthermore it is highly contagious, so early diagnosis would represent a good way to limit its spread among reptiles. Unfortunately, though, diagnosis is extremely difficult. Scientists at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna have developed a test for the identification of the cryptosporidia that cause the condition, enabling them to assess its prevalence in pet lizards and snakes. The results are published in the current issue of the Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.. Although known for over ...
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Lamas, A. M., López-Orge, R. H., González Lama, Z., Zapatero-Ramos, L., Martínez-Fernández, A. R. (1985). Chalcides sexlineatus Boettger y Müller, 1914. Nuevo hospedador de Oochoristica tuberculata Luhe, 1898. Revista Ibérica de Parasitología, 45 (1): 89-90. López-Jurado, L. F. (1998). Chalcides sexlineatus Steindachner, 1891 - Gestreifter Kanarenskink, Gran Canaria-Skink. Pp. 201-213. En: Bischoff, W. (Ed.). Die Reptilien der Kanarischen Inseln, der Selvagens-Inseln und des Madeira-Archipels. En: Böhme, W. (Ed.). Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Band 6. Aula-Verlag, Wiebelsheim. López-Jurado, L. F., Báez, M. (1985). La variación de Chalcides sexlineatus en la isla de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias). Bonner Zoologische Beitrage, 36 (3-4): 315-336. Martínez-Rica, J. P. (1989). El atlas provisional de los anfibios y reptiles de España y Portugal (APAREP). Presentación y situación oficial. Asociación Herpetológica Española. Monografías de herpetología, 1. 73 pp. ...
Taxonomic database that provides basic information about all living reptile species, such as turtles, snakes, lizards, and crocodiles, as well as tuataras and amphisbaenians, but does not include dinosaurs.
Children love to explore the great outdoors. Spotting turtles, frogs, lizards and snakes in the wild is fun and can help build an appreciation of the wonders of wildlife. To help keep the experience healthy, parents and guardians should be aware that reptiles and amphibians can harbor Salmonella bacteria that are easily transmitted to people handling them. That includes wild as well as pet store varieties of these animals.. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Salmonella outbreaks from contact with reptiles and amphibians have caused hundreds of people to become ill in recent years; many of these outbreaks are linked to small turtles. Children under five years old are the most commonly affected, which is why CDC recommends parents prevent their young children from contacting reptiles and amphibians. CDC notes, in fact, that since 1975 the Food and Drug Administration has banned the sale and distribution of turtles with a shell length of less than four inches in ...
Taxonomic database that provides basic information about all living reptile species, such as turtles, snakes, lizards, and crocodiles, as well as tuataras and amphisbaenians, but does not include dinosaurs.
Adult male American alligators measure 3.4 to 4.6 m (11.2 to 15.1 ft) in length, and can weigh up to 453 kg (999 lb). Females are smaller, measuring 2.6 to 3 m (8.5 to 9.8 ft) in length. The American alligator inhabits freshwater wetlands, such as marshes and cypress swamps from Texas to southeastern and coastal North Carolina. It is distinguished from the sympatric American crocodile by its broader snout, with overlapping jaws and darker coloration, and is less tolerant of saltwater but more tolerant of cooler climates than the American crocodile, which is found only in tropical climates. American alligators are apex predators and consume fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Hatchlings feed mostly on invertebrates. They play an important role as ecosystem engineers in wetland ecosystems through the creation of alligator holes, which provide both wet and dry habitats for other organisms. Throughout the year, in particular during the breeding season, American alligators bellow to ...
reptile - Feeding habits: With few exceptions, modern reptiles feed on some form of animal life (such as insects, mollusks, birds, frogs, mammals, fishes, or even other reptiles). Land tortoises are vegetarians, eating leaves, grass, and even cactus in some cases. The green iguana (I. iguana) of Central and South America,...
Ben Creisler [email protected] Some recent (and not so recent) marine reptile papers with free pdfs: Hurum, J.H., Roberts, A.J., Nakrem, H.A., Stenløkk, J.A. & Mørk, A. (2015) The first recovered ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic of Edgeøya, Svalbard. Norwegian Petroleum Directorate Bulletin 11: 97-110 Stavanger 2014, ISSN Online 1894-7670, ISBN 978-82-7257-117-6. http://www.npd.no/Global/Norsk/3-Publikasjoner/NPD-Bulletin/Bulletin-11-kap/NPD_Bulletin_Hurum_Scr.pdf The Blanknuten Member of the Botneheia Formation preserves ichthyopterygians of various body-sizes. Due to the fragmentary nature of their remains, their systematic positions are controversial. The most complete skeleton of a mixosaur from Svalbard (PMO 219.250) described in this paper adds new data to the Phalarodon-Mixosaurus controversy, which is directly connected to the Svalbard taxa, starting with the description of Ichthyosaurus nordenskioeldii by Hulke in 1873. The ratios of the posterior dorsal vertebrae to the mid ...
Reptile Medicine and Surgery in Clinical Practice PDF. The word herpetology is from Greek herpeton, creeping animal and ‐logia knowledge. It is the term used to describe the study of reptiles and amphibians. Some sources describe those who keep reptiles as herpetoculturists and the hobby as herpetoculture.
Freshwater turtles are reptiles, like snakes, crocodilians and lizards. Like other reptiles, they are ectothermic, or cold-blooded, meaning that their internal temperature matches that of their surroundings. They also have a scaly skin, enabling them, as opposed to most amphibians, to live outside of water. Also like many reptile species, turtles lay eggs (they are oviparous). But what makes them different to other reptiles is that turtles have a shell. This shell, composed of a carapace in the back and a plastron on the belly, is made of bony plates. These bones are covered by horny scutes made of keratin (like human fingernails) or leathery skin, depending on the species. All Canadian freshwater turtles can retreat in their shells and hide their entire body except the Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina). This shell is considered perhaps the most efficient form of armour in the animal kingdom, as adult turtles are very likely to survive from one year to the next. Indeed, turtles have ...
reptile - Digestive and urogenital systems: The digestive system of modern reptiles is similar in general plan to that of all higher vertebrates. It includes the mouth and its salivary glands, the esophagus, the stomach, and the intestine and ends in a cloaca. Of the few specializations of the reptilian digestive system, the evolution of one...
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Its been a quiet weekend yet again. I am starting to doubt my ability to find critters to photograph these days. Hopefully its just me and a bit of bad timing because I would hate to think that animal numbers are declining to the point where even the more commonly recorded species are difficult to locate even in relatively undisturbed areas. I spent a few hours in a heath section of a National Park well inland from the coast where in previous years I have photographed quite a few different reptiles and amphibians. The conditions were good, rainfall the night before and warm sunny skies with some cloud cover but it was strangely devoid of life except for the odd bird here and there. Does anyone remember when you couldnt walk along a bush track without disturbing numerous skinks and small dragons which would scuttle away making a racket in the leaf litter. Not sure exactly whats happening now but those days seem to be long gone. Is it just me? I dont know, I certainly hope it is ...
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The World of Reptiles, Amphibians and Arthropods (land invertebrates) includes a diverse group of creatures. They come in all shapes and colors and can live in a variety of habitats. Learning all about them can be fun and interesting as well as informative.. The types of reptiles you will find here include snakes, lizards, turtles, and tortoises. Amphibians include toads, frogs, salamanders and newts. Arthropods, or land invertebrates, include arachnids such as spiders, scorpions, and tarantulas and myriapods such as centipedes and millipedes. All of these species guides include the animals background, behaviors, habitat and care. For identification purposes pictures are included of each as well… Read More. ...
Reptiles and amphibians (herps) represent an important part of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The American Southwest is well known for its abundance and diversity of reptiles. Although this region is less known for its amphibian populations, they too can be quite abundant in some habitats and are good indicators of environmental change due to their sensitivity to a variety of factors such as pollution, introduced species, drought, habitat destruction, and disease. Herp populations may be affected by these factors and exhibit measurable changes in site occupancy, distribution, abundance, and species richness ...
When reptile zoo curator Karel Fortyn died, he left more than 200 snakes and crocodiles in his Welland, Ont., house that also operates as a reptile zoo - and an unusual custody battle.
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Indian Softshell Turtle, Indian Reptile - Informative & researched article on Indian Softshell Turtle, Indian Reptile from Indianetzone, the largest free encyclopedia on India.
Background Rhamphorhynchus from the Solnhofen Limestones is the most prevalent long tailed pterosaur with a debated life history. Whereas morphological studies suggested a slow crocodile-like growth strategy and superprecocial volant hatchlings, the only histological study hitherto conducted on Rhamphorhynchus concluded a relatively high growth rate for the genus. These controversial conclusions can be tested by a bone histological survey of an ontogenetic series of Rhamphorhynchus. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results suggest that Bennetts second size category does not reflect real ontogenetic stage. Significant body size differences of histologically as well as morphologically adult specimens suggest developmental plasticity. Contrasting the superprecocial hatchling hypothesis, the dominance of fibrolamellar bone in early juveniles implies that hatchlings sustained high growth rate, however only up to the attainment of 30-50% and 7-20% of adult wingspan and body mass, respectively. The
Background Rhamphorhynchus from the Solnhofen Limestones is the most prevalent long tailed pterosaur with a debated life history. Whereas morphological studies suggested a slow crocodile-like growth strategy and superprecocial volant hatchlings, the only histological study hitherto conducted on Rhamphorhynchus concluded a relatively high growth rate for the genus. These controversial conclusions can be tested by a bone histological survey of an ontogenetic series of Rhamphorhynchus. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results suggest that Bennetts second size category does not reflect real ontogenetic stage. Significant body size differences of histologically as well as morphologically adult specimens suggest developmental plasticity. Contrasting the superprecocial hatchling hypothesis, the dominance of fibrolamellar bone in early juveniles implies that hatchlings sustained high growth rate, however only up to the attainment of 30-50% and 7-20% of adult wingspan and body mass, respectively. The
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Learn how you can get great supplies for your reptile or snake at The Pet Shop. Read about the proper way to maintain a habitat for your snake or reptile.
Tincman is Proud to be carrying Ranariums new Broad Spectrum Carotenoid Superfood Supplement! It contains algae such as Dunaliella salina, flowers like dandelion and hibiscus & other super foods like Moringa oleifera so your collection is able to reap the benefits of a variety of Healthy ingredients rarely found in one supplement! This supplement will not only enhance color in your Reptiles and Frogs, but will improve breeding outcomes in frogs as well & help reptiles metabolize essential coenzymes.. ...
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The Reptile Report is your one stop for the most interesting news, stories, and photos of reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates.
The Reptile Report is your one stop for the most interesting news, stories, and photos of reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates.
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Ive now got my hands on the Hedges & Poling turtle paper in Science. Its entitled A molecular Phylogeny Of Reptiles (by reptiles they seem to mean all non-mammalian amniotes). To summarise, the maximum likelihood phylogeny, based on 11 nuclear proteins (1943 amino acids) was: (Rodents + Primates) + (Squamates + (Birds + (Crocs + Turtles))). Tuataras werent included due to lack of data. A consensus phylogeny based on 4 genes (785 amino acids) (Rodents + Primates) + (Squamates + (Turtles + Crocs + Birds + Tuataras)). To me the big surprise is not so much that turtles are grouped with archosaurs as that they come within archosaurs, closer to crocs than to birds. This node is very strongly supported, with various techniques giving confidence measures of 97 to 100%. The turtle-croc-bird node is supported 66 to 90%. I would like to think that the unusually high rate of evolution in birds has made them so different that they have lost some archosaur apomorphies, leaving crocs more like turtles, ...
Workers with the Canadian energy company Suncor unearthed ankylosaur remains while mining oil sands near Fort McMurray in Alberta. The carcass of the four-legged land creature was not flattened, as is the case with many fossilized vertebrates. But most strangely, it was found in an area known primarily for fossilized marine creatures.. Previous vertebrate fossils found in this oil sand formation were marine reptiles, like the ichthyosaur and plesiosaur. Marine invertebrates such as clams and ammonites are the more typical fossils found in the region, so a large, land-living ankylosaur wasnt supposed to be there.1 But finding a mixture of fossilized marine and land creatures together is not an unusual occurrence. For example, the famous dinosaur beds in the Morrison Formation at Dinosaur National Monument contain logs, clams, snails, and mammals.2. And the Institute for Creation Researchs front lobby features a juvenile hadrosaur taken from the Two Medicine Formation-a sandstone formation ...
We move down our hyoid bone during inhalation like fish, amphibians, some reptiles and mammals, but it started from fish. We move up our hyoid bone during exhalation like amphibians, some reptiles and mammals, but it started from amphibians. We apply our torso muscles, including intercostal muscles, during inhalation and exhalation like reptiles and mammals. This method started from reptiles. We apply our diaphragm like mammals and even crocodilians, the very special members of reptilian family. Some changes of our voice and breathing, its speed, ratio and depth have roots in apes. Finally, we can perform breathing through mouth or nostrils by our will. The breathing is closely connected to the voice and speech and our abstract ideas, like representation of cosmos by voice or imagination of it. This level of breathing control is human. The last level of breathing control is future, the vision and feeling of future events. All levels of breathing control have close connection with emotions and ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Learn about different reptile and amphibian species, including health and care information, from the vets and pet experts at PetMD.
Some reptiles eat reptile eggs, for example the diet of the Nile monitor includes crocodile eggs, and small reptiles are preyed ... The reptiles in the subclass Lepidosauria can be distinguished from other reptiles by a variety of characteristics. First, the ... Reptiles portal Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu Reptile taxonomy, Benton 2004 Lepidosaur phylogeny. ... Extant reptiles are in the clade Diapsida, named for a pair of temporal fenestrations on each side of the skull. Until recently ...
The Reptile Encounter was opened on World Environment Day in 1997. It contains 17 exhibits designed to match the animal's ... "Reptiles". Perth Zoo. Retrieved 16 October 2011. "African Savannah". Perth Zoo. Retrieved 16 October 2011. "Asian Animals". ... The building is climate controlled, and displays reptile species from around the world including examples of the black-headed ... Australian Walkabout The Australian Walkabout includes the Australian Wetlands and Penguin Plunge, Reptile Encounter, ...
Reptiles ". pp. 516-517. In: Günther A (1887). " Report on a Zoological Collection made by the Officers of H.M.S. ' Flying Fish ... Typhlops exocœti, new species, p. 517). Ramphotyphlops exocoeti at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 30 August 2007. ...
... can be used as a terrarium substrate for reptiles or arachnids. Coir fibre pith or coir dust can hold large quantities of ... "Reptiles". 16. Fancy Publications. 2008: 66. Jacobi, Michael (2011). Tarantulas. TFH Publications Inc. p. 93. ISBN ...
The reptiles include the adder and the grass snake, the slowworm, which is a legless lizard, and the common lizard. Smooth ... There are too few amphibians and reptiles native to the UK for there to be any doubt that no endemic species exist. The ... "Reptiles". Thomson ecology. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2007. Carter, Stephen P. "Land ... Only six amphibians and four land reptiles are native to Scotland, but many species of invertebrates live there that are ...
It shelters mammals such as monkeys and deer; reptiles; and over 300 species of birds, as well as approximately 100 varieties ...
The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org. Benavides E, Baum R, Snell HM, Snell HL, Sites JW Jr. (2009). "Island ... Part 5. Reptiles. London: Smith, Elder and Company. vi + 51 pp. + Plates 1-20. (Leiocephalus grayii, new species, p. 24 + Plate ... Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University ...
Herpetologist and former Cincinnati Zoo director of reptile care Winston Card, who appears as a SME in reptile-based episodes, ... Herpetologist Jim Harrison of the Kentucky Reptile Zoo, used as a SME in several episodes dealing with snakes, is one of four ... Each episode deals with either a species (chimpanzee, tiger) or a class (reptiles, big cats) of animals-referred to in the show ... His work extracting venom was filmed throughout the spring of 2009 for use as background footage in the reptile episodes. In ...
Walls, Jerry G. "Deadly Snakes: What are the world's most deadly venomous snakes?". Reptiles. Retrieved November 5, 2013. ... "Among the reptiles tested, the most toxic venom belongs to inland taipan, killing over 60% of heart cells in the first 10 ... ". "Most venomous snakes". Reptile Gardens. Retrieved October 13, 2014. ...
Hundreds of species of birds, more than a dozen fish species, and a few reptile and amphibian species have been documented. The ... Because of the colder climate, ectothermic reptiles are all but absent, with two species of garter snake and the western ... "Reptiles". Nature and Science. National Park Service. 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2010-04-18. "Amphibians". Nature and Science. ... painted turtle being the only three reptile species proven to exist. Similarly, only six species of amphibians are documented, ...
"Reptiles". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. "Amphibians". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama ... Indigenous animal species in the state include 62 mammal species, 93 reptile species, 73 amphibian species, roughly 307 native ...
"Naultinus grayii ". The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org. From Emsworth Reptiles, accessed 17th November 2014. ... Part 5., Reptiles. London: Smith, Elder and Company. vi + 51 pp. + Plates 1-20. (Naultinus grayii, new species, pp. 27-28 + ... "Conservation status of New Zealand reptiles, 2012" (PDF). Department of Conservation. The Government of New Zealand. Retrieved ... The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Naultinus ...
"Reptiles". Archived from the original on 2008-10-03. Retrieved 2009-10-12. "Photo gallery of mammals". Archived from the ... Reptiles and amphibians around the lake, including the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa), the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae ...
Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 15 (3): 255-273. doi:10.2307/1563429. JSTOR 1563429. Noonan, B.P.; Sites, J.W ... Australasian Reptile & Amphibian Specialist Group (1996). "Brachylophus fasciatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. ... Kinkaid, John (1997). "Iguanas of the South Pacific". Reptiles. 5 (8): 54-57. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Brongniart, ... 1800). Essai d'une classification naturelle des reptiles. Bull. Soc. Philomath. 2 (36): 89-91 Cogger, Harold (1974). "Voyage of ...
"Reptiles". nps.gov. National Park Service. Retrieved 2017-03-06. UtahArches.com photos of many more arches in Devils Garden ... Reptiles include western collared lizards, northern whiptails, desert spiny lizards, and midget faded rattlesnakes. without an ...
The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org. de Witte, G.F. 1953. Exploration du Parc National de l'Upemba. Mission G.F. de ... The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org. McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A ... Witte en collaboration avec W. Adam, A. Janssens, L. van Meel et R. Verheyen (1946-1949). Reptiles. Institut des Parcs ...
Reptiles. Snakes' lizards. Snails and shells. In January 2014, the Ministry of Heritage and Culture announced plans to build ...
Genus Urotheca at The Reptile Database. Bibron G (1843). In Cocteau JT & Bibron G (1843). "Reptiles ". pp. 1-143. In de la ... Volume 4. Reptiles and Fishes]. Paris: A. Bertrand. 255 pp. + Plates I-V. (Urotheca, new genus, p. 131). (in Spanish and Latin ... Reptiles y Peces. [= Physical, Political and Natural History of the Island of Cuba. Second Part. Natural History. ...
Das, I. (2010). Reptiles of South-East Asia. New Holland. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-84773-347-4. Stoner, S.S.; and V. Nijman (2015). " ... Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 156-157. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. Das, I. (2013). " ... In 2012 it was featured in a Japanese reptile keepers magazine and in the following years a larger number of individuals ... The lifespan is unknown, but-despite the very limited knowledge of reptile keeping at the time-an individual that entered ...
www.reptile-database.org. Bayless, Mark K. (June 1, 1998). "The Artellia: Dragons of the Trees". Reptiles. Mission Viejo, ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. ... and feed primarily on insects and small reptiles. Varanus salvadorii is currently protected under the CITES Appendix II, which ... Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles in cooperation with Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herp. ISBN 0-916984-35-4. Horn, ...
Brames, Henry (2007). "Aspects of Light and Reptile Immunity". Iguana: Conservation, Natural History, and Husbandry of Reptiles ... ISBN 1-882770-18-8. Dorge, Ray (1996). "A Tour of the Grand Cayman Blue Iguana Captive-Breeding Facility". Reptiles: Guide to ... International Reptile Conservation Foundation. 14 (1): 19-23. Burton, Frederic (2005). "Salina Blues Update" (PDF). Blue Iguana ... A Check-list of West Indian Amphibians and Reptiles. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication No. 1. Pittsburgh, ...
... reptiles; such as the eastern garter snake, the eastern box turtle, and the northern water snake, as well as New York's state ... reptile, the common snapping turtle. On occasion northern "black" racer and eastern milksnakes are reported here. Both species ...
"Reptiles". Reptile Database. January 15, 1999. Retrieved May 20, 2015. "Cambodia's Islands - SPECIES". Cambodia islands - ... There are 212 mammal species, 536 bird species, 176 reptile species (including 89 subspecies), 850 freshwater fish species ( ...
Browne-Cooper, Robert; Brian Bush; Brad Maryan; David Robinson (2007). Reptiles and Frogs in the Bush: Southwestern Australia. ... Pianka, E. R. (1997). "Australia's thorny devil". Reptiles. 5 (11): 14-23. Clemente, Christofer; Thompson, Graham G.; Withers, ... http://www.factzoo.com/reptiles/lizards/thorny-devil-lizard.html Pianka, E. R.; Pianka, H. D. (1970). "The ecology of Moloch ...
Before becoming interested in reptiles, Tom was a carpet salesman. Crutchfield is well known for his work with reptiles. In ... ISBN 978-0-8203-3835-4. "Who's Who in Reptiles: Tom Crutchfield". Reptiles. Retrieved January 9, 2014. Alan Green (7 March 2006 ... He is also the focus of the 2008 book by Bryan Christy, The Lizard King, along with Michael Van Nostrand of Strictly Reptiles, ... He also produced the first albino Iguana iguana and supplied reptiles to movies such as Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom ...
The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org. "Typhlops". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved August 12, 2010 ... ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series), ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume). Branch, Bill (2004). Field Guide to Snakes and other Reptiles of ... Afrotyphlops bibronii, new combination, p. 35). Smith A (1846). Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa ... Reptiles. ... The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Typhlops ...
Bartlett, D. (1997). "40 years of thoughts on Paynes Prairie". Reptiles. 5 (7): 68, 70-73. Langkilde, T. (2009). "Invasive fire ...
Rothman, Robert H. "Giant Tortoise". Reptiles. Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved June 18, 2013. Swingland, Ian R.; ...
Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 15 (3): 255-273. doi:10.2307/1563429. JSTOR 1563429. Noonan, B.P.; Sites, J.W ... Kinkaid, John (1997). "Iguanas of the South Pacific". Reptiles. 5 (8): 54-57. Fisher, Robert N.; Jone Niukula; Dick Watling; ...
www.reptile-database.org. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore ... Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles (SSAR). 80 pp. ISBN 0916984656. Branch, Bill (2004). Field Guide to Snakes and ... 251-252 + Plate 84). Smith A (1846). Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa ... Reptiles. London: Smith, Elder and Co. ( ... other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Third Revised edition, Second impression. Sanibel Island Florida: Ralph Curtis Books. 399 pp ...
You are here: Home / Our Animals / Reptiles. Reptiles. Reptiles are a class of animals that includes turtles and tortoises, ... Most reptiles - including all turtles, crocodiles, and alligators - lay eggs. But other reptiles - about one out of five types ... There are over 8,000 species of reptiles in the world, inhabiting every continent except Antarctica. Reptiles share many traits ... In some reptiles the skin flakes off in chunks. In snakes, the skin is usually shed in one piece. You may not think of turtle ...
Maggots must be picked out of or flushed from a reptiles damaged skin. If the reptile has open wounds, it should be treated ... A reptile with external parasites that is treated in a timely manner and is otherwise in good condition can be expected to ... PawCulture™ , Petcha , Reptiles Magazine , AllPaws , BlogPaws. RSS , Feedback , Contact Us , About Us , Legal Notices , Privacy ... Ticks can be removed by grasping them at the point of attachment and slowly pulling their mouth parts out of the reptiles skin ...
Rise of the reptilesEdit. The earliest amniotes, including stem-reptiles (those amniotes closer to modern reptiles than to ... Reptiles tend to avoid confrontation through camouflage. Two major groups of reptile predators are birds and other reptiles, ... "reptile (animal) :: Behaviour". Britannica.com. Retrieved March 16, 2010.. *^ "Reptile and Amphibian Defense Systems". ... In particular, younger reptiles tend to shed once every 5-6 weeks while adults shed 3-4 times a year.[92] Younger reptiles shed ...
Many reptile collections house a number of species together and there is therefore a significant risk of cross-species ... We are working to make our method more sensitive but it is very important to test the reptiles repeatedly. A negative result ... Furthermore it is highly contagious, so early diagnosis would represent a good way to limit its spread among reptiles. ... Good Guy Or Bad Guy? Diagnosing Stomach Disease In Pet Reptiles. by Sam Savage ...
Buy your own T-Shirt with a Reptiles, Because People Suck - Reptile design at Spreadshirt, your custom t-shirt printing ... Reptile T-Shirt is printed on a T-Shirt and designed by drakken3d. Available in many sizes and colours. ... Reptile Lizard Gecko Snake Turtle Crocodile Fossil Iguana Reptile Shirt Reptile Gift ... Reptiles, Because People Suck - Reptile. Reptiles, Because People Suck - Reptile.. Tags: reptile, shirt, reptile, gift, Reptile ...
The reptile, by far the largest of its kind ever found, had a wing... Science News Summaries. , Newser ... Scientists have uncovered a new species of gigantic reptile that flew the skies over Brazil 115 million years ago, the BBC ... The reptile, by far the largest of its kind ever found, had a wing span of over 16 feet. Lacusovagus-meaning lake wanderer-had ... Newser) - Scientists have uncovered a new species of gigantic reptile that flew the skies over Brazil 115 million years ago, ...
... Name Last modified Size Description. Parent Directory - _notes/ 19-Jul-2014 17:26 - ...
Living reptiles[change , change source]. *Reptiles (living groups only) *Order Crocodilia (crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and ... Birds in relation to reptiles[change , change source]. Some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other ... The name "reptile" comes from Latin and means "one who creeps". All living reptile species are cold blooded, have scaly skin, ... Another reason is that the word reptile is misleading because many extinct types were very different from living reptiles. ...
Lizard/Reptile Litters. Most reptile litters are just plant or other pet litters repackaged and marketed to reptile owners. ... This is unsuitable for use unless you are taking some from where a wild-caught reptile was found and the reptile will only be ... While some small pieces may pass safely through the reptile, experienced reptile vets can attest to the fact that too many ... Some of these substrates are inappropriate for some reptiles. Some are inappropriate for all reptiles and are included here so ...
... anatomic differences in the reptile eye cause special conditions to reptiles. Because ciliary muscles of reptiles are composed ... Also cataracts often occur in older reptiles (etiology unknown). Cataract surgery in reptiles can be performed with current ... Diseases of reptiles eyes are frequently seen in veterinary practice. The causes of these lesions are often identical to those ... 4. Millichamp NJ, Jacobson ER, Dan Wolf E. Diseases of the eye and ocular adnexae in reptiles. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1983;11:1205- ...
... especially poikilothermic reptiles, reptiles who moderate their body temperature by behaviorally thermoregulating, by making ... Place the reptile into the box and place the lid on; they will find their way out of it. Thereafter, they will be able to enter ... If your reptile tends to dump his water during the day, placing a bowl cube in a bowl will mean he will have fresh water ... Many reptiles come from an environment that is mostly dry other than during occasional rains. The conditions above ground, ...
... say theyve worked with international colleagues to identify fossil remains as those of a new kind of extinct flying reptile. ... say theyve worked with international colleagues to identify fossil remains as those of a new kind of extinct flying reptile. ...
... a rare 25-foot-long marine reptile, has been found for the first time in the mountains of Alaska. ... The skeleton of an elasmosaur dinosaur, a rare 25-foot-long marine reptile, has been found for the first time in the mountains ... The skeleton of an elasmosaur dinosaur, a rare 25-foot-long marine reptile, has been found for the first time in the mountains ...
Also, if considering becoming a reptile owner, be sure to realize that reptiles are a long-term commitment. Some reptiles can ... However, while reptiles are often easier to maintain and require less attention than a dog or cat, their convenience comes at a ... Reptiles have very specific husbandry needs and, if those needs are not met, are prone to a variety of illnesses and disorders ... As the need increases for low-maintenance companions, more and more people are turning to reptiles as the pets of choice. Due ...
Reptile Medicine and Surgery. WB Saunders, Philadelphia.. 3. Divers SJ, Lafortune M. 2000. Prescribing for reptiles. In Bishop ... Reptiles have well-developed renal and hepatic portal systems where blood from the caudal half of the body passes through the ... All reptiles should be accurately weighed before being medicated to avoid overdosage, and during treatment to monitor response. ... There are few drug preparations licensed for use in reptiles. Drugs authorized for use in other species or for humans may be ...
... were inhabited by the remarkable group of swimming reptiles known as the plesiosaurs. ... A: Given how widespread social interactions are in reptiles of all sorts, Im inclined to think that anything goes, more or ... Plesiosaur Peril - the lifestyles and behaviours of ancient marine reptilesBetween the later part of the Triassic and the very ... Unsheathed, protruding teeth do occur in living reptiles (like this gharial) - so was this the case for plesiosaurs as well? ...
Reptiles play largely in the realm of exotic trade and illegal trade, but the reptiles that appear to be affected the most are ... Reptiles and public safety can intersect in a variety of ways. Reptiles can not only inflict harm or death themselves, but they ... Reptiles are animals. Moreover, under most legal definitions, reptiles are considered to be animals as well. Poor capture ... Reptiles Are Animals Reptiles are animals, as are amphibians. Physiologically, they are similar and are sometimes collectively ...
Zilla reptile light fixtures, Zilla terrarium screen covers, Zilla reptile bedding, Zilla reptile caves, Zilla reptile food and ... Zilla Reptile Munchies - Fruit Mix. Zilla Reptile Munchies Fruit Mix is a convenient, highly nutritious reptile food thats ... Zilla Reptile Munchies - River Shrimp. Zilla River Shrimp Reptile Munchies are 100% natural and provide insect-eating reptiles ... Zilla Reptile Munchies - Omnivore Mix. Zilla Reptile Munchies Omnivore Mix is a convenient, highly nutritious reptile food ...
Housing your reptile or amphibian. *It is important that you provide your reptile or amphibian with a safe, warm, and ... Selecting a Reptileexternal icon. Brochure, American Veterinary Medical Association. Safe Reptile Handlingexternal icon. Poster ... Bites and scratches from reptiles and amphibians. Not all reptiles have teeth, although bites from the ones that do can be very ... Before choosing a pet reptile or amphibian. *Reptiles and amphibians might not be right for your family because of their risk ...
... reptiles are the first truly terrestrial vertebrates, since they have dispensed with an aqueous environment for their larval ... Reptiles. In the evolutionary sense, reptiles are the first truly terrestrial vertebrates, since they have dispensed with an ... The colours of reptiles are produced by both melanocytes in the epidermis and three types of chromatophores in the dermis: ... Lizards and snakes have small glands that are related to the sloughing cycle, and all groups of reptiles appear to communicate ...
Fundamental » All languages » Finnish » All sets » Lifeforms » Animals » Chordates » Vertebrates » Reptiles. Finnish terms for ... Pages in category "fi:Reptiles". The following 53 pages are in this category, out of 53 total. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:fi:Reptiles&oldid=47112842" ...
The BookReader requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please check that your browser supports JavaScript and that it is enabled in the browser settings. You can also try one of the other formats of the book. ...
The pit organs act as directional distance receptors and make it possible for the reptile to strike at warm prey. Each pit is a ... Reptiles and amphibians: Rattlesnakes and pit vipers in the subfamily Crotalinae have a pair of facial pits-sense organs on the ... Reptiles and amphibians. Rattlesnakes and pit vipers in the subfamily Crotalinae have a pair of facial pits-sense organs on the ... The pit organs act as directional distance receptors and make it possible for the reptile to strike at warm prey. Each pit is a ...
Reptiles and Amphibians. Read the question and answer the qestion correctly.Each time you get a question right you get closer ...
Philippe Gillet, 67 year-old Frenchman who lives with more than 400 reptiles and tamed alligators, looks at his black cobra in ... Philippe Gillet, 67 year-old Frenchman who lives with more than 400 reptiles and tamed alligators, looks at his black cobra in ... has all the necessary permits to keep and transport the animals for roadshows which he runs to raise awareness about reptiles. ... has all the necessary permits to keep and transport the animals for roadshows which he runs to raise awareness about reptiles. ...
Most reptiles share a number of general morphological features. ... Reptilia Most reptiles can be classified into three large ... reptile creeping animal XIV (rare before XVII); mean person XVIII. - (O)F. reptile or late L. (Vulg.) reptile n. of late L. ... Reptiles UXL Encyclopedia of Science COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group, Inc.. Reptiles. A reptile is an organism in the kingdom ... Reptiles Water:Science and Issues COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.. Reptiles. Four reptile groups have species found in ...
Dont just sit there scratching your head, find useful info on Pet Insects on eHow. Get essential tips and learn more about everything from How to Get Rid of an Ant Nest in the Lawn, ...and more.
1 Gallery of Reptilia (Reptiles). *2 Class : Reptilia (Reptiles) *2.1 Order : Crocodilia (Crocodilians) *2.1.1 Family : ... Gallery of Reptilia (Reptiles)[edit]. This page is a gallery of featured pictures that the community has chosen to be ... Class : Reptilia (Reptiles)[edit]. Order : Crocodilia (Crocodilians)[edit]. Family : Alligatoridae (Alligators and Caimans)[ ... Commons:Featured pictures/Animals/Reptiles. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ...
A study published in Nature this week has found a way to determine the color of dinosaurs and other ancient reptiles: by ... The True Colors of Ancient Reptiles Revealed. By analyzing skin residues from fossils, scientists can tell us the color of ... "This is the first time that were reporting pigments, the animals own biomolecules from reptile skin," says Johan Lindgren, a ... That would be helpful if, like modern-day leatherbacks, the large reptiles ranged into the icy waters of the Arctic Circle. ...
Scientists use venom to develop antivenoms, and the toxic compounds may also yield new drugs to treat everything from crippling strokes to deadly heart attacks.
Reptiles and Amphibians at Exotic Pets : Here you will find the cold blooded critters that need extra special care. They cant ... Source for finding Reptiles and Amphibians and supplies. Reptile, Amphibian, and Insect Supplies Find what supplies you need ... Reptile, Amphibians, and Insects Shop Reptile, Amphibians, and Insects supplies, items to set up your vivarium environment. ... Reptiles-N- Critters [offsite link]. Frogs, salamanders, newts, snakes, turtles, scorpions, reptiles, spiders, and bugs. Quite ...
Post your thoughts and ideas in the Reptiles and Amphibians Forum. Hear from other readers to find answers to your own ... A great place to share information and ideas to help keep our reptiles and amphibians thriving! ... The Mudpuppy - Reptiles and Amphibians at BellaOnline ... Subscribe for free weekly updates from this Reptiles and ...
Until we better understand the causes for reptile declines, it will be difficult to ameliorate the threats reptile populations ... The proportion of threatened species for aquatic reptiles was higher than for terrestrial reptiles (30% and 19% threatened, ... Reptile populations in California have not escaped widespread declines. The Central Valley is the only home to the largest ... Reptiles arent only of conservation concern themselves; they can cause declines of other species when introduced to new ...
Reptiles, whose bodies do not regulate temperature, depend on a strategy of moving from shade to sun and back again to self ... Tonto National Monument is home to at least 32 species of reptiles. Learn more about the Monuments different lizards and ... Under appreciated and sometimes feared, reptiles play an important role in the Sonoran Desert ecosystem. Lizards and snakes ...
mammal-like reptile (plural mammal-like reptiles). *(paleontology, dated) Any basal member of the Synapsida, related to the ... The mammal-like reptiles, constituting the subclass Synapsida, were among the earliest to appear of known reptilian groups and ... mammals but superficially resembling reptiles. *1966 - Alfred S. Romer, Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd ed.; ch 14, p 173 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=mammal-like_reptile&oldid=42537986" ...
Every day, urban reptiles and thousands of other voices read, write, and share important stories on Medium. ... Read writing from urban reptiles on Medium. . ...
"REPTILES Magazine Acquired by I-5 Publishing" (PDF). Reptile Channel. Retrieved 19 December 2016. "Reptiles Magazine Announces ... Reptiles articles are written for a broad range of reptile enthusiasts, from the novice hobbyist to the veteran ... After a year of publishing bimonthly, Reptiles went monthly in December 1994 due to the more widespread keeping of reptiles and ... Based in Irvine, California, Reptiles magazine is a North American magazine dedicated to the reptile and amphibian pet hobby, ...
Discovery Reptiles is a traveling zoo in Naples, Florida. Its collection includes some of the most endangered reptiles on earth ... Discovery Reptiles was founded in 2009, and started with just four animals. They had two Red Tailed Boa Constrictors Boa ... Over the course of 2010 Discovery Reptiles slowly added to their animal collection with the addition of a Caiman Lizard ... Instead of purchasing new animals from breeders Discovery Reptiles decided to rescue and rehabilitate unwanted animals and sick ...
Analyses were restricted to species listed as being valid by AmphibiaWeb (amphibiaweb.org) or the Reptile Database (www.reptile ... and 4,105 of 9,267 squamate species recognized by the Reptile Database (www.reptile-database.org) (44.3%). ... Current extinction rates of reptiles and amphibians. John Alroy. PNAS October 20, 2015 112 (42) 13003-13008; published ahead of ... reptiles. Obtaining concrete estimates of extinction tallies for major taxonomic groups has proven to be elusive, with the ...
One fifth of Europes reptiles and nearly a quarter of its amphibians are threatened, according to new studies carried out by ... Europes amphibians and reptiles under threat - IUCN. Wed, 20 May 2009 One fifth of Europes reptiles and nearly a quarter of ... Amphibians and reptiles are doing even worse than other species groups. Fifteen percent of mammals and 13 percent of birds are ... That is not good news for either amphibians or reptiles.". "On World Biodiversity Day, this is a sobering discovery," says ...
Who would have imagined the high flying bird and the sunbathing reptile to have a common ancestor? This article sheds light on ... Reptiles, being land-dwellers, have heavy bones.. Mouth. Birds have a light beak, with no teeth.. The jaws of reptiles are very ... Reptiles. Heart. A birds heart has four chambers.. Reptiles have a three-chambered heart. The only exception is the crocodile ... Theropod dinosaurs were reptiles with three-toed feet, they used to incubate their eggs, and had hollow bones. Reptiles belong ...
For this reason, reptiles are often seen basking in the sun. Additionally, all reptiles have the distinguishing characteristics ... Reptiles are cold-blooded and often secretive creatures. Being cold-blooded requires these animals to regulate their body ... In 2000 and 2001 a herpetological survey was conducted at the park that documented the presence of 17 reptile species. These ... Inventory of Amphibian and Reptile Species at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site, 2001 ...
... have discovered numerous 90-million-year-old fossils of a new type of sphenodontian an ancient lizard-like reptile thought to ... have discovered numerous 90-million-year-old fossils of a new type of sphenodontian an ancient lizard-like reptile thought to ...
Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Reptile_farming&oldid=162958696" ...
... is placed wholesale with reptiles in a new analysis of early amniote relationships. Meanwhile, a new species of varanopid from ... Rooting about reptile relationships. *Sean P. Modesto. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-9827-43061. ... is placed wholesale with reptiles in a new analysis of early amniote relationships. Meanwhile, a new species of varanopid from ... Modesto, S.P. Rooting about reptile relationships. Nat Ecol Evol 4, 10-11 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-1074-0 ...
DK is a top publisher of Reptiles & Amphibians books. Shop from a range of bestselling titles to improve your knowledge at DK. ... Nature Guide Snakes and Other Reptiles and Amphibians. Have the world in your hands with these compact, afford... ... Reptiles and Amphibians. A new edition of the clearest, most authoritative guide... ...
Reptiles are a diverse group of vertebrates, including turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes, as well as the extinct ... Reptiles are a diverse group of vertebrates, including turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes, as well as the extinct ... Reptiles lay cleidoic eggs (adapted to dry land), and they include the ancestors of birds and mammals. ... Basic design of a diversity of reptiles. (a) The basal amniote Paleothyris, from the Mid Carboniferous of Canada. (b) The ...
  • Reptiles are a class of animals that includes turtles and tortoises, snakes, lizards, crocodiles and alligators, and tuataras. (bpzoo.org)
  • But other reptiles - about one out of five types of lizards and snakes - bear live young. (bpzoo.org)
  • Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia , comprising today's turtles , crocodilians , snakes , amphisbaenians , lizards , tuatara , and their extinct relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles (e.g., crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards), the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping or clade (consisting of all descendants of a common ancestor). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 13th century the category of reptile was recognized in Europe as consisting of a miscellany of egg-laying creatures, including "snakes, various fantastic monsters, lizards, assorted amphibians, and worms", as recorded by Vincent of Beauvais in his Mirror of Nature . (wikipedia.org)
  • The great majority of present-day reptiles are snakes and lizards . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reptile is still the usual informal term to describe living snakes and lizards . (wikipedia.org)
  • To help keep the experience healthy, parents and guardians should be aware that reptiles and amphibians can harbor Salmonella bacteria that are easily transmitted to people handling them. (waterandhealth.org)
  • All living reptile species are cold blooded , have scaly skin , and lay cleidoic eggs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fresh Air screens allow a healthy exchange of air to keep your cold-blooded reptile active and healthy. (petmountain.com)
  • Tough escape-proof mesh resists scratches, bites & corrosion Mesh & steel frame withstand high heat of reptile bulbs for years of daily use Promotes healthy exchange of fresh air for cold-blooded reptiles The tough, escape-proof galvanized steel mesh resists corrosion and the scratching and biting of even the largest pets. (petmountain.com)
  • Reptiles are considered to occupy an evolutionary position between amphibians and the warm-blooded vertebrates. (bpzoo.org)
  • Reptiles are tetrapod vertebrates , creatures that either have four limbs or, like snakes, are descended from four-limbed ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reptile is the common name for one of the main groups of land vertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reptiles occupy a key evolutionary position for understanding how variation in MHC structure evolved in vertebrates, but information on the structure of the MHC region in reptiles is limited. (g3journal.org)
  • Most reptiles - including all turtles, crocodiles, and alligators - lay eggs. (bpzoo.org)
  • Ancient reptiles that do survive include the turtles , the crocodiles and the Tuatara , the lone survivor of its group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zilla's Tropical 25 UVB Fluorescent Coil Bulbs are ideal for those tropical-dwelling basking reptiles such as Anoles, Day Geckos, Tokay Geckos, Iguanas, Basilisks, Chameleons, Chinese Water Dragons, Red-Eared Sliders, Red Foot Tortoises and Eastern Box Turtles. (petmountain.com)
  • In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry land. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital ocular malformations (especially microphthalmos) occur with some frequency in captive breed reptiles possibly as consequence of inbreeding, or environmental conditions. (vin.com)
  • In addition to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are now extinct , in some cases due to mass extinction events . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most reptiles are oviparous , although several species of squamates are viviparous , as were some extinct aquatic clades [8] - the fetus develops within the mother, contained in a placenta rather than an eggshell . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many important groups of reptiles are now extinct , for example the mosasaurs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Another reason is that the word 'reptile' is misleading because many extinct types were very different from living reptiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • So instead of Reptilia as a taxonomic class, today most experts use Class Sauropsida (which includes all reptiles and birds, living and extinct). (wikipedia.org)
  • SOUTHAMPTON, England, Feb. 4 (UPI) -- British paleontologists say they've worked with international colleagues to identify fossil remains as those of a new kind of extinct flying reptile. (upi.com)
  • Reptiles play largely in the realm of exotic trade and illegal trade, but the reptiles that appear to be affected the most are the wild-caught reptiles. (animallaw.info)
  • While a total ban may neither be feasible nor warranted, certainly the trade in wild-caught reptiles is too prevalent in our global economy. (animallaw.info)
  • An estimated 90% of wild-caught reptiles die in their first year of captivity because of physical trauma prior to purchase or because their owners cannot meet their complex dietary and habitat needs. (animallaw.info)
  • [11] Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti was the first to formally use the term "Reptilia" for an expanded selection of reptiles and amphibians basically similar to that of Linnaeus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also recommended you quarantine them for three months before they come in contact with other reptiles in the collection. (petmd.com)
  • A reptile with external parasites that is treated in a timely manner and is otherwise in good condition can be expected to recover fully. (petmd.com)
  • Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae , which can grow up to 17 mm (0.7 in) to the saltwater crocodile , Crocodylus porosus , which can reach 6 m (19.7 ft) in length and weigh over 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). (wikipedia.org)
  • Reptiles are animals. (animallaw.info)
  • Moreover, under most legal definitions, reptiles are considered to be animals as well. (animallaw.info)
  • Reptiles are among the most inhumanely treated animals in the pet trade. (animallaw.info)
  • Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are over 8,000 species of reptiles in the world, inhabiting every continent except Antarctica. (bpzoo.org)
  • Provides ambient heat in terrariums Great for night-time viewing to observe natural nocturnal behaviors Ideal for tropical & desert reptile habitats A healthy level of 24-hour heat is essential to maintain a non-stressful environment for your desert or tropical snake, lizard, or turtle. (petmountain.com)
  • When it's too cold to bask, reptiles may brumate. (bpzoo.org)
  • This puts the birds (over 10,000 species) with what people normally call reptiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skeleton of an elasmosaur dinosaur, a rare 25-foot-long marine reptile, has been found for the first time in the mountains of Alaska. (newsmax.com)
  • This course covers the identification, distribution, natural history, ecology, conservation history and conservation status of all the Northern and Southern California amphibian and reptile species and subspecies that are listed as threatened or endangered by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (ucdavis.edu)
  • This course also covers all Northern California and selected Southern California species included in the current (2016) edition of the UC Press/CDFW publication "California Amphibian and Reptile Species of Special Concern," such as the western pond turtle and the coast horned lizard. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The course is designed for agency biologists, consultants, planners, public utilities staff and others who are interested in the natural history and conservation biology of Northern California amphibians and reptiles. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Do not permit children less than five years of age or people with weakened immune systems to make contact with reptiles or amphibians or their habitats. (waterandhealth.org)
  • Reptiles have dry scaly skin rather than hair or feathers. (bpzoo.org)
  • All reptiles are ectothermic and a change in temperature may have profound influences on drug distribution, metabolism, excretion, and hence elimination half-life. (vin.com)
  • The study of these traditional reptile orders , historically combined with that of modern amphibians , is called herpetology . (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of living reptiles is called herpetology . (wikipedia.org)
  • Blockage of the nasolacrimal duct (which cannot occur in chelonians because it is absent) results in a backup of tear secretion in reptiles with a spectacle. (vin.com)
  • Unlike amphibians , reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • All plesiosaurs - so far as we know - were predators, the shapes of their teeth and jaws indicating that they preyed variously on swimming and benthic invertebrates, on fish, and also on other aquatic reptiles. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Reptile scales are connected in a "sheet," which is the outermost layer of skin. (bpzoo.org)
  • Reptiles have well-developed renal and hepatic portal systems where blood from the caudal half of the body passes through the kidneys and liver before reaching the heart. (vin.com)
  • Modern non-avian reptiles inhabit all the continents except Antarctica , although some birds are found on the periphery of Antarctica. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since reptiles are not monophyletic , reclassifying them is one of the key aims of researchers. (wikipedia.org)