Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Sexual activities of humans.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
The status of health in rural populations.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
The status of health in urban populations.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
All organized methods of funding.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.

Provision of sexual health services to adolescent enrollees in Medicaid managed care. (1/211)

OBJECTIVES: This Seattle project measured sexual health services provided to 1112 Medicaid managed care enrollees aged 14 to 18 years. METHODS: Three health maintenance organizations (HMOs) that provide Medicaid services for a capitated rate agreed to participate. These included a non-profit staff-model HMO, a for-profit independent practice association (IPA), and a non-profit alliance of community clinics. Analyses used health maintenance organizations' administrative data, chart reviews, and Medicaid encounter data. RESULTS: Health maintenance organizations provided primary care to 54% and well care to 20% of Medicaid enrollees. Girls were more likely than boys to have their sexual history taken or to be given condom counseling. Only 27% of sexually active girls were tested for chlamydia, with significantly lower rates of testing among those who spoke English as a second language. The nonprofit staff-model plan outperformed the for-profit independent practice association on most measures. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial room for improvement exists in sexual health services delivery to adolescent Medicaid managed care enrollees.  (+info)

A 6-month pilot of a collaborative clinic between genitourinary medicine services and a young persons' sexual health clinic. (2/211)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether situating a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic within a Brook centre is successful in attracting a younger client group than that traditionally seen in GUM clinics within hospitals. DESIGN: A descriptive study of a 6-month pilot clinic. SETTING: Brook in Manchester. A community clinic providing sexual health advice to clients under the age of 25 years. With the collaboration of Withington Hospital GUM Department, Manchester. PARTICIPANTS: All clients under the age of 25 years attending the pilot GUM clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The age of the clients attending and the diagnosis made. RESULTS: A total of 137 visits were made by 93 clients. Under-16s comprised 6% of all visits compared to 1.5% at Withington GUM clinic (adjusted for the under-25s) and 12% at Brook. Far more Chlamydia trachomatis was seen (34% of all clients) than in a traditional GUM clinic (18% of all clients). Contact tracing resulted in 82% of named contacts being traced. CONCLUSION: The pilot clinic was successful in attracting a much younger client group than a traditional hospital-based service.  (+info)

Comparing the quality of three models of postabortion care in public hospitals in Mexico City. (3/211)

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 120,000 women in Mexico seek treatment in public hospitals for abortion-related complications--the country's fourth leading cause of maternal mortality. Models of postabortion care emphasizing counseling and provision of contraceptives have the potential to improve the quality of care these women receive. METHODS: Between April 1997 and August 1998, women treated for abortion complications in six Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) hospitals in the Mexico City metropolitan area were surveyed. Data related to patient-provider interaction, information provision and counseling were analyzed for three models of care: sharp curettage standard care, sharp curettage postabortion care and manual vacuum aspiration postabortion care. RESULTS: Women in the two postabortion care groups rated the quality of services they received more highly than did those receiving sharp curettage standard care. A significantly greater proportion of women treated under the postabortion care models than of those treated under the sharp curettage standard model received information about their health status before treatment, the uterine evacuation procedure, signs of postabortion complications and care at home. In addition, a greater proportion of women treated under the postabortion care models accepted a contraceptive method before leaving the facility (64-78% vs. 40%). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a postabortion care model contributes to the delivery of high-quality services to women experiencing abortion complications. The standard IMSS model of postabortion treatment should be modified to emulate those in hospitals that systematically link general counseling and family planning services to the clinical services provided to women with abortion complications.  (+info)

Facility-level reproductive health interventions and contraceptive use in Uganda. (4/211)

CONTEXT: In Uganda, modern contraceptive use has recently increased in areas served by the Delivery of Improved Services for Health (DISH) project. Whether these increases are associated with facility-level factors is unknown, however. METHODS: Data from the 1999 DISH Evaluation Surveys were used in multivariate logistic regressions to assess the independent relationships of five indicators of the family planning service environment with individual-level use of a modern contraceptive in rural and urban areas. The surveys consisted of a household questionnaire of 1,766 women of reproductive age and a facility module implemented in all health facilities that serve the sampled population. RESULTS: After women's social and demographic characteristics were controlled for, none of the service environment factors was independently associated with current use of a modern method in rural areas. By contrast, in urban areas, the proximity of a private health facility (which likely reflects an increased availability of methods) was positively associated with current use (odds ratio, 2.1), as was the presence of a higher number (three or more) of DISH-trained service providers (1.7). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of private health facilities was the factor most strongly associated with contraceptive use in urban areas, perhaps because they improved the availability of methods. Few other facility-level program inputs had significant effects.  (+info)

Contextual influences on reproductive wellness in northern India. (5/211)

OBJECTIVES: There has been a growing recognition of the importance of contextual influences on health outcomes. This article examines community-level influences on 5 reproductive wellness outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India. METHODS: Multilevel modeling is used to estimate household and community-level effects on wellness, with hierarchically organized data from a statewide survey of villages, urban blocks, households, women, health providers, and staff. RESULTS: The household and community have a strong contextual influence on wellness, although the models explain more of the variation in outcomes between households than between communities. CONCLUSIONS: Communities influence wellness outcomes through the socioeconomic environment and the characteristics of the health infrastructure. The specific dimensions of the community and health infrastructure varied between the outcomes.  (+info)

FFPRHC Guidance (October 2003): First prescription of combined oral contraception. (6/211)

The Guidance provides information for clinicians on the steps to be taken before providing a woman with her first prescription for combined oral contraception. It updates and replaces previous Faculty Guidance. A key to the grades of recommendations, based on levels of evidence, is given at the end of this document. Details of the methods used by the Clinical Effectiveness Unit (CEU) in developing this Guidance, and evidence tables summarising the research basis of the recommendations, are available on the Faculty website (www.ffprhc.org.uk). Abbreviations used include: blood pressure (BP), body mass (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), breakthrough bleeding (BTB), British National Formulary (BNF), combined oral contraception (COC), Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM), confidence interval (CI), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), emergency contraception (EC), ethinyl oestradiol (EE), Faculty Aid to Continuing Professional Development Topics (FACT), Family Planning Association (fpa), follicule-stimulating homone (FSH), general practitioner (GP), intermenstrual bleeding (IMB), luteinising hormone (LT), microgram, myocardial infarction (MI), odds ratio (OR), oral contraception (OC), pulmonary embolism (PE), relative risk (RR), Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN), sexually transmitted infection (STI), Summary of Product Characteristics (SPCs), venous thomboembolism (VTE), World Health Organization (WHO), WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria (WHOMEC), WHO Selected Practice Recommendations (WHOSPR).  (+info)

The psychosocial context of young adult sexual behavior in Nicaragua: looking through the gender lens. (7/211)

CONTEXT: Understanding the nature and magnitude of gender differences in sexual norms among young adults in Nicaragua, and how these differences affect sexual behavior, is important for the design of reproductive health programs. METHODS: A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in six departments in the Pacific region of Nicaragua in 1998. A total of 552 never-married women and 289 never-married men aged 15-24 were interviewed about their perceptions of social pressure to engage in premarital sex; perceived social approval of and attitudes toward premarital sex and premarital pregnancy; perceived sexual activity among peers and siblings; communication with parents on sexuality issues; the psychosocial context of sexual debut; and preferred sources of information on sexuality issues. RESULTS: Most young men (83%) reported that they had received direct encouragement from at least one person in the last year to engage in premarital sex, and at least half perceived that their father, siblings, other relatives and friends approved of premarital intercourse. A significantly greater proportion of men than of women reported that curiosity or gaining experience motivated their sexual debut (61% vs. 21%). Men perceived themselves to have a higher risk of unplanned and unprotected sex than did women. In contrast, women held more negative attitudes toward premarital sex and were more often discouraged by parents or siblings from engaging in sex. CONCLUSIONS: Reproductive health programs for young Nicaraguans need to address gender-based double standards, which raise the risk of unplanned, unprotected sex and unintended pregnancy.  (+info)

Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles. (8/211)

A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC) as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers.  (+info)

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and management of reproductive health disorders, including infertility, sexual dysfunction, and other reproductive system-related issues. It involves a multidisciplinary approach, combining expertise from various medical specialties such as obstetrics, gynecology, endocrinology, urology, and genetics.

Reproductive medicine encompasses several areas of focus, including:

1. Infertility treatment: Utilizing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and other techniques to help individuals or couples conceive.
2. Contraception: Providing various methods for family planning, including hormonal contraceptives, barrier methods, and permanent sterilization procedures.
3. Sexual dysfunction: Addressing issues related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain through medical interventions, counseling, or surgical treatments.
4. Reproductive endocrinology: Managing hormonal imbalances affecting reproductive health, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and hypogonadism.
5. Genetic counseling and testing: Assessing the risk of inheritable genetic disorders and providing guidance on family planning options.
6. Menopause management: Offering treatments for symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes.
7. Fertility preservation: Providing options for individuals facing cancer treatment or other medical conditions that may impact their future fertility, including egg, sperm, and embryo freezing.
8. Adolescent reproductive health: Addressing the unique needs of adolescents related to sexual and reproductive health, including education, counseling, and preventative care.
9. Andrology: Focusing on male reproductive health, including issues related to sperm production, function, and genital abnormalities.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Reproductive rights are a subset of human rights that include the right to plan a family, have children, or not have children, and the right to access information and services needed to do so. This can encompass issues such as access to contraception, safe abortion, reproductive health care, and education about sexual and reproductive health. Reproductive rights also include freedom from coercion, discrimination, and violence in relation to one's reproductive choices. These rights are recognized and protected under international law, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various treaties and conventions on women's and human rights.

Adolescent health services refer to medical and related services that are specifically designed to meet the unique physical, mental, emotional, and social needs of young people between the ages of 10-24 years. These services encompass a broad range of interventions, including preventive care, acute and chronic disease management, reproductive health care, mental health services, substance use treatment, and health promotion and education. The goal of adolescent health services is to support young people in achieving optimal health and well-being as they navigate the complex transitions of adolescence and early adulthood. Such services may be provided in a variety of settings, including primary care clinics, schools, community health centers, and specialized youth clinics.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

Family planning policy refers to a government's official position or action regarding the use of family planning services, including contraception, fertility awareness, and reproductive health education. The goal of family planning policies is to enable individuals and couples to make informed decisions about whether and when to have children, thus contributing to improved maternal and child health outcomes, reduced unintended pregnancies, and lower abortion rates. Family planning policies may include provisions for the provision of free or subsidized contraceptive methods, sex education in schools, training for healthcare providers, and public awareness campaigns. The specific content and implementation of family planning policies vary widely between countries and are often influenced by cultural, religious, and political factors.

Health services needs refer to the population's requirement for healthcare services based on their health status, disease prevalence, and clinical guidelines. These needs can be categorized into normative needs (based on expert opinions or clinical guidelines) and expressed needs (based on individuals' perceptions of their own healthcare needs).

On the other hand, health services demand refers to the quantity of healthcare services that consumers are willing and able to pay for, given their preferences, values, and financial resources. Demand is influenced by various factors such as price, income, education level, and cultural beliefs.

It's important to note that while needs represent a population's requirement for healthcare services, demand reflects the actual utilization of these services. Understanding both health services needs and demand is crucial in planning and delivering effective healthcare services that meet the population's requirements while ensuring efficient resource allocation.

A legal abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy through medical or surgical means, carried out in accordance with the laws and regulations of a particular jurisdiction. In countries where abortion is legal, it is typically restricted to certain circumstances, such as:

* To protect the life or health of the pregnant person
* In cases of fetal anomalies that are incompatible with life outside the womb
* When the pregnancy is the result of rape or incest
* When the continuation of the pregnancy would pose a significant risk to the physical or mental health of the pregnant person

The specific circumstances under which abortion is legal, as well as the procedures and regulations that govern it, vary widely from one country to another. In some places, such as the United States, abortion is protected as a fundamental right under certain conditions; while in other countries, such as those with highly restrictive abortion laws, it may only be allowed in very limited circumstances or not at all.

Reproductive behavior, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the actions or behaviors associated with an organism's reproduction. This can include various aspects such as:

1. Mating rituals or courtship behaviors that individuals of a species engage in to attract mates.
2. Copulation or actual mating process.
3. Parental care, which is the behavior of parents towards their offspring, including protection, feeding, and teaching necessary skills.
4. In some cases, it may also include aggressive behaviors related to territory defense for breeding.

These behaviors are influenced by hormonal changes, genetic factors, environmental conditions, and individual experiences. They vary widely among different species, with some displaying complex rituals while others have more straightforward processes.

In humans, reproductive behavior includes sexual activities associated with procreation, contraceptive use, family planning, and sometimes abstinence. It's important to note that human reproductive behavior can also be influenced by cultural, psychological, and social factors, making it quite complex compared to many other species.

Maternal health services refer to the preventative, diagnostic, and treatment-based healthcare services provided during pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal period. These services aim to ensure the best possible health outcomes for mothers throughout their reproductive years, including family planning, preconception care, antenatal care, delivery, postpartum care, and management of chronic conditions or complications that may arise during pregnancy and childbirth.

The World Health Organization (WHO) outlines several critical components of maternal health services:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups to monitor the mother's and fetus's health, identify potential risks, provide essential interventions, and offer counseling on nutrition, breastfeeding, and birth preparedness.
2. Delivery care: Skilled attendance during childbirth, including normal vaginal delivery and assisted deliveries (forceps or vacuum extraction), and access to emergency obstetric care for complications such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, obstructed labor, and sepsis.
3. Postnatal care: Continuum of care for mothers and newborns during the first six weeks after childbirth, focusing on recovery, early detection and management of complications, immunization, family planning, and psychosocial support.
4. Family planning: Access to modern contraceptive methods, counseling on fertility awareness, and safe abortion services where legal, to enable women to plan their pregnancies and space their children according to their reproductive intentions.
5. Management of chronic conditions: Comprehensive care for pregnant women with pre-existing or pregnancy-induced medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and mental health disorders.
6. Preconception care: Identification and management of risk factors before conception to optimize maternal and fetal health outcomes.
7. Prevention and management of gender-based violence: Screening, counseling, and referral services for women experiencing intimate partner violence or sexual violence during pregnancy and childbirth.
8. Health promotion and education: Community-based interventions to raise awareness about the importance of maternal health, promote positive health behaviors, and reduce barriers to accessing healthcare services.

Maternal health services should be accessible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable for all women, regardless of their age, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or geographical location. Adequate investment in maternal health infrastructure, human resources, and service delivery models is essential to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Confidentiality is a legal and ethical principle in medicine that refers to the obligation of healthcare professionals to protect the personal and sensitive information of their patients. This information, which can include medical history, diagnosis, treatment plans, and other private details, is shared between the patient and the healthcare provider with the expectation that it will be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties without the patient's consent.

Confidentiality is a fundamental component of the trust relationship between patients and healthcare providers, as it helps to ensure that patients feel safe and comfortable sharing sensitive information with their doctors, nurses, and other members of their healthcare team. It also helps to protect patients' privacy rights and uphold their autonomy in making informed decisions about their healthcare.

There are some limited circumstances in which confidentiality may be breached, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of information (e.g., suspected child abuse or neglect), or when the disclosure is necessary to protect the health and safety of the patient or others. However, these exceptions are typically narrowly defined and subject to strict guidelines and safeguards to ensure that confidentiality is protected as much as possible.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

"Focus groups" is a term from the field of social science research, rather than medicine. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, focus groups are sometimes used in medical research to gather data and insights from a small group of people on a specific topic or product. This can include gathering feedback on patient experiences, testing prototypes of medical devices or treatments, or exploring attitudes and perceptions related to health issues. The goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the perspectives and needs of the target population through facilitated group discussion.

Community health services refer to a type of healthcare delivery that is organized around the needs of a specific population or community, rather than individual patients. These services are typically focused on preventive care, health promotion, and improving access to care for underserved populations. They can include a wide range of services, such as:

* Primary care, including routine check-ups, immunizations, and screenings
* Dental care
* Mental health and substance abuse treatment
* Public health initiatives, such as disease prevention and health education programs
* Home health care and other supportive services for people with chronic illnesses or disabilities
* Health services for special populations, such as children, the elderly, or those living in rural areas

The goal of community health services is to improve the overall health of a population by addressing the social, economic, and environmental factors that can impact health. This approach recognizes that healthcare is just one factor in determining a person's health outcomes, and that other factors such as housing, education, and income also play important roles. By working to address these underlying determinants of health, community health services aim to improve the health and well-being of entire communities.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

Rural health services refer to the healthcare delivery systems and facilities that are located in rural areas and are designed to meet the unique health needs of rural populations. These services can include hospitals, clinics, community health centers, mental health centers, and home health agencies, as well as various programs and initiatives aimed at improving access to care, addressing health disparities, and promoting health and wellness in rural communities.

Rural health services are often characterized by longer travel distances to healthcare facilities, a greater reliance on primary care and preventive services, and a higher prevalence of certain health conditions such as chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health disorders. As a result, rural health services must be tailored to address these challenges and provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible care to rural residents.

In many countries, rural health services are supported by government policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare infrastructure, workforce development, and telehealth technologies in rural areas. These efforts are critical for ensuring that all individuals, regardless of where they live, have access to the healthcare services they need to maintain their health and well-being.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

Health care reform refers to the legislative efforts, initiatives, and debates aimed at improving the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care services. These reforms may include changes to health insurance coverage, delivery systems, payment methods, and healthcare regulations. The goals of health care reform are often to increase the number of people with health insurance, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall health outcomes of a population. Examples of notable health care reform measures in the United States include the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare for All proposals.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

Health Services Administration (HSA) is not a medical term per se, but rather a field of study and practice within healthcare management. Here's a definition that encompasses its meaning:

Health Services Administration (HSA) refers to the planning, directing, coordinating, and supervising of health services in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, public health agencies, and other medical facilities. It involves managing financial resources, developing organizational policies, ensuring quality assurance, maintaining regulatory compliance, and promoting efficient delivery of healthcare services to improve patient outcomes and overall population health. HSA professionals may hold titles such as hospital administrator, clinical director, or healthcare executive.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

Sex education is a systematic instruction or information regarding human sexuality, including human reproduction, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, emotional relations, reproductive health, and safe sex, among other topics. It is usually taught in schools but can also be provided by healthcare professionals, parents, or community organizations. The aim of sex education is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual health and relationships while promoting responsible and respectful attitudes towards sexuality.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

Preventive health services refer to measures taken to prevent diseases or injuries rather than curing them or treating their symptoms. These services include screenings, vaccinations, and counseling aimed at preventing or identifying illnesses in their earliest stages. Examples of preventive health services include:

1. Screenings for various types of cancer (e.g., breast, cervical, colorectal)
2. Vaccinations against infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, pneumococcal pneumonia, human papillomavirus)
3. Counseling on lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of chronic diseases (e.g., smoking cessation, diet and exercise counseling, alcohol misuse screening and intervention)
4. Screenings for cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., cholesterol levels, blood pressure, body mass index)
5. Screenings for mental health conditions (e.g., depression)
6. Preventive medications (e.g., aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in certain individuals)

Preventive health services are an essential component of overall healthcare and play a critical role in improving health outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and enhancing quality of life.

Health planning is a systematic process of creating strategies, policies, and goals to improve the health of a population and ensure the provision of adequate and accessible healthcare services. It involves assessing the health needs of the community, establishing priorities, developing interventions, and implementing and evaluating programs to address those needs. The ultimate goal of health planning is to optimize the health status of the population, reduce health disparities, and make efficient use of resources in the healthcare system. This process typically involves collaboration among various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, policymakers, community members, and advocacy groups.

"Health services for the aged" is a broad term that refers to medical and healthcare services specifically designed to meet the unique needs of elderly individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health services for the aged should be "age-friendly" and "person-centered," meaning they should take into account the physical, mental, and social changes that occur as people age, as well as their individual preferences and values.

These services can include a range of medical and healthcare interventions, such as:

* Preventive care, including vaccinations, cancer screenings, and other routine check-ups
* Chronic disease management, such as treatment for conditions like diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
* Rehabilitation services, such as physical therapy or occupational therapy, to help elderly individuals maintain their mobility and independence
* Palliative care and end-of-life planning, to ensure that elderly individuals receive compassionate and supportive care in their final days
* Mental health services, including counseling and therapy for conditions like depression or anxiety
* Social services, such as transportation assistance, meal delivery, or home care, to help elderly individuals maintain their quality of life and independence.

Overall, the goal of health services for the aged is to promote healthy aging, prevent disease and disability, and provide high-quality, compassionate care to elderly individuals, in order to improve their overall health and well-being.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

Occupational Health Services (OHS) refer to a branch of healthcare that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues that arise in the workplace or are caused by work-related factors. These services aim to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

OHS typically includes:

1. Health surveillance and screening programs to identify early signs of work-related illnesses or injuries.
2. Occupational health education and training for employees and managers on topics such as safe lifting techniques, hazard communication, and bloodborne pathogens exposure control.
3. Ergonomic assessments and interventions to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and other work-related injuries.
4. Development and implementation of policies and procedures to address workplace health and safety issues.
5. Case management and return-to-work programs for employees who have been injured or become ill on the job.
6. Medical monitoring and treatment of work-related injuries and illnesses, including rehabilitation and disability management services.
7. Collaboration with employers to identify and address potential health hazards in the workplace, such as chemical exposures, noise pollution, or poor indoor air quality.

Overall, Occupational Health Services play a critical role in protecting the health and safety of workers, reducing the burden of work-related illnesses and injuries, and promoting a healthy and productive workforce.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

The term "Integrated Delivery of Healthcare" refers to a coordinated and seamless approach to providing healthcare services, where different providers and specialists work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. This model aims to improve patient outcomes by ensuring that all aspects of a person's health are addressed in a holistic and coordinated manner.

Integrated delivery of healthcare may involve various components such as:

1. Primary Care: A primary care provider serves as the first point of contact for patients and coordinates their care with other specialists and providers.
2. Specialty Care: Specialists provide care for specific medical conditions or diseases, working closely with primary care providers to ensure coordinated care.
3. Mental Health Services: Mental health providers work alongside medical professionals to address the mental and emotional needs of patients, recognizing that mental health is an essential component of overall health.
4. Preventive Care: Preventive services such as screenings, vaccinations, and health education are provided to help prevent illnesses and promote overall health and well-being.
5. Chronic Disease Management: Providers work together to manage chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, using evidence-based practices and coordinated care plans.
6. Health Information Technology: Electronic health records (EHRs) and other health information technologies are used to facilitate communication and coordination among providers, ensuring that all members of the care team have access to up-to-date patient information.
7. Patient Engagement: Patients are actively engaged in their care, with education and support provided to help them make informed decisions about their health and treatment options.

The goal of integrated delivery of healthcare is to provide high-quality, cost-effective care that meets the unique needs of each patient, while also improving overall population health.

"State Medicine" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it can refer to the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services and resources at the national or regional level, overseen and managed by the government or state. This can include public health initiatives, regulation of healthcare professionals and institutions, and the provision of healthcare services through publicly funded programs.

In some contexts, "State Medicine" may also refer to the practice of using medical treatments or interventions as a means of achieving political or social objectives, such as reducing crime rates or improving economic productivity. However, this usage is less common and more controversial.

Urban health services refer to the provision of healthcare and public health programs in urban areas, designed to meet the unique needs and challenges of urban populations. These services encompass a wide range of facilities, professionals, and interventions that aim to improve the health and well-being of people living in urban environments. They often address issues such as infectious diseases, chronic conditions, mental health, environmental hazards, and social determinants of health that are prevalent or amplified in urban settings. Examples of urban health services include hospital systems, community health centers, outreach programs, and policy initiatives focused on improving the health of urban populations.

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

National health programs are systematic, large-scale initiatives that are put in place by national governments to address specific health issues or improve the overall health of a population. These programs often involve coordinated efforts across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and social services. They may aim to increase access to care, improve the quality of care, prevent the spread of diseases, promote healthy behaviors, or reduce health disparities. Examples of national health programs include immunization campaigns, tobacco control initiatives, and efforts to address chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease. These programs are typically developed based on scientific research, evidence-based practices, and public health data, and they may be funded through a variety of sources, including government budgets, grants, and private donations.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

Health Insurance is a type of insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By purchasing health insurance, insured individuals pay a premium to an insurance company, which then pools those funds with other policyholders' premiums to pay for the medical care costs of individuals who become ill or injured. The coverage can include hospitalization, medical procedures, prescription drugs, and preventive care, among other services. The goal of health insurance is to provide financial protection against unexpected medical expenses and to make healthcare services more affordable.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

Women's rights, in a medical context, refer to the legal, social, and political rights and entitlements of women, specifically in relation to health, reproductive justice, and access to quality healthcare services. These rights encompass:

1. Autonomy over one's own body and medical decisions, including the right to informed consent and refusal of treatment.
2. Equitable access to comprehensive healthcare services, including sexual and reproductive healthcare, without discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or other factors.
3. Protection from coerced sterilization, forced pregnancy, and other forms of reproductive oppression.
4. Access to safe and legal abortion services, as well as emergency contraception and other family planning methods.
5. The right to high-quality maternal healthcare, including prenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postpartum care.
6. Protection from gender-based violence, including sexual assault, domestic violence, and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C).
7. The right to accurate and comprehensive health education, including information about sexual and reproductive health.
8. Representation and participation in healthcare decision-making processes at all levels, from individual patient care to policy development.
9. Access to culturally competent and respectful healthcare services that recognize and address the unique needs and experiences of women.
10. The right to privacy and confidentiality in healthcare settings, including protection of medical records and personal health information.

Health expenditures refer to the total amount of money spent on health services, goods, and resources in a given period. This can include expenses for preventive care, medical treatments, medications, long-term care, and administrative costs. Health expenditures can be made by individuals, corporations, insurance companies, or governments, and they can be measured at the national, regional, or household level.

Health expenditures are often used as an indicator of a country's investment in its healthcare system and can reflect the overall health status of a population. High levels of health expenditures may indicate a strong commitment to healthcare, but they can also place a significant burden on individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding patterns and trends in health expenditures is important for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers who are working to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accessibility of healthcare services.

Public Health Administration refers to the leadership, management, and coordination of public health services and initiatives at the local, state, or national level. It involves overseeing and managing the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies, programs, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being of populations. This may include addressing issues such as infectious disease control, chronic disease prevention, environmental health, emergency preparedness and response, and health promotion and education.

Public Health Administration requires a strong understanding of public health principles, leadership and management skills, and the ability to work collaboratively with a variety of stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations. The ultimate goal of Public Health Administration is to ensure that public health resources are used effectively and efficiently to improve the health outcomes of populations and reduce health disparities.

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is not a medical term per se, but I can certainly provide a definition and overview of it in the context of public health and healthcare.

The USPHS is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and is responsible for promoting and protecting the health of the nation, particularly focusing on preventing and controlling infectious diseases and other health threats. The USPHS is composed of eight uniformed service components: the Surgeon General's Office, the Commissioned Corps, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the Indian Health Service (IHS), and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

The Commissioned Corps of the USPHS is a group of uniformed healthcare professionals who are appointed by the President and commissioned as officers. They serve in various capacities within the federal government, including research, clinical care, health policy, and emergency response. The Surgeon General serves as the head of the USPHS and is responsible for providing advice to the President and HHS Secretary on matters related to public health.

The USPHS plays a critical role in responding to public health emergencies, such as natural disasters, infectious disease outbreaks, and bioterrorism attacks. They also work to address health disparities and promote health equity by providing healthcare services to underserved populations, including American Indians and Alaska Natives through the IHS. Additionally, the USPHS supports research and surveillance efforts aimed at understanding and addressing various public health issues, such as tobacco use, substance abuse, and mental health.

Health services for Indigenous people refer to medical and healthcare provision that is specifically designed, delivered, and organized to meet the unique cultural, historical, and social needs of indigenous populations. These services aim to address the health disparities and inequalities that often exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. They are typically community-based and involve traditional healing practices, as well as modern medical interventions. Indigenous health services may also incorporate cultural safety training for healthcare providers to ensure respectful and appropriate care.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition emphasizes that health is more than just the absence of illness, but a positive state of well-being in which an individual is able to realize their own potential, cope with normal stresses of life, work productively, and contribute to their community. It recognizes that physical, mental, and social factors are interconnected and can all impact a person's overall health. This definition also highlights the importance of addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, education, housing, and access to healthcare, in order to promote health and prevent disease.

Health Priorities are key areas of focus in healthcare that receive the greatest attention, resources, and efforts due to their significant impact on overall population health. These priorities are typically determined by evaluating various health issues and factors such as prevalence, severity, mortality rates, and social determinants of health. By addressing health priorities, healthcare systems and public health organizations aim to improve community health, reduce health disparities, and enhance the quality of life for individuals. Examples of health priorities may include chronic diseases (such as diabetes or heart disease), mental health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, injury prevention, and health promotion through healthy lifestyles.

Home care services, also known as home health care, refer to a wide range of health and social services delivered at an individual's residence. These services are designed to help people who have special needs or disabilities, those recovering from illness or surgery, and the elderly or frail who require assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) or skilled nursing care.

Home care services can include:

1. Skilled Nursing Care: Provided by registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to administer medications, wound care, injections, and other medical treatments. They also monitor the patient's health status, provide education on disease management, and coordinate with other healthcare professionals.
2. Therapy Services: Occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists help patients regain strength, mobility, coordination, balance, and communication skills after an illness or injury. They develop personalized treatment plans to improve the patient's ability to perform daily activities independently.
3. Personal Care/Assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs): Home health aides and personal care assistants provide assistance with bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and other personal care tasks. They may also help with light housekeeping, meal preparation, and shopping.
4. Social Work Services: Provided by licensed social workers who assess the patient's psychosocial needs, connect them to community resources, and provide counseling and support for patients and their families.
5. Nutritional Support: Registered dietitians evaluate the patient's nutritional status, develop meal plans, and provide education on special diets or feeding techniques as needed.
6. Telehealth Monitoring: Remote monitoring of a patient's health status using technology such as video conferencing, wearable devices, or mobile apps to track vital signs, medication adherence, and symptoms. This allows healthcare providers to monitor patients closely and adjust treatment plans as necessary without requiring in-person visits.
7. Hospice Care: End-of-life care provided in the patient's home to manage pain, provide emotional support, and address spiritual needs. The goal is to help the patient maintain dignity and quality of life during their final days.
8. Respite Care: Temporary relief for family caregivers who need a break from caring for their loved ones. This can include short-term stays in assisted living facilities or hiring professional caregivers to provide in-home support.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

'Government Financing' in the context of healthcare refers to the role of government in funding healthcare services, programs, and infrastructure. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as:

1. Direct provision of healthcare services: The government operates and funds its own hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, where it employs healthcare professionals to deliver care.
2. Public insurance programs: The government establishes and manages health insurance programs, like Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, which provide coverage for specific populations and reimburse healthcare providers for services delivered to enrollees.
3. Tax subsidies and incentives: Governments may offer tax breaks or other financial incentives to encourage private investments in healthcare infrastructure, research, and development.
4. Grants and loans: Government agencies can provide funding to healthcare organizations, researchers, and educational institutions in the form of grants and loans for specific projects, programs, or initiatives.
5. Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Governments collaborate with private entities to jointly fund and manage healthcare services, facilities, or infrastructure projects.

Government financing plays a significant role in shaping healthcare systems and ensuring access to care for vulnerable populations. The extent of government involvement in financing varies across countries, depending on their political, economic, and social contexts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Health status disparities refer to differences in the health outcomes that are observed between different populations. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic factors such as race, ethnicity, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, disability, income, education level, and geographic location. Health status disparities can manifest as differences in rates of illness, disease prevalence or incidence, morbidity, mortality, access to healthcare services, and quality of care received. These disparities are often the result of systemic inequities and social determinants of health that negatively impact certain populations, leading to worse health outcomes compared to other groups. It is important to note that health status disparities are preventable and can be addressed through targeted public health interventions and policies aimed at reducing health inequities.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

The Indian Health Service (IHS) is a federal health program within the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Its mission is to raise the physical, mental, social, and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaska Natives to the highest level. The IHS provides comprehensive health services through a network of hospitals, clinics, and health stations on or near reservations, as well as in urban areas. It also funds and supports health programs operated by tribes and tribal organizations. Services include medical and public health care, referrals for advanced care, community health education, and environmental health and sanitation services.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

Health care rationing refers to the deliberate limitation or restriction of medical services, treatments, or resources provided to patients based on specific criteria or guidelines. These limitations can be influenced by various factors such as cost-effectiveness, scarcity of resources, evidence-based medicine, and clinical appropriateness. The primary goal of health care rationing is to ensure fair distribution and allocation of finite medical resources among a population while maximizing overall health benefits and minimizing harm.

Rationing can occur at different levels within the healthcare system, including individual patient care decisions, insurance coverage policies, and governmental resource allocation. Examples of rationing include prioritizing certain treatments based on their proven effectiveness, restricting access to high-cost procedures with limited clinical benefits, or setting age limits for specific interventions.

It is important to note that health care rationing remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns about potential disparities in care and the balance between individual patient needs and societal resource constraints.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

'Student Health Services' is a department or facility within educational institutions, particularly colleges and universities, that provide primary care medical services to students. They are often staffed by healthcare professionals including physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurses, and mental health counselors. The services offered may include diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care, immunizations, sexual health services, mental health counseling, and health education. Student Health Services aim to promote the overall well-being of students and help them maintain good health while pursuing their academic goals.

The Health Care Sector is a segment of the economy that includes companies and organizations that provide goods and services to treat patients with medical conditions, as well as those that work to maintain people's health through preventative care and health education. This sector includes hospitals, clinics, physician practices, dental practices, pharmacies, home health care agencies, nursing homes, laboratories, and medical device manufacturers, among others.

The Health Care Sector is often broken down into several subsectors, including:

1. Providers of healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, and physician practices.
2. Payers of healthcare costs, such as insurance companies and government agencies like Medicare and Medicaid.
3. Manufacturers of healthcare products, such as medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology products.
4. Distributors of healthcare products, such as wholesalers and pharmacy benefit managers.
5. Providers of healthcare information technology, such as electronic health record systems and telemedicine platforms.

The Health Care Sector is a significant contributor to the economy in many countries, providing employment opportunities and contributing to economic growth. However, it also faces significant challenges, including rising costs, an aging population, and increasing demands for access to high-quality care.

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

Occupational health is a branch of medicine that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all types of jobs. The goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities, while also promoting the overall health and safety of employees. This may involve identifying and assessing potential hazards in the workplace, implementing controls to reduce or eliminate those hazards, providing education and training to workers on safe practices, and conducting medical surveillance and screenings to detect early signs of work-related health problems.

Occupational health also involves working closely with employers, employees, and other stakeholders to develop policies and programs that support the health and well-being of workers. This may include promoting healthy lifestyles, providing access to mental health resources, and supporting return-to-work programs for injured or ill workers. Ultimately, the goal of occupational health is to create a safe and healthy work environment that enables employees to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently, while also protecting their long-term health and well-being.

Health facilities, also known as healthcare facilities, are organizations that provide health services, treatments, and care to individuals in need of medical attention. These facilities can include various types of establishments such as hospitals, clinics, doctor's offices, dental practices, long-term care facilities, rehabilitation centers, and diagnostic imaging centers.

Health facilities are designed to offer a range of services that promote health, prevent illness, diagnose and treat medical conditions, and provide ongoing care for patients with chronic illnesses or disabilities. They may also offer educational programs and resources to help individuals maintain their health and well-being.

The specific services offered by health facilities can vary widely depending on the type and size of the facility, as well as its location and target population. However, all health facilities are required to meet certain standards for safety, quality, and patient care in order to ensure that patients receive the best possible treatment and outcomes.

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

Community Health Centers (CHCs) are primary care facilities that provide comprehensive and culturally competent health services to medically underserved communities, regardless of their ability to pay. CHCs are funded through various sources, including the federal government's Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). They aim to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes for vulnerable populations by providing access to high-quality preventive and primary care services.

CHCs offer a range of services, such as medical, dental, and behavioral health care, as well as enabling services like case management, transportation, and language interpretation. They operate on a sliding fee scale basis, ensuring that patients pay based on their income and ability to pay. CHCs also engage in community outreach and education to promote health awareness and prevention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poverty" is not a medical condition or term. It is a social condition defined by the World Bank as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," and measured through indicators such as income, consumption, and access to basic services. Poverty can have significant impacts on health outcomes and healthcare access, but it is not considered a medical diagnosis. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try my best to help answer them!

Organized financing in a medical context generally refers to the planning and coordination of financial resources and arrangements to support healthcare programs, services, or research. This can involve various funding sources, such as governmental agencies, private insurance, charitable organizations, and individual donors. The goal of organized financing is to ensure sustainable and equitable access to high-quality healthcare for all individuals, while also promoting cost-effective and efficient use of resources. Organized financing may also include efforts to address financial barriers to care, such as high out-of-pocket costs or lack of insurance coverage, and to promote transparency and accountability in the use of healthcare funds.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

Oral health is the scientific term used to describe the overall health status of the oral and related tissues, including the teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and mucosal lining. It involves the absence of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, oral soft tissue lesions, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity.

Good oral health also means being free of decay, gum disease, and other oral infections that can damage the teeth, gums, and bones of the mouth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups to prevent dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease (gum disease).

Additionally, oral health is closely linked to overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been associated with various systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and stroke. Therefore, maintaining good oral health can contribute to improved general health and quality of life.

Works related to Webster v. Reproductive Health Services at Wikisource Text of Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, 492 U.S ... Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973). Reproductive Health Servs. v. Webster, 662 F. Supp. 407 (W.D. Mo. 1987). Reproductive Health ... Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, 492 U.S. 490 (1989), was a United States Supreme Court decision on upholding a ... Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, 492 U.S. 490 (1989). This article incorporates public domain material from this U.S ...
Access to reproductive health services is very poor in many countries. Women are often unable to access maternal health ... CDC Division of Reproductive Health WHO Reproductive health and research MEASURE Evaluation Family Planning and Reproductive ... of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men." Reproductive health is a part of sexual and reproductive health ... is threatening their reproductive health. According to the World Health Organization: The sexual and reproductive health of the ...
Mental health services for reproductive health involve psychological counseling and services for issues including abortion, ... Women's reproductive health in Russia refers to the set of physical, mental, and social health issues and services available to ... BMC Health Services Research. Vol.10:307. 2010 The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. Women's Reproductive Rights of Young ... The Ministry of Health (Russia) oversees women's reproductive health care services, which are provided through a combination of ...
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has identified national reproductive health goals including reducing the level ... Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. "Women's Reproductive ... The Department of Health and Human Services has developed a definition for sexual health in the United States based on the ... Women's reproductive health in the United States refers to the set of physical, mental, and social issues related to the health ...
Pro Bono Services for Indigent Women SEC. 21. Sexual and Reproductive health SEC. 22. Right to Reproductive Health Care ... All health care service providers which provide reproductive health services, including faith-based hospital administrators, ... Mobile Health Care Service SEC. 16. Mandatory Age-Appropriate Reproductive Health and Sexuality Education SEC. 17. Additional ... The Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012, also known as the Reproductive Health Law or RH Law, and ...
... also access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education ... Sexual health and reproductive health are sometimes treated as synonymous to each other, as are sexual rights and reproductive ... "Sexual and reproductive health". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on December 21, 2002. "Sexual health and ... Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health. The World Health ...
... assessing the effect of adding family planning service provision to community health worker duties". Reproductive Health. 13 (1 ... HIV focused health care does not have any direct links to the decline of delivery in other health care services. In fact, HIV ... The increase in mutual health insurance (MHI) has also led to an increase in the use of health services. Half of the deaths ... "Impact of health systems strengthening on coverage of maternal health services in Rwanda, 2000-2010: a systematic review". ...
... provide reproductive health services or education, conduct reproductive health research, or influence reproductive health ... The Association of Reproductive Health Professionals (ARHP) was a non-profit organization founded in 1963 by Alan Frank ... The organization fostered research and advocacy to improve reproductive health." The organization was accredited by the ... Medical and health organizations based in Washington, D.C., Medical and health organizations based in California, 1963 ...
Reproductive health supplies refer to any material or consumable needed to provide reproductive health (RH) services. This ... Good sexual and reproductive health depends on ensuring the quality of all reproductive health supplies. Equity: The ability of ... "The interagency list of essential medicines for reproductive health" (2006) by Department of Reproductive Health and Research ... obtain and use the supplies and appropriate services they need to safeguard their reproductive health. Since 2004, the ...
The 2005 Reproductive Health Policy ensures public health facilities provide free contraceptives, while the 2006 Zambia Family ... Only 5% of health care facilities in the country offer abortion services. Rural areas reported the lowest rates of safe ... Specifically, SDGs 3 and 5 address maternal health care, sexual rights, and reproductive health rights, among other things. The ... The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia. BMC Public Health 2007; 7: ...
The best method of reducing the consequences of teenage parenthood is by providing reproductive health services to prevent ... "The Office of Adolescent Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services". Office of Adolescent Health. Retrieved April 20 ... "About Teen Pregnancy , Teen Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved April 20, 2016. "www.guttmacher.org ... "Unintended Pregnancy Prevention , Unintended Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved April 20, 2016. " ...
... is free access to family planning services enough? Results of a cross-sectional study". Reproductive Health. 17 (1): 115. doi: ... "Assessment of country policies affecting reproductive health for adolescents in the Philippines". Reproductive Health. 15 (1): ... Access to contraception was only further strengthened by the passage of Title X of the Public Health Service Act in 1970, which ... In the study, participants also stated they were less likely to access healthcare and reproductive services due to the fear of ...
"Utilization of maternal health care services and their determinants in Karnataka State, India". Reproductive Health. 13 (S1): ... Offering general support services to women could improve many aspects of health care. From 2000-2015 India participated in the ... Surveys have found that women in UP who are more educated and have more money tend to use more maternal health services. In ... "Ambulance Services at Rural Hospitals" (PDF). WB Department of Health. Prakash, A; Swain, S; Seth, A (December 1991). "Maternal ...
... reproductive health services, abortion, and high-quality maternity care such as midwifery services. In 1977, the United States ... Using the term reproductive justice instead of pro-choice, reproductive rights, or reproductive health, is a rhetorical choice ... Reproductive justice encompasses reproductive health and reproductive rights, while also using an intersectional analysis to ... Health, Sister Song Women of Color Reproductive Justice Collective, National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health, and the ...
Comendant, R (2005). "A project to improve the quality of abortion services in Moldova". Reproductive Health Matters. 13 (26): ... The Ministry of Health orders permit abortions until 22 weeks in the event of a threat to health, a pregnancy that results from ... 411 of 28 March 1995 on health; Criminal Code, 18 April 2002, as amended through 2008". 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2014. Abortion ... "Moldovan Woman Imprisoned for Abortion Pardoned and Freed" (Press release). Center for Reproductive Rights. 17 February 2012. ...
Reproductive Health Matters. 24 (47): 205-217. doi:10.1016/j.rhm.2016.06.006. PMID 27578354. Branch, Legislative Services (June ... Its system of universal health care also relieves intended parents of covering the cost of pregnancy care, birth, and neonatal ... Assisted human reproduction - Health Canada (Surrogacy, Family law in Canada). ... It also outlaws commercial "intermediaries" from arranging surrogacy services or matching prospective parents and surrogates. ...
"The Need for Priority Reproductive Health Services for Displaced Iraqi Women and Girls". Reproductive Health Matters. 16 (31): ... This adds to the number of women who are in need of reproductive health care but cannot receive it because of the effects of ... Health institutions and public institutions have also collapsed and have not been able to fully recover since the start of the ... This has made it especially difficult for pregnant women and/or women seeking reproductive care. Women who need prenatal care, ...
... health check-up during pregnancy, and medical service when giving birth at health facilities." Vietnam has also adopted ... Reproductive Health Matters. 16 (31 Supplement): 127-34. doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(08)31383-4. PMID 18772093. S2CID 206112339. " ... and doesn't specify whether a threat to health includes both physical and mental health, it does consider a "grave state of ... By 1932, abortion was considered legal if the pregnancy was a result of a crime where a woman's health was at risk. Despite the ...
"Health Sector Reform and Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Mongolia". Reproductive Health Matters. 14 (27): 91-100. ... All medical and hospital services are free and health care is under the control of state. The World Health Organization ... Legislation regarding youth sexual and reproductive health is prominent as seen by the Criminal Code of 2002 and the Health Act ... The 2008 Reproductive Health Survey revealed that 16.7% of 15-19 year olds surveyed responded that they had had sexual ...
... and Reproductive Health of U.S. Women: Data From the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth" (PDF). Vital and Health Statistics ... In the United Kingdom they cost the National Health Service less than £10 each. In the United States they cost about US$15 to $ ... Reproductive Health Online. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-04-16. Retrieved 2007-09-15. Kugel C, Verson H; Verson ( ... "Contraception , Reproductive Health , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 21 June 2016. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved ...
Reproductive Health Matters. 11 (21): 16-26. doi:10.1016/S0968-8080(03)02176-1. ISSN 0968-8080. PMID 12800700. S2CID 31783586. ... Low use of rural maternity services in Uganda: impact of women's status, traditional beliefs and limited resources Problem ... Women's Health, National and. International Perspective Social institutions as mediating sites for changing gender norms " ... ISBN 978-0-19-968482-3. Kyomuhendo, Grace Bantebya (2003). "Low Use of Rural Maternity Services in Uganda: Impact of Women's ...
Department of Health & Human Services (February 2013). "Decision-making principles for the care of infants, children and ... Reproductive Health Matters. 24 (47): 74-84. doi:10.1016/j.rhm.2016.06.003. ISSN 0968-8080. PMID 27578341. Jones, Tiffany (11 ... Reproductive Health Matters. 24 (47): 74-84. doi:10.1016/j.rhm.2016.06.003. ISSN 0968-8080. PMID 27578341. Organisation ... It's time to listen". Special Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017. Jones ...
Furthermore, the law explicitly states that sexual and reproductive health are a priority in health services, with the goal of ... "Characteristics of private abortion services in Mexico City after legalization". Reproductive Health Matters. 18 (36): 127-135 ... It is also the Church's influence that has guided the debate towards a public health rationale rather than a reproductive ... of abortion contravenes article 4 of the Mexican Constitution which allows reproductive rights and access to health services to ...
"Mobility of Women and Access to Health and Family Planning Services in Pakistan". Reproductive Health Matters. 7 (14): 39-48. ... The restriction on women's mobility limits their ability to access health care and family planning services, especially for ... The ideology of purdah constricts women in the domestic sphere for reproductive role and places men in productive role as ... women are expected to sacrifice their comfort and freedom to service the requirements of male sexuality: either to repress or ...
A study done in 2001 of Honduran men and women reflect conceptualization of reproductive health and decision making in Honduras ... "An Assessment of Health Sector Guidelines and Services for Treatment of Sexual Violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and ... The Gender Inequality Index (GII) depicts gender-based inequalities in Honduras according to reproductive health, empowerment, ... Honduran men claim responsibility for family decisions including reproductive health decisions. Recently Honduras has seen an ...
"Mobility of women and access to health and family planning services in Pakistan". Reproductive Health Matters. 7 (14): 39-48. ... Although The Punjab Protection of Women against Violence act in 2016 is a step forward in providing services and protection for ... when health is lost something is lost; when honour is lost everything is lost)." In Pakistan, honour is focused more on the ...
Reproductive Health. 42 (1): 77-78. doi:10.1136/jfprhc-2015-101421. PMID 26475329. S2CID 45556360. Hospital Guidelines from the ... Merino-Garcia, Nicolaz; Meléndez, Wilder; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro (2015). "Abortion services offered via the Internet in Lima, ... Abortion in Peru is illegal except in case of a threat to the life or health of the woman. Abortion has been generally illegal ... Abortion Abortion by country Abortion law Reproductive rights in Peru "Peru: At-Risk Women Denied Legal Abortions". Human ...
2011). Utilization of maternal health services among young women in Kenya: Insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health ... Other intermediate determinants include reproductive health behaviour, such as receiving antenatal care (a strong predictor of ... A large thriving black market for counterfeit medicines and health services exists and is largely controlled by quacks and ... Kenya is currently grappling with a large number of unemployed health care providers (including health facilities) many of whom ...
Women's Empowerment and Reproductive Health. Bookcraft Ltd, for Social Sciences and Reproductive Health Research Network. ISBN ... 1989). "Clinical Biochemistry Services in Tropical Africa". Clinical chemistry: an overview. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-43093-0. ... Osotimehin's interests were youth and gender, and he advocated for reproductive health and reproductive rights, particularly ... "We need to ensure that young people of both genders have equal participation, not only in reproductive rights and health but ...
"Texas Adolescent Reproductive Health Facts". US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved August 2, 2014. Essig, Alexa ... "Health Science Center ranks sixth in clinical medicine" (7 ed.). University of Texas Health Science Center. April 3, 2007. ... IAH offers service to the most Mexican destinations of any U.S. airport. The next five largest airports in the state all serve ... The 2008 Men's Health obesity survey ranked four Texas cities among the top 25 fattest cities in America; Houston ranked 6th, ...
... it is critical that access to family planning services remains available while keeping healthcare providers and their patients ... and Providing Quality Family Planning Services (QFP)* provide relevant recommendations for providing quality family planning ... services while helping to facilitate access and minimizing in-person contact between patients and providers. ... Global Reproductive Healthplus icon *Monitoring and Evaluating Maternal and Child Health Programs ...
Policy - National Strategy and Action Plan for Integrated Services on Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. PDF ...
Universal access to health services related to reproductive and sexual health. Ensuring access for all people to their ... ODS3 - Meta3.7: Universal access to health services related to reproductive and sexual health. 3.7 By 2030, ensure universal ... Sexual and Reproductive Health and Universal Health Coverage Learning by Sharing Portal ... Safe abortion services , Violence against women and harmful practices , Sexual health and reproductive rights , Sexually ...
Single women not addressed in reproductive health services/programmes. The target population of reproductive health services of ... studies have shown unmet reproductive health needs of young people (14,15). Like other services, reproductive health services ... A number of service providers who had at least 6 months of experience in providing reproductive health services were also ... An effective reproductive health service needs to provide different services and should include people at all ages and both ...
... in favor of broad actions to increase womens autonomy both as an end and as a means to facilitate improved reproductive health ... Finally, the study showed that autonomy may not be a major mediator of the link between education and use of health services ... Further, all health facilities serving the study population were assessed with regard to the number, training and competency of ... While household wealth, education and demographic and health covariates had strong relationships with place of delivery, the ...
Public Consultation Feedback Form: Final Draft Service Standards for Vasectomy in Sexual and Reproductive Health Services. ... Public Consultation Feedback Form: Final Draft Service Standards for Vasectomy in Sexual and Reproductive Health Services ... Read and download the draft Service Standards for Vasectomy in Sexual and Reproductive Health Services. ... The Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (FSRH) is the leader in the field of sexual and reproductive healthcare, and ...
... and quality of RH services (in-depth study) in South Sudan, from July 31 - August 8, 2013. The study was part of the IAWG 2012 ... An Evaluation of Reproductive Health Service Provision in Maban County, Upper Nile State, South Sudan. ... Complete assessment of availability, use, and quality of RH services (in-depth study) in South Sudan, from July 31 - August 8, ... IAWG members are addressing sexual and reproductive rights during COVID-19 humanitarian response. Read More,, ...
Health Services Accessibility Hispanic Or Latino Humans Pregnancy Pregnancy In Adolescence Reproductive Health Services Young ... Exploring African-American and Latino Teens Perceptions of Contraception and Access to Reproductive Health Care Services. ... Exploring African-American and Latino Teens Perceptions of Contraception and Access to Reproductive Health Care Services ... "Exploring African-American and Latino Teens Perceptions of Contraception and Access to Reproductive Health Care Services" 60 ( ...
AI driven Innovations COVID-19 Innovations HIV Services Innovations Malaria Innovations NCDs Innovations RMNCH Innovations The ... child health care, pediatric, gynecology, and family care assistance at their family care medical centre in Nairobi, Kenya. ...
Department of Reproductive Health and Research. by World Health Organization. Dept. of Reproductive Health and Research. ... Improving reproductive health care within the context of district health services : a hands-on manual for planners and managers ... Results of search for su:{Reproductive health services.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... sexual and reproductive health, including HIV/AIDS and STDs. by World Health Organization. Mental Health: Evidence and Research ...
Discover comprehensive sexual and reproductive healthcare services, expert care, and support in Eugene, OR at Planned ... Eugene-Springfield Health Center offers the following services for sexual and reproductive concerns. Contact the health center ... Services for sexual and reproductive concerns Infections and irritations. * Sexual health concerns ... Health center staff can also answer any questions you may have. On Saturdays this health center is open additional hours by ...
Access to reproductive health services is very poor in many countries. Women are often unable to access maternal health ... CDC Division of Reproductive Health WHO Reproductive health and research MEASURE Evaluation Family Planning and Reproductive ... of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men." Reproductive health is a part of sexual and reproductive health ... is threatening their reproductive health. According to the World Health Organization: The sexual and reproductive health of the ...
Telehealth for Womens Preventive Services for Reproductive Health and Intimate Partner Violence: a Comparative Effectiveness ... Telehealth delivery of preventive health services may improve access to care; however, its effectiveness and adverse effects ... Strategies to ensure safety increased telehealth use for IPV services. Evidence on access, health equity, or harms was lacking ... and observational studies of telehealth strategies for womens reproductive health and IPV versus usual care. Two investigators ...
They also recognize health care providers may have concerns about legal and financial risks they may face carrying out their ... The DOD recognizes the complexity and uncertainty facing service members in accessing reproductive health care, to include ... Womens Health Reproductive Health Policy. Mar 8, 2024 Memorandum: Amended Policy for Assisted Reproductive Services for the ... Womens Health Heart Health Topic. Mar 25, 2024 Access to Reproductive Health. Many members of the Department of Defense ...
Providing clinicians the most current and reliable information on emerging public health threats, such as pandemics, natural ... Division of Reproductive Health. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Centers for Disease ... Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Telehealth & Health Equity: Considerations for Addressing Health Disparities during the COVID-19 Pandemic ...
Department of Health and Human Services; National Child & Maternal Health Education Program: Moms Mental Health Matters; [ ... www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/depression ... A mental health provider is a health care professional who ... Office on Womens Health [Internet]. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Postpartum depression; [ ... National Institute of Mental Health [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Perinatal ...
Allegheny Reproductive Health Center a trusted name in health services ... Allegheny Reproductive Health Center a trusted name in health services ... services for the LGBTQIA+ community , Abortion clinic Harrisburg PA , Clinic Harrisburg PA , How much does an abortion cost in ... services for the LGBTQIA+ community , Abortion clinic Harrisburg PA , Clinic Harrisburg PA , How much does an abortion cost in ...
These include increasing access to reproductive health services; reducing violence against women; protecting womens rights and ... It affects access to health care, health-seeking behavior, health status, and the way health policies and programs are ... Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the ... First, health services are often the initial contact point, so health providers are trained to screen women for gender-based ...
The Center for Reproductive Rights (CRR) and its partners in ... Improve access to key reproductive health services by ... "Yet theres an alarming gap between the reproductive health services that the Nigerian government provides and adolescents ... the lack of access to information and services relating to reproductive health for adolescents, the very low percentage of ... U.N. Calls on Nigeria to Tackle Teens Reproductive Health CRR and WARDC Urge Immediate Action. Justin Goldberg ...
Quickly find the best offers for Reproductive health jobs in africa on the Star classifieds. We collected up to 149 ads from ... IPPF is a global service provider and a leading advocate of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) for all. We are a ... IPPF is a global service provider and a leading advocate of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) for all. We are a ... Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health (GI), Department of Population, Family & Reproductive Health at ...
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... who avail reproductive health services. The fight for our rights to have better access to reproductive health services has been ... Roots of Health. Established in 2009, Roots of Health operates in Palawan as the only reproductive health organization in the ... "Given the lack of support for our issue areas, ROH is providing the majority of reproductive health services on the island," ... affordable and quality reproductive health care services, methods, devices, supplies which do not prevent the implantation of a ...
Addis Ababa, Child, COVID-19, Ethiopia, Health services, Maternal, Pandemic, Routine service data. in Reproductive Health. ... In Reproductive Health 19(1). Abstract. Background: In many settings, health care service provision has been modified to ... Reproductive Health}}, title = {{Assessment of maternal and child health care services performance in the context of COVID-19 ... Health services; Maternal; Pandemic; Routine service data}}, language = {{eng}}, number = {{1}}, publisher = {{BioMed Central ( ...
Pearl Eliadis on Reproductive and Sexual Health Services for Vulnerable Women in Quebec Published: 3 May 2022 ... Read more about Pearl Eliadis on Reproductive and Sexual Health Services for Vulnerable Women in Quebec ... Some health and legal experts have been questioning a provincial.... *Read more about Quebecs plan to protect reproductive ... Quebecs plan to protect reproductive health , CBC News Published: 1 August 2023 ...
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Categories: Reproductive Health Services Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
  • Sexual reproductive health needs for young people is largely ignored by existing health, education and other social programs. (researchsquare.com)
  • The study aimed to explore the perceptions and barriers toward sexual reproductive health services accessibility, availability and quality among adolescents in the second cities of Rwanda. (researchsquare.com)
  • Sexual Reproductive health problems remain the public health concern worldwide. (researchsquare.com)
  • Rwanda is of these countries that still face an increase of sexual reproductive health problems such as teen pregnancies and HIV/ STIs. (researchsquare.com)
  • The study indicated that utilization of SRH services was low among adolescents, whereby half of sexual reproductive health services that were known to be provided was HIV testing. (researchsquare.com)
  • impact on the capacity of health systems to continue All the sexual reproductive health elements-family the delivery of essential health services. (who.int)
  • While health planning/contraception and comprehensive abortion systems around the world are being challenged by care, including post abortion care are integrated in increasing demand for care of COVID-19 patients, it is the essential health services package in 12 (80%) of critical to all other services including sexual reproductive the 15 countries that have sexual reproductive health health services. (who.int)
  • Also,14(82%) countries reporting having optimal balance between fighting the COVID-19 ongoing awareness raising campaigns/communication pandemic and maintenance of essential health services messages about family planning, comprehensive like sexual reproductive health. (who.int)
  • A descriptive survey using a simplified and health systems of the participating member states of the user-friendly virtual web based rapid needs assessment WHO Africa Region and the magnitude of disruptions through a questionnaire was filled in by key informants of sexual reproductive health services in selected drawn from the ministries of health from 30 countries countries. (who.int)
  • About the Role:BRAC International (BI) is seeking a Senior Manager, Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR), BRAC International in the Kenya who is aligned with it's ethos of working in partnership with communities to create impact for scale. (co.ke)
  • The Senior Manager, Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR), BRAC International who will be part of BRAC International's core programme team and r. (co.ke)
  • Actual fertility remains above desired fertility as adolescent girls and women lack fully realized reproductive rights and access to quality, affordable reproductive health care. (imf.org)
  • We acknowledge the support granted by the WHO Africa countries representatives and stakeholders in providing this vital information that help to mirror the SRHR needs in Africa and the current status as well with anticipation to continuously improve SRHR services. (who.int)
  • OSLO, Apr 10 (IPS) - Gearing up for the 30th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the world's parliamentarians and ministers are meeting in Oslo to determine the course of action needed to promote sexual and reproductive human rights (SRHR). (globalissues.org)
  • Sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a designated provider of continuing education contact hours (CECH) in health education by the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc. This program is designed for Certified Health Education Specialists (CHES) and/or Master Certified Health Education Specialists (MCHES) to receive up to 1.0 total Category I continuing education contact hours. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2018, the Supreme Court will hear a challenge to a California law requiring crisis pregnancy centers (CPCs) -- anti-abortion organizations that erroneously represent themselves as comprehensive reproductive care clinics -- to inform patients about their eligibility for low-cost reproductive health services, including abortion. (mediamatters.org)
  • While the funding and services will directly impact individuals' short-term decisions, the role of such care centers provides a deeply important message to the Navajo Nation communities: that people have the potential to develop their own goals for their reproductive health, and they are empowered by the education and support to do so. (affirmaz.org)
  • Reproductive health simply refers to healthy reproductive organs with normal functions. (thepoint.gm)
  • Not only will the clients that AFHP directly serves be influenced by the care, but the mission of these healthcare clinics can shape the community's perspective on healthy reproductive lives. (affirmaz.org)
  • It strongly recommended that the government ensure free maternal and child health services in every state, and "[a]bolish user fees and take other measures to increase adolescent girls' access to affordable healthcare services," including guaranteeing them "free and easily accessible contraceptives . (reproductiverights.org)
  • According to Canyonlands Community Healthcare Chief Executive Officer Elizabeth Latham, DHSc, FNP, "This collaboration with the Arizona Family Health Partnership brings important healthcare services to a community that has not had access to this level of resources before. (affirmaz.org)
  • Planned Parenthood delivers vital reproductive health care, sex education, and information to millions of people worldwide. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Similarly, abortion opponents often advocate that Planned Parenthood and other reproductive health clinics are unnecessary because some CPCs provide identical or even better care for less money . (mediamatters.org)
  • In reality, many CPCs fail to provide the same range of services that Planned Parenthood and other clinics do -- and, yes, that list includes abortion. (mediamatters.org)
  • During COVID-19, it is critical that access to family planning services remains available while keeping healthcare providers and their patients safe. (cdc.gov)
  • The US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (US MEC) , US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use (US SPR) , and Providing Quality Family Planning Services (QFP)* provide relevant recommendations for providing quality family planning services while helping to facilitate access and minimizing unnecessary in-person contact between patients and providers. (cdc.gov)
  • Increased outreach may be needed to let patient populations know about current services, such as featuring access to family planning services on a health system's or clinic's website, or sending messages to patients about services offered, including family planning services. (cdc.gov)
  • Many states allow for access to some contraceptive methods directly from a pharmacist, without a separate visit to a doctor or other health care provider. (cdc.gov)
  • Ensuring access for all people to their preferred contraceptive methods advances several human rights including the right to life and liberty, freedom of opinion and expression and the right to work and education, as well as bringing significant health and other benefits. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Multidisciplinary stakeholders should collaborate and cooperate to address the stigma associated with access to SRH services for adolescents. (researchsquare.com)
  • Title : Exploring African-American and Latino Teens' Perceptions of Contraception and Access to Reproductive Health Care Services Personal Author(s) : Galloway, Charlotte T.;Duffy, Jennifer L.;Dixon, Rena P.;Fuller, Taleria R. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, a survey of 624 adolescents aged 10-19 y was conducted, where information on socio-demographic profiles and access and utilisation of RH services were collected. (longdom.org)
  • For health systems to achieve universal access to high-quality sexual and reproductive health the ART clinics is dependent on rational decisions regarding investments in and allocation of human resources for health. (longdom.org)
  • A further interpretation includes access to sex education, access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control, as well as access to appropriate health care services, as the ability of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low income individuals may lack access to appropriate health services and/or knowledge of how to maintain reproductive health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adolescent health creates a major global burden and has a great deal of additional and diverse complications compared to adult reproductive health such as early pregnancy and parenting issues, difficulties accessing contraception and safe abortions, lack of healthcare access, and high rates of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and mental health issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women in developing countries have little access to family planning services, different cultural practices, lack of information, birthing attendants, prenatal care, birth control, postnatal care, lack of access to health care, and are typically in poverty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence on access, health equity , or harms was lacking. (bvsalud.org)
  • Service members may be forced to travel greater distances, take more time off work, and pay more out-of-pocket expenses to access reproductive health care. (health.mil)
  • Ensure service members are able to access non-covered reproductive health care, no matter where they are located. (health.mil)
  • Authorizes travel and transportation allowances for a Service member or an eligible dependent, and for an attendant or escort if a Service member or eligible dependent is incapable of traveling alone, who must travel to access non-covered reproductive health care and would otherwise have to pay for that travel themselves. (health.mil)
  • Fortunately for internationals moving to Germany , the country boasts a reputable healthcare system that allows access to comprehensive sexual health services. (expatica.com)
  • Want access to the best private medical services in Germany? (expatica.com)
  • Luckily for those who call the country home, Germany also has a high-quality healthcare system , which offers easy access to a range of sexual health services. (expatica.com)
  • All foreigners living and working in Germany can access subsidized state healthcare, which covers a wide variety of sexual health services. (expatica.com)
  • Once you have insurance, you can access a vast network of doctors that provide sexual health services throughout Germany. (expatica.com)
  • If you are an EU citizen and fall ill during a temporary stay in Germany, you can use your European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) to access urgent sexual healthcare. (expatica.com)
  • The fight for our rights to have better access to reproductive health services has been going on for a long time now. (preen.ph)
  • The lack of access to contraceptive services lead to many ill effects-to young parents especially. (preen.ph)
  • To address these lingering critical issues, many non-profit organizations have taken it upon themselves to provide access to reproductive health services. (preen.ph)
  • There is a glaring gap in Quebec's healthcare system: Women whose immigration status is precarious are systematically denied access to critical reproductive and sexual health services. (mcgill.ca)
  • The National Latina Institute for Reproductive Justice works to build an expansive movement of Latina/x activists and leaders across the country to increase abortion access and affordability, advance the rights of immigrant women and families, promote sexual and reproductive health equity, and transform cultural narratives. (hewlett.org)
  • also access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant. (thepoint.gm)
  • The region's progress is, in large part, a result of improved access to services and narrowing gender gaps in education, health, nutrition, and social protection. (imf.org)
  • This access to preventative healthcare will impact individuals far beyond the time at which they receive services by giving them the resources to develop and fulfil their reproductive life plan. (affirmaz.org)
  • For more than 40 years, Title X family planning clinics have played a critical role in ensuring access to a broad range of family planning and related preventive health services for millions of low-income or uninsured individuals and others. (affirmaz.org)
  • We searched MEDLINE , Cochrane Library , CINAHL, and Scopus for English- language studies (July 2016 to May 2022) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies of telehealth strategies for women 's reproductive health and IPV versus usual care. (bvsalud.org)
  • Women bear and usually nurture children, so their reproductive health is inseparable from gender equality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinics are funded by a $450,000 federal grant and offer services that include STD testing and treatment, pregnancy testing and counseling, contraceptive methods, breast and cervical cancer screening, achieving pregnancy, basic infertility services and preconception health. (affirmaz.org)
  • Background: In many settings, health care service provision has been modified to managing COVID-19 cases, and this has been affecting the provision of maternal and child health services. (lu.se)
  • The aim of this study was to assess trends in selected maternal and child health services performance in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. (lu.se)
  • Conclusions: Most of the maternal and child health services performance declined following the onset of COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdown, and most of the services began recovering during July-September 2020, the last quarter of national lockdown. (lu.se)
  • Implementing COVID-19 prevention measures and assuring the community about the safety of service delivery is imperative to ensure continuity of the maternal and child health services. (lu.se)
  • An examination of health policies over the last 2 decades in most of the Americas illustrated the following points: 1) Women's health, in and of itself, rarely has been at the forefront of international development programs or national health planning and policies. (cdc.gov)
  • 2) The focus on women's health in developing countries has been motivated largely by other concerns. (cdc.gov)
  • 3) The global agenda for preventing communicable diseases among women rests on two premises, namely, that understanding women's health in developing countries, particularly the health risks they face, is important for instituting appropriate interventions to address women's specific health needs, and that women's participation in health promotion and disease prevention is key to the health of families and communities worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • Gynecologists also deal with many aspects of women's health , including sexual health. (expatica.com)
  • Moreover, it has a significant impact on women's health and living conditions. (preen.ph)
  • From contraception and pregnancy to cancer screenings and STI testing, discover all you need to know about sexual health in Germany. (expatica.com)
  • The QFP provides guidance on assessing a patient's need for services related to preventing or achieving pregnancy and highlights the special needs of adolescent patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Adolescent pregnancy, especially in developing countries, carries increased health risks, and contributes to maintaining the cycle of poverty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Service members may choose to delay pregnancy notification to commanders but must notify no later than 20 weeks gestation. (health.mil)
  • however, the full range of potential health problems that Zika virus infection during pregnancy may cause is not yet known. (cdc.gov)
  • Our young people suffer from high rates of unintended pregnancy, limited knowledge of HIV prevention, and pervasive sexual violence in schools, among numerous other serious health concerns," said Abiola Akiyode-Afolabi, executive director at WARDC, a women's rights organization based in Lagos, Nigeria. (reproductiverights.org)
  • Pharmacies also sell sexual health items such as condoms, pregnancy tests , and lubricant. (expatica.com)
  • For example, The Weekly Standard wrote that CPCs have such services as "pregnancy testing, ultrasounds, and testing for sexually transmitted infections," "onsite prenatal programs," and "material assistance" for low-income individuals. (mediamatters.org)
  • It's important to know that while egg freezing is an incredible tool, it doesn't guarantee future pregnancy,' says explains Sasha Hakman, M.D. , M.S., an ob-gyn and reproductive endocrinologist in Los Angeles and member of the BabyCenter Medical Advisory Board. (babycenter.com)
  • Allegheny Reproductive Clinic is Pennsylvania's top reproductive health clinic. (alleghenyreproductive.com)
  • Allegheny Reproductive Health Center is licensed as an abortion clinic through the Pennsylvania Department of Health. (alleghenyreproductive.com)
  • Our staff physicians and nurse anesthetists in our reproductive health clinic are licensed and board certified. (alleghenyreproductive.com)
  • Our abortion clinic, located in Pennsylvania, requires that patients receive state-prepared information from a licensed physician 24 hours or more prior to the abortion procedure at our reproductive health clinic. (alleghenyreproductive.com)
  • Our reproductive health clinic is committed to delivering fearless healthcare that is imbued with empathy, respect, and nonjudgment. (alleghenyreproductive.com)
  • Allegheny Reproductive Health Center is a reproductive health clinic providing abortion and other gynecological, including the abortion pill, surgical abortion, first trimester abortion and second trimester abortion to all those who need it. (alleghenyreproductive.com)
  • Broadly's Callie Beusman detailed the services of one CPC in Hartford, CT, called Hartford Women's Center, which provided "no STI testing, no well women exams, no prenatal care, no birth control," although these were all services (in addition to abortion) available at the actual reproductive health clinic, Hartford GYN Center, next door. (mediamatters.org)
  • First, we talk with the Rockford Family Planning Foundation president about a clinic with abortion services opening near the Wisconsin border. (wpr.org)
  • Reproductive rights advocates are opening a clinic with abortion services just miles from the Wisconsin border in Rockford. (wpr.org)
  • the World Health Organization Africa Region. (who.int)
  • The Nigerian government has ratified a number of major international and regional treaties which include protections for reproductive health , but lawmakers repeatedly refuse to take those obligations seriously," said Elisa Slattery , legal adviser and regional manager for the Africa Program at the Center for Reproductive Rights . (reproductiverights.org)
  • The Role:Reporting to the Associate Director, Advocacy and External Relations, the Senior Technical Adviser, Africa will support implementing a new CAD 45M multi-country (Zambia, Uganda, and Kenya) Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (ASRHR) project. (co.ke)
  • Since decolonization, Sub-Saharan Africa has made great progress on human capital-the knowledge, skills, and health that people accumulate throughout their lives, enabling them to realize their productive potential. (imf.org)
  • The study found that services were free of charge to public health facilities, but it indicated poor utilisation of sexual reproductive services due to family, socio-cultural, religious influences, lack of information about services, high costs for the services at private facilities, no comfortable separated room adults from adolescents and unavailability of some service. (researchsquare.com)
  • 3. A successful grant process that produced record-breaking funding for targeted occupational safety and health research in Fiscal Years 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • Did Equity of Reproductive and Maternal Health Service Coverage Increase during the MDG Era? (bvsalud.org)
  • Routine health management information system database was reviewed from Addis Ababa Health Bureau for the period from July 2019 to March 2021 across all quarters. (lu.se)
  • It's 2019 and reproductive health continues to be an alarming issue across the globe. (preen.ph)
  • Between 2016 and 2019, according to a report by the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Opens a new window (SART), there was an increase of 89 percent. (babycenter.com)
  • Improving reproductive health : a global imperative : biennial report 2002-2003. (who.int)
  • Title X is the only federal grant program dedicated solely to providing individuals with comprehensive family planning and related preventive health services. (affirmaz.org)
  • The structure of the clinics was based on adult and pediatric care implying there were no adolescentspecific services. (longdom.org)
  • All units offered SRH information and education except post-abortion care and mental health. (longdom.org)
  • Mental Health: Evidence and Research Team. (who.int)
  • These complications range from anemia, malaria, HIV and other STIs, postpartum bleeding and other postpartum complications, mental health disorders such as depression and suicidal thoughts or attempts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The situation analysis also provides evidence of the importance of addressing noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors such as tobacco use, mental health problems, road traffic injuries and environmental health issues. (who.int)
  • The committee recommended that the government amend its constitution to "guarantee the right of the child to the best attainable state of physical and mental health as a constitutionally protected right. (reproductiverights.org)
  • Mental health is a key component of a child's overall wellbeing. (cdc.gov)
  • Eight RCTs, 1 nonrandomized trial, and 7 observational studies (n=10 731) were included (7 studies of contraceptive care and 9 of IPV services). (bvsalud.org)
  • Telehealth interventions for contraceptive care and IPV services demonstrate equivalent clinical and patient-reported outcomes versus in- person care, although few studies are available. (bvsalud.org)
  • It offers a range of potential non-health benefits that encompass expanded education opportunities and empowerment for women, and sustainable population growth and economic development for countries. (bvsalud.org)
  • As a multi-disciplinary professional membership organisation, we set clinical guidance and standards, provide training and lifelong education, and champion safe and effective sexual and reproductive healthcare across the life course for all. (fsrh.org)
  • Peer approach in adolescent reproductive health education : some lessons learned. (who.int)
  • The National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health (NLIRH) is an increasingly influential organization that works to ensure reproductive health and justice for Latinas, their families, and their communities through public education, community mobilization, and policy advocacy. (hewlett.org)
  • The Human Capital Index, which measures children's future productivity relative to a benchmark of full health and complete education, increased in nearly all sub-Saharan countries from 2010 to 2020 (Chart 1). (imf.org)
  • CPCs often position themselves as providing a full set of comprehensive reproductive health care services. (mediamatters.org)
  • They also recognize health care providers may have concerns about legal and financial risks they may face carrying out their lawful federal duties. (health.mil)
  • According to a study published in 2018, women from our country "face many sexual and reproductive health risks stemming from early, unprotected, and/or unwanted sexual activity. (preen.ph)
  • Early childbearing and other behaviors can have health risks for women and their infants. (thepoint.gm)
  • The DOD recognizes the complexity and uncertainty facing service members in accessing reproductive health care, to include abortion care. (health.mil)
  • 9(59%) of the countries reported reduction in and reproductive health services with a focus on safe the use of family planning services, 6(35%) indicated no abortion, post abortion care and family planning services changes in the use of family planning services with only during the COVID -19 pandemic in selected countries of 2(12%) countries providing no response. (who.int)
  • Working with street children : monitoring and evaluation of a street children project : a training package on substance abuse, sexual and reproductive health, including HIV/AIDS and STDs. (who.int)
  • This self-instructional learning module covers the implementation of the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) of Sexual and Reproductive Health at the onset of an emergency. (iawg.net)
  • Ellensburg Health Center offers the following services for sexual and reproductive concerns. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Contact the health center by booking an appointment or calling for more information. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • If you are eligible for financial assistance you may be asked to bring documentation with you to the health center. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • You are welcome to walk in any time the Health Center is open to make an appointment or see if there is a same day appointment available. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • You can fill your birth control prescriptions at our health center instead of the pharmacy. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Health center staff can also answer any questions you may have. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • This health center supports and welcomes all people regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or biological sex, including but not limited to lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, questioning, and intersex clients. (plannedparenthood.org)
  • Allegheny Reproductive Health Center is licensed by the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the CLIA, and our physicians are board certified and hold unrestricted MD licenses in the state of Pennsylvania. (alleghenyreproductive.com)
  • PRESS RELEASE) The Center for Reproductive Rights (CRR) and its partners in Nigeria Women Advocates Research and Documentation Centre (WARDC) strongly urged the government of Nigeria to take immediate steps to follow recommendations from the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC Committee) and more aggressively address the sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents in the country. (reproductiverights.org)
  • The CRC Committee's concluding observations and recommendations closely follow the issues of concern raised by WARDC and the Center for Reproductive Rights in a joint shadow letter submitted to the committee in May. (reproductiverights.org)
  • The committee also relied on the recommendations set out by the Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women ( CEDAW ), which in 2008 took account of a joint shadow letter from WARDC and Center for Reproductive Rights calling on the government to consider reviewing and amending its abortion laws. (reproductiverights.org)
  • Our Mission The Center for Reproductive Rights uses the power of law to advance reproductive rights as fundamental human rights around the world. (co.ke)
  • The National Women's Law Center (NWLC) stated that CPCs "use deceptive practices to entice women into the center," which "purposefully lead women to believe that they will receive comprehensive health information. (mediamatters.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Reproductive health services. (who.int)
  • Well, Dr Hassan Azadeh is this week focusing on one of the most important health concerns as important as Reproductive Health and high lights the way of life-saving. (thepoint.gm)
  • Additionally, many approaches involving women, families, and local communities as active stakeholders in interventions and strategies to improve reproductive health. (wikipedia.org)
  • We conducted a comparative effectiveness review on the effectiveness and harms of telehealth interventions for women 's reproductive health and intimate partner violence (IPV) services. (bvsalud.org)
  • Outcomes were also similar between telehealth interventions to replace or supplement IPV services and comparators for repeat IPV, depression , posttraumatic stress disorder , fear of partner, coercive control, self - efficacy , and safety behaviors (low SOE). (bvsalud.org)
  • Meanwhile, non-profit organizations provide consultations and assistance with sexual health issues, including birth control and STIs. (expatica.com)
  • In theory, SRH care incorporates the prevention, detection and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - including and perhaps most pressingly, HIV - into other SRH services. (unesco.org)
  • and the role of nongovernmental organizations in promoting population and reproductive policies around the world. (kffhealthnews.org)
  • This is part of the Morning Briefing, a summary of health policy coverage from major news organizations. (kffhealthnews.org)
  • In practice, however, many organizations that work in SRH service provision fail to incorporate STI/HIV prevention or treatment into their roster of services and programs, or they provide these services separately from other SRH services. (unesco.org)
  • The Institute of Medicine defines healthcare quality as the extent to which health services provided to individuals and populations improve desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge [ 8 ]. (longdom.org)
  • Historically, Latinas have faced major obstacles in accessing reproductive health services, resulting in significant disparities in health outcomes. (hewlett.org)
  • An NHIF accredited provider for maternity and gynecological procedures, providing high quality, affordable, client-centric, respectful maternal & child health care, pediatric, gynecology, and family care assistance at their family care medical centre in Nairobi, Kenya. (who.int)
  • Waiting until a woman is at least 18 years old before trying to have children improves maternal and child health. (thepoint.gm)
  • ABSTRACT This qualitative study in the Islamic Republic of Iran aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to the use of reproductive health services by unmarried women. (who.int)
  • A purposive sample of unmarried women aged 25-60 years in Isfahan city were interviewed about their experiences of reproductive health services in public health centres. (who.int)
  • The WHO assessed in 2008 that "Reproductive and sexual ill-health accounts for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective approaches for delivering these services and how to best mobilize telehealth, particularly for women facing barriers to care remain uncertain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Health policies must be changed, and social restrictions that circumscribe women need to be eliminated. (cdc.gov)
  • As a conservative country, there is a prevailing stigma on women especially, who avail reproductive health services. (preen.ph)
  • Likhaan is a non-government, non-profit organization established in 1995 "by a group of feminists, political activists, community women leaders, and health workers," Scout reports. (preen.ph)
  • What is worse, they fail to disclose this to women who are seeking accurate and timely health information. (mediamatters.org)
  • AFHP currently funds 11 delegate agencies across Arizona providing direct services to low-income women, men, families and teens. (affirmaz.org)
  • Awareness of the SRH services availability among adolescents was high. (researchsquare.com)
  • We have concluded that, although availability of SRH services is high, its accessibility is still challenging for adolescents due to lack of awareness on available services at health facilities but also due to barriers such as family influences, uncomfortable rooms for adolescents which are separated to the adults ones. (researchsquare.com)
  • The Defense Health Agency recognizes the Military Health System's many dedicated laboratory professionals during Medical Laboratory Professionals Week, also known as Lab Week, April 14-20. (health.mil)
  • The organization can also help those without German insurance find free or low-cost services. (expatica.com)
  • A non-profit organization dedicated to making sexual and reproductive healthcare accessible to everyone, no matter who they are or where they come from. (affirmaz.org)
  • Those dedicated to NORA and occupational safety and health have produced: 1. (cdc.gov)
  • 4. Three surveys (FY96, FY98, FY00) of Federal occupational safety and health research investment, showing increases in Federal partner funding in occupational safety and health in general, and NORA in particular. (cdc.gov)
  • 7. The first broad-based network of public and private partnerships in occupational safety and health. (cdc.gov)
  • A concise summary for a policy audience that conveys the importance of implementing the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) for sexual and reproductive health at the onset of every emergency. (iawg.net)
  • Females adolescents were more aware, and adolescents with primary school level 62.5% were not aware about SRH services provision at health facilities. (researchsquare.com)
  • Conclusion : Accessibility to SRH services for adolescents remains low and SRH services provision doesn't offer confidentiality to adolescents who seek services at health facilities. (researchsquare.com)
  • Only three units had trained their staff in SRH and adolescent friendly services which impacts on technical competence of the service providers in provision of SRH services. (longdom.org)
  • Family, socio-cultural, religious influences and lack of privacy, high costs for the services, unavailability of some services at private facilities as well as lack of comfortable separated rooms, were the barriers reported by adolescents that prevented them from utilising SRH services. (researchsquare.com)
  • Family influences, socio-cultural stigma and religious barriers remain a burden to adolescents' SRH services utilization. (researchsquare.com)
  • Results indicate that utilization of SRH services remains low (34.7%) among adolescents. (researchsquare.com)
  • 3 World Health Statistics 2016: monitoring health for the SDGs, sustainable development goals. (who.int)
  • Much could be done to improve health services, including implementing earlier case detection and better treatment regimens. (cdc.gov)
  • Have you integrated STI/HIV prevention into your sexual and reproductive health services? (unesco.org)
  • In addition, subject matter experts from CDC, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Association of Public Health Laboratories will discuss changes to the CDC Trioplex Real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) Assay Emergency Use Authorization, examine the use of non-CDC developed assays, and review recommendations for plaque reduction neutralization testing in Puerto Rico. (cdc.gov)
  • Exploring the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in South Asia. (who.int)
  • Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is a field of research, health care, and social activism that explores the health of an individual's reproductive system and sexual well-being during all stages of their life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. (thepoint.gm)
  • Health sector reform and reproductive health : report of a technical consultation, Geneva, Switzerland, 30 November-2 December 2004. (who.int)