The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Sexual activities of animals.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
Conception after the death of the male or female biological parent through techniques such as the use of gametes that have been stored during his or her lifetime or that were collected immediately after his or her death.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.
The number of males per 100 females.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE used medicinally and is a source of LOBELINE.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physical measurements of a body.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
A neuropeptide that is highly homologous to GALANIN. It is produced by proteolytic processing of a larger protein that is unrelated to prepro-galanin and preferentially binds to GALANIN-2 RECEPTOR.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A technique in assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED) consisting of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, follicular aspiration of preovulatory oocytes, in-vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes at the pronuclear stage (before cleavage).
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
A species of fruit fly originating in sub-Saharan Africa but widely distributed worldwide. One of the most destructive fruit pests, its larvae feed and develop on many different fruits and some vegetables.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.
One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (1/7797)

This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in neurons and pituitary cells implicated in reproductive functions in rainbow trout: a double immunohistochemical study. (2/7797)

In order to identify the nature of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-expressing neurons and pituitary cells that potentially mediate the negative effects of stress on reproductive performance, double immunohistochemical stainings were performed in the brain and pituitary of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To avoid possible cross-reactions during the double staining studies, combinations of primary antibodies raised in different species were used, and we report here the generation of an antibody raised in guinea pig against the rainbow trout glucocorticoid receptor (rtGR). The results obtained in vitellogenic females showed that GnRH-positive neurons in the caudal telencephalon/anterior preoptic region consistently exhibited rtGR immunoreactivity. Similarly, in the anterior ventral preoptic region, a group of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, known for inhibiting gonadotropin (GTH)-2 secretion during vitellogenesis, was consistently shown to strongly express GR. Finally, we show that a large majority of the GTH-1 (FSH-like) and GTH-2 (LH-like) cells of the pituitary exhibit rtGR immunoreactivity. These results indicate that cortisol may affect the neuroendocrine control of the reproductive process of the rainbow trout at multiple sites.  (+info)

Precocious estrus and reproductive ability induced by PG 600 in prepuberal gilts. (3/7797)

A total of 29 SPF Large White prepuberal gilts (mean age 152 days at treatment) were examined for estrous and ovulatory responses after PG 600 treatment. After treatment, 85.2% of the gilts showed standing estrus within 6 days. Whereas the treatment-to-estrus interval and duration were 3.7 and 1.9 days respectively. As ovulation occurred on Day 5 to 6, appropriate timing of artificial insemination would be about 4 days after treatment. Fertility of gilts revealed to be excellent, giving rise to a high percentage of normal embryos, 85.3%. Meanwhile, development and growth of fetuses were mostly normal. Other reproductive performances recorded were: mean litter size 6.8; mean birth weight 1.26 kg; weaning-to-return estrus interval 5 to 8 days. In conclusion, PG 600 was found to be useful in inducing fertile estrus in prepuberal gilts, a result which will be of interest for commercial pig farms.  (+info)

Utero-ovarian interaction in the regulation of reproductive function. (4/7797)

The physiological regulation of fertile reproductive cycle in mammals depends on interactions between hypothalamus-pituitary, ovarian and uterine stimuli. Over the past 20 years, much has been learned about the interrelation between the affluent and effluent lymph and vascular drainage in and around both ovarian and uterine tissues. An essential feature in the regulation of the fertile cycle is the functional status of the ovary, particularly the corpus luteum. During the time of implantation and the early pregnancy, an active corpus luteum is essential. As human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is important in the maintenance of the corpus luteum, we investigated if it was produced by the cyclic endometrium. Immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization reactions were performed but neither identified the presence of HCG during the proliferative phase. Positive staining and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-HCG) mRNA were observed during the secretory phase in the glandular cells of the endometrium. The results were confirmed by Western blotting of secretory phase endometrium extracts and assessment of the functional secretory capacity of primary endometrial cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigations showed a positive result in the secretory phase. We postulate that, based on the very close morphological interrelation between the uterus and the ovary, the beta-HCG of the endometrium is the primary factor for the maintenance of the corpus luteum and early pregnancy.  (+info)

The effects of a t-allele (tAE5) in the mouse on the lymphoid system and reproduction. (5/7797)

Mice homozygous for tAE5, a recessive allele at the complex T-locus, are characterized by their unique short-tailed phenotype as well as by runting and low fertility. Histological and histochemical studies of the lymphoid and reproductive systems disclosed structural changes in the mutant spleen resembling those found in autoimmune conditions. Involution of the mutant thymus was greatly accelerated compared to normal. Necrotic changes occurred during spermiogenesis whereas ovarian structure was normal in mutants. The possible mechanisms of the mutant effects are discussed in the framework of other similar syndromes and the mode of action of alleles at the complex T-locus.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of meiosis-inducing (heterotypic) and non-inducing (homotypic) cell unions in conjugation of Blepharisma. (6/7797)

Cells of mating types I and II of Blepharisma japonicum interact with each other and unite in heterotypic (type I-type II) or homotypic (type I-type I, type II-type II) pairs. Heterotypic pairs undergo meiosis and other nuclear changes of conjugation, while homotypic pairs remain united for days without the nuclear changes taking place. We compared cell unions of these two kinds of pairs at the ultrastructural level. In the homotypic union, cell membranes are closely juxtaposed, separated by a distance of about 20 nm. This arrangement is interrupted in some places by vacuoles and small cytoplasmic bridges. Saccule-like structures tend to be more abundant near the united surfaces. Microtubules running at right or slightly obtuse angles with the cell surface (PACM microtubules) are characteristically present at the united region of cells. These structures are very similar to those observed in earlier stages of the heterotypic union. However, in homotypic pairs, cells unite only at the anterior half of the peristome, while in heterotypic pairs cells unite also at the posterior half of the peristome, where the cell membrane totally disappears in later stages. PACM microtubules persist for at least 18 h in homotypic unions, while they disappear within a few hours in heterotypic unions. These differences between the two kinds of cell union are discussed in relation to the initiation mechanism of meiosis and other nuclear changes of conjugation. Similarities between homotypic union and cell junctions in multicellular organisms are also discussed.  (+info)

Evaluation of life-cycle herd efficiency in cow-calf systems of beef production. (7/7797)

A deterministic beef efficiency model (BEM) was used to evaluate life-cycle herd efficiency (LCHE) in cow-calf beef production systems using four breed groups of beef cattle. The breed groups were Beef Synthetic #1 (SY1), Beef Synthetic #2 (SY2), Dairy Synthetic (DS), and purebred Hereford (HE). The LCHE was defined over the lifetime of the herd as the ratio of total output (lean meat equivalent) to total input (feed equivalent). Breed differences in LCHE were predicted with the larger/slower maturing DS being most efficient at each age of herd disposal and reproductive rate. This was mainly because, at any average age at culling, the dams of DS breed group were less mature and so had been carrying relatively lower maintenance loads for shorter periods and positively influencing LCHE. Higher LCHE was predicted with improvement in reproductive performance if there were no associated extra costs. However, this declined markedly if there was a delay in marketing of offspring. As average age at culling increased from 4 to 6 yr, efficiency declined sharply, but it began to recover beyond this age in most breed groups. We concluded that the slower maturing DS breed group may be more efficient on a herd basis in cow-calf systems and that improvements in reproductive rate not associated with extra costs improve life-cycle efficiency. Culling cows soon after their replacements are produced seems efficient.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone improves reproductive performance of dairy cows with slow involution of the reproductive tract. (8/7797)

Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at calving to receive either 100 microg of GnRH or saline 13 or 14 d postpartum (PP). From 4 to 28 d PP the cows' reproductive organs were palpated weekly per rectum, and cows were subclassified within each group as undergoing slow (delayed) cervical and uterine involution (abnormal) or as normal cows. Last milk obtained after removing the milking machine was assayed for progesterone 3 times a week for 120 d PP. Fourteen of the 80 cows were removed from the experiment because of culling or various veterinary treatments of pathologic conditions that could confound analysis of the GnRH treatment effects. As expected, the treatment of normal cows with GnRH had no significant effects on the first estrus or the first estrous cycle PP, on services per conception, days open, or any other reproductive trait measured. However, in the abnormal group of cows receiving saline, first rebreeding after calving was delayed (81 vs. 67 d), fewer were pregnant by 105 d PP (23 vs. 64%), and number of days open was greater (121 vs. 87 d) compared with those receiving GnRH; all were significant (P<.05). Treated abnormal cows were equivalent to the control normal cows. Thus, GnRH given 13 to 14 d PP to cows characterized as undergoing slow involution of the reproductive system, but with no other clinical problems, seems to assist in promoting rapid normal reproductive function. Subsequent losses due to culling were greatly reduced.  (+info)

Infertility can be classified into two main categories:

1. Primary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has not been able to conceive a child after one year of regular sexual intercourse, and there is no known cause for the infertility.
2. Secondary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has been able to conceive at least once before but is now experiencing difficulty in conceiving again.

There are several factors that can contribute to infertility, including:

1. Age: Women's fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 35.
2. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances of hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and thyroid hormones can affect ovulation and fertility.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A common condition that affects ovulation and can cause infertility.
4. Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Male factor infertility: Low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and blockages in the reproductive tract can all contribute to infertility.
6. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, being overweight or underweight, and stress can all affect fertility.
7. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders can affect fertility.
8. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities in the shape or structure of the uterus or cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
9. Previous surgeries: Surgeries such as hysterectomy, tubal ligation, and cesarean section can affect fertility.
10. Age: Both male and female age can impact fertility, with a decline in fertility beginning in the mid-30s and a significant decline after age 40.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical interventions or lifestyle changes, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant.

Causes of Female Infertility

There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:

1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.

Male infertility can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Low sperm count or poor sperm quality: This is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Sperm count is typically considered low if less than 15 million sperm are present in a sample of semen. Additionally, sperm must be of good quality to fertilize an egg successfully.
2. Varicocele: This is a swelling of the veins in the scrotum that can affect sperm production and quality.
3. Erectile dysfunction: Difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection can make it difficult to conceive.
4. Premature ejaculation: This can make it difficult for the sperm to reach the egg during sexual intercourse.
5. Blockages or obstructions: Blockages in the reproductive tract, such as a blockage of the epididymis or vas deferens, can prevent sperm from leaving the body during ejaculation.
6. Retrograde ejaculation: This is a condition in which semen is released into the bladder instead of being expelled through the penis during ejaculation.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as testosterone and inhibin can affect sperm production and quality.
8. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypogonadism, and hyperthyroidism, can affect fertility.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and stress can all impact fertility.
10. Age: Male fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 40.

There are several treatment options for male infertility, including:

1. Medications to improve sperm count and quality
2. Surgery to repair blockages or obstructions in the reproductive tract
3. Artificial insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of conception
4. Donor sperm
5. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)
6. Hormone therapy to improve fertility
7. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and alcohol, losing weight, and reducing stress.

It's important to note that male infertility is a common condition and there are many treatment options available. If you're experiencing difficulty conceiving, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of infertility and discuss potential treatment options.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Types of triploidy:

There are two main types of triploidy:

1. Trisomy 21: This type of triploidy occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21, resulting in a total of three copies of that chromosome. Trisomy 21 is the most common type of triploidy and is associated with Down syndrome, a genetic disorder that can cause intellectual disability, developmental delays, and other health problems.
2. Triploidy with other chromosomal abnormalities: This type of triploidy occurs when there are extra copies of other chromosomes in addition to chromosome 21. This can result in a wide range of developmental delays, intellectual disability, and other health problems.

Causes of triploidy:

Triploidy can occur due to various factors, including:

1. Genetic mutation: Triploidy can occur when there is a genetic mutation during embryonic development that results in an extra set of chromosomes.
2. Fertilization errors: Errors during fertilization can result in the formation of an extra set of chromosomes, leading to triploidy.
3. Maternal age: Advanced maternal age has been linked to an increased risk of triploidy, as older eggs are more likely to have genetic mutations that can lead to extra sets of chromosomes.
4. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): Triploidy can occur in children conceived through ART techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Symptoms of triploidy:

The symptoms of triploidy can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:

1. Growth delays: Children with triploidy may experience slow growth and development, and may be shorter and lighter than their peers.
2. Intellectual disability: Triploidy can result in intellectual disability, which is characterized by below-average intelligence and difficulty with daily living skills.
3. Developmental delays: Children with triploidy may experience delays in reaching developmental milestones, such as sitting, standing, and walking.
4. Physical abnormalities: Triploidy can result in a range of physical abnormalities, including heart defects, craniofacial abnormalities, and limb abnormalities.
5. Health problems: Children with triploidy may experience a range of health problems, including respiratory infections, feeding difficulties, and gastrointestinal issues.

Diagnosis of triploidy:

Triploidy can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

1. Chromosomal analysis: This involves examining the child's cells to determine if they have three copies of every chromosome.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can be used to examine the baby's physical characteristics and identify any abnormalities.
3. Blood tests: Blood tests can be used to measure the levels of certain substances in the body, such as hormone levels, which can help confirm a diagnosis of triploidy.
4. Amniocentesis: This is a test that involves inserting a needle into the uterus to collect a sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus. The fluid can be analyzed for signs of triploidy.

Treatment and management of triploidy:

There is no cure for triploidy, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and preventing complications. Some common treatments include:

1. Medications: Children with triploidy may require medication to manage seizures, developmental delays, and other symptoms.
2. Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help children with triploidy develop gross motor skills and improve their mobility.
3. Speech therapy: Speech therapy can help children with triploidy improve their communication skills and address any language delays.
4. Occupational therapy: Occupational therapy can help children with triploidy develop fine motor skills and perform daily activities.
5. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or release compressed nerves.

It's important to note that each child with triploidy is unique and may require a different treatment plan. Parents should work closely with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for their child.

In summary, triploidy is a rare chromosomal condition that can cause a range of physical and developmental delays. While there is no cure for triploidy, there are various treatments available to manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. It's important for parents to receive a diagnosis from a qualified healthcare provider and work closely with them to determine the best course of treatment for their child.

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

The severity of plant poisoning depends on the type of plant consumed, the amount ingested, and individual sensitivity. Some common plants that are toxic to humans include:

1. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds contain ricin, a deadly toxin that can cause severe vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
2. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic, and ingestion can cause cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death.
3. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
4. Taxus (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew (Taxus baccata) and Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.
5. Aconitum (Aconitum spp.): Also known as monkshood or wolf's bane, all parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
6. Belladonna (Atropa belladonna): The leaves, stems, and roots contain atropine, which can cause dilated pupils, flushed skin, and difficulty urinating.
7. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Hemlock (Conium maculatum): The leaves and seeds contain coniine and gamma-coniceine, which can cause muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.
9. Lantana (Lantana camara): The berries are toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
10. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
11. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds are particularly toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
12. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves, stems, and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing.
13. Yew (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.

It is important to note that while these plants are toxic, they can also be safely used in herbal remedies when prepared and administered properly under the guidance of a qualified practitioner. It is always best to consult with a medical professional before using any herbal remedy, especially if you have a medical condition or are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Congenital Abnormalities are relatively common, and they affect approximately 1 in every 30 children born worldwide. Some of the most common types of Congenital Abnormalities include:

Heart Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the structure or function of the heart. They can range from mild to severe and can be caused by genetics, viral infections, or other factors. Examples include holes in the heart, narrowed valves, and enlarged heart chambers.

Neural Tube Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the brain and spine. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the brain and spine, does not close properly during fetal development. Examples include anencephaly (absence of a major portion of the brain), spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spine), and encephalocele (protrusion of the brain or meninges through a skull defect).

Chromosomal Abnormalities: These are changes in the number or structure of chromosomes that can affect physical and mental development. Examples include Down syndrome (an extra copy of chromosome 21), Turner syndrome (a missing or partially deleted X chromosome), and Klinefelter syndrome (an extra X chromosome).

Other types of Congenital Abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, clubfoot, and polydactyly (extra fingers or toes).

Congenital Abnormalities can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing such as ultrasound, blood tests, and amniocentesis. After birth, they can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment for Congenital Abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medication, and other forms of therapy. In some cases, the abnormality may be minor and may not require any treatment, while in other cases, it may be more severe and may require ongoing medical care throughout the person's life.

Here are some key points to consider when discussing azoospermia:

1. Causes: Azoospermia can be caused by various factors, including blockages due to surgery, injury, or infection, hormonal imbalances, anatomical abnormalities like varicocele, and chromosomal abnormalities.
2. Diagnosis: Azoospermia is typically diagnosed through semen analysis, which involves examining a semen sample under a microscope to determine the presence of sperm cells. Other tests may also be performed to identify any underlying causes, such as hormone level testing and ultrasound imaging.
3. Treatment: Treatment for azoospermia depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to address hormonal imbalances or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like IVF or ICSI can also be used to help achieve pregnancy.
4. Prognosis: The prognosis for azoospermia varies depending on the underlying cause and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, the earlier the condition is diagnosed and treated, the better the prognosis.
5. Impact on fertility: Azoospermia can significantly impact fertility, as the absence of sperm in the semen makes it difficult or impossible to achieve pregnancy through natural means. However, with the help of ART, many men with azoospermia can still achieve fatherhood.
6. Psychological impact: Azoospermia can have significant psychological and emotional impacts on men and their partners, particularly if they are trying to conceive. It is important to provide support and counseling to help cope with the challenges of this condition.
7. Prevention: There is no known prevention for azoospermia, as it is often caused by underlying genetic or hormonal factors. However, identifying and addressing any underlying causes early on can improve outcomes and increase the chances of achieving pregnancy.

Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms. The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. ... Sexual reproduction ensures a mixing of the gene pool of the species. The variations found in offspring of sexual reproduction ... Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There ... Sexual reproduction has many drawbacks, since it requires far more energy than asexual reproduction and diverts the organisms ...
... often results in social reproduction, or the process of transferring aspects of society (such as class) ... "Cultural Reproduction." New York: Routledge. p. 2. Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. 1990. Reproduction in Education ... In regards to cultural reproduction, one of the main concepts of Bourdieu was introduced in Cultural Reproduction and Social ... In other words, reproduction, as it is applied to culture, is the process by which aspects of culture are passed on from person ...
... is a type of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of gametes or change in the number of ... Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as archaea and bacteria. Many ... ISBN 978-0-7167-6284-3. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction Intestinal Protozoa ( ... also simply reproduction Cloning Hermaphrodite Plant reproduction Sex Engelstädter, Jan (June 2017). "Asexual but Not Clonal: ...
... , when co-opted with cultural reproduction, allows for sociology of education to assume its role. Education ... Social reproduction describes the reproduction of social structures and systems, mainly on the basis of particular ... Social reproduction in this sense is distinct from the term as it is used in Marxist feminism to discuss reproductive labor. In ... Social reproduction is involved in this field when it comes to how inequalities affect the health of people in particular ...
... is the production of new offspring in plants, which can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction. ... Asexual reproduction does not involve the production and fusion of male and female gametes. Asexual reproduction may occur ... Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction where the offspring comes from one parent only, thus inheriting the ... Asexual reproduction in plants occurs in two fundamental forms, vegetative reproduction and agamospermy. Vegetative ...
Sexual parasitism is a mode of sexual reproduction, unique to anglerfish, in which the males of a species are much smaller than ... The first all-female (unisexual) reproduction in vertebrates was described in the Amazon molly in 1932. Since then at least 50 ... In nature, this mode of reproduction can yield highly homozygous lines composed of individuals so genetically uniform as to be ... As with all types of asexual reproduction, there are both costs (low genetic diversity and therefore susceptibility to adverse ...
... is the process of sexual reproduction in domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes and other canine species. As with ...
... see the section on reproduction in lichens). Fragmentation is a very common type of vegetative reproduction in plants. Many ... As this process is a form of asexual reproduction, it does not produce genetic diversity in the offspring. Therefore, these are ... Fragmentation in multicellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning, where an organism is split ... 1] Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine "Moss asexual reproduction". Archived from the original on 2006-09-27. Retrieved ...
... is a type of reproduction that involves a complex life cycle in which a gamete (haploid reproductive cells ... Sexual reproduction also occurs in some unicellular eukaryotes. Sexual reproduction does not occur in prokaryotes, unicellular ... Some proteins and other features that are key for sexual reproduction may have arisen in bacteria, but sexual reproduction is ... The evolution of sexual reproduction is considered paradoxical, because asexual reproduction should be able to outperform it as ...
Reproduction is the debut studio album released by British synthpop group The Human League. The album was released in 1979 ... Reproduction contains nine tracks of electronic/synthpop with some elements of industrial music, and was recorded during six ... "Reproduction - The Human League". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 November 2020. Strong, Martin C. (2004). "Human League". The Great Rock ... "The Human League: Reproduction". Q. No. 100. January 1995. Westwood, Chris (13 October 1979). "Popular League?". Record Mirror ...
Elaine M. Stainton Photo Reproduction Fees and Designations: Three Modest Proposals (concerning fine art reproduction fees) ( ... Reproduction fees are charged by image collections for the right to reproduce images in publications. This is not the same as a ... Some institutions employ specialist firms to administer their copyrights and reproduction fees. In recent years the money asked ...
A tone reproduction curve is often referred to by its initials, TRC, and the 'R' is sometimes said to stand for response, as in ... A tone reproduction curve is applied to the electronic image prior to printing, so that the reflectance of the print closely ... ISBN 0-471-29085-8. L. A. Jones (July 1920). "On the Theory of Tone Reproduction, with a Graphic Method for the Solution of ... In the theory of photography, tone reproduction is the mapping of scene luminance and color to print reflectance or display ...
... : Race, Kinship, and Commercial Surrogacy in India is a 2016 book by anthropologist Daisy Deomampo. ... Transnational reproduction: race, kinship, and commercial surrogacy in India". Social Anthropology. 26 (2): 281-283. doi: ... Talukdar, Jaita (November 14, 2018). "Book review: Transnational reproduction: Race, kinship, and commercial surrogacy in India ... Vora, Kalindi (2017). "Book Review: Transnational Reproduction: Race, Kinship and Commercial Surrogacy in India". Medical ...
Reproduction can also refer to the worker's daily reproduction of his or her own labor power. This consists of the tasks of ... Marx viewed reproduction as the process by which society re-created itself, both materially and socially. Economic reproduction ... Therefore, economic reproduction in capitalist society is necessarily expanded reproduction and requires market growth. Capital ... A third, more recent interpretation is that the reproduction process (both the material reproduction processes and the ...
Yule, J. A. C. (2000). Principles of color reproduction : applied to photomechanical reproduction, color photography, and the ... It is concerned with the faithful reproduction of a color in one medium, with a color in another, so it is a central concept in ... Color reproduction is an aspect of color science concerned with producing light spectra that evoke a desired color, either ... Advances in color reproduction : proceedings of the 28th IARIGAI Research Conference (1st ed.). Pittsburgh: GATFPress. 2001. ...
... is favored when it allows plants to produce more offspring per unit of resource than reproduction ... Since vegetative reproduction is often faster than sexual reproduction, it "quickly increases populations and may contribute to ... Vegetative reproduction is not evolutionary advantageous; it does not allow for genetic diversity and could lead plants to ... Vegetative reproduction offers research advantages in several areas of biology and has practical usage when it comes to ...
Reproduction is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the cellular and molecular biology of reproduction, including ... "Reproduction". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2019-01-10. "Source details: Reproduction ... "Reproduction -- About Reproduction". "Biological Abstracts - Journal List". Intellectual Property & Science. Clarivate ... The journal obtained its current name in 2001 when it was merged with Reviews of Reproduction, a journal that was published by ...
... is sexual reproduction that results in human fertilization to produce a human offspring. It typically ... 171-172). ISBN 978-0-07-803520-3. Spira, A. (February 1986). "Epidemiology of human reproduction". Human Reproduction (Oxford, ... Heterosexuality Antinatalism Evolution of sexual reproduction Female infertility Human Reproduction (journal) Journal of Human ... Human reproduction normally begins with copulation, though it may be achieved through artificial insemination, and is followed ...
... is the creation of new life by other than the natural means available to an organism. Examples include ... Cutting plants' stems and placing them in compost is also a form of artificial reproduction. Male Pregnancy ...
... was relevant to archosaur physiology, with newborns hatching from eggs. Dinosaurs did not nurture their ...
... is the ability of a vertebrate animal to reproduce by both laying eggs and giving birth.[excessive ... Citation overkill, Articles tagged with the inline citation overkill template from December 2020, Reproduction in animals). ... "Effects of early thermal environment on the behavior and learning of a lizard with bimodal reproduction". Behavioral Ecology ... "Effects of early thermal environment on the behavior and learning of a lizard with bimodal reproduction". Behavioral Ecology ...
... also extends beyond the aspect of reproduction to the extent of conception, contraception, prenatal ... Stratified reproduction within the reproductive field of medicine feeds into a political economy that does not include a right ... Stratified reproduction is a widely used social scientific concept, created by Shellee Colen, that describes imbalances in the ... The scope of use of the stratified reproduction framework is not limited to women's access to contraceptives or lack thereof. ...
Reproduction Desert rat-kangaroo#Reproduction Tree-kangaroo#Reproduction Opossum#Reproduction and life cycle Koala#Reproduction ... Reproduction Rut (mammalian reproduction) Marsupial#Reproduction Reproductive behavior of kangaroos Red kangaroo#Reproduction ... Reproductive system Canine reproduction Dolphin#Reproduction and sexuality Llama#Reproduction Domestic sheep reproduction ... Reproduction and life cycle Mammal reproductive system Evolution of descended testes in mammals Sexual reproduction#Mammals Sex ...
... reproduction, a sociological phenomenon Sound reproduction, audio recording and replay Reproduction (journal) Reproduction ( ... Look up reproduction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Reproduction may mean: Reproduction, the biological process by which ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Reproduction. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ... album), a 1979 album by British electronic band The Human League Reproductions (album), a 2007 album by singer Charlotte Martin ...
Reproduction is the debut novel by Canadian writer Ian Williams, published in 2019 by Penguin Random House Canada. The novel ... Adina Bresge, "Acclaimed poet Ian Williams says first novel 'Reproduction' is like a child". National Post, January 21, 2019. ... Rayyan Al-Shawaf, "In Reproduction, Ian Williams delivers a promising first novel". Toronto Star, January 25, 2019. "Ian ...
Partner-assisted reproduction, or co-IVF is a method of family building that is used by couples who both possess female ... Transgender men have a unique situation when it comes to LGBT reproduction as they are one of the only groups that has a risk ... LGBT reproduction refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people having biological children by means of ... In the Omegaverse themes of LGBT reproduction are common. Alpha females are able to impregnate both males and females, and ...
The reproduction speed is usually expressed (a) as the area of recorded copy produced per unit time, such as square meters per ... The reproduction speed is usually expressed in pages per minute.) This article incorporates public domain material from Federal ... In telecommunication, the term reproduction speed has the following meanings: In facsimile systems, the rate at which recorded ...
Reproduction through seeds is normally a sexual mode of reproduction, however in some cases individuals can asexually produce ... Apomixis is asexual reproduction through seeds and does not require pollination. It is distributed throughout the monocot clade ... Monocotyledon Plant Reproduction Mating System Self-incompatibility Self-pollination Pollination Pollination Syndrome Vogel, S ... Reproducing through seeds is the most widespread method of reproduction in both monocots and dicots. However, internal seed ...
... , reception of oocytes from partner (ROPA), reciprocal IVF, shared motherhood, partner IVF or co- ... rather than reproduction in a lab. The partner who is acting as the egg donor will place the capsule back inside the vagina to ... Human Reproduction. 25 (4): 938-941. doi:10.1093/humrep/deq008. PMID 20145005. "LGBTQ". CARE Fertility. Retrieved 2021-12-07. ...
List of countries by net reproduction rate Sub-replacement fertility Total fertility rate "Glossary: Net Reproduction Rate (NRR ... Net reproduction rate (daughters per woman), UNdata. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... This rate is similar to the gross reproduction rate but takes into account that some females will die before completing their ... In population ecology and demography, the net reproduction rate, R0, is the average number of offspring (often specifically ...
Handbook of Reproduction Br Med J 1963; 2 :1193 doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5366.1193-a ... Handbook of Reproduction. Br Med J 1963; 2 doi: (Published 09 November 1963) Cite ...
We want to be able to make the ultimate reproduction of paintings, in order to be able to fully understand them and conserve ... This allows us to make 3D printed reproductions that gives rise to the question: if we can make an undistinguishable ...
... to estimate the time-varying reproduction number on cases by date of report. The time-varying reproduction number is the ... CDC is using a model to estimate the effective reproduction number (Rt) for the mpox outbreak in the US. Rt is used to ... The graph shows the effective reproduction number (Rt) estimation over time based on complete data (green) or partial data ( ... CDC is using a model to estimate the effective reproduction number (Rt) for the mpox outbreak in the US. Rt is used to ...
Normal sexual reproduction involves the fusion of a sperm with an egg, but some crustaceans are parthenogenetic; that is, they ... Reproduction and life cycles. The sexes are normally, but not always, separate in crustaceans. Most individual barnacles have ...
Pregnancy & Female Reproduction Group. *Hewitt SC, Wu SP, Wang T, Ray M, Brolinson M, Young SL, Spencer TE, DeCherney A, DeMayo ...
... Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 2011 Sep;19(3):94-8. ... Colour reproduction was optimal at porcelain thicknesses between 1.4-1.6 mm, varied between technicians within the same ...
Simple explanation of Reproduction in the framework of the history of the Universe ... Reproduction. Once life had appeared it spread. If it had not spread it would quickly have been damaged and died out. ...
Enter to win your very own Retro FC Portable Console! This will be raffled after 150 Subscribers is reached on CLO Pixel Gamers Youtube Channel! If you have not subbed or shared click here: CLO Pixel Gamers Youtube Subscribe and Share this channel prior to filling out ...
Vegetative Reproduction. Vegetative reproduction and vegetative reproductive bodies are important to many lichens and have the ... Lichen Reproduction: The Magic of Ascomycetes & Basidiomycetes. July 24, 2020. February 14, 2020. by Gordon Ramel ... Three main types of vegetative reproduction are Isidia, Soredia and Lobules.. Lobules. Lobules are living lobes which grow on ... 1 thought on "Lichen Reproduction: The Magic of Ascomycetes & Basidiomycetes". * Tenzin Wangdi. ...
... You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction.. ...
Permission to consult or make research reproductions of… ... Reproduction of records older than 20 years is allowed upon ... Reproduction of records older than 20 years is allowed upon obtaining the Archivists authorization. Permission to consult or ... When publishing items from special archives, such as drawings, photographs or audiovisual material, all reproduction(s) must ... reproductions may be subjected to the payment of a fee, particularly when the requested copies are to be used for commercial ...
Color Reproduction The search for the best possible color reproduction of the feather portraits does not end here. Many tests ...
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2022)‎. Human Reproduction Programme (‎HRP)‎: revised programme budget 2022-2023. World Health Organization. https://apps.who. ...
I have not been contracted with the investment firm undertaking the Titanic reproduction being constructed in Daying County, ... Chinese Titanic Reproduction Updates JavaScript is disabled. For a better experience, please enable JavaScript in your browser ... The Chinese have had titanic reproduction issues in the past. Have they relaxed the one baby rule? On the subject of the ship, ... The Chinese have had titanic reproduction issues in the past. Have they relaxed the one baby rule?. On the subject of the ship ...
The Reproduction, Genomics and Development Group is made up of a number of labs that explore different aspects of development: ... A recurring theme is that of reproduction, with past and current projects spanning mating systems and mate choice, sperm-egg ... Such studies may be of significance to the control of mammalian reproduction and may also have clinical relevance to an ... Professor Greg Anderson (Chair of the Reproduction, Genomics and Development Group). The Anderson Research Group are focused on ...
Based in the School of Global Studies, the Centre for Cultures of Reproduction, Technologies and Health (CORTH) focuses on ... Address: Centre for Cultures of Reproduction, Technologies and Health School of Global Studies , University of Sussex , Arts C ... new forms of social relations in reproduction). With its unique focus on cultural-ethnographic perspectives, the centre ... analyses of the intersections between cultures of human reproduction, social identities, health and technologies. ...
If you want to order a digital reproduction of a library item from us, you have several options through our Copies Direct ... Reproductions from our collection. To place a request for a reproduction:. *Find your item in the National Library Catalogue ... Reproductions from the collections of other libraries. Use Trove, WorldCat or any other library catalogue to check the details ... If you want to order a digital reproduction of a library item from us, you have several options through our Copies Direct ...
1999)‎. Human reproduction research. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia. ...
Buy the Foxes Reproduction by Franz Marc. Choose a custom size for your favorite oil painting. Order in a few clicks! ... The Reproduction will be hand-painted by one of our talented artists. "Foxes" by Franz Marc Reproduction will come with a Free ... Each canvas reproduction may vary slightly in brush details due to the nature of being hand painted, so no two paintings are ... If you have any request to alter your reproduction of Foxes, you must email us after placing your order and well have an ...
... () Hamza A. Eskandarani Department of ... Eskandarani, H. (2013) Economic viability outcome of assisted reproduction technology setup: Mathematical model. Open Journal ... Journal of Reproduction and Contraception, 21, 101-110. doi:10.1016/S1001-7844(10)60018-1 ... Eskandarani, H.A. (1996) Assisted reproduction technology: State-of the-art. The Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural ...
Control of Reproduction in Dogs and Cats: Use and Misuse of HormonesControl of Reproduction. Stefano Romagnoli, DVM, MS, PhD, ... Recent Advances in Canine Female Reproduction Canine Female Reproduction. Stefano Romagnoli, DVM, MS, PhD, DECAR ... Recent Advances in Feline Reproduction Advances in Feline Reproduction. Stefano Romagnoli, DVM, MS, PhD, DECAR ... Recent Advances in Canine Male ReproductionCanine Male Reproduction. Alain Fontbonne, DVM, MSc, DECAR ...
Are you a specialist in ruminant reproduction or interested to become a specialist in this field? This position could be for ... in ruminant reproduction you are expected to actively contribute to the field of ruminant reproduction, specifically in ... Specialist Ruminant Reproduction (0.8 - 1.0 FTE). Uren per week: 28 tot 40. Faculteit of dienst: Faculteit Diergeneeskunde. ... holds a recognized DVM Diploma and is registered as a diplomat of the European College of Animal Reproduction (ECAR) or is ...
Predator Reproduction Method Official Started by The Chibi Kiriyama, Nov 16, 2007, 06:48:51 PM ...
GENDER PERSPECTIVES ON REPRODUCTION AND SEXUALITY: INTRODUCTION - Author: Marcia Texler Segal, Vasilikie Demos, Jennie Jacobs ... Texler Segal, M., Demos, V. and Jacobs Kronenfeld, J. (2004), "GENDER PERSPECTIVES ON REPRODUCTION AND SEXUALITY: INTRODUCTION ... Reproduction and Sexuality, the popular press was full of headlines about Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) (for references and ... ", Texler Segal, M., Demos, V. and Jacobs Kronenfeld, J. (Ed.) Gendered Perspectives on Reproduction and Sexuality (Advances in ...
Winchester Parker Reproduction DHE Grade Shotgun. 28 gauge. 26" barrel with broad, matted rib marked with Parker Reproduction ... Parker Reproduction oval label is in lid. Case contains a pair of snap caps and paperwork. This gun could have possibly been ... Parker Reproduction - DHE ~ 28 Gauge, image: ...
Fresh versus frozen embryo transfers for assisted reproduction. Review question Is a freeze-all strategy in IVF and ICSI ... Zaat T, Zagers M, Mol F, Goddijn M, van Wely M, Mastenbroek S. Fresh versus frozen embryo transfers in assisted reproduction. ...
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  • Vegetative reproduction and vegetative reproductive bodies are important to many lichens and have the advantage of dispersing both partners at the same time. (
  • As a Specialist (in training) in ruminant reproduction you are expected to actively contribute to the field of ruminant reproduction, specifically in reproductive management in dairy farms. (
  • The position at senior level includes 50% education and curriculum development and 50% clinically-driven applied research in the research programme ' Fertility and Reproduction ' (F&R), leading to publications in peer-reviewed journals. (
  • This report provides current detailed information on the fertility patterns for the United States, as measured by reproduction and intrinsic rates, which have not been available since the release of an earlier report more than a decade ago ( ). (
  • The reproduction and intrinsic rates are important to understanding population growth and change in the United States and are useful additions to the annual birth and fertility rates (such as the crude birth rate and general fertility rate) published by NCHS. (
  • Unlike the annual birth and fertility rates which measure the fertility of women in a given year, the reproduction rates summarize the number of births expected for a (hypothetical) group of 1,000 women over their lifetime given their particular fertility and mortality rates. (
  • For example, the net reproduction rate in 2014 was 897 which means that given their fertility and mortality rates in 2014, we would expect to see 897 daughters born per 1,000 of these women, which is below replacement level (1,000 daughters). (
  • For the three largest groups - non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic- the total fertility, gross reproduction, and net reproduction rates declined by at least 7% from 2006 through 2014. (
  • While the total fertility, gross reproduction, and net reproduction rates and intrinsic rate of natural increase declined for the three race and Hispanic origin groups, there were differences among the groups in the rate of decline and among the rates themselves. (
  • In order to build a better understanding of how plant populations change over time and how increasing degrees of population fragmentation can affect the long-term survival of species, my research group investigates various aspects of plant reproduction, population genetics and the evolution. (
  • Plant Reproduction, 32(1), 29-38. (
  • Permission to consult or make research reproductions of archival documents does not grant or imply permission to publish this material or to provide copies to others. (
  • Reproduction : the new frontier in occupational and environmental health research, proceedings of the Fifth Annual RMCOEH Occupational and Environmental Health Conference held in Park City, Utah, April 5-8, 1983 / editors, James E. Lockey, Grace K. Lemasters, William R. Keye. (
  • 3D Printing then allows us to make near undistinguishable reproductions. (
  • This plot uses the EpiNow2 package ( ) to estimate the time-varying reproduction number on cases by date of report. (
  • CDC is using a model to estimate the effective reproduction number (Rt) for the mpox outbreak in the US. (
  • The basic reproduction number (R 0 , pronounced R naught) is derived from demography terminology used to estimate the overall population reproduction rate. (
  • Reproduction of records older than 20 years is allowed upon obtaining the Archivist's authorization. (
  • The graph shows the effective reproduction number (Rt) estimation over time based on complete data (green) or partial data (orange). (
  • The effective reproduction number (R t ) is similar to R 0 , but R t measures the number of persons infected by infectious person when some portion of the population has already been infected. (
  • The effective reproduction number R is a prominent statistic for inferring the transmissibility of infectious diseases and effectiveness of interventions. (
  • If you want to order a digital reproduction of a library item from us, you have several options through our Copies Direct service. (
  • The total reproduction of the population. (
  • We want to be able to make the ultimate reproduction of paintings, in order to be able to fully understand them and conserve their exact appearance. (
  • This allows us to make 3D printed reproductions that gives rise to the question: if we can make an undistinguishable reproduction, what is the value of the original? (
  • This study aimed to survey the knowledge produced on human assisted reproduction, by means of a bibliographic review of scientific publications. (
  • then, we presented concepts related to infertility and to the techniques used in human assisted reproduction. (
  • The situation of human assisted reproduction in Brazil was discussed, as well as the various aspects mentioned above. (
  • We are interested in mechanisms controlling sexual reproduction and early embryogenesis in plants, and how these are impacted by climate change. (
  • In the long run our projects will contribute to a better understanding of sexual reproduction in higher plants, a knowledge gain crucial to overcome fertilization barriers, adapt crops to climate change, and to enhance their productivity. (
  • The results suggest the need to include mental health professionals in the assisted reproduction services, since this experience affects the narcissism of those involved, showing the importance of unconscious aspects in the desire to have a child. (
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction. (
  • The time-varying reproduction number is the average number of secondary cases infected by a single primary case in a large population. (
  • The new report focuses on the recent trends in these rates and also presents, for the first time, reproduction and intrinsic rates for the three largest population groups - non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic. (
  • What is the difference between reproduction rates and intrinsic rates, and what can they tell us about population growth and change in the United States? (
  • From Describe item and add to cart choose the 'order form for copies and reproductions' option specifying your material type. (
  • Applying E-optimal experimental design theory, we develop a weighting algorithm to minimise these issues, yielding the risk averse reproduction number E. Using simulations, analytic approaches and real-world COVID-19 data stratified at the city and district level, we show that E meaningfully summarises transmission dynamics across groups, balancing bias from the averaging underlying R with variance from directly using local group estimates. (
  • The take home message from the report is that reproduction rates and intrinsic rate of natural increase have declined overall from 1990 through 2014 and for the three largest race and Hispanic origin groups from 2006 through 2014. (
  • The reproduction rates can measure, for example, whether the number of births is at "replacement," that is, the level at which a given group of women can exactly replace themselves. (
  • In general, the reproduction rates declined the least for non-Hispanic white women and the most for Hispanic women from 2006 through 2014. (
  • Similarly, in 2014, the reproduction rates were lowest for non-Hispanic white women and highest for Hispanic women. (
  • The present study investigated women s expectations and feelings in the context of assisted reproduction. (
  • The reproduction rates can be used to compare populations over time or among different groups. (
  • Risk averse reproduction numbers improve resurgence detection. (
  • Is anyone producing reproduction paper Wheatstone labels, the ones that are usually found in the lids of their boxes? (
  • GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE channels are essential for chemotaxis and reproduction in mosses. (