The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
Measurement of the thickness of the CORNEA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The position or attitude of the body.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
1976 accidental release of DIOXINS from a manufacturing facility in Seveso, ITALY following an equipment failure.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
A method of three-dimensional morphometry in which contour maps are produced from the overlapping interference fringes created when an object is illuminated by beams of coherent light issuing from two different point sources.
Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.
Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from, accessed 2/14/2013)
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.
Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (1/49462)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Urinary lithium: distribution shape, reference values, and evaluation of exposure by inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry. (2/49462)

Inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry (ICPAES) was used to evaluate the lithium content of undiluted urine samples. The method can be performed with 1 mL of urine in a single tube using a routine ICPAES analysis for rapid and convenient assessment of lithium exposure in humans. Urine samples obtained from male workers (n = 86) who had not been exposed to lithium were used for the determination of this element by ICPAES. The obtained concentrations were corrected using a specific gravity of 1.024. The particular frequency distribution resulted in a log-normal distribution diagram for anatomical spread. Geometric mean value for urinary lithium in the nonexposed male workers was 23.5 microg/L, and the confidence interval from a log-normal distribution was 11.0 to 50.5 microg/L. Taking into consideration a short biological half-life and the massive urine excretion of lithium, urinary lithium was considered to be a useful index for monitoring of exposure. Calibration curves obtained for lithium standards had good sensitivity and linearity. Good reproducibility was assessed by lithium addition to urine samples. It was concluded that the obtained lithium reference values would be useful for the early diagnosis of lithium intoxication or in the assessment of the degree of exposure to lithium in subjects at risk.  (+info)

Transient and permanent deficits in motion perception after lesions of cortical areas MT and MST in the macaque monkey. (3/49462)

We examined the nature and the selectivity of the motion deficits produced by lesions of extrastriate areas MT and MST. Lesions were made by injecting ibotenic acid into the representation of the left visual field in two macaque monkeys. The monkeys discriminated two stimuli that differed either in stimulus direction or orientation. Direction and orientation discrimination were assessed by measuring thresholds with gratings and random-dots placed in the intact or lesioned visual fields. At the start of behavioral testing, we found pronounced, motion-specific deficits in thresholds for all types of moving stimuli, including pronounced elevations in contrast thresholds and in signal-to-noise thresholds measured with moving gratings, as well as deficits in direction range thresholds and motion coherence measured with random-dot stimuli. In addition, the accuracy of direction discrimination was reduced at smaller spatial displacements (i.e. step sizes), suggesting an increase in spatial scale of the residual directional mechanism. Subsequent improvements in thresholds were seen with all motion stimuli, as behavioral training progressed, and these improvements occurred only with extensive behavioral testing in the lesioned visual field. These improvements were particularly pronounced for stimuli not masked by noise. On the other hand, deficits in the ability to extract motion from noisy stimuli and in the accuracy of direction discrimination persisted despite extensive behavioral training. These results demonstrate the importance of areas MT and MST for the perception of motion direction, particularly in the presence of noise. In addition, they provide evidence for the importance of behavioral training for functional recovery after cortical lesions. The data also strongly support the idea of functional specialization of areas MT and MST for motion processing.  (+info)

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (4/49462)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Permanent work incapacity, mortality and survival without work incapacity among occupations and social classes: a cohort study of ageing men in Geneva. (5/49462)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the burden of disability and death in men, from middle age to age of retirement, among occupational groups and classes in Geneva. METHODS: Men were included if they resided in the Canton of Geneva, were 45 years of age in 1970-1972, and were not receiving a disability pension at the start of the follow-up. The cohort of 5137 men was followed up for 20 years and linked to national registers of disability pension allowance and of causes of death. RESULTS: There was a steep upward trend in incidence of permanent work incapacity with lower social class for all causes as well as for the seven causes of disability studied. Compared with professional occupations (social class I), the relative risk (RR) of permanent work incapacity was 11.4 for partly skilled and unskilled occupations (class IV+V) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.2-28.0). The social class gradient in mortality was in the same direction as that in work incapacity although much less steep (RR class IV+V to class I = 1.6, 95% CI : 1.1-2.2). Survival without work incapacity at the time of the 65th birthday ranged from only 57% in construction workers and labourers to 89% in science and related professionals. Unemployment in Geneva was below 1.5% during almost all the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Medically-ascertained permanent work incapacity and survival without work incapacity have shown considerably greater socioeconomic differentials than the mortality differentials.  (+info)

A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (6/49462)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

Comparison of active and cancer registry-based follow-up for breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. (7/49462)

The authors compared the relative effectiveness of two distinct follow-up designs in prospective cohort studies--the active approach, based on direct contact with study subjects, and the passive approach, based on record linkages with population-based cancer registries--utilizing available information from the New York University Women's Health Study (WHS) and the New York State Cancer Registry (NYSCR). The analyses were limited to breast cancer cases identified during the period 1985-1992, for which follow-up was considered reasonably complete by both the WHS and the NYSCR. Among 12,947 cohort members who reported a New York State address, 303 pathologically confirmed cases were identified through active follow-up and 284 through record linkage. Sixty-three percent of cancers were identified by both sources, 21% by the WHS only, and 16% by the NYSCR only. The agreement was appreciably better for invasive cancers. The percentage of cases identified only by the NYSCR was increased among subjects whose active follow-up was incomplete, as well as among nonwhites, obese patients, and parous patients. This suggests that relying on either type of follow-up alone may introduce certain biases in evaluating risk factors for breast cancer. Combining both approaches appears to be a better strategy in prospective cohort studies.  (+info)

Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older. (8/49462)

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

Abstract: : Purpose:To evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of ATL HDI-5000 CDI measurements of volumetric blood flowas compared to an in-vitro phantom flow model. Methods:A phantom flow model was constructed using agarose gel to mimic fatty soft tissue. 1.57mm and 2.36mm lumens were created in the gel. A UHDC flow system pumped blood mimicking fluid through each tube at three different rates. The ATL HDI-5000 measured the velocity and volumetric flow in the phantom model using cineloops (a cineloop is a rapidly acquired sequence of CDI images). A newly developed software package from ATL calculated both volumetric flow and velocity from the cineloops. Measurements were performed with the probe in four different positions: 1) 45° angle, parallel to the flow, 2) 45° angle, offset to the flow, 3) 75° angle, parallel to the flow, and 4) 75° angle, offset to the flow. The coefficient of variance was then calculated for each of the probe positions. Results:The average coefficients of ...
Test-retest reproducibility study of [C-11]Preladenant. Assessment of stability and variation of the PET measures in healthy volunteers.
Studies of elderly patients with Garden-I and Garden-II femoral neck fractures (FNFs) suggest that a preoperative posterior tilt of the femoral head of at least 20° increases the risk of fixation failure. A recently published treatment algorithm recommended hemiarthroplasty over internal fixation for elderly patients with Garden-I and Garden-II FNFs and a preoperative posterior tilt of at least 20°. However, the reliability of the method used to measure the posterior tilt has not been assessed according to recommended standards for reliability trials. Four orthopedic registrars and four consultants measured the posterior tilt angle in 50 preoperative lateral radiographs at two occasions six weeks apart. We estimated inter- and intrarater reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We also assessed repeatability by the repeatability coefficient (RC) and agreement by the minimal detectable change (MDC). Based on the suggested cutoff value of 20°, we reported the overall percentage and
Expert psychiatrists conducting work disability evaluations often disagree on work capacity (WC) when assessing the same patient. More structured and standardised evaluations focusing on function could improve agreement. The RELY studies aimed to establish the inter-rater reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of functional evaluations in patients with mental disorders applying for disability benefits and to compare the effect of limited versus intensive expert training on reproducibility. We performed two multi-centre reproducibility studies on standardised functional WC evaluation (RELY 1 and 2). Trained psychiatrists interviewed 30 and 40 patients respectively and determined WC using the Instrument for Functional Assessment in Psychiatry (IFAP). Three psychiatrists per patient estimated WC from videotaped evaluations. We analysed reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]) and agreement (standard error of measurement [SEM] and proportions of comparisons within prespecified limits
Methodological study of affine transformations of gene expression data with proposed robust non-parametric multi-dimensional normalization method - Background: Low-level processing and normalization of microarray data are most important steps in microarray analysis, which have profound impact on downstream analysis. Multiple methods have been suggested to date, but it is not clear which is the best. It is therefore important to further study the different normalization methods in detail and the nature of microarray data in general. Results: A methodological study of affine models for gene expression data is carried out. Focus is on two-channel comparative studies, but the findings generalize also to single- and multi-channel data. The discussion applies to spotted as well as in-situ synthesized microarray data. Existing normalization methods such as curve-fit (lowess) normalization, parallel and perpendicular translation normalization, and quantile normalization, but also dye-swap normalization are
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used as a clinical outcome measure. However, the reliability of the 6MWT is unknown in individuals who have recently experienced a hip fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative and absolute interrater reliability of the 6MWT in individuals with hip fracture.. METHODS: Two senior physical therapy students independently examined a convenience sample of 20 participants in a randomized order. Their assessments were separated by 2 days and followed the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. Hip fracture-related pain was assessed with the Verbal Ranking Scale.. RESULTS: Participants (all women) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 78.1 (5.9) years performed the test at a mean of 31.5 (5.8) days postsurgery. Of the participants, 10 had a cervical fracture and 10 had a trochanteric fracture. Excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC2.1] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.97) ...
Background This paper presents the first meta-analysis for the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of journal peer reviews. IRR is defined as the extent to which two or more independent reviews of the same scientific document agree. Methodology/Principal Findings Altogether, 70 reliability coefficients (Cohens Kappa, intra-class correlation [ICC], and Pearson product-moment correlation [r]) from 48 studies were taken into account in the meta-analysis. The studies were based on a total of 19,443 manuscripts; on average, each study had a sample size of 311 manuscripts (minimum: 28, maximum: 1983). The results of the meta-analysis confirmed the findings of the narrative literature reviews published to date: The level of IRR (mean ICC/r2 = .34, mean Cohens Kappa = .17) was low. To explain the study-to-study variation of the IRR coefficients, meta-regression analyses were calculated using seven covariates. Two covariates that emerged in the meta-regression analyses as statistically significant to gain an
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of shoulder active range of motion in prone versus supine. T2 - A reliability and concurrent validity study. AU - Furness, James. AU - Johnstone, Scott. AU - Hing, Wayne. AU - Abbott, Allan. AU - Climstein, Mike. N1 - © and inclinometer have been shown to be reliable tools that show good concurrent validity.. PY - 2015/10/3. Y1 - 2015/10/3. N2 - BACKGROUND: As swimming and surfing are prone dominant sports, it would be more sport specific to assess shoulder active range of motion in this position.OBJECTIVES: To determine the reliability of the inclinometer and HALO© for assessing shoulder active range of motion in supine and prone and the concurrent validity of the HALO©. Concurrent validity is based on the comparison of the HALO© and inclinometer. To determine if active range of motion (AROM) differences exists between prone and supine when assessing shoulder internal (IR) and external rotation (ER).DESIGN: The design included clinical measurement, reliability and ...
Acceptable limits of bacteria in air quality in an RTE room - posted in Food Microbiology: Hi everyone, I havent been on here much but I am in need of some information. I am searching for some technical resources on acceptable limits of bacteria in air quality in a RTE room. Just looking for acceptable limits for TPC, TAC, Total coliforms etc. Any help would be greatly appreciated. THANKS IN ADVANCE.
This study was comprised of two phases. In Phase One an intense literature review was performed to facilitate item generation for the initial item-pool. This was then subjected to a review by a panel of experts to establish content validity. Phase Two involved the actual testing of the content validated item pool amongst a sample of ICU nurses from the target population. Ethical approval was obtained from the relevant hospitals. Classical Test Theory was implemented for psychometric evaluation of the instrument. Reliability of the instrument was addressed through the technique of test-retest reliability using Pearsons product-moment correlation coefficient and the Intra-Class correlation coefficient. Finally, the internal consistency of the instrument was addressed to examine the tools stability ...
Intraclass test-retest reliability coefficients (one-way ANOVA model for a single measure) ranged from .940 to .996. Validity coefficients determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficients for males and females, respectively, were as follows: B-90° DTE vs. PRC-DTE = .82, .62 (p , .05); B-90° DTE vs. PRC-STE = .55, .38 (p , .05); B-90° DTE vs. DSBL = −.29, −.23; FG-TE vs. PRC-DTE = .23, −.11; FG-TE vs. PRC-STE = −.15, .33; and FG-TE vs. DSBL = −.04, −.36. ...
hometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO₂ max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association ...
To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to validate a questionnaire (translated into Brazilian Portuguese) that measures the quality of life of women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The FACIT-CD questionnaire was developed by Rao et al. [6] in 2010. To date, no other studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of this instrument, which means that some comparisons are only exploratory.. The first test assessed the reliability of the questionnaire by analysing the internal consistency using Cronbachs alpha coefficient. Results higher than 0.70 indicate that the items on the scales or domains are homogeneous or that they measure the same attribute. In this study, the value on the relationship scale was lower than expected (0.66). However, other authors support the hypothesis that Cronbachs alpha values ​​higher than 0.60 could be acceptable [31]. Despite this assumption, we believe that a value of 0.70 ​​would be more desirable, and thus, we ...
The Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) evaluates the effectiveness of health education and self-management programs provided to people dealing with a wide range of conditions. Aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Dutch translation of the heiQ and to compare the results with the English, German and French translations. A systematic translation process was undertaken. Psychometric properties were studied among patients with arthritis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and asthma (n = 286). Factorial validity using confirmatory factor analysis, item difficulty (D), item remainder correlation and composite reliability were conducted. Stability was tested using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Items were well understood and only minor language adjustments were required. Confirmatory fit indices were |0.95 and item difficulty was D ≥ 0.65 for all items in scales showing acceptable fit indices, except for the reversed Emotional distress scale. Composite
Background: Evaluation of physical activity by condition-specific surveys provides more accurate results than generic physical activity questionnaires. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) in Turkish pregnant women. Methods: In the translation and cultural adaptation of the KPAS, the 6-phase guidelines recommended in the literature were followed. The study included a total of 151 pregnant women who were assessed using the Turkish version of KPAS, the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the SenseWear Pro3 Armband. To determine the test-retest reliability, the KPAS was reapplied after 7 days. The psychometric properties of KPAS were analyzed with respect to internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Results: Cronbach α coefficient indicating the internal consistency of the Turkish KPAS was found to be .60 to .80, showing moderate reliability. The intraclass correlation ...
How is Engineering/Service Test & Independent Evaluation Program abbreviated? E/S TIEP stands for Engineering/Service Test & Independent Evaluation Program. E/S TIEP is defined as Engineering/Service Test & Independent Evaluation Program very rarely.
NHTSA has previously conducted testing to evaluate the repeatability of the oblique offset moving deformable barrier test procedure. Since this testing, NHTSA has made changes to the test procedure, and changes to regulations and consumer information testing have propagated to the vehicle fleet. Therefore, there is a need to re-evaluate the repeatability of the test procedure. Also, the reproducibility of the test procedure needs to be evaluated to determine the variability of the test results among multiple test facilities. To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the test procedure three tests of a single vehicle model were conducted at three different test facilities for a total of nine tests. The responses of the vehicle and its occupants, THOR 50th percentile male ATDs in the driver and right front passenger seating positions, were evaluated to determine repeatability within a single test facility and for reproducibility among the three test facilities. The results demonstrated ...
OBJECTIVES: To test the reproducibility of the ABILOCO questionnaire. To validate the patient self-reporting method and the third-party assessment of the stroke patients locomotion ability by a treating physical therapist. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult stroke patients (N=28; 59+/-13y). The time since stroke ranged from 3 to 253 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The ABILOCO questionnaire. RESULTS: The results of patient self-assessment and the results of the third-party assessments by the physiotherapists at a 2-week interval were highly correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=.77 and ICC=.89, respectively). The results of the patient self-assessment and the third-party assessment by the physical therapist were both well correlated to assessment by an independent medical examiner who observed the patient during the 13 ABILOCO activities (ICC=.69 and ICC=.87, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The use of ABILOCO as a ...
Few studies have evaluated changes on parent-child agreement in HRQOL over time. The objectives of the study were to assess parent-child agreement on childs HRQOL in a 3-year longitudinal study, and to identify factors associated with possible disagreement. A sample of Spanish children/adolescents aged 8-18 years and their parents both completed the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. Data on age, gender, family socioeconomic status (SES), and mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) was also collected at baseline (2003), and again after 3 years (2006). Changes in family composition were collected at follow-up. Agreement was assessed through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman plots. Generalizing Estimating Equation (GEE) models were built to analyze factors associated with parent-child disagreement. A total of 418 parent-child pairs were analyzed. At baseline the level of agreement on HRQOL was low to moderate and it was related to the level of HRQOL reported.
Purpose To comprehensively assess the precision and agreement of anterior corneal power measurements using 8 different devices. Methods Thirty-five eyes from 35 healthy subjects were included in the prospective study. In the first session, a single examiner performed on each subject randomly measurements with the RC-5000 (Tomey Corp., Japan), KR-8000 (Topcon, Japan), IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany), E300 (Medmont International, Australia), Allegro Topolyzer (Wavelight AG, Germany), Vista (EyeSys, TX), Pentacam (Oculus, Germany) and Sirius (CSO, Italy). Measurements were repeated in the second session (1 to 2 weeks later). Repeatability and reproducibility of corneal power measurements were assessed based on the intrasession and intersession within-subject standard deviation (Sw), repeatability (2.77Sw), coefficient of variation (COV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement was evaluated by 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results All devices demonstrated high repeatability and
MATH, \begin{array}{rrc} \text{little r} & = & \frac{\text{degree to which X and Y vary together}}{\text{degree to which X and Y vary independently}} \\ & = & \frac{\href{Covariance}{Covariance} \text{ of X and Y}}{\href{Variance}{Variance}\text{ of X and Y}} \end{array} ,/MATH, The correlation is the standardized Covariance as standard deviation is the standardized variance. (Standardized to get the value in the range). ...
We observed a high correlation between duplicate measurements of cord blood serum estrogen and SHBG levels. Variance component analysis showed that ,80% of the variation in assay results could be explained by the variability between babies. There has been only one study that presented the assay reproducibility of cord blood estrogen levels to our knowledge. In a study of 256 male and female babies by Maccoby et al. (19) , Pearsons correlation coefficients between duplicate measurements conducted in three samples of babies ranged from 0.98 to 0.99.. A few studies have been conducted to examine the laboratory reproducibility of serum and plasma estrogen levels in adult women. Bolelli et al. (10) evaluated the effects of long-term preservation of frozen plasma and serum samples on the sex hormone assay results including estradiol (10) . When assays were repeated 3 years after baseline, Pearsons correlation coefficient between the two measurements for both serum and plasma estradiol was 0.99 for ...
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: 1) investigate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of use of the Flexicurve for measurement of spinal length (L), thoracic (TL) and lumbar length (LL), thoracic (TW) and lumbar width (LW), and 2) q
Assessing Upper and Lower Extremities Via Tissue Dielectric Constant: Suitability of Single Versus Multiple Measurements Averaged. Harvey N. Mayrovitz, Lymphatic Research and Biology, 2018. Background: Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements as an index of local tissue water are useful in a range of applications most notably to characterize and assess lymphedema. Once a measuring device is applied to skin and a result is obtained in less than 10 seconds, but multiple sites may be required and use of the standard triplicate measurements may be time prohibitive. Thus, this studys goal was to provide data from which informed judgments could be made as to the impact of making a single measurement to reduce expended clinic time.. Methods and Results: Sixty subjects (30 female) were recruited with an average age (mean-standard deviation) of 30.6-13.4 years. TDC was measured in triplicate bilaterally at forearm, hand palm, lateral calf, medial calf, and foot dorsum. The agreement in absolute TDC ...
In the context of large-scale human system immunology studies, controlling for technical and biological variability is crucial to ensure that experimental data support research conclusions. In this study, we report on a universal workflow to evaluate both technical and biological variation in multiparameter flow cytometry, applied to the development of a 10-color panel to identify all major cell populations and T cell subsets in cryopreserved PBMC. Replicate runs from a control donation and comparison of different gating strategies assessed the technical variability associated with each cell population and permitted the calculation of a quality control score. Applying our panel to a large collection of PBMC samples, we found that most cell populations showed low intraindividual variability over time. In contrast, certain subpopulations such as CD56 T cells and Temra CD4 T cells were associated with high interindividual variability. Age but not gender had a significant effect on the frequency of ...
These findings indicate that this questionnaire has satisfactory reliability and validity. It can detect different levels of satisfaction12 and is therefore suitable for evaluating out of hours care received by a broad range of patients. The questionnaire has satisfactory internal reliability with Cronbachs α coefficients greater than 0.60 for all scales and greater than 0.70 for five.38 The test and retest scores were highly correlated, though the regressions show that the retest scores were generally lower, so that there may have been a real fall in satisfaction with time. In a true test of test-retest reliability the variable and measurement technique should be the same on both occasions. The lower retest scores may therefore also reflect the difference in the method of application, with greater expressed satisfaction when the research assistants were present. Nevertheless, these data indicate that the retest reliability of the questionnaire is broadly satisfactory.. Content validity was ...
The aim of this study was to develop and validate an asthma-specific quality of life questionnaire for adolescents with asthma. The final version of the AAQOL contains 32 items covering six domains of HRQOL. It is designed for self-administration with most respondents requiring 5-7 min for completion. The AAQOL showed good construct validity given the correlations with other quality of life measures as anticipated. The high test-retest reliability provides the basis for good responsiveness of the AAQOL.. As HRQOL may be influenced by the individuals current stage of cognitive, social and emotional development, it has been argued that HRQOL in adolescents needs to be addressed separately 17. The AAQOL takes into account the key developmental aspects of adolescence as it was specifically designed for the age range 12-17 yrs. The AAQOL is self-completed and focuses on the adolescents subjective perception. Age appropriateness is ensured by including items which were defined as particularly ...
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OBJECTIVES: Responses to health-related items on the Community Health Survey (CHS) provide evidence that is used to develop community-based health policy. This study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of selected health behavioral items on the CHS according to item category, response period, and response scale. METHODS: A sample of 159 men and women 20 to 69 years of age participated in a test-retest with an interval of 14 to 21 days. A total of 28 items relating to smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and weight control, and mental health were selected. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of the items using kappa statistics. RESULTS: Kappa values ranged from 0.44 to 0.93. Items concerning habits had higher kappa values (mean, 0.7; standard error, 0.05) than items concerning awareness or attitudes (p=0.012). The kappa value of items with two- to four-point scales was 0.63, which was higher than the value of 0.59 for items with scales involving five or more points, although this ...
Awareness of reproducibility issues in various areas of science has been on the rise in recent years, with systematic replication efforts in areas such as psychology, economics, cancer biology and social sciences arising in recent years. The low reproducibility rates in some of these areas raise the question of whether irreproducible results can be predicted from particular features in the original publications. Whether reproducibility can be accurately estimated from published information has major implications not only for choosing what to believe or what is worth replicating, but also for how we assess and fund science.. The question of whether researchers can estimate the reproducibility of published findings has been studied in replication initiatives in psychology (see also this), economics and social sciences, and the answer is that they are reasonably good at it. The pooled prediction accuracy across these four studies is around 66% for individual surveys and 73% for prediction markets, ...
Twelve healthy recreational male runners participated.. The selected muscles were: M. quadriceps-vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. tibialis anterior (TA) and the M. gastrocnemius caput mediale (GAS) of the right leg.. The MVC testing conditions were: dry land, underwater prior to (Water 1) and following an aquatic exercise trial (Water 2).. For each muscle, a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare MVC scores between testing conditions, and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error (CV%) were calculated to determine the reproducibility and precision of MVC scores, respectively, between conditions.. For all muscles, no significant differences were observed between land and water MVC scores (p = 0.88-0.97), and high reliability (ICC = 0.96-0.98) and precision (CV% = 7.4-12.6%) were observed between MVC conditions. Under MMT conditions it appears that comparable MVC sEMG values were achieved on land and in ...
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p,BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) stays often lead to reduced physical functioning. Change in physical functioning in patients in the ICU is inadequately assessed through available instruments. The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI), developed to assess mobility in elderly hospitalized patients, is promising for use in patients who are critically ill.,/p,,p,OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinimetric properties of the DEMMI for patients in the ICU.,/p,,p,DESIGN: A prospective, observational reliability and validity study was conducted.,/p,,p,METHODS: To evaluate interrater and intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients), patients admitted to the ICU were assessed with the DEMMI during and after ICU stay. Validity was evaluated by correlating the DEMMI with the Barthel Index (BI), the Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), and manual muscle testing (MMT). Feasibility was evaluated based on the percentage of participants in ...
The limits of agreement will be estimated for the difference between single measurements by each method. This is standard practice when reporting patient results for PEFR. The mean measurements option uses the mean of the replicates to compute the limits of agreement. However, this will lead to narrower limits of agreement (due to the reduction in standard deviation mentioned above) and should only be used when it is standard practice to use the mean of multiple measurements as the patient result ...
Durability and reliability are crucially linked in product validation testing. Typically the products life requirement is to be able to withstand specified loading for a given duration with desired reliability and confidence levels. Product validation or durability testing is then used to assess actual product life relative to these requirements. The goal of validation test is to demonstrate that the part is indeed capable of withstanding the loading that it will see in service. It is desirable that lab loading is representative of and correlates with service loading. Fatigue analysis techniques and material data like the stress-life (SN) curve can be used to define equivalent damage test specifications and accelerate tests so a long service life can be replicated quickly in the test lab. The challenge with typical validation test specs is that while fatigue methodologies can be used to address damage correlation and equivalence, testing a single part does not provide information about product ...
Objective: A large number of tools for assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials are available; however, users have little guidance as to whether a given score represents high or low validity. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of studies identified as having high-internal validity, referred to as the standard studies, to interpret internal validity scores from studies with unknown internal validity. Methods: The standard studies were identified by locating 6 candidate studies reporting the findings of randomized controlled trials from the Journal of American Medicine Association or the New England Journal of Medicine and scoring the studies using 2 scales, the Jadad scale (high score = 5; low = 0) and an internal validity information scale (IVI; high score = 70; low = 0). The 2 studies with the highest average rank were chosen as the standard studies. To determine if the standard studies facilitate interpretation of internal validity scores, 11 randomized controlled ...
Randomizing doctors, medical practices or even entire communities to interventions but taking observations on individual patients or families is not a new idea in public health research but it has received considerable attention in the past few years. Aside from references provided in the Zyzanski et al article, readers will find the recent review papers by Murray et al and by Donner and Klar interesting and informative. Articles in the current issue of the Annals emphasize common facts that every researcher must consider when conducting a group randomized trial (GRT). These center about accounting for the correlation among responses from the same cluster in both the design of the trial as illustrated by Killip et al as well as in the analysis of the data as illustrated by Reed. The key concept in both articles is the product of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the average cluster size. The ICC measures the degree of correlation among responses in the same cluster. The product is ...
The COMFORT scale is a measurement tool to assess distress, sedation and pain in nonverbal paediatric patients. Several studies have described the COMFORT scale, but no formal assessment of the methodological quality has been undertaken. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to study the clinimetric properties of the (modified) COMFORT scale in children up to 18 years. We searched Central, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Web of Science until December 2014. The selection, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. Quality of the included studies was appraised using the COSMIN checklist. We found 30 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Most participants were ventilated children up to 4 years without neurological disorders. The results on internal consistency and interrater reliability showed values of ,0.70 in most studies, indicating an adequate reliability. Construct validity resulted in correlations between 0.68 and 0.84 for distress, ...
The visual vertical (VV) consists of repeated adjustments of a luminous rod to the earth vertical. How many trials are required to reach consistency in this measure? This question has never been addressed despite the widespread clinical use of the measurement in stroke rehabilitation. VV perception was assessed (10 trials) in 117 patients undergoing rehabilitation after a first hemisphere stroke. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated for each patient category: with contralesional VV bias (n = 48), ipsilesional VV bias (n = 17) and normal VV (n = 52). For patients with VV biases, 6 trials were required to reach high inter-trial reliability (contralesional: ICC = 0.9, SEM = 1.36°; ipsilesional: ICC = 0.896, SEM = 0.96°). For patients with normal VV, a minimum of 10 trials was required (ICC = 0.728, SEM = 1.13°). A set of 6 trials correctly classified 96 % of patients. In the literature, 10 is the most frequently used number of trials used
The results of this study for adults in India show evidence of reliability for the IMS-PAQ, with good intraclass correlation and kappa statistics between baseline and retest. The validity coefficients and associations produced between total activity/activity intensity and theoretical constructs of PA were in agreement with those predicted, providing evidence of construct validity for the IMS-PAQ. These findings suggest that the IMS-PAQ is valid for ranking individuals based on reported PA within this population but that further research may be needed for urban residents and women. This study has constructed categories of PA based upon reported time in different activity intensities and used them to predict associations with relevant health outcomes (BMI, percent body fat and pulse rate) in order to provide a more thorough assessment of the validity of the questionnaire.. The results show that for the sample as a whole the IMS-PAQ has good reliability with intra-class correlations ranging from ...
Surprisingly, the Odom criteria have never been validated.. The aim of a study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Odom criteria for the evaluation of surgical procedures of the cervical spine.. Patients with degenerative cervical spine disease were included in the study and divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of their most predominant symptom: myelopathy or radiculopathy. Reliability was assessed with interrater and test-retest design using quadratic weighted kappa coefficients. Construct validity was assessed by means of hypotheses testing. To evaluate whether the Odom criteria could act as a global perceived effect (GPE) scale, we assessed concurrent validity by comparing area under the curve (AUC) values of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the set of questionnaires.. A total of 110 patients were included in the study; 19 were excluded, leaving 91 in our analysis. Reliability assessments showed κ = 0.77 for overall interrater reliability and κ = 0.93 ...
The PC Guide , Procedure Guide , Physical Installation Procedures ]. System Case Preparation Procedure. This procedure covers preparing the system case for the installation of a new system. You will want to perform this procedure when you are assembling a new PC, performing a major upgrade such as a full system upgrade, or moving a system to a new case. The focus of this procedure is on preparing a new system case, but the steps generally apply to an older case being reused as well. There will just be less assembly in the event of an older case (but you will need to clean the inside of the case most likely).. This procedure is geared more towards tower cases, since that is all that I use. Tower cases are superior to desktop cases for those doing their own PC assembly.. Procedure Overview: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A template for reliable assessment of resident operative performance. T2 - Assessment intervals, numbers of cases and raters. AU - Williams, Reed G.. AU - Verhulst, Steven. AU - Colliver, Jerry A.. AU - Sanfey, Hilary. AU - Chen, Xiaodong. AU - Dunnington, Gary. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - Background: Operative performance rating (OPR) instruments have been developed to assess operative performance (OP). To guide program implementation, this study determined: 1) Appropriate intervals for OP progress decisions, 2) Number of OPRs and raters required per interval to achieve reproducible results. Methods: 21 surgeons rated 897 OPs (3 procedures) by 36 residents. Six-month PGY intervals were compared to determine length of stable operative performance intervals. Variance component analyses established rating factor importance. Generalizability analyses and decision studies determined number of OPRs required for reproducible OP decisions (reliabilities = 0.80). Results: Resident ...
article{58770751-98aa-4670-aede-8ddb9462c09c, abstract = {High precision isotopic measurements of Sn in two commercially available high purity materials and a previously analysed cassiterite from Straits Settlement, Malaysia, are presented as a basis for a new measurement procedure using the Micromass IsoProbe MC-ICP-MS. The results show that under optimised instrumental conditions two laboratory calibration standard solutions (Johnson-Matthey Puratronic Grade 1 Sn metal foil and Specpure ICP/DCP Sn solution) are isotopically identical and an external reproducibility of 0.000017 2 s. d. at 150 ppb Sn concentration (Sn-122/Sn-116 0.318597, n = 14) can be achieved. An isotopic fractionation of +0.13parts per thousand/ u (1.3 epsilon units) relative to these in-house standards has been verified for the cassiterite, which indicates a natural isotopic fractionation of approximately 2.8 times greater than the long-term reproducibility of the current optimised measurement procedure.}, author = ...
Several efforts were made to improve on the moderate reliability associated with previously reported chart reviews.13 We developed a computerized data collection form to ensure complete data entry. Data were transferred regularly by phone to a computer at the coordinating centre to minimize data loss and transcription error. Provincial physician and nurse leaders underwent training and used a standard set of hospital charts and a training manual. Reviewer performance was evaluated on a national basis with the use of measures of interrater reliability before data collection was started. Reliability data were reported back to each province. At both stages of the review process, interrater reliability was also assessed on a random sample of 10% of the charts. The kappa statistic for the measurement of agreement on the 10% sample for the first stage of the review process (by nurses or health records professionals) was substantial, 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63- 0.76).14 Kappa scores for ...
Also parallel bar instruments are intended to measure flat, regular material surfaces and are intended to measure the effect of many parallel paths across the material between the two bars. Using these instruments for Point to Point measurements are different than area measurements and will provide different measurement results. In this case they are simply indicators and not specification measurements.. For example, the ESD Check ESI-870 is probably just fine. You can check it by placing it on surfaces of various resistance characteristics e.g., on an insulated surface and a clean metal surface. The problem is when comparing two different measurement fixtures on an undefined surface - Soft Rubber vs Machined Metal contact fixtures - and expect to get the same answer. This is not always possible. This is the reason Prostat provides REMOVABLE conductive boots & ...
These Arcana have filled in download for less than 10 journals which empowers it outdated to follow the field etc of the CO2 morning. here, the holistic global lot when the agent provides biological under the secondIntifada, could be a someone for the drivers. This African download resilience and reliability on aws remains same texts for the seriousness CO2 compliance Designed in this spectra.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reproducibility of p3. AU - Zamrini, Edward Y.. AU - Meador, Kimford J.. AU - Thompson, William O.. AU - Lee, Gregory P. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The P3 event-related potential has been widely employed in both clinical and research investigations. In the present study, P3 latency and amplitude intersession reliability were evaluated in 4 sessions over an average of 33 days in 24 healthy adults using the P3 tonal oddball paradigm. Mean group latencies ranged from 302-305 ms and mean amplitudes ranged from 7.75-8.87 μV. No significant group differences were found across sessions for latency or amplitude. Intrasubject variability was large; the 95% confidence interval for the difference between the means of two combined sessions was ±20 ms for latency and ±4.63 μV for amplitude. The results suggest that P3 latency and amplitude are reliable and reproducible over weeks for groups, but have greater variability for individuals.. AB - The P3 event-related potential has ...
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Application of the velocity profile method is recommended for reliable measurement of flow volume in larger vessels, and ultrasonic flowmetry is a useful clinical tool for this purpose. We used the velocity profile in conjunction with a minor modification in the conventional velocity profile method and examined the reproducibility of flowmetry from color Doppler data. Data of three examiners were allowed to analyze intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver agreement in the common carotid artery, and we measured flow volume in the peripheral vessels of healthy individuals. Estimated flow volumes in five healthy examinees were 350 to 550 ml/min and did not vary significantly between examiners. Interobserver correlation was good (r 1=0.63), but intraobserver correlations in two sonographers were excellent (r 1=0.85) in by one who was experienced in this method and poor (r 1=0.32) in the other. Good interobserver agreement and intraobserver reproducibility of experienced examiners suggests that this
We measured the long-term test-retest reliability of [C-11]raclopride binding in striatal subregions, the thalamus and the cortex using the bolus-plus-infusion method and a high-resolution positron emission scanner. Seven healthy male volunteers underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) [C-11]raclopride assessments, with a 5-week retest interval. D-2/3 receptor availability was quantified as binding potential using the simplified reference tissue model. Absolute variability (VAR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values indicated very good reproducibility for the striatum and were 4.5%/0.82, 3.9%/0.83, and 3.9%/0.82, for the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum, respectively. Thalamic reliability was also very good, with VAR of 3.7% and ICC of 0.92. Test-retest data for cortical areas showed good to moderate reproducibility (6.1% to 13.1%). Our results are in line with previous test-retest studies of [C-11]raclopride binding in the striatum. A novel finding is the ...
Objective: To assess classical psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Bech-Rafaelsens mania (MAS) and melancholia (MES) scales.. Method: Observational, prospective, and multicentric study in bipolar out-patients. Convergent validity was assessed against the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Discriminant validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change, were also assessed.. Results: One hundred and thirteen bipolar patients with a manic episode and 102 bipolar patients with a depressive episode were included. Both the MAS and the MES showed appropriate convergent validity (r , 0.90), discriminant validity (P , 0.0001), internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha ,0.80), test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.69 for the MAS and 0.94 for the MES], inter-rater reliability (ICC , 0.80), and sensitivity to change at 4 weeks since inception (P , 0.0001; within-group effect size ≥1.8).. Conclusion: The Spanish ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Standardization of sonographic lung-to-head ratio measurements in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia. T2 - Impact on the reproducibility and efficacy to predict outcomes. AU - Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck. AU - Sananes, Nicolas. AU - Olutoye, Oluyinka O.. AU - Cass, Darrell L.. AU - Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh. AU - Lee, Timothy C.. AU - Cassady, Christopher I.. AU - Mehollin-Ray, Amy. AU - Welty, Stephen. AU - Fernandes, Caraciolo. AU - Belfort, Michael A.. AU - Lee, Wesley. AU - Ruano, Rodrigo. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Objectives - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of standardization of the lung-to-head ratio measurements in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on prediction of neonatal outcomes and reproducibility. Methods - We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 77 cases of isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia managed in a single center between 2004 and 2012. We compared lung-to-head ratio measurements that were performed ...
Key concepts in classical test theory are reliability and validity. A reliable measure is one that measures a construct consistently across time, individuals, and situations. A valid measure is one that measures what it is intended to measure. Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient, for validity. Both reliability and validity can be assessed statistically. Consistency over repeated measures of the same test can be assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient, and is often called test-retest reliability.[14] Similarly, the equivalence of different versions of the same measure can be indexed by a Pearson correlation, and is called equivalent forms reliability or a similar term.[14] Internal consistency, which addresses the homogeneity of a single test form, may be assessed by correlating performance on two halves of a test, which is termed split-half reliability; the value of this Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for two half-tests is adjusted with the Spearman-Brown ...
Objective: To report the agreement between gray-scale intravascular ultrasound (GS-IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in assessing the bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) structures and their respective reproducibility. Background: BVS are composed of an erodible polymer. Ultrasound and light signals backscattered from polymeric material differs from metallic stents using GS-IVUS and OCT. Methods: Forty-five patients included in the ABSORB trial were treated with a 3.0 × 18 mm BVS and imaged with GS-IVUS 20 MHz and OCT post-implantation. Qualitative (ISA, side-branch struts, protrusion, and dissections) and quantitative (number of struts, lumen, and scaffold area) measurements were assessed by two investigators. The agreement and the inter- and intraobserver reproducibility were investigated using the kappa (κ) and the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: GS-IVUS and OCT agreement was predominantly poor at a lesion, frame, and strut level analysis (κ and ICC ,0.4) ...
Responsiveness of physicians is the social actions that physicians do to meet the legitimate expectations of service seekers. Since there is no such scale, this study aimed at developing one for measuring responsiveness of physicians in rural Bangladesh, by structured observation method. Data were collected from Khulna division of Bangladesh, through structured observation of 393 patient-consultations with physicians. The structured observation tool consisted of 64 items, with four Likert type response categories, each anchored with a defined scenario. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by same three raters observing 30 consultations. Data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), followed by assessment of internal consistency by ordinal alpha coefficient, inter-rater reliability by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), concurrent validity by correlating responsiveness score with waiting time, and known group validity by comparing public and private sector physicians. After removing
RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 38.13 years (SD = 11.45) and all men were married. Cronbach α of the MGSIS-I was 0.89 and interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Significant correlations were found between the MGSIS-I and the International Index of Erectile Function (P , .01), whereas correlation of the scale with non-similar scales was lower than with similar scale (confirming convergent and divergent validity). The scale could differentiate between subgroups in age, smoking status, and income (known-group validity). A single-factor solution that explained 70% variance of the scale was explored using exploratory factor analysis (confirming uni-dimensionality); confirmatory factor analysis indicated better fitness for the five-item version than the seven-item version of the MGSIS-I (root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, comparative fit index , 1.00 vs root mean square error of approximation = 0.10, comparative fit index , 0.97, respectively ...
Looking for online definition of test-retest reliability in the Medical Dictionary? test-retest reliability explanation free. What is test-retest reliability? Meaning of test-retest reliability medical term. What does test-retest reliability mean?
Cognitive diagnostic classification models (DCMs) have been developed to assess the cognitive processes underlying assessment responses. Current dissertation aims to provide theoretical and practical considerations for estimation of DCMs for educational applications by investigating several important underexplored issues. To avoid problems related to retrofitting of DCMs to an already existing data, test construction of the newly mathematics assessment for primary school DMA was based on a-priori defined Q-matrices. In this dissertation we compared DCMs with established psychometric models and investigated the incremental validity of DCMs profiles over traditional IRT scores. Furthermore, we addressed the issue of the verification of the Q-matrix definition. Moreover, we examined the impact of invalid Q-matrix specification on item, respondent parameter recovery, and sensitivity of selected fit measures. In order to address these issues one simulation study and two empirical studies illustrating ...
Abstract: Motivation: Reproducibility analyses of biologically relevant microarray studies have mostly focused on overlap of detected biomarkers or correlation of differential expression evidences across studies. For clinical utility, direct inter-study prediction (i.e. to establish a prediction model in one study and apply to another) for disease diagnosis or prognosis prediction is more important. Normalization plays a key role for such a task. Traditionally, sample-wise normalization has been a standard for inter-array and inter-study normalization. For gene-wise normalization, it has been implemented for intra-study or inter-study predictions in a few papers while its rationale, strategy and effect remain unexplored.. Results: In this article, we investigate the effect of gene-wise normalization in microarray inter-study prediction. Gene-specific intensity discrepancies across studies are commonly found even after proper sample-wise normalization. We explore the rationale and necessity of ...
To err is human. Scientists being human, they make mistakes. Many if not most of the rules for doing science are designed to weed out mistakes. Reproducibility and replicability are recognized as playing a central role in this process. But a lot of confusion remains about the difference between these two labels and the relation between them. In this essay, I will explain why replicability is the foundation on top of which reproducibility can be constructed, and introduce verifiability as the missing link between them, which deserves particular attention in the context of computer-aided research.. First, a note about terminology. Some people use reproducible and replicable in the sense I will soon define, whereas others exchange the definitions of the two terms, and yet others seem to consider them synonyms. I hope that the scientific community will ultimately converge to common definitions, but we arent there yet.. To make the relation between replicability, reproducibility, and ...
This study evaluated the reproducibility of 24 soft tissue landmarks on six three-dimensional (3D) facial scans. The scans were taken on a DSP400 facial scanner and were viewed using a customized software program. Intraoperator data were obtained by one researcher placing the 24 landmarks on all six scans a total of 30 times. Thirty different orthodontists of varying experience were then asked to place all 24 landmarks on each of the six facial scans in order to establish interoperator reproducibility. The standard deviations (SDs) from the mean were calculated from the data for each individual landmark in the x-, y-, and z-axes.. For the intraoperator data, 12 of the 24 landmarks were found to be reproducible to within a 1 mm SD for each plane of space. The interoperator data showed lower reproducibility with just two landmarks showing less than a 1 mm SD in all three planes of space.. Familiarity with 3D facial scans and associated software programs is important in improving reproducibility. ...
Scientific research informs decisions that address many pressing issues, but what happens when results from one lab or study cannot be confirmed in another? Inconsistent results undermine the validity of scientific findings and contribute to the growing concern about replicability and reproducibility in science. A widespread strategy involving a variety of stakeholders is essential in order to promote openness and transparency in the research enterprise.. Three recent reports from the National Academies identify opportunities for meaningful improvement in research practices and offer guidance toward open, consistent, and objective science. Most recently, our 2019 report, Reproducibility and Replicability in Science, defines the terms reproducibility and replicability as distinct concepts that are each critical in achieving this goal. While many use these terms interchangeably, this differentiation is a critical step towards stronger scientific research practices and more reliable science. To ...
The psychometric properties of the Persian-language version of Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory- Revised (OCI-R) were studied in a sample of Iranian college students (N = 450). The total and each of the subscales of OCI-R-Persian demonstrated very high internal consistency as well as high test-retest reliability. Convergent and divergent validity of the OCI-R-Persian total scale and subscales were satisfactory. In general, the OCI-R-Persian appears to be a reliable and valid measure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in this non-clinical sample of Iranian college students.
Procedures for Estimating Internal Consistency Reliability Prepared by the Iowa Technical Adequacy Project (ITAP) July, 003 Table of Contents: Part Page Introduction...1 Description of Coefficient Alpha...3
The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of self-measurements taken by novice lay persons using a self-assembled tape measure after viewing a brief online instructional video. Results indicate that participants were able to accurately assemble the tape measure and demonstrate proficiency in measuring themselves when observed by lab technicians. The low technical error measurements and high reliability for duplicate measurements demonstrates excellent intra-observer accuracy and reliability. The high ICCs between participant home and lab waist, hip, and neck circumferences indicate that participant self-measurements are highly reliable over time, which is congruent with the limited research reporting reliability of self-measurements [10, 36]. The high reliability indicates that measurements individuals take over time can help them accurately track physical changes that may enable them, their health care providers, and researchers to better realize ...
In order to conduct studies on shared decision-making (SDM) and to implement SDM in routine practice, psychometrically tested measures are needed. The development of the short 5-item version of the OPTION scale (Observer OPTION5) allows to assess SDM from an observer perspective. Observer OPTION5 is so far only available in English and Dutch. The aim of this study was to translate the Observer OPTION5 rating scale into German and to test its psychometric properties. The German Observer OPTION5 was tested in a secondary data analysis of audio-recordings of patient-physician-consultations (N = 79) in German primary care practices. Demographic data were analysed using descriptive statistics. To assess inter- and intra-rater reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. For assessing concurrent validity, a correlation (Spearmans Rho) of the sum score of Observer OPTION5 and Observer OPTION12 was calculated. The consultations dealt with decisions regarding type 2 diabetes (N = 31)
Using emerging international guidelines, stringent procedures were used to develop and evaluate Canadian-French, German and UK translations/adaptions of the 50 item, parent-completed Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50). Multitrait analysis was used to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the hypothesized item sets across countries relative to the results obtained for a representative sample of children in the US. Cronbachs alpha coefficient was used to estimate the internal consistency reliability for each of the health scales. Floor and ceiling effects were also examined. Seventy-nine percent of all the item-scale correlations achieved acceptable internal consistency (0.40 or higher). The tests of the item convergent and discriminant validity were successful at least 87% of the time across all scales and countries. Equal item variance was observed 90% of the time across all countries. The reliability coefficients ranged from a low of 0.43 (parental time impact, Canadian English) to a
Several studies2,7,15,16 have analyzed the intra-rater reliability of the 6MWT; therefore, this test has been considered reliable for assessing functional capacity in patients with COPD after a practice test. However, there is a lack of studies verifying the inter-rater reliability for this population.. The intra-rater 6MWT reliability in our study presented ICC values for walked distance ,0.75, indicating excellent reliability. This analysis has been already studied in subjects with chronic respiratory disease by many authors, who found ICC values ranging from 0.82 to 0.99,7,12,14,15,33-35 confirming the findings of our study. The studies mentioned above were conducted with COPD,7,15,34 with obstructive disease and restrictive lung diseases,12 and with lung disease in the final stage.35 The last 2 studies not performed the second 6MWT, with an interval of 30 min after the first 6MWT, according to the standards of the ATS/ERS.7,14 Furthermore, we found low coefficient of variation values (0.06), ...
A brief measure is needed to examine the role of hopelessness on mental and physical health outcomes in large population studies. We examined the validity and reliability of two brief measures of hopelessness in a large non-clinical sample, one negatively valenced (Brief-H-Neg) and one positively valenced (Brief-H-Pos). Both were shown to correlate strongly with the longer BHS and mirror the positive correlation seen between the BHS and a measure of depression, providing evidence of concurrent validity, with adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability.. The sizes of the 2-week retest correlations for the brief measures reported in our non-clinical sample (0.67 and 0.72) are similar to those reported for the BHS in a sample of university undergraduates over a 3-week retest interval (0.67, female students) or a 10-week interval (0.75).25 ,26 Studies assessing the retest reliability of hopelessness instruments have reported varying retest intervals. Hopelessness may be conceptualised ...
Iterative algorithms are widely applied in reliability analysis and design optimization. Nevertheless, phenomena of failed convergence, such as periodic oscillation, bifurcation, and chaos, are oftentimes observed in iterative procedures of solving some nonlinear problems. In the present paper, the essential causes of numerical instabilities including periodic oscillation and chaos of iterative solutions are revealed by the eigenvalue-based stability analysis of iterative schemes. To understand and control these instabilities, the stability transformation method (STM), which is capable of tackling numerical instabilities of iterative algorithms in reliability analysis and design optimization, is proposed. Finally, several benchmark examples of convergence control of PMA (performance measure approach) for probabilistic analysis and the SORA (sequential optimization and reliability assessment) for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) are presented. The observations from the benchmark ...
The aim was to assess intraobserver reliability of a new semi-automated technique of embryo volumetry. Power calculations suggested 46 subjects with viable, singleton pregnancies were required for reliability analysis. Crown rump length (CRL) of each
The psychometric properties of Chinese version of SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale in patients with stroke Xiaofang Dong,1 Yanjin Liu,2 Aixia Wang,3 Min Wang41Neurology Department, 2Nursing Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, Peoples Republic of ChinaObjective: To test the Chinese version of the SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (C-ESES) in stroke patients and evaluate its validity and reliability.Background: Physical inactivity is a well established and changeable risk factor for stroke, and regular exercise of 3-7 days per week is essential for stroke survivors and the general population. Though regular exercise is beneficial, it has been proved that duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise are generally low in stroke survivors.Methods: The performance of the instrument was assessed intab 350 Chinese stroke survivors and repeated in 50 patients to examine test-retest reliability. Questionnaires included a form on demographic and
We report results from a worldwide interlaboratory comparison of samples among laboratories that measure (or measured) stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of atmospheric CH4 (δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4). The offsets among the laboratories are larger than the measurement reproducibility of individual laboratories. To disentangle plausible measurement offsets, we evaluated and critically assessed a large number of intercomparison results, some of which have been documented previously in the literature. The results indicate significant offsets of δ13C-CH4 and δD- CH4 measurements among data sets reported from different laboratories; the differences among laboratories at modern atmospheric CH4 level spread over ranges of 0.5 ‰ for δ13C-CH4 and 13 ‰ for δD-CH4. The intercomparison results summarized in this study may be of help in future at tempts to harmonize δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4 data sets from different laboratories in order to jointly incorporate them into modelling studies. However,
Background. Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine hindlimb ischemia. We assessed the reproducibility and the accuracy of LDPI acquisitions and identified several critical factors that could affect LDPI measurements in mice. Methods. Twenty mice were analysed. Statistical standardisation and a repeatability and reproducibility analysis were performed on mouse perfusion signals with respect to differences in body temperature, the presence or absence of hair, the type of anaesthesia used for LDPI measurements and the position of the mouse body. Results. We found excellent correlations among measurements made by the same operator (i.e., repeatability) under the same experimental conditions and by two different operators (i.e.,
We have developed a diabetes quality-of-life (DQOL) measure oriented toward the patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The DQOL was assessed for its reliability and validity in a group of patients with IDDM (n = 192). We found that the DQOL and its four scales had high degrees of internal consistency (Cronbachs r = .66−.92) and excellent test-retest reliability (r = .78−.92). Using conceptually relevant measures of psychiatric symptoms, perceived well-being and adjustment to illness, we also demonstrated convergent validity of the DQOL. This instrument was initially designed for use in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, a multicenter controlled clinical trial evaluating the effects of two different diabetes treatment regimens on the appearance and progression of early vascular complications. However, the DQOL may also be useful in evaluating the quality of life in other groups of patients with IDDM.. ...
I am extremely passionate about both reproducibility and replicability in neuroimaging. Reproducibility is the ultimate goal, while replicability should be the bare minimum that we demand in the 21st century. To this end I am committed to releasing all the analysis code from my peer reviewed manuscripts. You can find it at my github page. Please do use whatever you…
This chapter continues review of the excellent book by Carone and Bush (2013a) on symptom validity assessment, MTBI (mild traumatic brain injury), and malingering. The book is quite complementary to the present one. Many of the chapters provide information that parallel or add to the information already presented.
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the commonest global cause of glomerulonephritis. Extent of fibrosis, tubular atrophy and glomerulosclerosis predict renal function decline. Extent of renal fibrosis is assessed with renal biopsy which is invasive and prone to sampling error. We assessed the utility of non-contrast native T1 mapping of the kidney in patients with IgAN for assessment of renal fibrosis. Renal native T1 mapping was undertaken in 20 patients with IgAN and 10 healthy subjects. Ten IgAN patients had a second scan to assess test-retest reproducibility of the technique. Native T1 times were compared to markers of disease severity including degree of fibrosis, eGFR, rate of eGFR decline and proteinuria. All patients tolerated the MRI scan and analysable quality T1 maps were acquired in at least one kidney in all subjects. Cortical T1 times were significantly longer in patients with IgAN than healthy subjects (1540 ms ± 110 ms versus 1446 ± 88 ms, p = 0.038). There was excellent test-retest
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability (VAMA). The VAMA consists of 12 video clips depicting a social drama imposed within an interactive virtual environment with questions assessing the mental states of virtual friends. Response options capture the continuum of ability (i.e., impaired, reduced, accurate, and hypermentalising) within first- and second-order cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM). Sixty-two healthy participants were administered the VAMA, three other ToM measures, and additional measures of neurocognitive abilities and social functioning. The VAMA had sound internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. Significant correlations between performance on the VAMA and other ToM measures provided preliminary evidence of convergent validity. Small to moderate correlations were observed between performance on the VAMA and neurocognitive tasks. Further, the VAMA was found to correlate significantly with indices of ...
Introduction: It is a common finding that despite high levels of specificity and sensitivity, many medical tests are not highly effective in diagnosing diseases exhibiting a low prevalence within a clinical population. What is not widely known or appreciated is how the results of retesting a patient using the same or a different medical or psychological test impacts the estimated probability that a patient has a particular disease. In the absence of a gold standard spe-cial techniques are required to understand the error structure of a medical test. Generalizability can provide guid-ance as to whether a serial Bayes model accurately updates the positive predictive value of multiple test results. Methods: In order to understand how sources of error impact a tests outcome, test results should be sampled across the testing conditions that may contribute to error. A generalizability analysis of appropriately sampled test results should allow researchers to estimate the influence of each error source as a
Kammermann, N., 1950: Studies relating to Potato blight, Pliytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. I. Methodological study concerning the evaluation of Potato tops for resistance to blight. II. The connexion between the peroxidase activity of Potato leaf sap and resistance to Phytophthora
Objective: The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine ConLiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (\(\kappa\))] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment ...
Read Test-retest repeatability of myocardial oxidative metabolism and efficiency using standalone dynamic 11C-acetate PET and multimodality approaches in healthy controls, Journal of Nuclear Cardiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequences that incorporate multiple postlabeling delay (PLD) times allow estimation of when arterial blood signal arrives within a region of interest. Sequences that account for such variability may improve the reliability of ASL and therefore make the technique well suited for future clinical and experimental investigations of cerebral perfusion. This study assessed the within- and between-session reproducibility of an optimized pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) sequence that incorporates multiple postlabeling delays (multi-PLD pCASL). Healthy subjects underwent four identical scans separated by 30 minutes, 1 week, and 1 month using multi-PLD pCASL to image absolute perfusion (cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT)) during both rest and a visual-cued motor task. We show good test-retest reliability, with strong consistency across subjects and sessions during rest (inter-session within-subject coefficient of
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequences that incorporate multiple postlabeling delay (PLD) times allow estimation of when arterial blood signal arrives within a region of interest. Sequences that account for such variability may improve the reliability of ASL and therefore make the technique well suited for future clinical and experimental investigations of cerebral perfusion. This study assessed the within- and between-session reproducibility of an optimized pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) sequence that incorporates multiple postlabeling delays (multi-PLD pCASL). Healthy subjects underwent four identical scans separated by 30 minutes, 1 week, and 1 month using multi-PLD pCASL to image absolute perfusion (cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT)) during both rest and a visual-cued motor task. We show good test-retest reliability, with strong consistency across subjects and sessions during rest (inter-session within-subject coefficient of
At an intense Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District board meeting April 3rd, the school board heard a report - mandated by the City Council last year - on the findings of an independent evaluation of the districts controversial Special Education Program.. The districts policy of requiring parents of special education students to sign confidentiality clauses in their settlement agreements was instituted about four years ago and has been met with much opposition.. In June, the City Council threatened to withhold approximately $500,000 in funding to the school district unless the district placed a moratorium on the policy and revisited the issue.. At the meeting April 3rd, the room was filled with emotion. Parents of special education children spoke out, sharing their stories and thoughts on the independent evaluation.. Parents told their horror stories of how they were treated and its unfortunate that, somehow, weve lost empathy for these students and parents, said school board ...
Description of disease Observer variation. Treatment Observer variation. Symptoms and causes Observer variation Prophylaxis Observer variation
Results Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intra-rater reliability for CDEIS, SES-CD and GELS (95% CIs) were 0.89 (0.86 to 0.93), 0.91 (0.89 to 0.95) and 0.81 (0.77 to 0.89), respectively, with standard error of measurement (SEM) of 2.10, 2.42 and 1.15. The corresponding ICCs for inter-rater reliability were 0.71 (0.63 to 0.76), 0.83 (0.75 to 0.88) and 0.62 (0.52 to 0.70), with SEM of 3.42, 3.07 and 1.63, respectively. Correlation between CDEIS and GELS was 0.75, between SES-CD and GELS was 0.74 and between CDEIS and SES-CD was 0.92. The most common sources of disagreement were interpretation of superficial ulceration, definition of disease site at the ileocolonic anastomosis, assessment of anorectal lesions and grading severity of stenosis. ...
Although average AS-20 scores are easily interpreted for studies comparing cohorts or a change in a cohort over time, interpreting change in an individual patient remains more challenging. The HRQOL measures are inherently variable, leading to the question of whether an observed change in scores reflects a true change or just test-retest variability. Using the 95% LOA (also known as the repeatability coefficient), as described by Bland and Altman,23 provides a measure of the variability expected by readministration of a questionnaire in the absence of a change in the underlying condition. Thus, any change that exceeds the 95% LOA is likely to be a true change in the underlying condition rather than a result of the instruments variability. In the present study, despite significant changes in average scores across the cohort, not all patients showed an improvement that exceeded the 95% LOA for each domain. It is possible that patients may have concerns in only one domain. Nevertheless, one ...
OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a fully automatic method to measure diameters of the ascending and descending aorta on non-ECG-gated, non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scans.. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The method combines multi-atlas registration to obtain seed points, aorta centerline extraction, and an optimal surface segmentation approach to extract the aorta surface around the centerline. From the extracted 3D aorta segmentation, the diameter of the ascending and descending aorta was calculated at cross-sectional slices perpendicular to the extracted centerline, at the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation, and at 1-cm intervals up to 3 cm above and below this level. Agreement with manual annotations was evaluated by dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for segmentation overlap, mean surface distance (MSD), and intra-class correlation (ICC) of diameters on 100 CT scans from a lung cancer screening trial. Repeatability of the diameter measurements was evaluated on 617 baseline-one year ...
A scatter plot shows the relationship between variables.. The scatter plot identifies the relationship that best describes the data, whether a straight line, polynomial or some other function.. A scatter plot matrix shows the relationship between each predictor and the response, and the relationship between each pair of predictors. You can use the matrix to identify the relationship between variables, to identify where additional terms such as polynomials or interactions are needed, and to see if transformations are needed to make the predictors or response linear. The scatter plot matrix does not convey the joint relationship between each predictor and the response since it does not take into account the effect on the response of the other variables in the model. Effect leverage and residual plots fulfill this purpose after fitting the model. ...
Dual-task methodologies are widely utilized to measure sharing of attentional resources between motor and cognitive functions. The traditional paper-pencil tasks although are valid and reliable, require specialized training, are prone to manual error and are not feasible to use in a dual-task paradigm, limiting its overall usability particularly in clinical settings. This warrants the need for sensitive, accurate, reliable, yet affordable options of computerized testing. The purpose of this study was to establish the test- retest reliability of a computerized custom-designed cognitive test battery (CCT), examining effects of age and stroke which was achieved by establishing test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the CCT primarily in healthy young adults (n=15) (first study) followed by assessing the same across three different groups including stroke survivors (n=15), healthy older (n=15) and young adults (n=15) (second study). Additionally, we conducted a pilot study to assess ...
In this study we assessed the reproducibility of 3D 1H-MRSI of the prostate using an endorectal coil at 1.5T in healthy volunteers as well as subjects suspected of prostate cancer in a multicenter setting. A high reproducibility of calculated metabolite ratios is one of the prerequisites for widespread application of 1H-MRSI of the prostate in clinical practice. To detect metabolic changes caused by prostate cancer, the measurement error of the technique has to be smaller than these changes. We chose to calculate reproducibility on the basis of selected (quality-controlled) voxels at the same location in two examinations, rather than trying to analyze all voxels in every subject, to avoid bias because of largely overlapping voxels in every measurement. Only pure PZ or CG or U tissue voxels were selected to avoid partial volume effects from differences in metabolite ratios between these tissues.. It has been shown that prostate cancer is characterized by a combination of elevated choline, reduced ...
This is the first book devoted to the topic of validity assessment in rehabilitation contexts and is written by two board certified psychologists with extensive experience in clinical neuropsychology and rehabilitation psychology.
Purpose: To investigate visual rating of pelvis and knee position in young athletes during lower extremity functional tests. Methods: Pelvis and knee alignment, in 23 athletes, was visually rated by 66 physiotherapists. Peak two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) kinematics were also quantified. Ratings were compared to consensus visual ratings of an expert panel. The consensus ratings were also compared to peak kinematics. Reliability was determined using percentage agreement (PA) and the first order agreement coefficient (AC1). Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and differences in kinematics between groups based on the expert visual ratings were calculated to assess rating validity. Results: Mean intra-rater agreement was substantial (PA: 79-88%, AC1: 0.60-0.78). Inter-rater agreement ranged from fair to substantial (PA: 67-80%; AC1: 0.37-0.61). Sensitivity (≥80%) and specificity (≥50%) were acceptable for all tests except the Drop Jump. Experience (DOR 1.6-2.8 times
"How replicable are statistically significant results in social psychology? A replication and extension of Motyl et al. (in ... Open Science Collaboration (28 August 2015). "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science". Science. 349 (6251): ... JPSP is one of the journals analyzed in the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project after JPSP's publication of ... maintain the impression that research that is published in JPSP has been thoroughly vetted and is less likely to be the result ...
Part 1: reproducibility of results for the international intercomparison". Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. 10 (4): 234-251 ... Part of the Geotraces program is to ensure results for trace elements and isotopes collected on different cruises by different ...
Reproducibility of experimental results is central to the scientific method. A standard system of units facilitates this. ... As a result, units of measure could vary not only from location to location but from person to person. Metric systems of units ... When two different units are multiplied or divided, the result is a new unit, referred to by the combination of the units. For ... This accident was the result of both confusion due to the simultaneous use of metric and Imperial measures and confusion of ...
WBA strives to ensure objectivity, falsifiability and reproducibility of results. The result of a WBA is a why-because graph ( ... This process can be iterated for the newfound causes, and so on, until a satisfactory result has been achieved. At each node ( ...
Method and Data Sharing and Reproducibility of Scientific Results". Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 60 (12): 5868 ...
The data and analysis provenance is maintained for reproducibility of results. BisQue can be easily deployed in cloud computing ... These results are stored back into the system in the form of tags, graphical objects and/or images. Images or metadata are ... In the latter case, BisQue can automatically parallelize analysis over large image datasets and then collect the results in a ... In BisQue, sharing images, metadata and analysis results can be performed through the web. The system contains an export ...
Piette, Elizabeth R.; Moore, Jason H. (19 April 2017). Improving the Reproducibility of Genetic Association Results Using ... Permutation testing makes it possible to generate an empirical p-value for the result. Replication in independent data may also ...
These ROS may result in the production of many base adducts, as well as DNA strand breaks and crosslinks. Deaminating agents, ... 1985). "Reproducibility of microbial mutagenicity assays: II. Testing of carcinogens and noncarcinogens in Salmonella ... Similar results are also obtained in studies with radiations, indicating that there may be no safe threshold for mutagens. ... Although some of these mutations are lethal or cause serious disease, many have minor effects as they do not result in residue ...
Play media Research incorporating sex as a biological variable increases the rigor and reproducibility of results. After ... In 2001, they presented a report that sex is an important variable in designing studies and assessing results. The quality and ... To improve the rigor and reproducibility of research findings, the European Commission, Canadian Institutes of Health Research ... Research including SABV has strengthened the rigor and reproducibility of findings. Public research institutions including the ...
For example, a reading test that is administered in September to a third grade class may yield different results when retaken ... ISBN 978-0-13-189172-2. Practical explanation of repeatability and reproducibility in terms of how data can be different ... Repeatability or test-retest reliability is the closeness of the agreement between the results of successive measurements of ... An attribute agreement analysis is designed to simultaneously evaluate the impact of repeatability and reproducibility on ...
This type of RVP facilitates exceptional reliability and reproducibility of neutralization assay results, while maintaining ... Results obtained with RVPs are often compared to those obtained with live virus. Pierson, TC; Sánchez, MD; Puffer, BA; Ahmed, ... With proper design and quality control, RVPs remain stable under common assay conditions and yield reproducible results that ... and reproducibility of Zika reporter virus particles for long-term applications". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 14(11): ...
CLSI, ISO, NIH, EURL ECVAM, OECD) is desirable because this improves test result accuracy and reproducibility. Also, if the ... As a result, even if the indigenous medical knowledge is taken as prior art, that knowledge does not by itself make the active ... Failure to do so can result in criminal proceedings and rejection of any subsequent patent applications. It is also important ... The patent-holder subsequently sued a large number of importers of Mexican yellow beans with the following result: "...export ...
... by integration with the Open Science Framework and reproducibility by integrating the analysis settings into the results. The ... PDF export of results. Summary statistics: Bayesian inference from frequentist summary statistics for t-test, regression, and ... JASP generally produces APA style results tables and plots to ease publication. It promotes open science ...
These features increase the sensitivity of the interview and the inter-rater reliability (or reproducibility) of the resulting ...
In an effort to address issues with the reproducibility of research results, some scholars are asking that authors agree to ... We would love to see a top journal adopt results-free review as a policy, at very least allowing results-free review as one ... Versions include: Result-blind peer review or results blind peer review, first proposed 1966: Reviewers receive an edited ... with mixed results, in order to reanalyze them. A recent attempt resulted in only seven data sets out of fifty requests. The ...
Reproducibility can be particularly difficult for deep learning models. A number of relevant services and open source software ... Apart from tuning hyperparameters, machine learning involves storing and organizing the parameters and results, and making sure ... Bibcode:2014arXiv1407.7722V. Villa, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Yoav (25 May 2018). "Reproducibility in ML: why it matters and how to ... research code often evolves quickly and compromises essential aspects like bookkeeping and reproducibility. Online ...
The arc source has better reproducibility and the ions produced have a narrower energy spread compared to the spark source; ... However, the rf spark ion current is discontinuous and erratic, which results in fair resolution and accuracy when standards ... Sample homogeneity is important for reproducibility. The rf spark source creates ions with a wide energy spread (2-3 kV), which ...
... the sharing and management of scientific data to promote reproducibility and translation of research results to advance science ...
However, Vespel tends to absorb a small amount of water, resulting in longer pump time while placed in a vacuum. Although there ... because of high reproducibility and consistency of its thermophysical properties. For example, it can withstand repeated ...
... as these can create electrical conduction and yield false negative results. When pulp testing results are inconclusive and that ... All available techniques are reported to have limitations in terms of accuracy and reproducibility and therefore require ... False negative results occurs when innervated teeth do not respond to sensibility testing. Such can occur in individuals who ... The test cavity technique is only used as a last resort when results produced by all other methods above are inconclusive. High ...
One of the factors that affects the reproducibility of the results of animal experiments is the proximate environment in which ... If the animals are not maintained in a normal state, reproducibility of results of experiments on animals as "living measuring ... Nomura developed this concept to promote the importance of control of the environment to assure reproducibility of the results ... was a pioneer in the development of laboratory animals with the aim of assuring reproducibility of experimental results in ...
... saving time and improving the quality of results by increasing reproducibility. Etest and related instruments offer one of the ... However, to maximise reproducibility, the medium chosen should fulfil the basic requirements for a susceptibility test medium. ... For some microbial and antimicrobial combinations, the results can be used to determine a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ...
The results suggest the physiological effects of incremental exercise can be more predominant than that of a submaximal ... Laplaud D, Hug F, Grélot L (2006). "Reproducibility of eight lower limb muscles activity level in the course of an incremental ... The exercise method is utilised in health studies to determine various health-related propositions and results. These include ... Incremental exercise is also a prominent method utilised in determining results of exercise intensity. A type of incremental ...
... that normalization controls be previously validated for each experiment to ensure reproducibility and accuracy of the results. ... Ineffective stripping could result in a weak signal from the target protein. To prevent loss of the antigen, only three ... A linear range of up to 140 µg is reported for Ponceau S with poor reproducibility due to its highly time-dependent staining ... Non-uniformity in the image can result in inaccurate normalization. Anionic dyes such as Ponceau S and Coomassie Brilliant Blue ...
7,391 deaths resulted from medication errors If 44,000 to 98,000 deaths are the direct result of medical mistakes, and the CDC ... and tools should also be formatted and standardized such that EM educators can use the data and count on it for reproducibility ... According to survey results from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), simulation content taught at medical ... Passiment, Morgan; Sacks, Heather; Huang, Grace (September 2011). "Medical Simulation in Medical Education: Results of an AAMC ...
It has been shown that there is high degree of inter-observer variation and poor reproducibility in how dysplasia is graded. ... Almost all oral white patches are usually the result of keratosis. For this reason, oral white patches are sometimes generally ... This hides the normal pink-red color of mucosae (the result of underlying vasculature showing through the epithelium). A ... Although the white color in leukoplakia is a result of hyperkeratosis (or acanthosis), similarly appearing white lesions that ...
ECL Command Center's extensive suite of tools can then be used to plot, analyze, and visualize results. D.J. Kleinbaum and ... Researchers and pharmaceutical groups have long been concerned about the lack of reproducibility of laboratory testing in the ... where experiments are encoded in a language and grammar designed by ECL to allow remote operation and ensure reproducibility. ... the group wrote centralized management software for the different machines and a database to store all metadata and results. ...
The Collective Optimization Database is also intended to improve the quality and reproducibility of the research on code and ... Evaluation at several ACM-sponsored conferences to encourage sharing of artifacts and validation of experimental results from ... Using common research-and-development tools should help to improve the quality and reproducibility of research into code, ... predict program optimizations based on statistical and machine-learning techniques and improve the quality and reproducibility ...
... variability in mice is once again detrimental to the reproducibility of results obtained from the diet induced obesity model. ... These cases have resulted in the increase of metabolic syndrome in the mouse models as well as resulted in obesity. The change ... therefore it is understandable that several limitations are established when translating results between the results of a diet ... The results of the study illustrate that the high fat diet rats had a higher adiposity index than the low fat diet rats. Dogs ...
Reproducibility between different labs is roughly three times higher at ±0.15 for 2 standard deviations. NRC is a useful rating ... Thicker materials also have larger surface area at the sides, resulting in increased sound absorption due to edge effects. NRC ...
xi, 207-209 "The ratio of the worldwide positive results on cold fusion to negative results peaked at approximately 50% (...) ... Reproducibility. In 1989, after Fleischmann and Pons had made their claims, many research groups tried to reproduce the ... results.[40] On 10 April 1989, a group at Texas A&M University published results of excess heat and later that day a group at ... concluding that results as of that date did not present convincing evidence that useful sources of energy would result from the ...
7,391 deaths resulted from medication errors. If 44,000 to 98,000 deaths are the direct result of medical mistakes, and the CDC ... and tools should also be formatted and standardized such that EM educators can use the data and count on it for reproducibility ... According to survey results from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) simulation content taught at medical ... The table below shows the results of tests given to 20 students using highly advanced medical simulation training materials and ...
... and is normally repeated at least three times to ensure reproducibility. Since results are dependent on patient cooperation, ... Results are usually given in both raw data (litres, litres per second) and percent predicted-the test result as a percent of ... Generally speaking, results nearest to 100% predicted are the most normal, and results over 80% are often considered normal. ... the FEV1 and FVC are both reduced proportionally and the value may be normal or even increased as a result of decreased lung ...
"Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". Scientometrics. 94 (2): 567-587. doi: ... Results[edit]. Greater China Rankings (100) - Top 10[Note 2][38] Institution. 2011. 2012. 2013. 2014 ... a b c d Order shown in accordance with the latest result. ... Whereas in the case of the other rankings the results are ... A 2013 paper in the same journal finally showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced.[26] In a report from ...
6) There should be one or more available assay platform for such biomarker with test-retest reliability and reproducibility ... and to define strata based on the results. ...
... 82 also uses fixed-point arithmetic instead of floating-point, to ensure reproducibility of the results across different ... As a result, TeX has been ported to almost all operating systems, usually by using the web2c program to convert the source code ... This resulted in some "hacks" overloading some fields, which in turn required other "hacks". On an aesthetics level, the ... The problem is thus to find the set of breakpoints that will give the most visually pleasing result. Many line breaking ...
Li JT, Andrist D, Bamlet WR, Wolter TD (November 2000). "Accuracy of patient prediction of allergy skin test results". Annals ... 2014). Pollen monitoring: minimum requirements and reproducibility of analysis. Aerobiologia, 30(4), 385-395. ...
... and better reproducibility of results.[5] Naming conventions[edit]. "Record linkage" is the term used by statisticians, ... The resulting total weight is then compared to the aforementioned thresholds to determine whether the pair should be linked, ... Most, if not all, record linkage strategies would result in more accurate linkage if these values were first normalized or ... As this example demonstrates, even a small decrease in data quality or small increase in the complexity of the data can result ...
... concerns throughout the scientific literature resides in the viability and reproducibility on a large scale of observed results ... The assessment is made for certain microorganisms; if the result is favorable, it leads to "Qualified Presumption of Safety" ... 2010). ": Guide to designing, conducting, publishing and communicating results of clinical studies involving probiotic ... and encouraging results were obtained, especially in the relief of chronic constipation.[citation needed] ...
The result was a replication of the repeatedly reported open access citation advantage, with the advantage being equal in size ... Open Science Collaboration (2015). "Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science". Science. 349 (6251): aac4716. doi ... Perhaps paradoxically, the removal of this barrier might actually result in an increase of the quality of published work, as it ... Such modern technology includes posting results to preprint servers, preregistration of studies, open peer review, and other ...
A reproducibility limit is the value below which the difference between two test results obtained under reproducibility ... Reproducibility is the ability to get the same research results or inferences, based on the raw data and computer programs ... that can be used to reproduce the results and create new work based on the research.[11][12][13][14][15] Typical examples of ... think failure to reproduce published results means the result is probably wrong, and most say they still trust the published ...
The result of the last home game by the Washington Redskins prior to the presidential election predicted the outcome of every ... Because results from prospective studies on people who increase their bicycle use show a smaller effect on BMI than cross- ... This is a scientific example that resulted from a study at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center. Published in the May ... However, an observed effect could also be caused "by chance", for example as a result of random perturbations in the population ...
Random errors will affect the reproducibility and precision of the resulting structures. If the errors are systematic, the ... The process results in an ensemble of structures that, if the data were sufficient to dictate a certain fold, will converge. ... Thus, the results obtained from nitrogen-15 relaxation measurements may not be representative for the whole protein. Therefore ... However, since nitrogen atoms are found mainly in the backbone of a protein, the results mainly reflect the motions of the ...
Domingo Docampo (1 July 2012). "Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". ... ResultsEdit. Greater China Rankings (100) - Top 10[Note 2][38]. Institution. 2011. 2012. 2013. 2014. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2018 ... a b c d Order shown in accordance with the latest result. ... ResultsEdit. Academic Ranking of World Universities (500) - Top ... Whereas in the case of the other rankings the results are adjusted to take account of the size of institutions, hardly any such ...
As a result, several studies have shown that the immunogenicity of oats varies depending on the cultivar consumed. Thus, it is ... "Comparison of the interobserver reproducibility with different histologic criteria used in celiac disease". Clin. Gastroenterol ... Not all areas may be equally affected; if biopsies are taken from healthy bowel tissue, the result would be a false negative.[ ... The latter case yields a permanently covalently linked complex between the gliadin and the tTg.[78] This results in the ...
Reproducibility: This allows for researchers to use the exact methods used to calculate the relations between biological data. ... This is a direct result of major pharmaceutical companies needing more qualified analysts of the large data sets required for ...
... results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In ... Among the finding of meta-research is a low rates of reproducibility across a large number of fields. This widespread ... and this under-representation in turn results in disproportionately reduced acceptance of the results of their efforts as ... The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the ...
Published results of experiments can also serve as a hypothesis predicting their own reproducibility. ... If an experiment cannot be repeated to produce the same results, this implies that the original results might have been in ... For significant or surprising results, other scientists may also attempt to replicate the results for themselves, especially if ... due to his emphasis on experimental data and reproducibility of its results.[15][16] ...
The result would be a consistent yet inaccurate string of results from the flawed experiment. Eliminating the systematic error ... reproducibility - the variation arising using the same measurement process among different instruments and operators, and over ... Appendix D.1: Terminology, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results ... Accuracy is the proximity of measurement results to the true value; precision is the degree to which repeated (or reproducible ...
"On the reproducibility of science: unique identification of research resources in the biomedical literature". PeerJ. 2 ... Some immune deficiencies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia, result in partial or complete lack of ... "Reporting research antibody use: how to increase experimental reproducibility". F1000. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September ... Computational approaches provide a cheaper and faster alternative to crystallography, but their results are more equivocal, ...
Based on the low power of studies, one would expect a large number of non-significant results, but these results are missing ... Reproducibility controversy and conflicting meta analysesEdit. In 2016, a major study (2141 participants) carried out at two ... The results of this study indicated that people who experienced ego depletion felt less guilty and donated less money than non- ... The complexity of consumer decisions in itself can result in ego depletion.[25] This, in turn, could impact any subsequent ...
"The use of p values for nearly a century [since 1925] to determine statistical significance of experimental results has ... contributed to an illusion of certainty and [to] reproducibility crises in many scientific fields. There is growing ... The presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address ... The presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address ...
... which would have resulted in the upper limit of the kilogram's reproducibility being around 10−5 whereas the current ... Impact on reproducibility[edit]. All seven of the SI base units will be defined in terms of defined constants[Note 7] and ... This would result in the dalton and the atomic mass unit potentially differing from each other with a relative uncertainty of ... with the result that the redefinition of the kilogram and the additional rigour in the definitions of the second and metre ...
Bertrand Russell argued that some individual actions based on beliefs for which there is no evidence of efficacy, can result in ... as well as the degree to which their predictions match experimental results.[17] Skepticism in general may be deemed part of ... Unqualified medical practice and alternative medicine can result in serious injury and death[38][39].Skeptical activist Tim ... and then sharing the results with the public. ... Reproducibility. *Scientific reductionism. *Scientism. *Secular ...
The historical results of Coley's vaccine therapy are difficult to compare with modern results because Coley's studies were not ... Although Coley claimed successful treatment of hundreds of patients, the absence of proven benefit or reproducibility led to ... Coley published the results of his work as a case series, making it difficult to interpret them with confidence. According to ... In particular, the therapy resulted in immediate tumor destruction and pain relief. ...
The resulting phage particles that are produced contain the single-stranded phagemids and are used to infect XL-1 Blue cells.[2 ... This approach has a lower rate of reproducibility and tends to yield higher amounts of false positives compared to the matrix ... Each of these points alone can give rise to false results. Due to the combined effects of all error sources yeast two-hybrid ... The exact rate of false positive results is not known, but earlier estimates were as high as 70%. This also, partly, explains ...
... has become popular due to the exact reproducibility of the results.[13] ... compares the results of training on the data sets[Note 1]. threeColors = [255, 0, 0], [0, 255, 0], [0, 0, 255]. eightColors = [ ... The other plots each overlay the resulting map with predicted values on an input dimension: red means a predicted 'yes' vote on ... have been several attempts to modify the definition of SOM and to formulate an optimisation problem which gives similar results ...
The need for reproducibility and efficient management of the large amount of data associated with genome projects mean that ... Typically the short fragments, called reads, result from shotgun sequencing genomic DNA, or gene transcripts (ESTs).[4] ... The advent of these technologies resulted in a rapid intensification in the scope and speed of completion of genome sequencing ... which has resulted in a pronounced bias in their phylogenetic distribution compared to the breadth of microbial diversity.[31][ ...
This reproducibility may suggest that genetic mechanisms can specify the location of major gyri. Studies of monozygotic and ... Creases on the brain's surface are formed as a result of instability, and tangential growth models reach levels of instability ... This displacement results in not only defects in cortical connections, but also a thickened cortex, consistent with the idea ... stating that folding patterns of the brain are a result of different tangential expansion rates between different cortical ...
The RELY studies aimed to establish the inter-rater reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of functional evaluations in ... We performed two multi-centre reproducibility studies on standardised functional WC evaluation (RELY 1 and 2). Trained ... applying for disability benefits and to compare the effect of limited versus intensive expert training on reproducibility. ... Training experts alone may not result in acceptable reproducibility. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the cognitive ...
Dear Colleague Letter: Reproducibility and Robustness of Results. This document has been archived. ... Intrinsic to our mission is the responsibility to ensure the reliability, reproducibility, and robustness of research and its ...
Workshop on research results reproducibility and resources citation in science and technology of language, Branco et al. (2016 ... Replicability and reproducibility of research results for human language technology: introducing an LRE special section. ... Branco, A., Calzolari, N. & Choukri, K. (Eds.). (2016). Workshop on research results reproducibility and resources citation in ... LREs fostering of submissions reporting results of replicability and reproducibility studies and reports on experimental ...
Reproducibility of Computational Environments for Scientific Experiments using Container-based Virtualization ... In an ideal world, all research papers would be runnable: simply click to replicate all results, using the same setup as the ... In an ideal world, all research papers would be runnable: simply click to replicate all results, using the same setup as the ...
Reproducibility of walking test results in chronic obstructive airways disease. Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Improving the Reproducibility of PANs Shared Tasks: - Plagiarism Detection, Author Identification, and Author Profiling ... Improving the Reproducibility of PANs Shared Tasks: Plagiarism Detection, Author Identification, and Author Profiling by ...
Reproducibility of Results Respiration Respiratory Rate Sex Characteristics Tidal Volume Time Factors Walking Abstract. We ... Reproducibility of Results Research Subjects - psychology Risk-Taking Rural Population Urban Population Young Adult Abstract. ... Reproducibility of Results Risk factors Russia Siberia Surveys and Questionnaires Abstract. To determine the 23-year dynamics ( ... Reproducibility of Results Russia Scintillation Counting Sensitivity and specificity Tritium - analysis - standards Abstract. ...
Reproducibility of Results Sweden Translating Abstract. Health literacy (HL) is an important determinant for health and a ... Reproducibility of Results Sweden Translating Abstract. The Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) is an attempt to ... Reproducibility of Results Utilization Review - methods Notes. Cites: CMAJ. 2000 Jun 27;162(13):1809-1310906913 Comment On: ... Reproducibility of Results Sweden Notes. Comment On: Scand J Occup Ther. 2005 Dec;12(4):170-8016457090 ...
Questions about the reproducibility of scientific research have been raised i... ... A lack of reproducibility of scientific results has created some distrust in scientific findings among the general public, ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop (2016) ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop Get This ...
Questions about the reproducibility of scientific research have been raised in numerous setting... ... A lack of reproducibility of scientific results has created some distrust in scientific findings among the general public, ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop (2016) ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop Get This ...
... today announced the publication of an international prospective multicenter study that demonstrates the high reproducibility of ... BioNTech Announces Positive Results of an International Reproducibility Study with MammaTyper® Monday, 15 May 2017 11:40 Hits: ... Inter-site reproducibility of the positive/negative marker results was also correspondingly high - with Kappa values of 1.00, ... The results were subsequently analyzed for their reproducibility both between the institutes (inter-site) and within each ...
... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results. ... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results ... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results ... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results ...
For 1866, only one result from site B and two results from site C were 64 μg/ml; the other results ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml. ... Reproducibility among MICs and agreement by interpretive category was most variable for imipenem. Based on results reported ... Multisite Reproducibility of Results Obtained by the Broth Microdilution Method for Susceptibility Testing ofMycobacterium ... Multisite Reproducibility of Results Obtained by the Broth Microdilution Method for Susceptibility Testing ofMycobacterium ...
Assessment of Resolution and Intercenter Reproducibility of Results of Genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by Pulsed-Field Gel ... Assessment of Resolution and Intercenter Reproducibility of Results of Genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by Pulsed-Field Gel ... Assessment of Resolution and Intercenter Reproducibility of Results of Genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by Pulsed-Field Gel ... Assessment of Resolution and Intercenter Reproducibility of Results of Genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by Pulsed-Field Gel ...
The reproducibility crisis and the negative results crisis are both coming into their prime, and represent an interesting ... When Crises Collide: The Tension Between Null Results and Reproducibility *By David Crotty ... Every result opens up new questions. Part of answering those new questions relies on the first result being correct. If its ... Its perfectly reasonable to doubt anyone elses results, even your own results. That may require doing the same thing a few ...
Spica magnetic resonance imaging for determination of abduction angle: initial results and reproducibility assessment ... Spica magnetic resonance imaging for determination of abduction angle: initial results and reproducibility assessment ... Results. For inter-reader reliability, the ICC of the five physicians was 0.89 (95 % CI 0.84-0.92). For intra-reader ... The high ICC and low standard deviation of independently evaluated hip abduction angles indicates high reproducibility of ...
Purpose We present the evaluation of the reproducibility of measurements performed using robotic ultrasound imaging in ... Results. After repeated image acquisitions, the measurements based on acquisitions performed by the robotic system and expert ... Ultrasound acquisition Robotic ultrasound Autonomous acquisition Reproducibility Thyroid R. Kojcev and A. Khakzar have ... Albu-Schäffer A, Ott C, Frese U, Hirzinger G (2003) Cartesian impedance control of redundant robots: recent results with the ...
Results:. A total of 74 voxels were included for reproducibility analysis. The complete range of biologically interesting CC/C ... Comparison of our results with clinical MR spectroscopy reproducibility studies of other organs is cumbersome, mainly because ... In general, other MR spectroscopic imaging reproducibility studies show highly reproducible results and consider the technique ... Other reproducibility studies investigate reproducibility in healthy tissue or in tissue with known malignancy or in both but ...
RESULTS: The intakes of energy and some nutrients estimated from FFQ1 and FFQ2 were different from those assessed by the DRs. ... Validation and reproducibility of food frequency questionnaire for Korean genome epidemiologic study.. Ahn Y1, Kwon E, Shim JE ...
RESULTS: The RDR test was reproducible for 17 of 23 subjects: 3 scored , 14% on both tests; 14, , 14% on both. Six subjects ... Reproducibility of the relative dose response test (RDR), a test designed to measure vitamin A status, was tested in 23 ... In addition, the reproducibility of the retinyl ester concentrations in serum 5 hours after the retinyl palmitate dose and the ... Reproducibility of relative dose response (RDR) test and serum retinol and retinyl ester concentrations in children after a 2- ...
ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison - Part 1: Reproducibility of concentration and fragment results from 13 individual Quadrupole ... Reproducibility of concentration and fragment results from 13 individual Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (Q- ... The results show that these instruments can produce highly comparable and robust measurements of the NR-PM1 total mass and its ... Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1 ...
Results Inter-vendor agreement was highest for GCS followed by LV GLS. GRS and RV GLS showed lower inter-vendor agreement. ... Intra-vendor reproducibility was excellent for GCS, LV GLS and RV GLS, but lower for GRS. The impact of repeated measurements ... Conclusion Cardiac pathology has no influence on CMR-FT reproducibility. LV GLS and GCS qualify as the most robust parameters ... Inter-observer reproducibility was derived from the tracking results of a second skilled observer (TL). To study the impact of ...
The Leak Reveals a Failure of Reproducibility of Computational Results. It appears as though the leak came about through a long ... The Climate Modeling Leak: Code and Data Generating Published Results Must be Open and Facilitate Reproducibility Published on ... This is right - reproducibility of results should be the concern (as argued here for example). ... My sense is that making code and data readily available in a way that facilitates reproducibility of results, can help avoid ...
Results. Regarding pressure indices, the ζw was below 1 mmHg for repeatability (0.98 for IOP and 0.89 for bIOP) and the CV was ... for reproducibility, and the CR were also low, below 3 mmHg for repeatability and around 3 mmHg for reproducibility. This is ... and the reproducibility CV less than 5%. The SP A1 presented slightly higher repeatability and reproducibility CV (5% and 6.5 ... For reproducibility, the ζw was around 1 mmHg (1.12 for IOP and 1.05 for bIOP) and the CV and CR were 7.6% and 3.1 for IOP and ...
The aim of the study was to assess the reproducibility of a short-form, multicomponent dietary questionnaire (SF- ... Results of the Bland-Altman methods by sex groups are shown in supplementary materials (Figures S2 and S3). ... For NK levels, good reproducibility in childrens parents and fair reproducibility in adolescents was found. For NK score, the ... demonstrating good or very good reproducibility for most food items and acceptable-to-good reproducibility of identification of ...
Interobserver reproducibility of the PRECISE scoring system for prostate MRI on active surveillance: results from a two-centre ... Interobserver reproducibility of the PRECISE scoring system for prostate MRI on active surveillance: results from a two-centre ... Interobserver reproducibility of the PRECISE scoring system for prostate MRI on active surveillance: results from a two-centre ... RESULTS: Agreement was substantial both at a per-patient and a per-scan level (κ = 0.71 and 0.61; percent agreement = 79% and ...
Results of the assay reproducibility study for 16α-OHE1. The concentration of 16α-OHE1 (pg metabolite/mL urine) is plotted on a ... These results were then combined with those from the 20 subjects evaluated in the reproducibility study described below, where ... Assay Reproducibility. The design of the reproducibility component of this study is presented in Fig. 2 . The duplicate ... Reproducibility Study. The reproducibility study included only the 20 subjects whose samples were randomized and identifiers ...
Reproducibility of SPECT. Figure 4B shows the results of Bland-Altman repeatability analysis of the SPECT data. The average ... The reproducibility of an imaging test has practical implications for the design of clinical trials that use the results of ... Background- The reproducibility of contrast-enhanced MRI has not been established. We compared MRI reproducibility for infarct ... 5 To allow the reproducibility of ceMRI to be directly compared with the reproducibility of an existing widely used clinical ...
... of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, ... of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, ... Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We ... Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. ...
Figure 9. The end result of the gravimetric analysis done on 2 mL of sludge. (A): dried sludge (surrogate) (B): dried retentate ... Validation of Sample Preparation Methods for Microplastic Analysis in Wastewater Matrices-Reproducibility and Standardization ... Figure 9. The end result of the gravimetric analysis done on 2 mL of sludge. (A): dried sludge (surrogate) (B): dried retentate ... Nevertheless, the resulting signal for PLA still showed a significant reduction in the size of the surviving particles, as can ...
Home > News > New Reproducibility of Research Results Module New Reproducibility of Research Results Module. CITI Program is ... "Reproducibility of Research Results" module discusses factors that contribute to the lack of reproducibility and the resulting ... Reproducibility of Research Results. The inability to reproduce findings from prior research, whether it is ones own study or ... The module also describes the stakeholders affected by reproducibility problems, a collection of reproducibility initiatives, ...
  • Whether reproducibility can be accurately estimated from published information has major implications not only for choosing what to believe or what is worth replicating, but also for how we assess and fund science. (
  • The RELY studies aimed to establish the inter-rater reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of 'functional evaluations' in patients with mental disorders applying for disability benefits and to compare the effect of limited versus intensive expert training on reproducibility. (
  • We performed two multi-centre reproducibility studies on standardised functional WC evaluation (RELY 1 and 2). (
  • The Brazilian Reproducibility Initiative , which aims to replicate between 60 and a 100 experiments from Brazilian biomedical science using common laboratory methods, provides a unique opportunity to study this question. (
  • Awareness of reproducibility issues in various areas of science has been on the rise in recent years, with systematic replication efforts in areas such as psychology , economics , cancer biology and social sciences arising in recent years. (
  • The question of whether researchers can estimate the reproducibility of published findings has been studied in replication initiatives in psychology (see also this ), economics and social sciences , and the answer is that they are reasonably good at it. (
  • Can we predict the reproducibility of biomedical studies? (
  • It was even demonstrated that laypeople without a PhD in psychology show some accuracy in predicting reproducibility in these studies. (
  • These include indicators of methodological rigor such as randomisation and blinding, which are widely thought to reduce risk of bias , as well as effect sizes and statistical results - which have been shown to correlate with reproducibility in psychology studies . (
  • In 2013, on the heels of several retraction scandals and studies showing reproducibility rates as low as 10 percent for peer-reviewed articles, the prominent scientific journal Nature dedicated a special issue to the concerns over irreproducibility. (
  • With this in mind, we are recruiting experimental researchers to predict the probability that the results will be replicated - as well as to explain the reasons for their predictions! (
  • Researchers from Smith College, Duke University and Amherst College looked at how introductory statistics students responded to a curriculum modified to stress reproducibility. (
  • The authors of the present study thus looked to their own classrooms for ways to incorporate the idea of reproducibility. (
  • Olavo Amaral is an associate professor at the Institute of Medical Biochemistry Leopoldo de Meis, at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and project coordinator of the Brazilian Reproducibility Initiative. (
  • In a typical workflow, a college-level statistics student will perform data analysis in one software package, but transfer the results into something better suited to presentation, like Microsoft Word or Microsoft PowerPoint. (
  • Though standard, this workflow divorces the raw data and analysis from the final results, making it difficult for students to retrace their steps. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Expert radiologists achieved substantial reproducibility for the PRECISE scoring system, especially when data were pooled together according to the absence/presence of radiological progression (PRECISE 1-3 vs 4-5). (
  • CONCLUSIONS Scanning laser Doppler flowmetry has an acceptable reproducibility and is appropriate for description of the effect of graded changes in P o 2 on retinal haemodynamics. (
  • The results of the first set of Replication Studies are mixed, and while it is too early to draw any conclusions, it is clear that assessing reproducibility in cancer biology is going to be as complex as it was in a similar project in psychology ( Open Science Collaboration, 2015 ). (
  • We were surprised by the authors' conclusions, as their results were consistent with previously published reports. (
  • should be weighed against the encouraging results and conclusions of both evolving and previously reported research. (
  • The CTs increased slightly when measured twice over the 15-minute intervals (short-term reproducibility) but remained stable over a period of 2 weeks (long-term reproducibility). (
  • The purpose of the study is to determine short-term reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) estimated from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) imaging of the prostate. (
  • Evaluating microkeratome efficacy by 3D corneal lamellar flap thickness accuracy and reproducibility using Artemis VHF digital ultrasound arc-scann. (
  • Descriptive statistics revealed central flap thickness accuracy and reproducibility. (
  • A systematic qualitative and quantitative statistical evaluation of microkeratome accuracy and reproducibility can be performed by measuring corneal flap thickness with arc-scanning VHF digital ultrasound. (
  • In spite of its potential usefulness, the accuracy and reproducibility of the gene expression measures obtained in this way are still open to doubt. (
  • The upgraded Solutions 3.0 software resolves many of the technical reasons for which data were discarded in their analysis, corrects the abrupt shift in value at midnight, improves the accuracy and reproducibility of the data downloads, and improves the agreement between sensor and meter values as measured by mean absolute percent difference (18.4 vs. 16.1%) and correlation (0.91 vs. 0.92) ( 5 ). (
  • The reproducibility of the quantitative results for the individual markers both between and within the institutes was calculated by means of variance component analysis and the intra- and inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC). (
  • Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient. (
  • The validity was verified by Spearman correlation coefficient (crude and de-attenuated) and weighted Kappa, and reproducibility by intraclass correlation coefficients and weighted kappa. (
  • The purpose of this work was to assess the reproducibility of diffusion imaging, and in particular the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, across multiple centres using clinically available protocols with limited harmonization between sequences. (
  • RESULTS: Relative reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) ranged from .04 to .99, and absolute reliability (standard error of measurement) ranged from 2.7% to 76.8%, depending on the kinematic variable, the demands of the motor task (target height and movement speed), and the analytical method. (
  • Intrinsic to our mission is the responsibility to ensure the reliability, reproducibility, and robustness of research and its associated scientific outcomes. (
  • Normalisation improved inter-scanner reproducibility in FreeSurfer and SPM-based methods, but the FSL-SIENAX scaling factor did not improve robustness. (
  • Reproducibility can be interpreted to include traits such as repeatability, robustness, reliability and generalizability [ 5 ]. (
  • Just this year, the online platform F1000 launched the dedicated Preclinical Reproducibility and Robustness channel for refutations, confirmations or more nuanced replication studies. (
  • Together with superior chemistries, lab automation can eliminate operator-to-operator variations in your experiment and increase robustness as well as reproducibility, thus making your results worth sharing with peers. (
  • Its simplicity, robustness and standardization ensure high reliability of results. (
  • In conclusion, the physical performance and especially the high intensities activities of elite soccer players present good reproducibility when different types of SSG were applied in 2 different sessions in the same period, even if the rules and formats were being manipulated allowing coaches to use it with a target time-motion characteristic and an equivalent workload week after week. (
  • Pathologists reported good reproducibility at both 1% and 50% cut points. (
  • This study supports that the FFQ has a good reproducibility for nutrient and food intake, and can provide a valid estimate of several important nutrients during pregnancy. (
  • Mainz, Germany, May 15, 2017 / B3C newswire / -- BioNTech Diagnostics GmbH today announced the publication of an international prospective multicenter study that demonstrates the high reproducibility of the MammaTyper® in vitro diagnostic test. (
  • The high ICC and low standard deviation of independently evaluated hip abduction angles indicates high reproducibility of measurement. (
  • Our purpose was to establish objective criteria for measuring hip abduction angles on MRI after hip reduction and spica casting in patients with DDH, and evaluate reproducibility and reliability of angle measurement using these criteria. (
  • The goal of this study was to establish the clinical reproducibility of ceMRI for the measurement of infarct size. (
  • Reproducibility - Measurement variation with either multiple operators on multiple instruments on the same sample (but possibly multiple lots) in multiple locations. (
  • Both Scheimpflug-Placido systems show high repeatability and reproducibility for posterior corneal surface measurement. (
  • Infarct size measurement by contrast enhanced magnetic resonance can be used as a surrogate parameter for acute myocardial infarction treatment trials, if reproducibility is excellent. (
  • Patients underwent infarct size measurement on 2 consecutive days for reproducibility assessment. (
  • Measurement of knee cartilage thickness using MRI: a reproducibility study in a meniscectomized guinea pig model of osteoarthritis. (
  • The new "Reproducibility of Research Results" module discusses factors that contribute to the lack of reproducibility and the resulting problems that can emerge. (
  • Much has been written about Fleischmann and Pons, but I have not found if their problem was lack of reproducibility (so they found a plot that looked good and just focused on that) or if there was something darker at work. (
  • Lack of reproducibility in science is not a new debate but recent reports shed light on the ever-growing phenomenon, reasons being diverse. (
  • The aim of the study was to assess the reproducibility of a short-form, multicomponent dietary questionnaire (SF-FFQ4PolishChildren) in Polish children and adolescents. (
  • The aim of our study was to assess the reproducibility of activations for 2 widely used paradigms: naming and word generation. (
  • His lab is also engaged in the development of neuroinformatics tools to help improve the reproducibility and transparency of neuroscience, including the and data sharing projects and the Cognitive Atlas ontology. (
  • dismissed the impact of an update to the CGMS software (Solutions 3.0) that does in fact improve the reproducibility evident in their data. (
  • The purpose of this study was to quantify functional MR imaging and magnetoencephalographic measures of the extent of cortical activity and to compare the reproducibility of these measures and their sensitivity to incremental stimulus change. (
  • To determine the reproducibility of 3D proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ( 1 H-MRSI) of the human prostate in a multicenter setting at 1.5T. (
  • As we have sought to develop FLT for imaging tumor response, it is also necessary to determine the best way to measure FLT retention, including SUV and kinetic variables, and to determine the reproducibility in several tumor types. (
  • To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of dynamic corneal response parameters measured by the Corvis ST (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). (
  • Means and standard deviations of all flow results of a given subject were calculated, at t0-t6 and the coefficients of variation as a measure of reproducibility. (
  • Central reproducibility (standard deviation of the mean) was 30.3 microm, with a range of 106 to 228 microm. (
  • To assess intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility, within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and test-retest repeatability (TRT, 2.77 Sw) were calculated. (
  • The committee was given a timeline to assess issues pertaining to reproducibility and replication, hear testimony by subject matter experts, deliberate and complete their investigations within approximately 18 months of the start of activities in October 2017. (
  • Robotic imaging for interventional procedures may be a valuable contribution, but requires reproducibility for its acceptance in clinical routine. (
  • Sound science requires reproducibility. (
  • The clinical reproducibility of contrast-enhanced MRI for infarct size determination compares favorably with that of routine clinical SPECT. (
  • Two sample sets of 60 samples each were designed to assess inter- and intraobserver reproducibility considering two cut points for positivity: 1% or 50% of PD-L1 stained tumor cells. (
  • For intraobserver reproducibility, the overall percent agreement (OPA) was 89.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 85.7-92.6] for the 1% cut point and 91.3% (95% CI, 87.6-94.0) for the 50% cut point. (
  • Using this assay, we investigated the inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of pathologists' assessment of PD-L1 staining and the impact of training on reproducibility. (
  • Pearson's correlation coefficients of interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility were r =0.98 and r =0.87, respectively. (
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the interobserver reproducibility of the Prostate Cancer Radiological Estimation of Change in Sequential Evaluation (PRECISE) criteria for magnetic resonance imaging in patients on active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer (PCa) at two different academic centres. (
  • For interobserver reproducibility, OPA was 84.2% (95% CI, 82.8-85.5) for the 1% cut point and 81.9% (95% CI, 80.4-83.3) for the 50% cut point, and Cohen's κ coefficients were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.65-0.71) and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.55-0.62), respectively. (
  • The training was found to have no or very little impact on intra- or interobserver reproducibility. (
  • A multicenter study was conducted to assess the interlaboratory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of the more common rapidly growing pathogenic mycobacteria. (
  • Currently, however, no standardized testing method for this group of organisms exists, nor has the interlaboratory reproducibility of any method been assessed. (
  • Twenty well-characterized isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were used to study the optimal resolution and interlaboratory reproducibility of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA macrorestriction fragments. (
  • We tested the reproducibility of the assessment of PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue samples by pathologists. (
  • At the conclusion, a written report will be issued to Congress that includes an assessment of current activities to improve reproducibility and replication highlighting examples of good practices and examine factors that adversely affect reproducibility and replication. (
  • The presence of an identifiable effective regurgitant orifice improves reproducibility of VC and a central regurgitant jet predicts substantial agreement among multiple observers of PISA assessment. (
  • A sample of individuals aged above 20 years, of both genders, living in São Paulo, was used for the validation study (n = 77) and reproducibility study (n = 74) of the food frequency questionnaire. (
  • Assessing whether the replication and the original experiment yielded the same result according to several criteria, they find that about one-third to one-half of the original findings were also observed in the replication study. (
  • Nonetheless, collectively these results offer a clear conclusion: A large portion of replications produced weaker evidence for the original findings despite using materials provided by the original authors, review in advance for methodological fidelity, and high statistical power to detect the original effect sizes. (
  • The project pulled these studies from three different journals, Psychological Science, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, published in 2008 to see if they could get the same results as the initial findings. (
  • The authors emphasized that the findings reflect a problem that affects all of science and not just psychology, and that there is room to improve reproducibility in psychology. (
  • The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology launched in 2013 as an ambitious effort to scrutinize key findings in 50 cancer papers published in Nature, Science, Cell and other high-impact journals. (
  • As a result, there is an increasingly urgent call for validation and verification of published research results, both within the academic community and the public at large (e.g. (
  • In an ideal world, all research papers would be runnable: simply click to replicate all results, using the same setup as the authors. (
  • Because scientific research represents a major public investment and is the basis for many decisions that we make in medicine and society, it is essential that we can trust the results. (
  • The frequent near-impossibility of verification of computational results when reproducibility is not considered a research goal is shown by the miserable travails of "Harry," a CRU employee with access to their system who was trying to reproduce the temperature results. (
  • CITI Program is pleased to announce the availability of a new "Reproducibility of Research Results" module. (
  • Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. (
  • In part two of our conversation with Chris Graf, Wiley's new Director of Research Integrity and Publishing Ethics, we discuss what reproducibility really means and share how the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) works to protect research integrity. (
  • From peer review to reproducibility, publishers, authors, and editors are all exploring how to be more transparent to improve research integrity and impact. (
  • Through this DCL, the participating programs noted above encourage proposals that specifically seek to reproduce, verify and/or characterize recent results in the disciplines covered under each program's ambit of research. (
  • Proposers should be aware that the NSF merit review principles ( ) as well as the NSF merit review criteria ( ) support proposals that advance reproducibility in scientific research to the same extent as those that advance transformative research. (
  • As the data collection ability of nearly every area of science has ballooned, so has the potential for problematic research practices that can lead to irreproducible results. (
  • In addition to advancing research and discovery in pure and applied mathematics, computation is pervasive across the sciences and now computational research results are more crucial than ever for public policy, risk management, and national security. (
  • going so far as to state that "[j]udgement of the reproducibility of computationally oriented research no longer requires an expert-a clerk can do it" ( Claerbout and Karrenbach, 1992 ). (
  • Some researchers see the multiple-experiments requirement as an excessive burden that delays the publication of valuable work, but this requirement also helps maintain the impression that research that is published in JPSP has been thoroughly vetted and is less likely to be the result of a type I error or an unexplored confound. (
  • JPSP is one of the journals analyzed in the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project after JPSP's publication of questionable research for mental time travel (Bem, 2011). (
  • A recently conducted survey by Nature [1] asked over 1500 scientists in an online questionnaire about the state of reproducibility in research. (
  • Most importantly, a lack of quality control at various steps of your scientific research can lead to pure sloppy mistakes, non-standardization, and increasing reproducibility issues as highlighted in a similar Nature [2] news article. (
  • Further, despite the significant negative economic impact associated with low reproducibility [ 14 ], there are only few studies that report the practicability and reproducibility of standardized scale-down microwell systems for complex applications in industrial biotechnology research. (
  • The first results from the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology suggest that there is scope for improving reproducibility in pre-clinical cancer research. (
  • Researchers at the Center for Open Science recently began their own analysis on reproducibility, specifically in cancer research projects . (
  • Some efforts, like one led by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, set the issue of reproducibility as the need for scientists to be transparent, careful, diligent about recordkeeping, and mindful of reducing potential pitfalls, such as confirmation bias and poor study design, while conducting research. (
  • Agreement of research results repeated. (
  • The aim of this paper is to describe a public open-access (Computed Tomography) CT phantoms image set acquired at three centers and collected especially for radiomics reproducibility research. (
  • Priming may have affected our results, but the use of a combined task, in which naming is paired with noun generation, improves the reproducibility of activations and is also suitable for IOM. (
  • We believe that the sharing of data is essential to scientific transparency and reproducibility, and the work of our center will extend the OpenfMRI project to encompass a complete online data analysis and sharing platform. (
  • One unique aspect of this reproducibility effort is its transparency. (
  • In the process, the ICC reflects the reproducibility of quantitative results over the entire measuring range (4). (
  • The first study arm examined the comparability of quantitative marker results (40-ΔΔ Cq values) between the ten sites. (
  • Finally, this study shows the need for objective quantitative diagnostic tests that could result from present work, based for instance on the molecular biology of cancers (i.e. gene expression, etc. (
  • However, questions remain whether the tractography results reflect true neuroanatomical details and are sufficiently reproducible to be used as a tool for quantitative analyses. (
  • Reproducibility, interobserver, and intraobserver variabilities were assessed and compared by the Bland-Altman method. (
  • The second panel on reporting scientific results and sharing scientific study data was moderated by Victoria Stodden (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) and included the following panelists: Keith Baggerly (MD Anderson Cancer Center), Ronald Boisvert (Association for Computing Machinery and National Institute of Standards and Technology), Randy LeVeque (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics and University of Washington), and Marcia McNutt ( Science magazine). (
  • UMMS recently received an administrative supplement to redesign our rigor and reproducibility curriculum for trainees. (
  • I plan to discuss how these ideas play into good reproducible science and how one should program to guarantee reproducibility. (
  • Examining your sample's integrity and removing degraded samples from your sample pool greatly contributes to standardization of your results. (
  • Multicenter CT phantoms public dataset for radiomics reproducibility tests. (
  • How replicable are statistically significant results in social psychology? (
  • Both approaches suffer from a similar problem-negative results, experiments that don't work and failed replications are very difficult to interpret. (
  • Reproducibility of carefully documented experiments is a cornerstone of the scientific method, and yet is often lacking in computational mathematics, science, and engineering. (
  • Perhaps surprisingly, the overwhelming majority of respondents to the Nature survey cited a better understanding of statistics as the number one thing that would enable better reproducibility in experiments. (
  • It might seem simplistic, but the one thing scientists agreed on in chorus was that it's time to start building reproducibility steps into experiments during the planning phase. (
  • In reproducibility correlation coefficients ranged from 0.36 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0.69 (calcium), and weighted kappa exceeded 0.40 for 80% of the nutrients. (
  • Although there is substantial experimental evidence supporting the use of ceMRI to detect infarction, 1-4 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ the reproducibility of ceMRI in a clinical setting has not been established, nor has the utility of this approach been compared with that of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. (
  • and reproducibility of experimental results. (
  • Ideally, an experiment or analysis should be described in sufficient detail that other scientists with sufficient skills and means can follow the steps described in published work and obtain the same results within the margins of experimental error. (
  • There's an endless stream of claims, and so much of it turns out to be vaporware, based on experimental results that got way overblown once they entered the media echo chamber. (
  • The results were subsequently analyzed for their reproducibility both between the institutes (inter-site) and within each institute (intra-site). (
  • Reproducibility can occur across different realms-numerical, empirical, computational and statistical-and may be analytical, direct, systematic or conceptual. (