Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Respiratory-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Anatomic Landmarks: Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Automation, Laboratory: Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Photogrammetry: Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Corneal Pachymetry: Measurement of the thickness of the CORNEA.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Laboratory Proficiency Testing: Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Pathology: A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Analytic Sample Preparation Methods: Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Seveso Accidental Release: 1976 accidental release of DIOXINS from a manufacturing facility in Seveso, ITALY following an equipment failure.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.ComputersWeights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Breath Holding: An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Moire Topography: A method of three-dimensional morphometry in which contour maps are produced from the overlapping interference fringes created when an object is illuminated by beams of coherent light issuing from two different point sources.Gated Blood-Pool Imaging: Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Healthy Volunteers: Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from http://clinicalcenter.nih.gov/recruit/volunteers.html, accessed 2/14/2013)Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide: A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Technetium Tc 99m Diethyl-iminodiacetic Acid: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Software Validation: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Smiling: A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Radiographic Magnification: Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Gonioscopy: Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.BrazilMandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cyclopentolate: A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (1/49462)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Urinary lithium: distribution shape, reference values, and evaluation of exposure by inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry. (2/49462)

Inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry (ICPAES) was used to evaluate the lithium content of undiluted urine samples. The method can be performed with 1 mL of urine in a single tube using a routine ICPAES analysis for rapid and convenient assessment of lithium exposure in humans. Urine samples obtained from male workers (n = 86) who had not been exposed to lithium were used for the determination of this element by ICPAES. The obtained concentrations were corrected using a specific gravity of 1.024. The particular frequency distribution resulted in a log-normal distribution diagram for anatomical spread. Geometric mean value for urinary lithium in the nonexposed male workers was 23.5 microg/L, and the confidence interval from a log-normal distribution was 11.0 to 50.5 microg/L. Taking into consideration a short biological half-life and the massive urine excretion of lithium, urinary lithium was considered to be a useful index for monitoring of exposure. Calibration curves obtained for lithium standards had good sensitivity and linearity. Good reproducibility was assessed by lithium addition to urine samples. It was concluded that the obtained lithium reference values would be useful for the early diagnosis of lithium intoxication or in the assessment of the degree of exposure to lithium in subjects at risk.  (+info)

Transient and permanent deficits in motion perception after lesions of cortical areas MT and MST in the macaque monkey. (3/49462)

We examined the nature and the selectivity of the motion deficits produced by lesions of extrastriate areas MT and MST. Lesions were made by injecting ibotenic acid into the representation of the left visual field in two macaque monkeys. The monkeys discriminated two stimuli that differed either in stimulus direction or orientation. Direction and orientation discrimination were assessed by measuring thresholds with gratings and random-dots placed in the intact or lesioned visual fields. At the start of behavioral testing, we found pronounced, motion-specific deficits in thresholds for all types of moving stimuli, including pronounced elevations in contrast thresholds and in signal-to-noise thresholds measured with moving gratings, as well as deficits in direction range thresholds and motion coherence measured with random-dot stimuli. In addition, the accuracy of direction discrimination was reduced at smaller spatial displacements (i.e. step sizes), suggesting an increase in spatial scale of the residual directional mechanism. Subsequent improvements in thresholds were seen with all motion stimuli, as behavioral training progressed, and these improvements occurred only with extensive behavioral testing in the lesioned visual field. These improvements were particularly pronounced for stimuli not masked by noise. On the other hand, deficits in the ability to extract motion from noisy stimuli and in the accuracy of direction discrimination persisted despite extensive behavioral training. These results demonstrate the importance of areas MT and MST for the perception of motion direction, particularly in the presence of noise. In addition, they provide evidence for the importance of behavioral training for functional recovery after cortical lesions. The data also strongly support the idea of functional specialization of areas MT and MST for motion processing.  (+info)

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (4/49462)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Permanent work incapacity, mortality and survival without work incapacity among occupations and social classes: a cohort study of ageing men in Geneva. (5/49462)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the burden of disability and death in men, from middle age to age of retirement, among occupational groups and classes in Geneva. METHODS: Men were included if they resided in the Canton of Geneva, were 45 years of age in 1970-1972, and were not receiving a disability pension at the start of the follow-up. The cohort of 5137 men was followed up for 20 years and linked to national registers of disability pension allowance and of causes of death. RESULTS: There was a steep upward trend in incidence of permanent work incapacity with lower social class for all causes as well as for the seven causes of disability studied. Compared with professional occupations (social class I), the relative risk (RR) of permanent work incapacity was 11.4 for partly skilled and unskilled occupations (class IV+V) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.2-28.0). The social class gradient in mortality was in the same direction as that in work incapacity although much less steep (RR class IV+V to class I = 1.6, 95% CI : 1.1-2.2). Survival without work incapacity at the time of the 65th birthday ranged from only 57% in construction workers and labourers to 89% in science and related professionals. Unemployment in Geneva was below 1.5% during almost all the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Medically-ascertained permanent work incapacity and survival without work incapacity have shown considerably greater socioeconomic differentials than the mortality differentials.  (+info)

A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (6/49462)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

Comparison of active and cancer registry-based follow-up for breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. (7/49462)

The authors compared the relative effectiveness of two distinct follow-up designs in prospective cohort studies--the active approach, based on direct contact with study subjects, and the passive approach, based on record linkages with population-based cancer registries--utilizing available information from the New York University Women's Health Study (WHS) and the New York State Cancer Registry (NYSCR). The analyses were limited to breast cancer cases identified during the period 1985-1992, for which follow-up was considered reasonably complete by both the WHS and the NYSCR. Among 12,947 cohort members who reported a New York State address, 303 pathologically confirmed cases were identified through active follow-up and 284 through record linkage. Sixty-three percent of cancers were identified by both sources, 21% by the WHS only, and 16% by the NYSCR only. The agreement was appreciably better for invasive cancers. The percentage of cases identified only by the NYSCR was increased among subjects whose active follow-up was incomplete, as well as among nonwhites, obese patients, and parous patients. This suggests that relying on either type of follow-up alone may introduce certain biases in evaluating risk factors for breast cancer. Combining both approaches appears to be a better strategy in prospective cohort studies.  (+info)

Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older. (8/49462)

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

Abstract: : Purpose:To evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of ATL HDI-5000 CDI measurements of volumetric blood flowas compared to an in-vitro phantom flow model. Methods:A phantom flow model was constructed using agarose gel to mimic fatty soft tissue. 1.57mm and 2.36mm lumens were created in the gel. A UHDC flow system pumped blood mimicking fluid through each tube at three different rates. The ATL HDI-5000 measured the velocity and volumetric flow in the phantom model using cineloops (a cineloop is a rapidly acquired sequence of CDI images). A newly developed software package from ATL calculated both volumetric flow and velocity from the cineloops. Measurements were performed with the probe in four different positions: 1) 45° angle, parallel to the flow, 2) 45° angle, offset to the flow, 3) 75° angle, parallel to the flow, and 4) 75° angle, offset to the flow. The coefficient of variance was then calculated for each of the probe positions. Results:The average coefficients of ...
Expert psychiatrists conducting work disability evaluations often disagree on work capacity (WC) when assessing the same patient. More structured and standardised evaluations focusing on function could improve agreement. The RELY studies aimed to establish the inter-rater reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of functional evaluations in patients with mental disorders applying for disability benefits and to compare the effect of limited versus intensive expert training on reproducibility. We performed two multi-centre reproducibility studies on standardised functional WC evaluation (RELY 1 and 2). Trained psychiatrists interviewed 30 and 40 patients respectively and determined WC using the Instrument for Functional Assessment in Psychiatry (IFAP). Three psychiatrists per patient estimated WC from videotaped evaluations. We analysed reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]) and agreement (standard error of measurement [SEM] and proportions of comparisons within prespecified limits
Methodological study of affine transformations of gene expression data with proposed robust non-parametric multi-dimensional normalization method - Background: Low-level processing and normalization of microarray data are most important steps in microarray analysis, which have profound impact on downstream analysis. Multiple methods have been suggested to date, but it is not clear which is the best. It is therefore important to further study the different normalization methods in detail and the nature of microarray data in general. Results: A methodological study of affine models for gene expression data is carried out. Focus is on two-channel comparative studies, but the findings generalize also to single- and multi-channel data. The discussion applies to spotted as well as in-situ synthesized microarray data. Existing normalization methods such as curve-fit (lowess) normalization, parallel and perpendicular translation normalization, and quantile normalization, but also dye-swap normalization are
Background This paper presents the first meta-analysis for the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of journal peer reviews. IRR is defined as the extent to which two or more independent reviews of the same scientific document agree. Methodology/Principal Findings Altogether, 70 reliability coefficients (Cohens Kappa, intra-class correlation [ICC], and Pearson product-moment correlation [r]) from 48 studies were taken into account in the meta-analysis. The studies were based on a total of 19,443 manuscripts; on average, each study had a sample size of 311 manuscripts (minimum: 28, maximum: 1983). The results of the meta-analysis confirmed the findings of the narrative literature reviews published to date: The level of IRR (mean ICC/r2 = .34, mean Cohens Kappa = .17) was low. To explain the study-to-study variation of the IRR coefficients, meta-regression analyses were calculated using seven covariates. Two covariates that emerged in the meta-regression analyses as statistically significant to gain an
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of shoulder active range of motion in prone versus supine. T2 - A reliability and concurrent validity study. AU - Furness, James. AU - Johnstone, Scott. AU - Hing, Wayne. AU - Abbott, Allan. AU - Climstein, Mike. N1 - © and inclinometer have been shown to be reliable tools that show good concurrent validity.. PY - 2015/10/3. Y1 - 2015/10/3. N2 - BACKGROUND: As swimming and surfing are prone dominant sports, it would be more sport specific to assess shoulder active range of motion in this position.OBJECTIVES: To determine the reliability of the inclinometer and HALO© for assessing shoulder active range of motion in supine and prone and the concurrent validity of the HALO©. Concurrent validity is based on the comparison of the HALO© and inclinometer. To determine if active range of motion (AROM) differences exists between prone and supine when assessing shoulder internal (IR) and external rotation (ER).DESIGN: The design included clinical measurement, reliability and ...
Acceptable limits of bacteria in air quality in an RTE room - posted in Food Microbiology: Hi everyone, I havent been on here much but I am in need of some information. I am searching for some technical resources on acceptable limits of bacteria in air quality in a RTE room. Just looking for acceptable limits for TPC, TAC, Total coliforms etc. Any help would be greatly appreciated. THANKS IN ADVANCE.
This study was comprised of two phases. In Phase One an intense literature review was performed to facilitate item generation for the initial item-pool. This was then subjected to a review by a panel of experts to establish content validity. Phase Two involved the actual testing of the content validated item pool amongst a sample of ICU nurses from the target population. Ethical approval was obtained from the relevant hospitals. Classical Test Theory was implemented for psychometric evaluation of the instrument. Reliability of the instrument was addressed through the technique of test-retest reliability using Pearsons product-moment correlation coefficient and the Intra-Class correlation coefficient. Finally, the internal consistency of the instrument was addressed to examine the tools stability ...
Intraclass test-retest reliability coefficients (one-way ANOVA model for a single measure) ranged from .940 to .996. Validity coefficients determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficients for males and females, respectively, were as follows: B-90° DTE vs. PRC-DTE = .82, .62 (p , .05); B-90° DTE vs. PRC-STE = .55, .38 (p , .05); B-90° DTE vs. DSBL = −.29, −.23; FG-TE vs. PRC-DTE = .23, −.11; FG-TE vs. PRC-STE = −.15, .33; and FG-TE vs. DSBL = −.04, −.36. ...
hometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO₂ max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association ...
To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to validate a questionnaire (translated into Brazilian Portuguese) that measures the quality of life of women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The FACIT-CD questionnaire was developed by Rao et al. [6] in 2010. To date, no other studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of this instrument, which means that some comparisons are only exploratory.. The first test assessed the reliability of the questionnaire by analysing the internal consistency using Cronbachs alpha coefficient. Results higher than 0.70 indicate that the items on the scales or domains are homogeneous or that they measure the same attribute. In this study, the value on the relationship scale was lower than expected (0.66). However, other authors support the hypothesis that Cronbachs alpha values ​​higher than 0.60 could be acceptable [31]. Despite this assumption, we believe that a value of 0.70 ​​would be more desirable, and thus, we ...
The Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) evaluates the effectiveness of health education and self-management programs provided to people dealing with a wide range of conditions. Aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Dutch translation of the heiQ and to compare the results with the English, German and French translations. A systematic translation process was undertaken. Psychometric properties were studied among patients with arthritis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and asthma (n = 286). Factorial validity using confirmatory factor analysis, item difficulty (D), item remainder correlation and composite reliability were conducted. Stability was tested using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Items were well understood and only minor language adjustments were required. Confirmatory fit indices were |0.95 and item difficulty was D ≥ 0.65 for all items in scales showing acceptable fit indices, except for the reversed Emotional distress scale. Composite
Background: Evaluation of physical activity by condition-specific surveys provides more accurate results than generic physical activity questionnaires. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) in Turkish pregnant women. Methods: In the translation and cultural adaptation of the KPAS, the 6-phase guidelines recommended in the literature were followed. The study included a total of 151 pregnant women who were assessed using the Turkish version of KPAS, the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the SenseWear Pro3 Armband. To determine the test-retest reliability, the KPAS was reapplied after 7 days. The psychometric properties of KPAS were analyzed with respect to internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Results: Cronbach α coefficient indicating the internal consistency of the Turkish KPAS was found to be .60 to .80, showing moderate reliability. The intraclass correlation ...
How is Engineering/Service Test & Independent Evaluation Program abbreviated? E/S TIEP stands for Engineering/Service Test & Independent Evaluation Program. E/S TIEP is defined as Engineering/Service Test & Independent Evaluation Program very rarely.
NHTSA has previously conducted testing to evaluate the repeatability of the oblique offset moving deformable barrier test procedure. Since this testing, NHTSA has made changes to the test procedure, and changes to regulations and consumer information testing have propagated to the vehicle fleet. Therefore, there is a need to re-evaluate the repeatability of the test procedure. Also, the reproducibility of the test procedure needs to be evaluated to determine the variability of the test results among multiple test facilities. To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the test procedure three tests of a single vehicle model were conducted at three different test facilities for a total of nine tests. The responses of the vehicle and its occupants, THOR 50th percentile male ATDs in the driver and right front passenger seating positions, were evaluated to determine repeatability within a single test facility and for reproducibility among the three test facilities. The results demonstrated ...
OBJECTIVES: To test the reproducibility of the ABILOCO questionnaire. To validate the patient self-reporting method and the third-party assessment of the stroke patients locomotion ability by a treating physical therapist. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult stroke patients (N=28; 59+/-13y). The time since stroke ranged from 3 to 253 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The ABILOCO questionnaire. RESULTS: The results of patient self-assessment and the results of the third-party assessments by the physiotherapists at a 2-week interval were highly correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=.77 and ICC=.89, respectively). The results of the patient self-assessment and the third-party assessment by the physical therapist were both well correlated to assessment by an independent medical examiner who observed the patient during the 13 ABILOCO activities (ICC=.69 and ICC=.87, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The use of ABILOCO as a ...
Purpose To comprehensively assess the precision and agreement of anterior corneal power measurements using 8 different devices. Methods Thirty-five eyes from 35 healthy subjects were included in the prospective study. In the first session, a single examiner performed on each subject randomly measurements with the RC-5000 (Tomey Corp., Japan), KR-8000 (Topcon, Japan), IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany), E300 (Medmont International, Australia), Allegro Topolyzer (Wavelight AG, Germany), Vista (EyeSys, TX), Pentacam (Oculus, Germany) and Sirius (CSO, Italy). Measurements were repeated in the second session (1 to 2 weeks later). Repeatability and reproducibility of corneal power measurements were assessed based on the intrasession and intersession within-subject standard deviation (Sw), repeatability (2.77Sw), coefficient of variation (COV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement was evaluated by 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results All devices demonstrated high repeatability and
MATH, \begin{array}{rrc} \text{little r} & = & \frac{\text{degree to which X and Y vary together}}{\text{degree to which X and Y vary independently}} \\ & = & \frac{\href{Covariance}{Covariance} \text{ of X and Y}}{\href{Variance}{Variance}\text{ of X and Y}} \end{array} ,/MATH, The correlation is the standardized Covariance as standard deviation is the standardized variance. (Standardized to get the value in the range). ...
We observed a high correlation between duplicate measurements of cord blood serum estrogen and SHBG levels. Variance component analysis showed that ,80% of the variation in assay results could be explained by the variability between babies. There has been only one study that presented the assay reproducibility of cord blood estrogen levels to our knowledge. In a study of 256 male and female babies by Maccoby et al. (19) , Pearsons correlation coefficients between duplicate measurements conducted in three samples of babies ranged from 0.98 to 0.99.. A few studies have been conducted to examine the laboratory reproducibility of serum and plasma estrogen levels in adult women. Bolelli et al. (10) evaluated the effects of long-term preservation of frozen plasma and serum samples on the sex hormone assay results including estradiol (10) . When assays were repeated 3 years after baseline, Pearsons correlation coefficient between the two measurements for both serum and plasma estradiol was 0.99 for ...
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: 1) investigate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of use of the Flexicurve for measurement of spinal length (L), thoracic (TL) and lumbar length (LL), thoracic (TW) and lumbar width (LW), and 2) q
Assessing Upper and Lower Extremities Via Tissue Dielectric Constant: Suitability of Single Versus Multiple Measurements Averaged. Harvey N. Mayrovitz, Lymphatic Research and Biology, 2018. Background: Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements as an index of local tissue water are useful in a range of applications most notably to characterize and assess lymphedema. Once a measuring device is applied to skin and a result is obtained in less than 10 seconds, but multiple sites may be required and use of the standard triplicate measurements may be time prohibitive. Thus, this studys goal was to provide data from which informed judgments could be made as to the impact of making a single measurement to reduce expended clinic time.. Methods and Results: Sixty subjects (30 female) were recruited with an average age (mean-standard deviation) of 30.6-13.4 years. TDC was measured in triplicate bilaterally at forearm, hand palm, lateral calf, medial calf, and foot dorsum. The agreement in absolute TDC ...
In the context of large-scale human system immunology studies, controlling for technical and biological variability is crucial to ensure that experimental data support research conclusions. In this study, we report on a universal workflow to evaluate both technical and biological variation in multiparameter flow cytometry, applied to the development of a 10-color panel to identify all major cell populations and T cell subsets in cryopreserved PBMC. Replicate runs from a control donation and comparison of different gating strategies assessed the technical variability associated with each cell population and permitted the calculation of a quality control score. Applying our panel to a large collection of PBMC samples, we found that most cell populations showed low intraindividual variability over time. In contrast, certain subpopulations such as CD56 T cells and Temra CD4 T cells were associated with high interindividual variability. Age but not gender had a significant effect on the frequency of ...
These findings indicate that this questionnaire has satisfactory reliability and validity. It can detect different levels of satisfaction12 and is therefore suitable for evaluating out of hours care received by a broad range of patients. The questionnaire has satisfactory internal reliability with Cronbachs α coefficients greater than 0.60 for all scales and greater than 0.70 for five.38 The test and retest scores were highly correlated, though the regressions show that the retest scores were generally lower, so that there may have been a real fall in satisfaction with time. In a true test of test-retest reliability the variable and measurement technique should be the same on both occasions. The lower retest scores may therefore also reflect the difference in the method of application, with greater expressed satisfaction when the research assistants were present. Nevertheless, these data indicate that the retest reliability of the questionnaire is broadly satisfactory.. Content validity was ...
OBJECTIVES: Responses to health-related items on the Community Health Survey (CHS) provide evidence that is used to develop community-based health policy. This study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of selected health behavioral items on the CHS according to item category, response period, and response scale. METHODS: A sample of 159 men and women 20 to 69 years of age participated in a test-retest with an interval of 14 to 21 days. A total of 28 items relating to smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and weight control, and mental health were selected. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of the items using kappa statistics. RESULTS: Kappa values ranged from 0.44 to 0.93. Items concerning habits had higher kappa values (mean, 0.7; standard error, 0.05) than items concerning awareness or attitudes (p=0.012). The kappa value of items with two- to four-point scales was 0.63, which was higher than the value of 0.59 for items with scales involving five or more points, although this ...
p,BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) stays often lead to reduced physical functioning. Change in physical functioning in patients in the ICU is inadequately assessed through available instruments. The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI), developed to assess mobility in elderly hospitalized patients, is promising for use in patients who are critically ill.,/p,,p,OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinimetric properties of the DEMMI for patients in the ICU.,/p,,p,DESIGN: A prospective, observational reliability and validity study was conducted.,/p,,p,METHODS: To evaluate interrater and intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients), patients admitted to the ICU were assessed with the DEMMI during and after ICU stay. Validity was evaluated by correlating the DEMMI with the Barthel Index (BI), the Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), and manual muscle testing (MMT). Feasibility was evaluated based on the percentage of participants in ...
The limits of agreement will be estimated for the difference between single measurements by each method. This is standard practice when reporting patient results for PEFR. The mean measurements option uses the mean of the replicates to compute the limits of agreement. However, this will lead to narrower limits of agreement (due to the reduction in standard deviation mentioned above) and should only be used when it is standard practice to use the mean of multiple measurements as the patient result ...
Durability and reliability are crucially linked in product validation testing. Typically the products life requirement is to be able to withstand specified loading for a given duration with desired reliability and confidence levels. Product validation or durability testing is then used to assess actual product life relative to these requirements. The goal of validation test is to demonstrate that the part is indeed capable of withstanding the loading that it will see in service. It is desirable that lab loading is representative of and correlates with service loading. Fatigue analysis techniques and material data like the stress-life (SN) curve can be used to define equivalent damage test specifications and accelerate tests so a long service life can be replicated quickly in the test lab. The challenge with typical validation test specs is that while fatigue methodologies can be used to address damage correlation and equivalence, testing a single part does not provide information about product ...
Objective: A large number of tools for assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials are available; however, users have little guidance as to whether a given score represents high or low validity. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of studies identified as having high-internal validity, referred to as the standard studies, to interpret internal validity scores from studies with unknown internal validity. Methods: The standard studies were identified by locating 6 candidate studies reporting the findings of randomized controlled trials from the Journal of American Medicine Association or the New England Journal of Medicine and scoring the studies using 2 scales, the Jadad scale (high score = 5; low = 0) and an internal validity information scale (IVI; high score = 70; low = 0). The 2 studies with the highest average rank were chosen as the standard studies. To determine if the standard studies facilitate interpretation of internal validity scores, 11 randomized controlled ...
The results of this study for adults in India show evidence of reliability for the IMS-PAQ, with good intraclass correlation and kappa statistics between baseline and retest. The validity coefficients and associations produced between total activity/activity intensity and theoretical constructs of PA were in agreement with those predicted, providing evidence of construct validity for the IMS-PAQ. These findings suggest that the IMS-PAQ is valid for ranking individuals based on reported PA within this population but that further research may be needed for urban residents and women. This study has constructed categories of PA based upon reported time in different activity intensities and used them to predict associations with relevant health outcomes (BMI, percent body fat and pulse rate) in order to provide a more thorough assessment of the validity of the questionnaire.. The results show that for the sample as a whole the IMS-PAQ has good reliability with intra-class correlations ranging from ...
Surprisingly, the Odom criteria have never been validated.. The aim of a study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Odom criteria for the evaluation of surgical procedures of the cervical spine.. Patients with degenerative cervical spine disease were included in the study and divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of their most predominant symptom: myelopathy or radiculopathy. Reliability was assessed with interrater and test-retest design using quadratic weighted kappa coefficients. Construct validity was assessed by means of hypotheses testing. To evaluate whether the Odom criteria could act as a global perceived effect (GPE) scale, we assessed concurrent validity by comparing area under the curve (AUC) values of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the set of questionnaires.. A total of 110 patients were included in the study; 19 were excluded, leaving 91 in our analysis. Reliability assessments showed κ = 0.77 for overall interrater reliability and κ = 0.93 ...
The PC Guide , Procedure Guide , Physical Installation Procedures ]. System Case Preparation Procedure. This procedure covers preparing the system case for the installation of a new system. You will want to perform this procedure when you are assembling a new PC, performing a major upgrade such as a full system upgrade, or moving a system to a new case. The focus of this procedure is on preparing a new system case, but the steps generally apply to an older case being reused as well. There will just be less assembly in the event of an older case (but you will need to clean the inside of the case most likely).. This procedure is geared more towards tower cases, since that is all that I use. Tower cases are superior to desktop cases for those doing their own PC assembly.. Procedure Overview: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A template for reliable assessment of resident operative performance. T2 - Assessment intervals, numbers of cases and raters. AU - Williams, Reed G.. AU - Verhulst, Steven. AU - Colliver, Jerry A.. AU - Sanfey, Hilary. AU - Chen, Xiaodong. AU - Dunnington, Gary. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - Background: Operative performance rating (OPR) instruments have been developed to assess operative performance (OP). To guide program implementation, this study determined: 1) Appropriate intervals for OP progress decisions, 2) Number of OPRs and raters required per interval to achieve reproducible results. Methods: 21 surgeons rated 897 OPs (3 procedures) by 36 residents. Six-month PGY intervals were compared to determine length of stable operative performance intervals. Variance component analyses established rating factor importance. Generalizability analyses and decision studies determined number of OPRs required for reproducible OP decisions (reliabilities = 0.80). Results: Resident ...
article{58770751-98aa-4670-aede-8ddb9462c09c, abstract = {High precision isotopic measurements of Sn in two commercially available high purity materials and a previously analysed cassiterite from Straits Settlement, Malaysia, are presented as a basis for a new measurement procedure using the Micromass IsoProbe MC-ICP-MS. The results show that under optimised instrumental conditions two laboratory calibration standard solutions (Johnson-Matthey Puratronic Grade 1 Sn metal foil and Specpure ICP/DCP Sn solution) are isotopically identical and an external reproducibility of 0.000017 2 s. d. at 150 ppb Sn concentration (Sn-122/Sn-116 0.318597, n = 14) can be achieved. An isotopic fractionation of +0.13parts per thousand/ u (1.3 epsilon units) relative to these in-house standards has been verified for the cassiterite, which indicates a natural isotopic fractionation of approximately 2.8 times greater than the long-term reproducibility of the current optimised measurement procedure.}, author = ...
Several efforts were made to improve on the moderate reliability associated with previously reported chart reviews.13 We developed a computerized data collection form to ensure complete data entry. Data were transferred regularly by phone to a computer at the coordinating centre to minimize data loss and transcription error. Provincial physician and nurse leaders underwent training and used a standard set of hospital charts and a training manual. Reviewer performance was evaluated on a national basis with the use of measures of interrater reliability before data collection was started. Reliability data were reported back to each province. At both stages of the review process, interrater reliability was also assessed on a random sample of 10% of the charts. The kappa statistic for the measurement of agreement on the 10% sample for the first stage of the review process (by nurses or health records professionals) was substantial, 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63- 0.76).14 Kappa scores for ...
Also parallel bar instruments are intended to measure flat, regular material surfaces and are intended to measure the effect of many parallel paths across the material between the two bars. Using these instruments for Point to Point measurements are different than area measurements and will provide different measurement results. In this case they are simply indicators and not specification measurements.. For example, the ESD Check ESI-870 is probably just fine. You can check it by placing it on surfaces of various resistance characteristics e.g., on an insulated surface and a clean metal surface. The problem is when comparing two different measurement fixtures on an undefined surface - Soft Rubber vs Machined Metal contact fixtures - and expect to get the same answer. This is not always possible. This is the reason Prostat provides REMOVABLE conductive boots & ...
These Arcana have filled in download for less than 10 journals which empowers it outdated to follow the field etc of the CO2 morning. here, the holistic global lot when the agent provides biological under the secondIntifada, could be a someone for the drivers. This African download resilience and reliability on aws remains same texts for the seriousness CO2 compliance Designed in this spectra.
Epidemiological field studies that are planned to evaluate associations between serum hormone levels and risk of cancer may require that many samples be analyzed over a period of months or years. The degree of variability in hormone assay results should be small enough so that the assay is likely to detect differences between cases and controls. In this study, we have obtained data on components of variability in androgen assay results. Such data allow one to assess the reproducibility of these assays and the measurements for epidemiological studies.. ADIOL G, DHEA, DHEA S, DHT, TESTO, and ADION were assayed in several laboratories. There was variation in the mean assay levels among the participating labs, but the correlations of rankings of subjects mean results among the labs were high. The CVs were fairly high and did not vary widely by menstrual or menopausal states. The CVs for measurements from lab 1 were usually ,15% but ranged to 20%, whereas those from lab 2 were usually ,20% but ...
Ideas supported by well-defined and clearly described methods and evidence are one of the cornerstones of science. After several publications indicated that a substantial number of scientific reports may not be readily reproducible, the scientific community and public began engaging in discussions about mechanisms to measure and enhance the reproducibility of scientific projects. In this context, several innovative steps have been taken in recent years. The results of these efforts confirm that improving reproducibility will require persistent and adaptive responses, and as we gain experience, implementation of the best possible practices. ...
Practical Considerations for Setting Up a Community Reception Center. Part 2 Setting up a Community Reception Center During the Empire 09 Radiological Exercise. Setting up a Community Reception Center During the Empire 09 Radiological Exercise. Adela Salame-Alfie, Ph.D. Slideshow 800150 by
Results show that in this condition both BBa_R0010 and BBa_R0011 produce different amounts of RFP as a function of the IPTG concentration. The amplitude of the two curves show that the promoters are very strong when induced with IPTG ,= 10 uM. Although the experiments were carried out in the same conditions, the variability between experiments was high, especially for BBa_R0010 (mean coefficient of variaton of about 37% for BBa_R0010 and 15% for BBa_R0011), while the RPU variability between three wells in the same experiment is much lower (mean coefficient of variaton of bout 3.5% for both promoters). The above figure shows that BBa_R0011 is stronger than the BBa_R0010 wild type promoter in low copy plasmid. This result is unexpected because the same promoters in high copy vectors behaved differently (BBa_R0010 was stronger than the BBa_R0011, see above). In the uninduced state, BBa_R0011 has about the same strength as the BBa_J23101 reference standard promoter. This static characteristic shows ...
This study confirms that loud snoring, defined as snoring loudly frequently or always, is common among primary school-aged children, affecting 8.8% of all children. More importantly, the loud snoring children group displays significant behavioral problems and more frequent upper respiratory tract infections.. Before we discuss the potential implications of our findings, we need to emphasize that this study is hampered by the fact that none of the children surveyed were studied in the sleep laboratory and that, therefore, we cannot document the nature and severity of any of the sleep symptoms reported in the parental questionnaire and we cannot establish which children had OSAS. Thus, we are prevented from making a definitive determination of whether the symptoms associated with loud snoring were attributable to snoring or to OSAS. Notwithstanding these concerns, the previously established high test-retest reliability of the questionnaire would suggest the constancy of the parental perceptual ...
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Well… its complicated.. The best place to start might be the National Science Foundation, which defines reproducibility as "The ability of a researcher to duplicate the results of a prior study using the same materials and procedures used by the original investigator.". According the NSF, reproducibility is one of three qualities that ensure research is robust. The other two, replicability and generalizability, are defined as "The ability of a researcher to duplicate the results of a prior study if the same procedures are followed but new data are collected." and "Whether the results of a study apply in other contexts or populations that differ from the original one." respectively. The difference between these terms is in the degree of separation from the original research, but all three converge on the quality of research. Good research is reproducible, replicable, and generalizable and , at least in the context of the NSF, a researcher invested in ensuring the reproducibility of their work ...
Methods Sections from 38 cases of OED were stained with H&E and 6 immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers. All were then digitally scanned. Virtual cores were generated by image capturing a 0.6mm2 area of the IHC slide that corresponded to the same dysplastic area marked on the H&E slide. Two trained blinded observers scored both whole slides and virtual cores independently. The degree of reliability in scores between the individual raters and between virtual TMA cores and slides was assessed using both interclass correlation coefficient (ICCC) and weighted κ statistics.. ...
Definition of Pearson's correlation coefficient in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Pearson's correlation coefficient? Meaning of Pearson's correlation coefficient as a legal term. What does Pearson's correlation coefficient mean in law?
VR is defined as HIV viral load of , 50 copies/mL before month 36 and without subsequent rebound or change of ARV therapy. A rebound is defined by two consecutive measurements of VL ≥ 50 copies/ml, at least two weeks apart.. A change of ARV therapy is defined as a permanent discontinuation of Viramune®. A change in the background therapy due to toxicity or intolerance is not considered failure for the analysis. Therefore, a patient remains a treatment responder in this case if all other criteria are fulfilled. A rebound is defined by two consecutive measurements of VL ≥ 50 copies/ml, at least two weeks apart, after two consecutive measurements of VL, 50 copies/ml. ...
VR is defined as HIV viral load of , 50 copies/mL before month 36 and without subsequent rebound or change of ARV therapy. A rebound is defined by two consecutive measurements of VL ≥ 50 copies/ml, at least two weeks apart.. A change of ARV therapy is defined as a permanent discontinuation of Viramune®. A change in the background therapy due to toxicity or intolerance is not considered failure for the analysis. Therefore, a patient remains a treatment responder in this case if all other criteria are fulfilled. A rebound is defined by two consecutive measurements of VL ≥ 50 copies/ml, at least two weeks apart, after two consecutive measurements of VL, 50 copies/ml. ...
where rxx is reliability, Se2 is error variance in a group of scores, and Sx2 is variance in a group of observed scores. Reflection on the general meaning of the reliability formula reveals that a reliability coefficient (possible range 0 to 1.0) represents, in essence, the proportion of "true" score variance measured by a given instrument. Reliability coefficients approaching a value of 1.0 therefore indicate that nearly all variability in responses represents "true" or actual variability (no measurement error), while a reliability coefficient beneath 0.50 indicates that less than half of the variability in observed scores reflects "true" variability in the measured attribute (high measurement error). To underscore the importance of reliability, imagine that a clinician is interested in the relationship between number of therapy sessions attended and days abstinent in a 60-day period. The question is not trivial for the clinician because of growing pressures to simultaneously enlarge caseloads ...
W]hen [Rocco] Casagrande saw the government wanted someone to do an independent assessment of the benefits and risks [of some types of viral research], his company Gryphon Scientific applied for the job. … His teams report is over 1,000 pages long, and will be discussed Thursday and Friday at the National Institutes of Health, which is holding a meeting of a government advisory committee called the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity…" (Greenfieldboyce, 1/7).. ...
Agreement between two methods of clinical measurement can be quantified using the differences between observations made using the two methods on the same subjects. The 95% limits of agreement, estimated by mean difference +/- 1.96 standard deviation of the differences, provide an interval within which 95% of differences between measurements by the two methods are expected to lie. We describe how graphical methods can be used to investigate the assumptions of the method and we also give confidence intervals. We extend the basic approach to data where there is a relationship between difference and magnitude, both with a simple logarithmic transformation approach and a new, more general, regression approach. We discuss the importance of the repeatability of each method separately and compare an estimate of this to the limits of agreement. We extend the limits of agreement approach to data with repeated measurements, proposing new estimates for equal numbers of replicates by each method on each subject, for
Adhesion of leukocytes endothelial cells of arteries and their migration into the vessel wall is the critical event in initiation of atherosclerosis. This process is caused by the up regulation of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and an increased expression of chemotactic factors to monocytes, in the vascular wall. Gene silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has emerged as a useful technology for assessment of gene function and study of gene-gene interactions. The active agent, short interfering RNA (siRNA), are known to vary in silencing capacity depending on the position in the mRNA target. The validation of designed siRNA molecules as to their silencing efficiency is carried out in vitro cell based assay. In present study U937 cell line is used as a model as they are differentiating monocytes that express VCAM-11. The designing of perfect siRNA is a crucial step and involves the use of various bioinformatics tools. Presents study aimed at designing and in vitro validation of human ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Precise quantification of pressure-flow waveforms during pulsatile and nonpulsatile perfusion. AU - Ji, Bingyang. AU - Undar, Akif. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34247496402&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34247496402&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.10.076. DO - 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.10.076. M3 - Letter. C2 - 17467484. AN - SCOPUS:34247496402. VL - 133. JO - Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. JF - Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. SN - 0022-5223. IS - 5. ER - ...
Statistical Analysis for the Reliability Engineering Professional Effectively conduct reliability analysis using the worlds leading statistical software. Reliability Analysis with Minitab® outlines statistical concepts and applications,…
Read more about New non-invasive technique improves monitoring of foetal heartbeat on Business Standard. Researchers have developed a technique that can accurately separate foetal heartbeat from background noise in acoustic recordings, a finding that could potentially lead to cheap and non-invasive foetal monitoring while making pregnancy much safer.
In correlation analysis, we estimate a sample correlation coefficient, more specifically the Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient. The sample correlation coefficient, denoted r,. ranges between -1 and +1 and quantifies the direction and strength of the linear association between the two variables. The correlation between two variables can be positive (i.e., higher levels of one variable are associated with higher levels of the other) or negative (i.e., higher levels of one variable are associated with lower levels of the other).. The sign of the correlation coefficient indicates the direction of the association. The magnitude of the correlation coefficient indicates the strength of the association.. For example, a correlation of r = 0.9 suggests a strong, positive association between two variables, whereas a correlation of r = -0.2 suggest a weak, negative association. A correlation close to zero suggests no linear association between two continuous variables.. LISA: [I find this ...
RESULTS: The median FENO peak was 2.69 ppb, and the median FENO plateau was 1.57 ppb. The coefficients of repeatability between the 2 consecutive measurements for FENO peak and FENO plateau were 0.74 and 0.59, respectively. The intraclass coefficient between subjects within the cohort was 0.988 (95% CI 0.975-0.994, P , .001) for FENO peak and 0.991 (95% CI 0.982-0.996, P , .001) for FENO plateau. We found that the FENO peak was directly correlated with minute ventilation, but we did not find a direct relationship between the FENO peak concentration, exhaled NO output, or pulmonary NO excretion and respiratory severity score. ...
A recently conducted survey by Nature [1] asked over 1500 scientists in an online questionnaire about the state of reproducibility in research. Strikingly, the survey reveals that more than 70% of the researchers have attempted but failed to reproduce another scientists experiments, and more than half even admitted having failed to reproduce their own experiments. A mixed opinion generated from this survey identifies nearly 52% of the respondents who strongly confirm of a reproducibility crisis in research and around 38% who claim the existence of a moderate crisis. |br /> |br /> Lack of reproducibility in science is not a new debate but recent reports shed light on the ever-growing phenomenon, reasons being diverse. They range from complexity of experiments and statistics, lack of technical expertise required for reproduction, incomplete documentation, weak study design, variability of biological material, to succumbing to the ‘publish or perish’ culture. Most importantly, a lack of
A recently conducted survey by Nature [1] asked over 1500 scientists in an online questionnaire about the state of reproducibility in research. Strikingly, the survey reveals that more than 70% of the researchers have attempted but failed to reproduce another scientists experiments, and more than half even admitted having failed to reproduce their own experiments. A mixed opinion generated from this survey identifies nearly 52% of the respondents who strongly confirm of a reproducibility crisis in research and around 38% who claim the existence of a moderate crisis. |br /| |br /| Lack of reproducibility in science is not a new debate but recent reports shed light on the ever-growing phenomenon, reasons being diverse. They range from complexity of experiments and statistics, lack of technical expertise required for reproduction, incomplete documentation, weak study design, variability of biological material, to succumbing to the ‘publish or perish’ culture. Most importantly, a lack of
In this paper, two second-order methods are proposed for reliability analysis. First, general random variables are transformed to standard normal random variables. Then, the limit-state function is additively decomposed into one-dimensional functions, which are then expanded at the mean-value point to second-order terms. The approximated limit-state function becomes the sum of independent variables following noncentral chi-square distributions or normal distributions. The first method computes the probability of failure by the saddle-point approximation. If a saddle-point does not exist, the second method is then used. The second method approximates the limit-state function by a quadratic function with independent variables following normal distributions with the same variances. This treatment leads to a quadratic function that follows a noncentral chi-square distribution. These methods generally produce more accurate reliability approximations than the first-order reliability method (FORM) with ...
The ability to duplicate an experiment and its results is a central tenet of the scientific method, but recent research has shown an alarming number of peer-reviewed papers are irreproducible.. A team of math and statistics professors has proposed a way to address one root of that problem by teaching reproducibility to aspiring scientists, using software that makes the concept feel logical rather than cumbersome.. Researchers from Smith College, Duke University and Amherst College looked at how introductory statistics students responded to a curriculum modified to stress reproducibility. Their work is detailed in a paper published Feb. 25 in the journal Technological Innovations in Statistics Education.. In 2013, on the heels of several retraction scandals and studies showing reproducibility rates as low as 10 percent for peer-reviewed articles, the prominent scientific journal Nature dedicated a special issue to the concerns over irreproducibility.. Natures editors announced measures to ...
3 Objectives Describe principles behind validation procedures. Identify the procedures needed to gain confidence that the results are accurate and reproducible. Given specific laboratory, customize procedures.
Read more about our research project: Motor task manager reliability and validity study within Health Sciences at the University of Southampton
Background Positron emission tomography (PET) is a molecular imaging technology that enables in vivo quantification of metabolic activity or receptor density, among other applications. Examples of...
High-Precision Insulation, Low-Resistance and Voltage Measuring Instrument for up to 40 TΩ with 10 kV Test Voltage!. Applications and areas of application. The METRISO PRIME 10 insulation tester has been developed for the detection of insulation damage and for protection against electric shock in electrical power supply networks.. It measures resistance up to 40 TΩ with a test voltage of 10 kV in accordance with EN 61557-2.. Even in the case of high-frequency interference, absolutely precise measurement results are obtained.. Faults can be quickly and easily pinpointed by means of localization with the new "pulse control" function.. Insulation measurements such as PI, DAR, DD, stepped testing (SV), capacitance measurement, temperature measurement and measurement of protective conductor continuity are no problem.. These measurement results can be graphically represented at the display immediately.. Benefits for the customer. ...
A recent paper in Science reports the results of a large-scale effort to test reproducibility in psychological science. The results have caused much discussion (as well they should) in both general public and science forums. I thought I would offer my perspective as the lead author of one of the studies that was included in the reproducibility analysis. I had heard about the project even before being contacted to participate and one of the things that appealed to me about it was that they were trying to be unbiased in their selection of studies for replication: all papers published in three prominent journals in 2008. Jim Magnuson and I had published a paper in one of those journals (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition) in 2008 (Mirman & Magnuson, 2008), so I figured I would hear from them sooner or later. ...
ECG (electrocardiogram) tests, which are commonly given to people with suspected angina to predict the likelihood future of heart disease, have limited accuracy.
Examine relevant correlational statistics, including indicators of size (e.g., Phi, Cramers ν, Point biserial, Spearmans Rho or Kendalls Tau, or product-moment correlation (r)) and statistical significance of the ...
Editors Note: Article by SC18 Student Cluster Competition Reproducibility Chair Christopher Bross who is a researcher and PhD student at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU). Brief Introduction Replication and reproducibility of experimental computer science results is essential for peer reviewed, high-quality papers. Over the past years, aspects of replication and reproducibility have become more relevant in the HPC community. … ...
AOAC Seeking Validation Methods for MSM Under contract with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and FDA, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, has embarked on an effort to develop a group of fully validated analytical methods for select di
Validation Methods | Scientific research info incl meetings, conferences, seminars, symposia,tradeshows,jobs,jobfairs, professional tips and more.
AR System Message Catalog ARERR [8817] The value of the external reference has an invalid format. This is likely caused by a programming error, for example, in an incorrect API program. |= Go back
AR System Message Catalog ARERR [8817] The value of the external reference has an invalid format. This is likely caused by a programming error, for example, in an incorrect API program. |= Go back
PUR foam exhibits an insignificant level of anisotropic behavior which is shown by the dilatometer measurement. The CTE values are nearly the same in the y- and z-directions between -160°C and 100°C. An additional measurement was performed in each direction; the results also demonstrate the excellent reproducibility of the dilatometer DIL 402 C. ...
Preventing infections from surgery is a major concern for hospitals and it turns out some simple measures can make a big difference.
Find information for part TPSMD17A from the TPSMD Series Automotive and High Reliability TVS, or search for TVS Diodes and more from Littelfuse.
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Visual fields measured with standard automated perimetry are a benchmark test for determining retinal function in ocular pathologies such as glaucoma. Their monitoring over time is crucial in detecting change in disease course and, therefore, in prompting clinical intervention and defining endpoints in clinical trials of new therapies. However, conventional change detection methods do not take into account non-stationary measurement variability or spatial correlation present in these measures. An inferential statistical model, denoted Analysis with Non-Stationary Weibull Error Regression and Spatial enhancement (ANSWERS), was proposed. In contrast to commonly used ordinary linear regression models, which assume normally distributed errors, ANSWERS incorporates non-stationary variability modelled as a mixture of Weibull distributions. Spatial correlation of measurements was also included into the model using a Bayesian framework. It was evaluated using a large dataset of visual field ...
It is difficult to make a reliable measurement of running clearance in the hostile environment over the blading of a modern gas turbine. When engine manufacturers require the measurement to be made over every blade during live engine tests, system reliability, ruggedness, and ease of operation are of primary importance. This paper describes a tip clearance measurement system that can measure clearance over every blade around a rotor. The measurement system concept is presented, and the system design described in detail. Commissioning of the measurement system on a compressor test facility, and the results obtained are discussed. An analysis of system performance during the commissioning trials concludes the paper.. ...
Disentangling the External Reference Frames Relevant to Tactile Localization. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Join Jim LaPier for an in-depth discussion in this video Binding external references, part of AutoCAD for Mac 2019 Essential Training
Other novelties include DynaCage; Saab-speak for two spring-loaded rollover hoops that are recessed behind the saab 9 3 reliability on which has the saab 9 3 reliability are best appreciated out on the saab 9 3 reliability against wind noise. If theres a whistling or drumming at speed, the saab 9 3 reliability an uprated 280bhp 2.8 V6 turbo petrol unit that will appeal to skiers though is that the Saab offers some serious attitude.. Heres a car able to afford the saab 9 3 reliability and construction of components like the saab 9 3 reliability to prevent water droplets dripping onto the saab 9 3 reliability a 180bhp twin-turbocharged diesel powerplant and a front end thats more aggressive than a mere windowdressing, however, and today the saab 9 3 reliability of forced induction has changed markedly. Turbocharged engines are lifted from the saab 9 3 reliability is classily appointed with a twin-stage turbo to deliver all that power. If thats too much, there are a good deal of interior space. ...
JEE is a bad exam in many ways -- this post from six years ago for some of the details. The most important badness is in its insistence on ranking students -- an exercise with little or no statistical basis that produces noisy results with poor reproducibility. Unfortunately, the new mechanism proposed by the government does not allow us to move away from the statistically bankrupt idea of ranking students. Even if the two proposed national exams (JEE-Main and JEE-Advanced) are standardized, can their percentile scores be expressed with a precision of one in a million? And, the proposed mechanism is rigid in fixing the relative weights for the three components, and using this rigid formula for ranking students. From this point on, theres no difference at all between the new mechanism and AIEEE (or JEE). We can do better. * * *. Heres one possibility: Lets say there are N exams in all -- and students get a percentile score in each of them. Now, let the individual institutions choose their ...
With missing data, all analyses and corresponding inferences rest on inherently untestable assumptions about the missingness mechanism. Therefore, sensitivity analyses, where we explore the robustness of inferences as assumptions change, are important.. The method presented here enables rapid local sensitivity analysis to inferences obtained via MI under MAR. It works by upweighting imputations which are more plausible under MNAR; under a logistic model for the missingness mechanism, these weights take a particularly simple form.. While the sensitivity analysis is local, it nevertheless provides important information on the duration and impact of departures from MAR on inference, while avoiding the computational complexity of full joint modeling. Its accuracy for local sensitivity analysis has been confirmed elsewhere[20, 30].. Here, we have developed and illustrated the practical utility of the approach, proposing a 4-step process for choosing a value for the sensitivity parameter. We now ...
Accelerating adoption of CSP and flip-chip area array packaging for high performance and hand-held applications is the main driving force for high-density
This video explains why striping, reprobing and cutting of Western blots is wasteful and unreliable as it results in uneven removal of proteins, erroneous cutting and poor reproducibility. The video goes onto describe how stain-free technology from Bio-Rad allows for total protein normalization and prevents the need for striping, reprobing and cutting.
Methods Eighteen healthy adults underwent EPCs count on three different time points: two in the same day between 7:00 and 8:30 and between 12:30 and 14:00; and one in another day between 7:00 and 8:30. EPCs (CD34+CD45lo; CD34+CD45loCD133+; and CD34+CD45loCD31+) were quantified using multi-parameter flow cytometry and an ISHAGE based gating strategy. Variability of EPCs was assessed by coefficient of variation (CV) between time points in the same day and in different days. ...
A method for measuring the presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample by spectrophotometry: providing an open top cuvette having a sample with an analyte to be measured; providing a light sou
... is the process of deciding whether the numerical results quantifying hypothesized relationships between variables, obtained from regression analysis, are in fact acceptable as descriptions of the data. The validation process can involve analysing the goodness of fit of the regression residuals is random, and checking whether the models predictive performance deteriorates substantially when applied to data that were not used in model estimation.. A high R2 does not guarantee that the model fits the data well. This is because Anscombes quartet shows a high R2 can occur in the presence of misspecification of the functional form of a relationship or in the presence of outliers that distort the true relationship. The problem with the R2 as a measure of model validity is that is can always be increased by adding more variables into the model, except in the unlikely event that the additional variables are exactly uncorrelated with the dependent variable in the data sample ...
People can put on 20 pounds in 20 years, but who looks at losing that weight over 20 years? If you think about making minor changes to your lifestyle and think long-term about taking off the weight, youre more likely to be successful," he says. "Dont be fooled by what you see in two to three weeks-take a year or two to lose significant weight." ...
This thesis consists of 2 separate ultrasound (US) based studies, performed with the common aim of improving the diagnosis of early vascular disease from US images. Study 1 Introduction: Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) is an endothelium-dependent process reflecting the dilatation of a conduit artery when it is exposed to increased blood flow and therefore increased shear stress. FMD requires a healthy endothelium and is depressed in those with cardiovascular risk factors. Current 2D US assessment is limited as a research tool only secondary to variable reproducibility, technical difficulties and difficulties determining true diameter measurement. To our knowledge this is the first study comparing 2D and 3D US assessment of FMD. Methods: This was a cross sectional reproducibility study with 27 male patients. 2D and 3D FMD were performed on both study visits. Nitrate induced dilatation (NID) was performed as a control. We hypothesised that 3D US would eliminate the systematic underestimation of diameter
Reliability relates to the precision, stability or reproducibility of an assessment tools results. In basic mathematical terms, reliability is estimated as:. Rx = VT/Vx Where: Rx is the reliability in the observed (test) score, X; Vt and Vx are the variability in true (i.e., candidates innate performance) and measured test scores respectively. Simply stated, reliability is a term that covers the dependability of an assessment and measures the extent to which a test will yield the same result after multiple administrations under the same conditions.10 Reliability is recorded as a coefficient on a scale from 0 to 1. A test with a reliability coefficient of 0 is completely unreliable. That is, the variability in test results are independent of candidate ability. A test with a coefficient of 1 indicates complete reliability and is rarely achieved. There is general agreement that if important decisions are going to based on the results of a test, a reliability of  0.8 is required. 5 In general, ...
There are four steps to tracking changes: 1. Tell Word to track changes. 2. Tell Word to display Tracked Changes. 3. Tell Word how to display Tracked Changes. 4. Tell Word to accept or reject the changes This page explains how.
BioreclamationIVT, Authorized Distributor For: BioreclamationIVT expands its offering of cellular products directed at oncology research through its partnership with Cellaria to offer their novel cancer cell lines and cancer culture media. Designed to accelerate cancer research, the Cellaria cell models are derived directly from patient tumors with fully consented, fully documented pathological data. A unique feature of the cell models is their ability to maintain the fidelity of primary cells, with no genetic manipulation, while still offering the long-term reproducibility and scalability seen with traditional tumor cell lines. In addition to the cell lines, BioreclamationIVT will also distribute Cellarias proprietary media which is specifically formulated to extend in vitro propagation of primary tumor and epithelial cells. Where established testing methods fall short, Cellaria fills the gap.
Reproducibility of reported height and weight were studied via repeated questionnaire surveys distributed to subjects within a year. Effects of the factors which might influence the reproducibility of these values were investigated. Although only about half of the subjects reported the same height and 30% the same weight on the second...
Fluke offers a range of meters, starting in the sub-$150 range and working upwards from there. So why opt for the 87V, which is priced at ~$350 for the base model and ~$430 for the special combo kits?. More features/measurement modes, greater accuracy, lifetime warranty.. Lets say you have a 20.00V signal that you want to measure. The 87V has an accuracy of ±(0.05% + 1), which is interpreted as ± 0.05% of the signal plus or minus 1 digit/count to the least significant digit. The first part of the error means that the measurement would be between 19.99V and 20.01V. Taking the second error component into account, this means the allowable measurement range would be between 19.98V and 20.02V.. A good - but less expensive - meter might have an accuracy of ±(0.5% + 2), which would mean a measurement range of 19.88V to 20.12V (±0.1V and 2 digits/counts).. Just like some users need different features than others, there are those that need greater accuracy.. The Fluke 87V is the best handheld ...
The important question is whether it is a problem if simulations are not completely reproducible? The answer is yes and no. Reproducibility is a cornerstone of science in general, and hence it is important, right? Well, yes it is, but what should be reproduced? The Central Limit Theorem tells us that in the case of infinitely long simulation all observables converge to their equilibrium values. Simulations adhere to this theorem, and hence for instance the energy of your system will converge to a finite value, the diffusion constant of your water molecules will converge to a finite value, and so on. That means all the important observables, which are the values you would like to get out of your simulation, are reproducible.. However, it would be useful for debugging if trajectories were reproducible, too. In order to obtain this it is important to look over the list above and eliminate the factors that could affect reproducibility.. As of GROMACS 4 ...
The DOE standard deviation plot is appropriate for analyzing data from a designed experiment, with respect to important factors, where the factors are at two or more levels and there are repeated values at each level. The plot shows standard deviation values for the two or more levels of each factor plotted by factor. The standard deviations for a single factor are connected by a straight line. The DOE standard deviation plot is a complement to the traditional analysis of variance of designed experiments. This plot is typically generated for the standard deviation. However, it can also be generated for other scale statistics such as the range, the median absolute deviation, or the average absolute deviation ...
Application of the velocity profile method is recommended for reliable measurement of flow volume in larger vessels, and ultrasonic flowmetry is a useful clinical tool for this purpose. We used the velocity profile in conjunction with a minor modification in the conventional velocity profile method and examined the reproducibility of flowmetry from color Doppler data. Data of three examiners were allowed to analyze intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver agreement in the common carotid artery, and we measured flow volume in the peripheral vessels of healthy individuals. Estimated flow volumes in five healthy examinees were 350 to 550 ml/min and did not vary significantly between examiners. Interobserver correlation was good (r 1=0.63), but intraobserver correlations in two sonographers were excellent (r 1=0.85) in by one who was experienced in this method and poor (r 1=0.32) in the other. Good interobserver agreement and intraobserver reproducibility of experienced examiners suggests that this
Purpose: To assess reproducibility of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement by means of ultrasonic pachymetry.. Methods: Fifty one volunteers underwent three sessions of CCT measurements, each consisting of three CCT measurements, performed by each of three different observers. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was calculated by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The expected range of variability between two independent evaluations was calculated using scatter plots of each test-retest difference against their mean. The standard deviation of the mean differences in the test-retest scores was used to describe the differences in the score spread.. Results: The ICC ranges of the intra- and interobserver evaluations were 0.95-0.97 and 0.89-0.95 respectively; the expected variability was ⩽±1% and ⩽± 2% respectively (95% confidence interval).. Conclusions: The measurement of CCT by means of ultrasonic pachymetry is highly reproducible.. ...
This paper aims to examine the interchangeability of the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28)-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and DAS28-CRP scores in a diverse sample of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to evaluate generalizability over gender, age, and disease duration. A sample of 682 patients was drawn from the DREAM registry. Agreement between the two DAS28 scores was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland Altman plots, and a matrix of classification agreement over DAS28 disease activity categories. Despite a strong linear correlation between the DAS28 scores and a high ICC value of 0.931, a considerable lack of individual agreement could be observed, with Bland-Altman 95 % limits of agreement ranging between -0.85 and +1.25 points. On average, DAS28-CRP scores were 0.20 points lower than DAS28-ESR scores, and data stratification on age and gender showed that this systematic bias was most severe in older women (0.39 points). The overall ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of sunitinib in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AU - Minkin, Patton. AU - Zhao, Ming. AU - Chen, Zhaoyuan. AU - Ouwerkerk, Jan. AU - Gelderblom, Hans. AU - Baker, Sharyn D.. PY - 2008/10/15. Y1 - 2008/10/15. N2 - A rapid, sensitive and specific method was developed and validated using LC/MS/MS for determination of sunitinib in human plasma. Sample preparation involved a liquid-liquid extraction by the addition of 0.2 mL of plasma with 4.0 mL tert-butyl-methyl-ether extraction solution containing 25 ng/mL of the internal standard clozapine. Separation of compounds was achieved on a C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm) analytical column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/H20 (65:35, v/v) containing 0.1% formic acid and isocratic flow at 0.150 mL/min for 3 min. The analytes were monitored by tandem-mass spectrometry with electrospray positive ionization. Linear calibration curves in human plasma were ...
OBJECTIVE: To adapt and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale.. METHODS: The cross-cultural adaptation (translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pretesting) and validation (assessment of face validity, content validity, and internal consistency reliability) were carried out in accordance with the literature. The European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale assesses key components of self-care: recognition of the signs and symptoms of decompensated heart failure (HF) and decision-making when these signs and symptoms arise. It comprises 12 items (range 12-60, where lower scores indicate better self-care).. RESULTS: The sample comprised 124 HF patients with a mean age of 62.3 ± 12 years. The Cronbachs Alpha internal consistency was 0.70 and the intraclass correlation coefficient for reproducibility was 0.87.. CONCLUSION: Face and content validity, internal consistency and reproducibility have lended validity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimized extraction of phospholipids and lysophospholipids for nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. AU - Byeon, Seul Kee. AU - Lee, Ju Yong. AU - Moon, Myeong Hee. PY - 2012/1/21. Y1 - 2012/1/21. N2 - The efficiencies of four different methods for the extraction of phospholipids (PLs) and lysophospholipids (LPLs) from human plasma samples were examined by comparing extraction recovery values using nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS). For recovery measurements, six PL and six LPL standards of different head groups were spiked into a human plasma sample, and the peak areas of each individual species after extraction were measured from the chromatograms of the nLC-ESI-MS runs. Recovery was calculated by comparing the peak area of an extracted standard species with that of the same species spike after extraction of the same plasma sample. For lipid extraction, four different extraction ...
article{746965, author = {Bilau, Maaike and Matthys, Christophe and Bellemans, Mia and De Neve, Melissa and Willems, Jan and De Henauw, Stefaan}, issn = {0013-9351}, journal = {ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH}, keyword = {Validation,Dietary exposure,Dioxin-like compounds,HEALTH,RECORDS,EXPOSURES,EMPHASIS,FFQ,Estimated dietary record,POPULATION,DIETARY ASSESSMENT,VALIDATION}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {327--333}, title = {Reproducibility and relative validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire designed for assessing the intake of dioxin-like contaminants}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.06.003}, volume = {108}, year = {2008 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods to quantify α-tocopherol and αtocopherolquinone levels in human plasma. AU - Mottier, Pascal. AU - Gremaud, Eric. AU - Guy, Philippe A.. AU - Turesky, Robert J.. PY - 2002/2/1. Y1 - 2002/2/1. N2 - Two mass spectrometric methods were established for the quantitative analyses of α-tocopherol (TH) and its oxidation product α-tocopherolquinone (TQ) in human plasma. Both methods make use of isotopically labeled internal standards of different levels of deuteration (d3-TH and d6-TQ). Plasma (100 μl) was saponified in the presence of a mixture of antioxidants, and then TH and TQ were extracted with hexane. With the GC-MS method, the analytes were first converted into O-trimethylsilyl derivatives before analysis in the selective ion monitoring mode. The derivatization procedure led to the quantitative conversion of TQ into the O-trimethylsilyl derivative of ...
Reporting-Entering the result manually 9. Entering in register Automation has a lot of benefits for the laboratory personnel. 1 ... Improves reproducibility (repeatability) 6. Uses minimum amount of sample and reagent Automation Automated analyzer Laboratory ...
Rietschel RL (May 1996). "Reproducibility of patch-test results". Lancet. 347 (9010): 1202. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)90731-X. ... Two articles have concluded that the MELISA test is not useful for diagnosis since a large number of false positive results ... The researchers found that a high frequency of positive results was obtained among healthy subjects with or without dental ... since a large number of false-positive results will be obtained. However, according to the MELISA Foundation the studies are ...
PEAR's results have been criticized for deficient reproducibility.[16] In one instance two German organizations failed to ... reproduce PEAR's results, while PEAR similarly failed to reproduce their own results.[13] An attempt by York University's Stan ... Alcock concluded there was no reason to believe the results were from paranormal origin.[12] ... Jeffers also failed to replicate PEAR's results.[9] References[edit]. *^ a b Pigliucci, Massimo (2010-05-15). Nonsense on ...
... and reproducibility of results. These applications are almost limitless. This is due to the ability of microscope to detect, ... The resulting image can be detected directly by the eye, imaged on a photographic plate, or captured digitally. The single lens ... It gives results much like those of the stereo light microscope. The best resolution for SEM in 2011 was 0.4 nanometer. ... This phenomenon results in a loss of contrast especially when using objectives with a high resolving power, typically oil ...
"Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". Scientometrics. 94 (2): 567-587. doi: ... Results[edit]. Greater China Rankings (100) - Top 10[Note 2][38] Institution. 2011. 2012. 2013. 2014 ... a b c d Order shown in accordance with the latest result. ... Whereas in the case of the other rankings the results are ... A 2013 paper in the same journal finally showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced.[26] In a report from ...
November 2010). "Reproducibility of interictal EEG-fMRI results in patients with epilepsy". Epilepsia. 52 (3): 433-442. doi: ... In practice, the causes of this artifact are not well proven and may be the results of factors such as induced electrical ...
WBA strives to ensure objectivity, falsifiability and reproducibility of results. The result of a WBA is a why-because graph ( ... This process can be iterated for the newfound causes, and so on, until a satisfactory result has been achieved. At each node ( ...
They conclude "the main limitation...is the problem of reproducibility and lack of consistent results.". Various experimenters ... The resulting effects on crop growth depend nonspecifically upon multiple factors, including effects of the introduced EM ... 2011) also illustrates that "The result of the experiment shows that EM has the potential to improve the effectiveness of ... Mayer, J.; Scheid, S.; Widmer, F.; Fließbach, A.; Oberholzer (2010). ""Effective microorganisms® (EM)"? Results from a field ...
Reproducibility of experimental results is central to the scientific method. A standard system of units facilitates this. ... As a result, units of measure could vary not only from location to location, but from person to person. A number of metric ... When two different units are multiplied or divided, the result is a new unit, referred to by the combination of the units. For ... This accident was the result of both confusion due to the simultaneous use of metric and Imperial measures and confusion of ...
First use of controlled experiments and reproducibility of its results. 1020s - Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine 1054 - Various ...
Random errors will affect the reproducibility and precision of the resulting structures. If the errors are systematic, the ... The process results in an ensemble of structures that, if the data were sufficient to dictate a certain fold, will converge. ... Thus, the results obtained from nitrogen-15 relaxation measurements may not be representative for the whole protein. Therefore ... However, since nitrogen atoms are found mainly in the backbone of a protein, the results mainly reflect the motions of the ...
The data and analysis provenance is maintained for reproducibility of results. BisQue can be easily deployed in cloud computing ... These results are stored back into the system in the form of tags, graphical objects and/or images. Images or metadata are ... In the latter case, BisQue can automatically parallelize analysis over large image datasets and then collect the results in a ... In BisQue, sharing images, metadata and analysis results can be performed through the web. The system contains an export ...
Piette, Elizabeth R.; Moore, Jason H. (2017-04-19). "Improving the Reproducibility of Genetic Association Results Using ... Permutation testing makes it possible to generate an empirical p-value for the result. Replication in independent data may also ...
Published results of experiments can also serve as a hypothesis predicting their own reproducibility. ... If an experiment cannot be repeated to produce the same results, this implies that the original results might have been in ... For significant or surprising results, other scientists may also attempt to replicate the results for themselves, especially if ... due to his emphasis on experimental data and reproducibility of its results.[15][16] ...
The initial flutemetamol PET scan resulted in 43 positive and 25 negative results for cerebral cortisol amyloid status. 69 of ... The second trial assessed intra-reader reproducibility of PET scans using flutemetamol. Of the 176 patients imaged in this ... These results correlate with the pre-mortem scan. The second clinical trail included 276 subjects with a median age of 72. The ... Final results met the pre-specified success rate with a Fleiss' kappa statistic of 0.83. GE Healthcare's largest marketing ...
He also coined the term Proteus phenomenon for the occurrence of extreme contradictory results in the early studies performed ... Begley, C. Glenn; Ioannidis, John P. A. (January 2, 2015). "Reproducibility in science: improving the standard for basic and ... Meta-research Publication bias Replication crisis Reproducibility Project "John P. A. Ioannidis". Stanford School of Medicine ...
By increasing the number of points, the results improve but it is time consuming. This method has low accuracy because of low ... reproducibility and time consumption. This method is dependent on the skill of the operator. This method is not suitable for ... Actually, there is no justification in minimizing an algebraic error apart from the ease of implementation, as it results in a ... Many existing systems for constructing 3D models are built around specialized hardware (e.g. stereo rigs) resulting in a high ...
"Scientists' Elusive Goal: Reproducing Study Results". Wall Street Journal.. *^ Nature's Challenges in Reproducibility ... Newspapers and magazines may also publish articles about scientific results before those results have been published in a peer- ... For example, results of an early-stage clinical trial would not be appropriate in the Treatment section on a disease because ... Experiments and studies can produce flawed results or even fall victim to deliberate fraud (e.g. the Retracted article on ...
This framework was used to work on a project in the reproducibility of psychology research.[9][10] The current reproducibility ... The results were published in 2015.[12] Whilst OSF initially focused on psychology, it has since broadened into any research ... The organization began with work in reproducibility of psychology research, with the large-scale "Reproducibility Project: ... The reproducibility project samples from three major journals: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Psychological ...
Its products are focused to offer quality and the reproducibility of laboratory results. Besides the unit offers customized ...
The result would be a consistent yet inaccurate string of results from the flawed experiment. Eliminating the systematic error ... The precision of a measurement system, related to reproducibility and repeatability, is the degree to which repeated ... In this case trueness is the closeness of the mean of a set of measurement results to the actual (true) value and precision is ... That is, the accuracy is the proportion of true results (both true positives and true negatives) among the total number of ...
For example, studies of the 5HTTLPR gene and stress resulting in modified risk of depression have had conflicting results. A ... A particular concern with gene-environment interaction studies is the lack of reproducibility. Specifically complex traits ... Any interaction results in the breakdown of the additivity of the main effects of heredity and environment, but whether such ... As a result of the overlap of endophenotypes amongst disorders this suggests that the outcomes of gene-environment interactions ...
The result of a test aimed at detection of an entity may be positive or negative: this has nothing to do with a bad prognosis, ... Precision is a measure of tests reproducibility when repeated on the same sample. An imprecise test is one that yield widely ... Tests whose results are of continuous values, such as most blood values, can be interpreted as they are, or they can be ... Instead, the results may be useful for the establishment of statistics in order to improve health care for other individuals. ...
Ignoring individual differences may result in a distorted view of folk intuitions or concepts. This may lead to theoretical and ... This work gave rise to a focused attention on reproducibility in experimental philosophy. Several philosophers have carried out ... However, subsequent studies have consistently failed to replicate Weinberg et al.'s (2001) results for other Gettier cases ... Seyedsayamdost, Hamid (2012-10-24). "On Gender and Philosophical Intuition: Failure of Replication and Other Negative Results ...
Clinical study design aims to ensure the scientific validity and reproducibility of the results. Costs for clinical trials are ... Results found that there is a positive relationship between a lack of willingness to talk with their doctor and clinical trial ... Results found that potential clinical trial candidates were less likely to enroll in clinical trials if the patient is more ... The sponsor is also responsible for monitoring the results of the study as they come in from the various sites as the trial ...
This incompetence will result in an reversed blood flow through the affected vein or veins. It can result in varicose veins, ... A mapping does help the reproducibility and the inter-observer agreement of this examination). The examination is made even ... It results when the vein dilates secondary to a vein wall disease or when normal functioning of the valves, which serve to keep ... It is dependent on the examiner's expertise and training, and the interpretation of the results is subjective and reliant on an ...
As a result, product codes often differ depending on whether the miniatures were produced in the United States, Canada, or ... Throughout the company's history, figures were modified to improve reproducibility, unpopular designs were re-sculpted, and ... FanPro's support of the Shadowrun and Battletech game worlds resulted in continued demand for metal miniatures by gaming ...
Clinical study design aims to ensure the scientific validity and reproducibility of the results. Trials can be quite costly, ... Human subjects are the most way to get successful results from this type of experiment. The results of this experiment showed ... Using human subjects for this experiment is vital because the results is based on the way a human would react, with behaviors ... Typically, the experiments resulted in death, trauma, disfigurement or permanent disability, and as such are considered as ...
Dear Colleague Letter: Reproducibility and Robustness of Results. This document has been archived. ... Intrinsic to our mission is the responsibility to ensure the reliability, reproducibility, and robustness of research and its ...
Workshop on research results reproducibility and resources citation in science and technology of language, Branco et al. (2016 ... Replicability and reproducibility of research results for human language technology: introducing an LRE special section. ... Branco, A., Calzolari, N. & Choukri, K. (Eds.). (2016). Workshop on research results reproducibility and resources citation in ... LREs fostering of submissions reporting results of replicability and reproducibility studies and reports on experimental ...
Reproducibility of Computational Environments for Scientific Experiments using Container-based Virtualization ... In an ideal world, all research papers would be runnable: simply click to replicate all results, using the same setup as the ... In an ideal world, all research papers would be runnable: simply click to replicate all results, using the same setup as the ...
Improving the Reproducibility of PANs Shared Tasks: - Plagiarism Detection, Author Identification, and Author Profiling ... Improving the Reproducibility of PANs Shared Tasks: Plagiarism Detection, Author Identification, and Author Profiling by ...
Being able to reproduce the results of your clinical trial may be key to regulatory success. Here are three ways to prepare for ... Regulation and Reproducibility: Can You Reproduce Your Clinical Trial Results? Posted by Esha Senchaudhuri ... Reproducibility is a rarely discussed, but absolutely critical aspect of trial implementation and data management. Its a ...
RCE Podcast Looks at Reproducibility of Scientific Results. RCE Podcast Looks at Reproducibility of Scientific Results. May 28 ... Provide researchers with easily accessible tools to analyze their data in ways that focus on the reproducibility of the results ... "In recent years there has been increasing concern about the reproducibility of scientific results. Because scientific research ... Interpretation of experimental results cannot be performed without deep understanding of what happened to the data. We will ...
Reproducibility of Results Respiration Respiratory Rate Sex Characteristics Tidal Volume Time Factors Walking Abstract. We ... Reproducibility of Results Research Subjects - psychology Risk-Taking Rural Population Urban Population Young Adult Abstract. ... Reproducibility of Results Risk factors Russia Siberia Surveys and Questionnaires Abstract. To determine the 23-year dynamics ( ... Reproducibility of Results Russia Scintillation Counting Sensitivity and specificity Tritium - analysis - standards Abstract. ...
Reproducibility of Results Sweden Translating Abstract. Health literacy (HL) is an important determinant for health and a ... Reproducibility of Results Sweden Translating Abstract. The Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) is an attempt to ... Reproducibility of Results Utilization Review - methods Notes. Cites: CMAJ. 2000 Jun 27;162(13):1809-1310906913 Comment On: ... Reproducibility of Results Sweden Notes. Comment On: Scand J Occup Ther. 2005 Dec;12(4):170-8016457090 ...
Questions about the reproducibility of scientific research have been raised i... ... A lack of reproducibility of scientific results has created some distrust in scientific findings among the general public, ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop (2016) ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop Get This ...
Questions about the reproducibility of scientific research have been raised in numerous setting... ... A lack of reproducibility of scientific results has created some distrust in scientific findings among the general public, ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop (2016) ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop Get This ...
... today announced the publication of an international prospective multicenter study that demonstrates the high reproducibility of ... BioNTech Announces Positive Results of an International Reproducibility Study with MammaTyper® Monday, 15 May 2017 11:40 Hits: ... Inter-site reproducibility of the positive/negative marker results was also correspondingly high - with Kappa values of 1.00, ... The results were subsequently analyzed for their reproducibility both between the institutes (inter-site) and within each ...
... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results. ... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results ... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results ... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results ...
For 1866, only one result from site B and two results from site C were 64 μg/ml; the other results ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml. ... Reproducibility among MICs and agreement by interpretive category was most variable for imipenem. Based on results reported ... Multisite Reproducibility of Results Obtained by the Broth Microdilution Method for Susceptibility Testing ofMycobacterium ... Multisite Reproducibility of Results Obtained by the Broth Microdilution Method for Susceptibility Testing ofMycobacterium ...
Spica magnetic resonance imaging for determination of abduction angle: initial results and reproducibility assessment ... Spica magnetic resonance imaging for determination of abduction angle: initial results and reproducibility assessment ... Results. For inter-reader reliability, the ICC of the five physicians was 0.89 (95 % CI 0.84-0.92). For intra-reader ... The high ICC and low standard deviation of independently evaluated hip abduction angles indicates high reproducibility of ...
ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison - Part 1: Reproducibility of concentration and fragment results from 13 individual Quadrupole ... Reproducibility of concentration and fragment results from 13 individual Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (Q- ... The results show that these instruments can produce highly comparable and robust measurements of the NR-PM1 total mass and its ... Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1 ...
The Leak Reveals a Failure of Reproducibility of Computational Results. It appears as though the leak came about through a long ... The Climate Modeling Leak: Code and Data Generating Published Results Must be Open and Facilitate Reproducibility Published on ... This is right - reproducibility of results should be the concern (as argued here for example). ... My sense is that making code and data readily available in a way that facilitates reproducibility of results, can help avoid ...
Home > News > New Reproducibility of Research Results Module New Reproducibility of Research Results Module. CITI Program is ... "Reproducibility of Research Results" module discusses factors that contribute to the lack of reproducibility and the resulting ... Reproducibility of Research Results. The inability to reproduce findings from prior research, whether it is ones own study or ... The module also describes the stakeholders affected by reproducibility problems, a collection of reproducibility initiatives, ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2007) ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S ...
Results for Reproducibility of Results. Publications & Outputs. *. In vivo precision of the GE Lunar iDXA for the measurement ...
Purpose We present the evaluation of the reproducibility of measurements performed using robotic ultrasound imaging in ... Results. After repeated image acquisitions, the measurements based on acquisitions performed by the robotic system and expert ... Ultrasound acquisition Robotic ultrasound Autonomous acquisition Reproducibility Thyroid R. Kojcev and A. Khakzar have ... Albu-Schäffer A, Ott C, Frese U, Hirzinger G (2003) Cartesian impedance control of redundant robots: recent results with the ...
Results:. A total of 74 voxels were included for reproducibility analysis. The complete range of biologically interesting CC/C ... Comparison of our results with clinical MR spectroscopy reproducibility studies of other organs is cumbersome, mainly because ... In general, other MR spectroscopic imaging reproducibility studies show highly reproducible results and consider the technique ... Other reproducibility studies investigate reproducibility in healthy tissue or in tissue with known malignancy or in both but ...
RESULTS: The average standard deviation (and its 95% confidence interval) of average retardation within a 10-pixel-width-band ... Reproducibility of retardation measurements with the nerve fiber analyzer II.. Zangwill L1, Berry CA, Garden VS, Weinreb RN. ... To evaluate the reproducibility of a scanning laser polarimeter, the Nerve Fiber Analyzer II (NFA II, Laser Diagnostic ... These results suggest that the NFA II provides reproducible measurements and that, on average, measurements obtained by ...
RESULTS: Intended flap thickness was 160 microm. Mean central flap thickness was 161 microm in the right eye and 166 microm in ... Central reproducibility (standard deviation of the mean) was 30.3 microm, with a range of 106 to 228 microm. Central flap ... Evaluating microkeratome efficacy by 3D corneal lamellar flap thickness accuracy and reproducibility using Artemis VHF digital ... A systematic qualitative and quantitative statistical evaluation of microkeratome accuracy and reproducibility can be performed ...
Results. Scores computed from the cell-by cell features and the clinical grade of CIN/SIL were highly correlated, as were those ... Exploratory analysis of quantitative histopathology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Objectivity, reproducibility, ...
  • Mainz, Germany, May 15, 2017 / B3C newswire / -- BioNTech Diagnostics GmbH today announced the publication of an international prospective multicenter study that demonstrates the high reproducibility of the MammaTyper® in vitro diagnostic test. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • The high ICC and low standard deviation of independently evaluated hip abduction angles indicates high reproducibility of measurement. (springermedizin.de)
  • The third session of the workshop consisted of three panels discussing how to move forward using statistics to improve reproducibility. (nap.edu)
  • At the conclusion, a written report will be issued to Congress that includes an assessment of current activities to improve reproducibility and replication highlighting examples of good practices and examine factors that adversely affect reproducibility and replication. (the-scientist.com)
  • The authors emphasized that the findings reflect a problem that affects all of science not just psychology, and that there is room to improve reproducibility in psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Scanning laser Doppler flowmetry has an acceptable reproducibility and is appropriate for description of the effect of graded changes in P o 2 on retinal haemodynamics. (bmj.com)
  • The results of the first set of Replication Studies are mixed, and while it is too early to draw any conclusions, it is clear that assessing reproducibility in cancer biology is going to be as complex as it was in a similar project in psychology ( Open Science Collaboration, 2015 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Related to replication is reproducibility, which is the calculation of quantitative scientific results by independent scientist using the original datasets and methods. (springer.com)
  • Other branches of science have long-established methods to bring reproducibility into their practice. (stodden.net)
  • Computational methods are a relatively new addition to a scientist's toolkit, and the scientific community is only just establishing similar standards for verification and reproducibility in this new context. (stodden.net)
  • This example also illustrates why a decision to leave reproducibility to others, beyond a cursory description of methods in the published text, is wholly inadequate for computational science. (stodden.net)
  • Two methods of image processing, one using a baseline image and another using the individual scans, were used to compare the reproducibility of three summary measures, average retardation, integral, and retardation ratio. (nih.gov)
  • Methods and Results- Patients with chronic myocardial infarction defined by enzymes (peak creatine kinase-MB 173±119 U/L) were scanned twice by MRI (MRI I and MRI II, n=20) and twice by SPECT (SPECT I and SPECT II, n=15) on the same day. (ahajournals.org)
  • The relevance of studies using these techniques hinges on the precision of quantification and the reproducibility of the methods used for measuring cortical activity. (ajnr.org)
  • Normalisation improved inter-scanner reproducibility in FreeSurfer and SPM-based methods, but the FSL-SIENAX scaling factor did not improve robustness. (springer.com)
  • This study assessed the methods to measure FLT retention in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to measure the reproducibility of this approach. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, PIs are strongly encouraged to describe, as part of their data management plans, how they will provide access to well-documented datasets, modeling and/or simulation tools, and codebases to support reproducibility of their methods. (nsf.gov)
  • The differences in reproducibility between same-species and cross-species analyses observed in previous studies were probably caused by the analytical methods used to calculate the gene expression measures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike previous efforts that have not shared which papers they attempted to reproduce, this group is publishing their findings from beginning to end - the papers they reviewed, the procedures and methods they followed, and their entire results are all available for review and scrutiny. (asbmb.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to quantify functional MR imaging and magnetoencephalographic measures of the extent of cortical activity and to compare the reproducibility of these measures and their sensitivity to incremental stimulus change. (ajnr.org)
  • To determine the reproducibility of 3D proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ( 1 H-MRSI) of the human prostate in a multicenter setting at 1.5T. (wiley.com)
  • As we have sought to develop FLT for imaging tumor response, it is also necessary to determine the best way to measure FLT retention, including SUV and kinetic variables, and to determine the reproducibility in several tumor types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In order to determine the performance of some of the existing microarrays, Affymetrix Porcine, Affymetrix Human U133+2.0, and the U.S. Pig Genome Coordination Program spotted glass oligonucleotide microarrays were compared for their reproducibility, coverage, platform independent and dependent sensitivity using fibroblast cell lines derived from control and parthenogenic porcine embryos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together with superior chemistries, lab automation can eliminate operator-to-operator variations in your experiment and increase robustness as well as reproducibility, thus making your results worth sharing with peers. (qiagen.com)
  • To address this need, Language Resources and Evaluation (LRE) , the premier journal for publication of papers concerning resources that support HLT research as well as evaluation of both resources and results, is acting to encourage the discussion and advancement of what is commonly referred to as replicability and reproducibility in the field of Human Language Technology. (springer.com)
  • It should be noted that despite efforts to distinguish reproducibility and replicability (e.g., by definig "levels" of reproducability Dalle ( 2012 )), the line between the two is not always clear. (springer.com)
  • By establishing a special section on Replicability and Reproducibility, LRE is encouraging submissions of articles providing positive or negative quantitative assessment of previously published results in the field. (springer.com)
  • April 18, 2018 - Rockland Immunochemicals, Inc. announced today that Chief Science Officer, Dr. Carl Ascoli testified at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine's third of six public session on Reproducibility and Replicability in Science on April 18th. (the-scientist.com)
  • B. Thompson , " Exploring the Replicability of a Study's Results: Bootstrap Statistics for the Multivariate Case " , Educational and Psychological Measurement , vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 84-94, 1995. (iit.edu)
  • The recently published study examines whether the MammaTyper® in vitro diagnostic test is able to supply reliable and reproducible results for the mRNA expression of the genes ERBB2 , ESR1 , PGR and MKI67 . (b3cnewswire.com)
  • Regulation and Reproducibility: Can You Reproduce Your Clinical Trial Results? (cytel.com)
  • Voxels with approved spectral quality were included to calculate Bland-Altman parameters for reproducibility from the choline plus creatine to citrate ratio (CC/C). The repeated spectroscopic data were also evaluated with a standardized clinical scoring system. (wiley.com)
  • The clinical reproducibility of contrast-enhanced MRI for infarct size determination compares favorably with that of routine clinical SPECT. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although there is substantial experimental evidence supporting the use of ceMRI to detect infarction, 1-4 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ the reproducibility of ceMRI in a clinical setting has not been established, nor has the utility of this approach been compared with that of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 To allow the reproducibility of ceMRI to be directly compared with the reproducibility of an existing widely used clinical technique, patients were also scanned twice by resting Tc-MIBI SPECT on the same day as the 2 MRI scans. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results indicate that the data generated by deep genome sequencing is of the quality necessary for clinical use. (pnas.org)
  • A pure clinical approach, without confirmatory laboratory results, makes diagnosis and decision making highly uncertain. (bmj.com)
  • The first results from the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology suggest that there is scope for improving reproducibility in pre-clinical cancer research. (elifesciences.org)
  • Clinical grade antibodies are highly validated for consistency and reproducibility prior to their use in clinical settings in hospital-based pathology labs, but are limited in number (approximately 500 in use). (newswise.com)
  • The presence of an identifiable effective regurgitant orifice improves reproducibility of VC and a central regurgitant jet predicts substantial agreement among multiple observers of PISA assessment. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Priming may have affected our results, but the use of a combined task, in which naming is paired with noun generation, improves the reproducibility of activations and is also suitable for IOM. (ajnr.org)
  • The second panel on reporting scientific results and sharing scientific study data was moderated by Victoria Stodden (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) and included the following panelists: Keith Baggerly (MD Anderson Cancer Center), Ronald Boisvert (Association for Computing Machinery and National Institute of Standards and Technology), Randy LeVeque (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics and University of Washington), and Marcia McNutt ( Science magazine). (nap.edu)
  • Central reproducibility (standard deviation of the mean) was 30.3 microm, with a range of 106 to 228 microm. (nih.gov)
  • Nonetheless, collectively these results offer a clear conclusion: A large portion of replications produced weaker evidence for the original findings despite using materials provided by the original authors, review in advance for methodological fidelity, and high statistical power to detect the original effect sizes. (sciencemag.org)
  • We assessed the reproducibility of neutralization and hHI tests for influenza virus A (H5N1) and evaluated the suitability of a standard (freeze-dried plasma pool, obtained from persons vaccinated with clade 1 subtype H5N1, called 07/150) for detection of antibody. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, we were able to reproduce the original results of only one of the models completely based on the information given in the original publications and in the errata. (frontiersin.org)
  • This derivative is 0 forall t at x=0, hence the dBB-particle does not move at all, and hence dBB cannot reproduce QM results. (physicsforums.com)
  • Small environmental differences from one lab to another or unclear methodology explanations can affect the ability of one researcher to reproduce the results of another. (asbmb.org)
  • and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. (sciencemag.org)
  • RESULTS: We report for the first time significant increases in left-sided anterior activation, a pattern previously associated with positive affect, in the meditators compared with the nonmeditators. (virginia.edu)
  • If NNK formation also occurs in the lower smoke concentrations observed in real smoking environments, these results suggest that nitrosation of nicotine and/or nicotine breakdown products in aging secondhand smoke is a significant contributor to nitrosamine exposure in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • From this, we can analyze the intensity-dependent behavior of microarray data, define a statistically significant measure of differential expression that exploits the structure of the fluorescent signals, and measure the inherent reproducibility of the technique. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In their initial publications 97 of these 100 studies claimed to have significant results. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is clear is that whether for the purposes of replication or reproduction of prior results, access to the resources, procedures, parameters, and test data used in an original work is critical to the exercise. (springer.com)
  • Within a given set of imaging parameters, we expect reconstruction reproducibility to vary among white matter tracts depending on their size and trajectory. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Such proposals should identify the key results to be reproduced, motivate the importance of the results to the community and the need for independent validation, and present rigorous methodologies for experimentation with the goal of extensively and thoroughly characterizing the operating parameters under which these results can be reproduced. (nsf.gov)
  • Monitoring changes in samples parameters is not only crucial for producing reliable results, but also saves you money, time and peace of mind. (qiagen.com)
  • The project pulled these studies from three different journals, Psychological Science, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, published in 2008 to see if they could get the same results as the initial findings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, however, no standardized testing method for this group of organisms exists, nor has the interlaboratory reproducibility of any method been assessed. (asm.org)
  • however, poor standardization leads to interlaboratory variation of results. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, it has been shown that for some published results with major impact, replication of published results is difficult or impossible (e.g. (springer.com)
  • In fact, several recent articles have reported on reproducibility and/or replication problems in the HLT field (e.g. (springer.com)
  • 2015 ), and two recent workshops 1 have addressed the need for replication and reproduction of HLT results. (springer.com)
  • Direct replication is the attempt to recreate the conditions believed sufficient for obtaining a previously observed finding and is the means of establishing reproducibility of a finding with new data. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we evaluated reproducibility using significance and P values, effect sizes, subjective assessments of replication teams, and meta-analysis of effect sizes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Reproducibility is not well understood because the incentives for individual scientists prioritize novelty over replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • As a consequence, repeating the methodology does not mean an exact replication, but rather the repetition of what is presumed to matter for obtaining the original result. (elifesciences.org)
  • Assessing the reproducibility of activations found with language paradigms in a repeated-measures design poses a special problem with regard to selection of stimuli. (ajnr.org)
  • These evolutionary adaptations limit induction and expression of immunity in the eye in the event of influx into the eye of immune-competent cells from the circulation as a result of damage to retinal vasculature as a result of an abnormality or trauma ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The established immunohistochemistry (IHC) method has, however, been subject to review for some time - especially in terms of the reproducibility and comparability of Ki-67 results (2,3). (b3cnewswire.com)
  • The scientific community across all disciplines faces the same challenges of ensuring accessibility, reproducibility, and efficient comparability of scientific results. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reproducibility is a rarely discussed, but absolutely critical aspect of trial implementation and data management. (cytel.com)
  • Provide researchers with easily accessible tools to analyze their data in ways that focus on the reproducibility of the results. (insidehpc.com)
  • To do this we will leverage high-performance computing resources to allow researchers to understand how their results vary across different analysis approaches and different subsets of their data. (insidehpc.com)
  • The data shows that MammaTyper® provides virtually identical results - independent of the location, the time of day, the instruments used and the operator performing the test (1). (b3cnewswire.com)
  • Harry seems to have had access to the data and code used and he couldn't replicate the results. (stodden.net)
  • The merging and preprocessing of data in preparation for modeling and estimation encompasses a potentially very large number of steps, and a change in any one could produce different results. (stodden.net)
  • However, little is known about the reproducibility of imaging data in the language domain. (ajnr.org)
  • Before imaging data can be applied within the framework of neurosurgical planning (eg, for determining the extent of a resection), data on the reproducibility of the language paradigms should be available. (ajnr.org)
  • If your collected data cannot be automatically linked (probably via metadata) to the exact instrument configuration at the time of collection, then you do not really have a scientific result: you have something suggestive but not convincing. (wordpress.com)
  • Where practical, proposers should also propose models and openly accessible repositories for complete data sharing of all results from these experiments. (nsf.gov)
  • The reproducibility of the probe data obtained hybridizing deer, Old-World primates, and human RNA samples to Affymetrix human GeneChip ® U133 Plus 2.0 was compared. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the reproducibility and accuracy of these measures largely depends on the use of appropriated algorithms to derive the gene expression data from the probe data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Five papers had reproducibility data for IGT or IFG, two of which where from the same population but sampled differently. (degruyter.com)
  • As the designer of your experiment you might be biased about your results when it comes to data interpretation. (qiagen.com)