The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
Measurement of the thickness of the CORNEA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The position or attitude of the body.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
1976 accidental release of DIOXINS from a manufacturing facility in Seveso, ITALY following an equipment failure.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
A method of three-dimensional morphometry in which contour maps are produced from the overlapping interference fringes created when an object is illuminated by beams of coherent light issuing from two different point sources.
Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.
Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from, accessed 2/14/2013)
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.
Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (1/49462)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Urinary lithium: distribution shape, reference values, and evaluation of exposure by inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry. (2/49462)

Inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry (ICPAES) was used to evaluate the lithium content of undiluted urine samples. The method can be performed with 1 mL of urine in a single tube using a routine ICPAES analysis for rapid and convenient assessment of lithium exposure in humans. Urine samples obtained from male workers (n = 86) who had not been exposed to lithium were used for the determination of this element by ICPAES. The obtained concentrations were corrected using a specific gravity of 1.024. The particular frequency distribution resulted in a log-normal distribution diagram for anatomical spread. Geometric mean value for urinary lithium in the nonexposed male workers was 23.5 microg/L, and the confidence interval from a log-normal distribution was 11.0 to 50.5 microg/L. Taking into consideration a short biological half-life and the massive urine excretion of lithium, urinary lithium was considered to be a useful index for monitoring of exposure. Calibration curves obtained for lithium standards had good sensitivity and linearity. Good reproducibility was assessed by lithium addition to urine samples. It was concluded that the obtained lithium reference values would be useful for the early diagnosis of lithium intoxication or in the assessment of the degree of exposure to lithium in subjects at risk.  (+info)

Transient and permanent deficits in motion perception after lesions of cortical areas MT and MST in the macaque monkey. (3/49462)

We examined the nature and the selectivity of the motion deficits produced by lesions of extrastriate areas MT and MST. Lesions were made by injecting ibotenic acid into the representation of the left visual field in two macaque monkeys. The monkeys discriminated two stimuli that differed either in stimulus direction or orientation. Direction and orientation discrimination were assessed by measuring thresholds with gratings and random-dots placed in the intact or lesioned visual fields. At the start of behavioral testing, we found pronounced, motion-specific deficits in thresholds for all types of moving stimuli, including pronounced elevations in contrast thresholds and in signal-to-noise thresholds measured with moving gratings, as well as deficits in direction range thresholds and motion coherence measured with random-dot stimuli. In addition, the accuracy of direction discrimination was reduced at smaller spatial displacements (i.e. step sizes), suggesting an increase in spatial scale of the residual directional mechanism. Subsequent improvements in thresholds were seen with all motion stimuli, as behavioral training progressed, and these improvements occurred only with extensive behavioral testing in the lesioned visual field. These improvements were particularly pronounced for stimuli not masked by noise. On the other hand, deficits in the ability to extract motion from noisy stimuli and in the accuracy of direction discrimination persisted despite extensive behavioral training. These results demonstrate the importance of areas MT and MST for the perception of motion direction, particularly in the presence of noise. In addition, they provide evidence for the importance of behavioral training for functional recovery after cortical lesions. The data also strongly support the idea of functional specialization of areas MT and MST for motion processing.  (+info)

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (4/49462)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Permanent work incapacity, mortality and survival without work incapacity among occupations and social classes: a cohort study of ageing men in Geneva. (5/49462)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the burden of disability and death in men, from middle age to age of retirement, among occupational groups and classes in Geneva. METHODS: Men were included if they resided in the Canton of Geneva, were 45 years of age in 1970-1972, and were not receiving a disability pension at the start of the follow-up. The cohort of 5137 men was followed up for 20 years and linked to national registers of disability pension allowance and of causes of death. RESULTS: There was a steep upward trend in incidence of permanent work incapacity with lower social class for all causes as well as for the seven causes of disability studied. Compared with professional occupations (social class I), the relative risk (RR) of permanent work incapacity was 11.4 for partly skilled and unskilled occupations (class IV+V) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.2-28.0). The social class gradient in mortality was in the same direction as that in work incapacity although much less steep (RR class IV+V to class I = 1.6, 95% CI : 1.1-2.2). Survival without work incapacity at the time of the 65th birthday ranged from only 57% in construction workers and labourers to 89% in science and related professionals. Unemployment in Geneva was below 1.5% during almost all the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Medically-ascertained permanent work incapacity and survival without work incapacity have shown considerably greater socioeconomic differentials than the mortality differentials.  (+info)

A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (6/49462)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

Comparison of active and cancer registry-based follow-up for breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. (7/49462)

The authors compared the relative effectiveness of two distinct follow-up designs in prospective cohort studies--the active approach, based on direct contact with study subjects, and the passive approach, based on record linkages with population-based cancer registries--utilizing available information from the New York University Women's Health Study (WHS) and the New York State Cancer Registry (NYSCR). The analyses were limited to breast cancer cases identified during the period 1985-1992, for which follow-up was considered reasonably complete by both the WHS and the NYSCR. Among 12,947 cohort members who reported a New York State address, 303 pathologically confirmed cases were identified through active follow-up and 284 through record linkage. Sixty-three percent of cancers were identified by both sources, 21% by the WHS only, and 16% by the NYSCR only. The agreement was appreciably better for invasive cancers. The percentage of cases identified only by the NYSCR was increased among subjects whose active follow-up was incomplete, as well as among nonwhites, obese patients, and parous patients. This suggests that relying on either type of follow-up alone may introduce certain biases in evaluating risk factors for breast cancer. Combining both approaches appears to be a better strategy in prospective cohort studies.  (+info)

Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older. (8/49462)

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

Abstract: : Purpose:To evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of ATL HDI-5000 CDI measurements of volumetric blood flowas compared to an in-vitro phantom flow model. Methods:A phantom flow model was constructed using agarose gel to mimic fatty soft tissue. 1.57mm and 2.36mm lumens were created in the gel. A UHDC flow system pumped blood mimicking fluid through each tube at three different rates. The ATL HDI-5000 measured the velocity and volumetric flow in the phantom model using cineloops (a cineloop is a rapidly acquired sequence of CDI images). A newly developed software package from ATL calculated both volumetric flow and velocity from the cineloops. Measurements were performed with the probe in four different positions: 1) 45° angle, parallel to the flow, 2) 45° angle, offset to the flow, 3) 75° angle, parallel to the flow, and 4) 75° angle, offset to the flow. The coefficient of variance was then calculated for each of the probe positions. Results:The average coefficients of ...
Test-retest reproducibility study of [C-11]Preladenant. Assessment of stability and variation of the PET measures in healthy volunteers.
Studies of elderly patients with Garden-I and Garden-II femoral neck fractures (FNFs) suggest that a preoperative posterior tilt of the femoral head of at least 20° increases the risk of fixation failure. A recently published treatment algorithm recommended hemiarthroplasty over internal fixation for elderly patients with Garden-I and Garden-II FNFs and a preoperative posterior tilt of at least 20°. However, the reliability of the method used to measure the posterior tilt has not been assessed according to recommended standards for reliability trials. Four orthopedic registrars and four consultants measured the posterior tilt angle in 50 preoperative lateral radiographs at two occasions six weeks apart. We estimated inter- and intrarater reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We also assessed repeatability by the repeatability coefficient (RC) and agreement by the minimal detectable change (MDC). Based on the suggested cutoff value of 20°, we reported the overall percentage and
Expert psychiatrists conducting work disability evaluations often disagree on work capacity (WC) when assessing the same patient. More structured and standardised evaluations focusing on function could improve agreement. The RELY studies aimed to establish the inter-rater reproducibility (reliability and agreement) of functional evaluations in patients with mental disorders applying for disability benefits and to compare the effect of limited versus intensive expert training on reproducibility. We performed two multi-centre reproducibility studies on standardised functional WC evaluation (RELY 1 and 2). Trained psychiatrists interviewed 30 and 40 patients respectively and determined WC using the Instrument for Functional Assessment in Psychiatry (IFAP). Three psychiatrists per patient estimated WC from videotaped evaluations. We analysed reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]) and agreement (standard error of measurement [SEM] and proportions of comparisons within prespecified limits
Methodological study of affine transformations of gene expression data with proposed robust non-parametric multi-dimensional normalization method - Background: Low-level processing and normalization of microarray data are most important steps in microarray analysis, which have profound impact on downstream analysis. Multiple methods have been suggested to date, but it is not clear which is the best. It is therefore important to further study the different normalization methods in detail and the nature of microarray data in general. Results: A methodological study of affine models for gene expression data is carried out. Focus is on two-channel comparative studies, but the findings generalize also to single- and multi-channel data. The discussion applies to spotted as well as in-situ synthesized microarray data. Existing normalization methods such as curve-fit (lowess) normalization, parallel and perpendicular translation normalization, and quantile normalization, but also dye-swap normalization are
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used as a clinical outcome measure. However, the reliability of the 6MWT is unknown in individuals who have recently experienced a hip fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative and absolute interrater reliability of the 6MWT in individuals with hip fracture.. METHODS: Two senior physical therapy students independently examined a convenience sample of 20 participants in a randomized order. Their assessments were separated by 2 days and followed the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. Hip fracture-related pain was assessed with the Verbal Ranking Scale.. RESULTS: Participants (all women) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 78.1 (5.9) years performed the test at a mean of 31.5 (5.8) days postsurgery. Of the participants, 10 had a cervical fracture and 10 had a trochanteric fracture. Excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC2.1] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.97) ...
Background This paper presents the first meta-analysis for the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of journal peer reviews. IRR is defined as the extent to which two or more independent reviews of the same scientific document agree. Methodology/Principal Findings Altogether, 70 reliability coefficients (Cohens Kappa, intra-class correlation [ICC], and Pearson product-moment correlation [r]) from 48 studies were taken into account in the meta-analysis. The studies were based on a total of 19,443 manuscripts; on average, each study had a sample size of 311 manuscripts (minimum: 28, maximum: 1983). The results of the meta-analysis confirmed the findings of the narrative literature reviews published to date: The level of IRR (mean ICC/r2 = .34, mean Cohens Kappa = .17) was low. To explain the study-to-study variation of the IRR coefficients, meta-regression analyses were calculated using seven covariates. Two covariates that emerged in the meta-regression analyses as statistically significant to gain an
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of shoulder active range of motion in prone versus supine. T2 - A reliability and concurrent validity study. AU - Furness, James. AU - Johnstone, Scott. AU - Hing, Wayne. AU - Abbott, Allan. AU - Climstein, Mike. N1 - © and inclinometer have been shown to be reliable tools that show good concurrent validity.. PY - 2015/10/3. Y1 - 2015/10/3. N2 - BACKGROUND: As swimming and surfing are prone dominant sports, it would be more sport specific to assess shoulder active range of motion in this position.OBJECTIVES: To determine the reliability of the inclinometer and HALO© for assessing shoulder active range of motion in supine and prone and the concurrent validity of the HALO©. Concurrent validity is based on the comparison of the HALO© and inclinometer. To determine if active range of motion (AROM) differences exists between prone and supine when assessing shoulder internal (IR) and external rotation (ER).DESIGN: The design included clinical measurement, reliability and ...
Acceptable limits of bacteria in air quality in an RTE room - posted in Food Microbiology: Hi everyone, I havent been on here much but I am in need of some information. I am searching for some technical resources on acceptable limits of bacteria in air quality in a RTE room. Just looking for acceptable limits for TPC, TAC, Total coliforms etc. Any help would be greatly appreciated. THANKS IN ADVANCE.
This study was comprised of two phases. In Phase One an intense literature review was performed to facilitate item generation for the initial item-pool. This was then subjected to a review by a panel of experts to establish content validity. Phase Two involved the actual testing of the content validated item pool amongst a sample of ICU nurses from the target population. Ethical approval was obtained from the relevant hospitals. Classical Test Theory was implemented for psychometric evaluation of the instrument. Reliability of the instrument was addressed through the technique of test-retest reliability using Pearsons product-moment correlation coefficient and the Intra-Class correlation coefficient. Finally, the internal consistency of the instrument was addressed to examine the tools stability ...
Intraclass test-retest reliability coefficients (one-way ANOVA model for a single measure) ranged from .940 to .996. Validity coefficients determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficients for males and females, respectively, were as follows: B-90° DTE vs. PRC-DTE = .82, .62 (p , .05); B-90° DTE vs. PRC-STE = .55, .38 (p , .05); B-90° DTE vs. DSBL = −.29, −.23; FG-TE vs. PRC-DTE = .23, −.11; FG-TE vs. PRC-STE = −.15, .33; and FG-TE vs. DSBL = −.04, −.36. ...
This study evaluated the acceptability and psychometric properties (convergent validity, test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability) of the Italian version of the Mental Health Recovery Star (MHRS).Convergent validity was assessed by examining readings on MHRS scales and the relevant scales of other validated tools: the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS), World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQoL-B) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Temporal stability was tested by 117 service users completing the MHRS two months apart. Finally, inter-rater reliability was examined by 42 keyworkers giving readings for a clinical case, which was described and discussed at the end of a training session.. Service users and keyworkers perceived the Recovery Star as acceptable and easy to use. Convergent validity was demonstrated and there was good test-retest reliability for all areas of the Star. Cohens kappa coefficient was calculated as a measure of inter-rater ...
onstruct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO₂ max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO₂ max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p , .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The joint council on thoracic surgery education coronary artery assessment tool has high interrater reliability. AU - Lee, Richard. AU - Enter, Daniel. AU - Lou, Xiaoying. AU - Feins, Richard H.. AU - Hicks, George L.. AU - Gasparri, Mario. AU - Takayama, Hiroo. AU - Young, J Nilas. AU - Calhoon, John H.. AU - Crawford, Fred A.. AU - Mokadam, Nahush A.. AU - Fann, James I.. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. N2 - Background: Barriers to incorporation of simulation in cardiothoracic surgery training include lack of standardized, validated objective assessment tools. Our aim was to measure interrater reliability and internal consistency reliability of a coronary anastomosis assessment tool created by the Joint Council on Thoracic Surgery Education. Methods: Ten attending surgeons from different cardiothoracic residency programs evaluated nine video recordings of 5 individuals (1 medical student, 1 resident, 1 fellow, 2 attendings) performing coronary anastomoses on two simulation models, ...
To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to validate a questionnaire (translated into Brazilian Portuguese) that measures the quality of life of women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The FACIT-CD questionnaire was developed by Rao et al. [6] in 2010. To date, no other studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of this instrument, which means that some comparisons are only exploratory.. The first test assessed the reliability of the questionnaire by analysing the internal consistency using Cronbachs alpha coefficient. Results higher than 0.70 indicate that the items on the scales or domains are homogeneous or that they measure the same attribute. In this study, the value on the relationship scale was lower than expected (0.66). However, other authors support the hypothesis that Cronbachs alpha values ​​higher than 0.60 could be acceptable [31]. Despite this assumption, we believe that a value of 0.70 ​​would be more desirable, and thus, we ...
The Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) evaluates the effectiveness of health education and self-management programs provided to people dealing with a wide range of conditions. Aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Dutch translation of the heiQ and to compare the results with the English, German and French translations. A systematic translation process was undertaken. Psychometric properties were studied among patients with arthritis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and asthma (n = 286). Factorial validity using confirmatory factor analysis, item difficulty (D), item remainder correlation and composite reliability were conducted. Stability was tested using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Items were well understood and only minor language adjustments were required. Confirmatory fit indices were |0.95 and item difficulty was D ≥ 0.65 for all items in scales showing acceptable fit indices, except for the reversed Emotional distress scale. Composite
Background: Evaluation of physical activity by condition-specific surveys provides more accurate results than generic physical activity questionnaires. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) in Turkish pregnant women. Methods: In the translation and cultural adaptation of the KPAS, the 6-phase guidelines recommended in the literature were followed. The study included a total of 151 pregnant women who were assessed using the Turkish version of KPAS, the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the SenseWear Pro3 Armband. To determine the test-retest reliability, the KPAS was reapplied after 7 days. The psychometric properties of KPAS were analyzed with respect to internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Results: Cronbach α coefficient indicating the internal consistency of the Turkish KPAS was found to be .60 to .80, showing moderate reliability. The intraclass correlation ...
How is Engineering/Service Test & Independent Evaluation Program abbreviated? E/S TIEP stands for Engineering/Service Test & Independent Evaluation Program. E/S TIEP is defined as Engineering/Service Test & Independent Evaluation Program very rarely.
NHTSA has previously conducted testing to evaluate the repeatability of the oblique offset moving deformable barrier test procedure. Since this testing, NHTSA has made changes to the test procedure, and changes to regulations and consumer information testing have propagated to the vehicle fleet. Therefore, there is a need to re-evaluate the repeatability of the test procedure. Also, the reproducibility of the test procedure needs to be evaluated to determine the variability of the test results among multiple test facilities. To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the test procedure three tests of a single vehicle model were conducted at three different test facilities for a total of nine tests. The responses of the vehicle and its occupants, THOR 50th percentile male ATDs in the driver and right front passenger seating positions, were evaluated to determine repeatability within a single test facility and for reproducibility among the three test facilities. The results demonstrated ...
BACKGROUND: Accurate limb volume measurement is key in the assessment of outcomes in lymphedema microsurgery. There are two commonly used methods as follows: manual circumferential measurement (tape) or Perometer measurement. There are no data on the intra- and interclass correlation of either method, making it difficult to establish a gold standard of limb volume measurement. We aim to assess the intra- and interclass correlation of each method to establish the most appropriate method for clinical practice and future research studies, aiming to compare the accuracy and reliability of tape measurement as assessed against Perometer measurement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Student volunteers and experts (lymphedema practitioners) were each asked to perform repeat tape and Perometer measurements on the upper or lower limb of one healthy volunteer. Perometer measurements were globally more accurate than tape (average SE [Perometer]: 23.23 vs. 77.21 [tape]). For intraobserver reliability, experts outperformed
OBJECTIVES: To test the reproducibility of the ABILOCO questionnaire. To validate the patient self-reporting method and the third-party assessment of the stroke patients locomotion ability by a treating physical therapist. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult stroke patients (N=28; 59+/-13y). The time since stroke ranged from 3 to 253 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The ABILOCO questionnaire. RESULTS: The results of patient self-assessment and the results of the third-party assessments by the physiotherapists at a 2-week interval were highly correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=.77 and ICC=.89, respectively). The results of the patient self-assessment and the third-party assessment by the physical therapist were both well correlated to assessment by an independent medical examiner who observed the patient during the 13 ABILOCO activities (ICC=.69 and ICC=.87, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The use of ABILOCO as a ...
Few studies have evaluated changes on parent-child agreement in HRQOL over time. The objectives of the study were to assess parent-child agreement on childs HRQOL in a 3-year longitudinal study, and to identify factors associated with possible disagreement. A sample of Spanish children/adolescents aged 8-18 years and their parents both completed the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. Data on age, gender, family socioeconomic status (SES), and mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) was also collected at baseline (2003), and again after 3 years (2006). Changes in family composition were collected at follow-up. Agreement was assessed through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman plots. Generalizing Estimating Equation (GEE) models were built to analyze factors associated with parent-child disagreement. A total of 418 parent-child pairs were analyzed. At baseline the level of agreement on HRQOL was low to moderate and it was related to the level of HRQOL reported.
Purpose To comprehensively assess the precision and agreement of anterior corneal power measurements using 8 different devices. Methods Thirty-five eyes from 35 healthy subjects were included in the prospective study. In the first session, a single examiner performed on each subject randomly measurements with the RC-5000 (Tomey Corp., Japan), KR-8000 (Topcon, Japan), IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany), E300 (Medmont International, Australia), Allegro Topolyzer (Wavelight AG, Germany), Vista (EyeSys, TX), Pentacam (Oculus, Germany) and Sirius (CSO, Italy). Measurements were repeated in the second session (1 to 2 weeks later). Repeatability and reproducibility of corneal power measurements were assessed based on the intrasession and intersession within-subject standard deviation (Sw), repeatability (2.77Sw), coefficient of variation (COV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement was evaluated by 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results All devices demonstrated high repeatability and
MATH, \begin{array}{rrc} \text{little r} & = & \frac{\text{degree to which X and Y vary together}}{\text{degree to which X and Y vary independently}} \\ & = & \frac{\href{Covariance}{Covariance} \text{ of X and Y}}{\href{Variance}{Variance}\text{ of X and Y}} \end{array} ,/MATH, The correlation is the standardized Covariance as standard deviation is the standardized variance. (Standardized to get the value in the range). ...
We observed a high correlation between duplicate measurements of cord blood serum estrogen and SHBG levels. Variance component analysis showed that ,80% of the variation in assay results could be explained by the variability between babies. There has been only one study that presented the assay reproducibility of cord blood estrogen levels to our knowledge. In a study of 256 male and female babies by Maccoby et al. (19) , Pearsons correlation coefficients between duplicate measurements conducted in three samples of babies ranged from 0.98 to 0.99.. A few studies have been conducted to examine the laboratory reproducibility of serum and plasma estrogen levels in adult women. Bolelli et al. (10) evaluated the effects of long-term preservation of frozen plasma and serum samples on the sex hormone assay results including estradiol (10) . When assays were repeated 3 years after baseline, Pearsons correlation coefficient between the two measurements for both serum and plasma estradiol was 0.99 for ...
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: 1) investigate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of use of the Flexicurve for measurement of spinal length (L), thoracic (TL) and lumbar length (LL), thoracic (TW) and lumbar width (LW), and 2) q
Assessing Upper and Lower Extremities Via Tissue Dielectric Constant: Suitability of Single Versus Multiple Measurements Averaged. Harvey N. Mayrovitz, Lymphatic Research and Biology, 2018. Background: Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements as an index of local tissue water are useful in a range of applications most notably to characterize and assess lymphedema. Once a measuring device is applied to skin and a result is obtained in less than 10 seconds, but multiple sites may be required and use of the standard triplicate measurements may be time prohibitive. Thus, this studys goal was to provide data from which informed judgments could be made as to the impact of making a single measurement to reduce expended clinic time.. Methods and Results: Sixty subjects (30 female) were recruited with an average age (mean-standard deviation) of 30.6-13.4 years. TDC was measured in triplicate bilaterally at forearm, hand palm, lateral calf, medial calf, and foot dorsum. The agreement in absolute TDC ...
Microscopy image-based measurement variability in high-throughput imaging experiments for biological drug discoveries, such as COVID-19 therapies was addressed in this study. Variability of measurements came from (1) computational approaches (methods), (2) implementations of methods, (3) parameter settings, (4) chaining methods into workflows, and (5) stabilities of floating-point arithmetic on diverse hardware. Measurement variability was addressed by (a) introducing interoperability between algorithms, (b) enforcing automated capture of computational provenance and parameter settings, and (c) quantifying multiple sources of variabilities for 10 nucleus measurements, from 8 workflow streams, executed in 2 workflow graph configurations, on 2 computational hardware platforms at 2 locations. Using modified Mean Absolute Error (mMAE [%]) to compare measurements, We concluded that for the task of image-based nucleus measurements the variability sources were (1) implementations (0.10 % - 5.72 % per ...
In the context of large-scale human system immunology studies, controlling for technical and biological variability is crucial to ensure that experimental data support research conclusions. In this study, we report on a universal workflow to evaluate both technical and biological variation in multiparameter flow cytometry, applied to the development of a 10-color panel to identify all major cell populations and T cell subsets in cryopreserved PBMC. Replicate runs from a control donation and comparison of different gating strategies assessed the technical variability associated with each cell population and permitted the calculation of a quality control score. Applying our panel to a large collection of PBMC samples, we found that most cell populations showed low intraindividual variability over time. In contrast, certain subpopulations such as CD56 T cells and Temra CD4 T cells were associated with high interindividual variability. Age but not gender had a significant effect on the frequency of ...
These findings indicate that this questionnaire has satisfactory reliability and validity. It can detect different levels of satisfaction12 and is therefore suitable for evaluating out of hours care received by a broad range of patients. The questionnaire has satisfactory internal reliability with Cronbachs α coefficients greater than 0.60 for all scales and greater than 0.70 for five.38 The test and retest scores were highly correlated, though the regressions show that the retest scores were generally lower, so that there may have been a real fall in satisfaction with time. In a true test of test-retest reliability the variable and measurement technique should be the same on both occasions. The lower retest scores may therefore also reflect the difference in the method of application, with greater expressed satisfaction when the research assistants were present. Nevertheless, these data indicate that the retest reliability of the questionnaire is broadly satisfactory.. Content validity was ...
The aim of this study was to develop and validate an asthma-specific quality of life questionnaire for adolescents with asthma. The final version of the AAQOL contains 32 items covering six domains of HRQOL. It is designed for self-administration with most respondents requiring 5-7 min for completion. The AAQOL showed good construct validity given the correlations with other quality of life measures as anticipated. The high test-retest reliability provides the basis for good responsiveness of the AAQOL.. As HRQOL may be influenced by the individuals current stage of cognitive, social and emotional development, it has been argued that HRQOL in adolescents needs to be addressed separately 17. The AAQOL takes into account the key developmental aspects of adolescence as it was specifically designed for the age range 12-17 yrs. The AAQOL is self-completed and focuses on the adolescents subjective perception. Age appropriateness is ensured by including items which were defined as particularly ...
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OBJECTIVES: Responses to health-related items on the Community Health Survey (CHS) provide evidence that is used to develop community-based health policy. This study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of selected health behavioral items on the CHS according to item category, response period, and response scale. METHODS: A sample of 159 men and women 20 to 69 years of age participated in a test-retest with an interval of 14 to 21 days. A total of 28 items relating to smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and weight control, and mental health were selected. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of the items using kappa statistics. RESULTS: Kappa values ranged from 0.44 to 0.93. Items concerning habits had higher kappa values (mean, 0.7; standard error, 0.05) than items concerning awareness or attitudes (p=0.012). The kappa value of items with two- to four-point scales was 0.63, which was higher than the value of 0.59 for items with scales involving five or more points, although this ...
Awareness of reproducibility issues in various areas of science has been on the rise in recent years, with systematic replication efforts in areas such as psychology, economics, cancer biology and social sciences arising in recent years. The low reproducibility rates in some of these areas raise the question of whether irreproducible results can be predicted from particular features in the original publications. Whether reproducibility can be accurately estimated from published information has major implications not only for choosing what to believe or what is worth replicating, but also for how we assess and fund science.. The question of whether researchers can estimate the reproducibility of published findings has been studied in replication initiatives in psychology (see also this), economics and social sciences, and the answer is that they are reasonably good at it. The pooled prediction accuracy across these four studies is around 66% for individual surveys and 73% for prediction markets, ...
Twelve healthy recreational male runners participated.. The selected muscles were: M. quadriceps-vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. tibialis anterior (TA) and the M. gastrocnemius caput mediale (GAS) of the right leg.. The MVC testing conditions were: dry land, underwater prior to (Water 1) and following an aquatic exercise trial (Water 2).. For each muscle, a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to compare MVC scores between testing conditions, and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error (CV%) were calculated to determine the reproducibility and precision of MVC scores, respectively, between conditions.. For all muscles, no significant differences were observed between land and water MVC scores (p = 0.88-0.97), and high reliability (ICC = 0.96-0.98) and precision (CV% = 7.4-12.6%) were observed between MVC conditions. Under MMT conditions it appears that comparable MVC sEMG values were achieved on land and in ...
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p,BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) stays often lead to reduced physical functioning. Change in physical functioning in patients in the ICU is inadequately assessed through available instruments. The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI), developed to assess mobility in elderly hospitalized patients, is promising for use in patients who are critically ill.,/p,,p,OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinimetric properties of the DEMMI for patients in the ICU.,/p,,p,DESIGN: A prospective, observational reliability and validity study was conducted.,/p,,p,METHODS: To evaluate interrater and intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients), patients admitted to the ICU were assessed with the DEMMI during and after ICU stay. Validity was evaluated by correlating the DEMMI with the Barthel Index (BI), the Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), and manual muscle testing (MMT). Feasibility was evaluated based on the percentage of participants in ...
Practical and comprehensive, this is the first book to focus on noncredible performance in clinical contexts. Experts in the field discuss the varied causes of invalidity, describe how to efficiently incorporate validity tests into clinical evaluations, and provide direction on how to proceed when noncredible responding is detected. Thoughtful, ethical guidance is given for offering patient feedback and writing effective reports. Population-specific chapters cover validity assessment with military personnel; children; and individuals with dementia, psychiatric disorders, mild traumatic brain injury, academic disability, and other concerns.
The limits of agreement will be estimated for the difference between single measurements by each method. This is standard practice when reporting patient results for PEFR. The mean measurements option uses the mean of the replicates to compute the limits of agreement. However, this will lead to narrower limits of agreement (due to the reduction in standard deviation mentioned above) and should only be used when it is standard practice to use the mean of multiple measurements as the patient result ...
Durability and reliability are crucially linked in product validation testing. Typically the products life requirement is to be able to withstand specified loading for a given duration with desired reliability and confidence levels. Product validation or durability testing is then used to assess actual product life relative to these requirements. The goal of validation test is to demonstrate that the part is indeed capable of withstanding the loading that it will see in service. It is desirable that lab loading is representative of and correlates with service loading. Fatigue analysis techniques and material data like the stress-life (SN) curve can be used to define equivalent damage test specifications and accelerate tests so a long service life can be replicated quickly in the test lab. The challenge with typical validation test specs is that while fatigue methodologies can be used to address damage correlation and equivalence, testing a single part does not provide information about product ...
We take measurements every day to control processes and to accept or reject products. Often, there is little thought that goes into understanding the measurement system. We take it for granted that the numbers are good. The quality of a measurement system is determined by the statistical properties of the data that are generated. We know, for example, that when the same person measures the same part with the same instrument that there can be different results. This is termed repeatability - re
We found that the 1-min STS test showed very little learning effect and excellent test-retest reliability in COPD patients. Strong correlations with the 6MWT suggest good cross-sectional construct validity. The 1-min STS test was responsive to two different pulmonary rehabilitation programmes, and the MID for clinical practice was estimated as three repetitions. We also observed similar responses to the 1-min STS test and 6MWT in terms of end-exercise cardiorespiratory values.. This is the first study to thoroughly assess the measurement properties of the 1-min STS test in COPD patients. Our findings for cross-sectional validity of the 1-min STS test were in accordance with previous studies that also found moderate to strong correlations (r=0.47-0.75) with the 6MWT [5, 15] and with quadriceps strength (r=0.65) [5]. Many measures met our assumptions about strength of correlation, indicating good cross-sectional construct validity; however, the poor change score correlations with exercise capacity ...
Objective: A large number of tools for assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials are available; however, users have little guidance as to whether a given score represents high or low validity. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of studies identified as having high-internal validity, referred to as the standard studies, to interpret internal validity scores from studies with unknown internal validity. Methods: The standard studies were identified by locating 6 candidate studies reporting the findings of randomized controlled trials from the Journal of American Medicine Association or the New England Journal of Medicine and scoring the studies using 2 scales, the Jadad scale (high score = 5; low = 0) and an internal validity information scale (IVI; high score = 70; low = 0). The 2 studies with the highest average rank were chosen as the standard studies. To determine if the standard studies facilitate interpretation of internal validity scores, 11 randomized controlled ...
Randomizing doctors, medical practices or even entire communities to interventions but taking observations on individual patients or families is not a new idea in public health research but it has received considerable attention in the past few years. Aside from references provided in the Zyzanski et al article, readers will find the recent review papers by Murray et al and by Donner and Klar interesting and informative. Articles in the current issue of the Annals emphasize common facts that every researcher must consider when conducting a group randomized trial (GRT). These center about accounting for the correlation among responses from the same cluster in both the design of the trial as illustrated by Killip et al as well as in the analysis of the data as illustrated by Reed. The key concept in both articles is the product of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the average cluster size. The ICC measures the degree of correlation among responses in the same cluster. The product is ...
The COMFORT scale is a measurement tool to assess distress, sedation and pain in nonverbal paediatric patients. Several studies have described the COMFORT scale, but no formal assessment of the methodological quality has been undertaken. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to study the clinimetric properties of the (modified) COMFORT scale in children up to 18 years. We searched Central, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Web of Science until December 2014. The selection, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. Quality of the included studies was appraised using the COSMIN checklist. We found 30 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Most participants were ventilated children up to 4 years without neurological disorders. The results on internal consistency and interrater reliability showed values of ,0.70 in most studies, indicating an adequate reliability. Construct validity resulted in correlations between 0.68 and 0.84 for distress, ...
The visual vertical (VV) consists of repeated adjustments of a luminous rod to the earth vertical. How many trials are required to reach consistency in this measure? This question has never been addressed despite the widespread clinical use of the measurement in stroke rehabilitation. VV perception was assessed (10 trials) in 117 patients undergoing rehabilitation after a first hemisphere stroke. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were calculated for each patient category: with contralesional VV bias (n = 48), ipsilesional VV bias (n = 17) and normal VV (n = 52). For patients with VV biases, 6 trials were required to reach high inter-trial reliability (contralesional: ICC = 0.9, SEM = 1.36°; ipsilesional: ICC = 0.896, SEM = 0.96°). For patients with normal VV, a minimum of 10 trials was required (ICC = 0.728, SEM = 1.13°). A set of 6 trials correctly classified 96 % of patients. In the literature, 10 is the most frequently used number of trials used
The results of this study for adults in India show evidence of reliability for the IMS-PAQ, with good intraclass correlation and kappa statistics between baseline and retest. The validity coefficients and associations produced between total activity/activity intensity and theoretical constructs of PA were in agreement with those predicted, providing evidence of construct validity for the IMS-PAQ. These findings suggest that the IMS-PAQ is valid for ranking individuals based on reported PA within this population but that further research may be needed for urban residents and women. This study has constructed categories of PA based upon reported time in different activity intensities and used them to predict associations with relevant health outcomes (BMI, percent body fat and pulse rate) in order to provide a more thorough assessment of the validity of the questionnaire.. The results show that for the sample as a whole the IMS-PAQ has good reliability with intra-class correlations ranging from ...
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Surprisingly, the Odom criteria have never been validated.. The aim of a study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Odom criteria for the evaluation of surgical procedures of the cervical spine.. Patients with degenerative cervical spine disease were included in the study and divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of their most predominant symptom: myelopathy or radiculopathy. Reliability was assessed with interrater and test-retest design using quadratic weighted kappa coefficients. Construct validity was assessed by means of hypotheses testing. To evaluate whether the Odom criteria could act as a global perceived effect (GPE) scale, we assessed concurrent validity by comparing area under the curve (AUC) values of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the set of questionnaires.. A total of 110 patients were included in the study; 19 were excluded, leaving 91 in our analysis. Reliability assessments showed κ = 0.77 for overall interrater reliability and κ = 0.93 ...
Application of the velocity profile method is recommended for reliable measurement of flow volume in larger vessels, and ultrasonic flowmetry is a useful clinical tool for this purpose. We used the velocity profile in conjunction with a minor modification in the conventional velocity profile method and examined the reproducibility of flowmetry from color Doppler data. Data of three examiners were allowed to analyze intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver agreement in the common carotid artery, and we measured flow volume in the peripheral vessels of healthy individuals. Estimated flow volumes in five healthy examinees were 350 to 550 ml/min and did not vary significantly between examiners. Interobserver correlation was good (r 1=0.63), but intraobserver correlations in two sonographers were excellent (r 1=0.85) in by one who was experienced in this method and poor (r 1=0.32) in the other. Good interobserver agreement and intraobserver reproducibility of experienced examiners suggests that this
We measured the long-term test-retest reliability of [C-11]raclopride binding in striatal subregions, the thalamus and the cortex using the bolus-plus-infusion method and a high-resolution positron emission scanner. Seven healthy male volunteers underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) [C-11]raclopride assessments, with a 5-week retest interval. D-2/3 receptor availability was quantified as binding potential using the simplified reference tissue model. Absolute variability (VAR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values indicated very good reproducibility for the striatum and were 4.5%/0.82, 3.9%/0.83, and 3.9%/0.82, for the caudate nucleus, putamen, and ventral striatum, respectively. Thalamic reliability was also very good, with VAR of 3.7% and ICC of 0.92. Test-retest data for cortical areas showed good to moderate reproducibility (6.1% to 13.1%). Our results are in line with previous test-retest studies of [C-11]raclopride binding in the striatum. A novel finding is the ...
OBJECTIVE: Of the various measures developed for studying persons with rheumatoid arthritis, only one that focuses on joint protection has undergone extensive testing, the Joint Protection Behavior Assessment (JPBA). The purpose of the present study was to examine the interrater and intrarater reliability of the JPBA. METHOD: Six healthy participants performed the JPBA under three test conditions (uninformed, informed, completely guided joint protection behavior). The 18 test performances were videotaped and scored by nine independent raters. RESULTS: Analysis of these data showed that interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) was .90 or higher, and intrarater reliability was .95 or higher (ICC). The correlation between the JPBA and its two shortened versions was .95 or higher (ICC). Internal consistency was also high, with a coefficient alpha of 0.95 for the complete JPBA. Kappa values showed that for most subtasks, there was fair to excellent agreement between raters ...
Objective: To assess classical psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Bech-Rafaelsens mania (MAS) and melancholia (MES) scales.. Method: Observational, prospective, and multicentric study in bipolar out-patients. Convergent validity was assessed against the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Discriminant validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change, were also assessed.. Results: One hundred and thirteen bipolar patients with a manic episode and 102 bipolar patients with a depressive episode were included. Both the MAS and the MES showed appropriate convergent validity (r , 0.90), discriminant validity (P , 0.0001), internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha ,0.80), test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.69 for the MAS and 0.94 for the MES], inter-rater reliability (ICC , 0.80), and sensitivity to change at 4 weeks since inception (P , 0.0001; within-group effect size ≥1.8).. Conclusion: The Spanish ...
tDNA-PCR and capillary electrophoresis of the amplified DNA fragments already have been evaluated for the differentiation ofListeria species (14) and enterococci (1). To enable identification of a large number of strains, a software program which was described previously (1) has been developed at our laboratory. In the present study, the interlaboratory reproducibility of tDNA-PCR was evaluated in order to develop a fully exchangeable digital fingerprint database which can be consecutively extended with new fingerprints of species belonging to a wide array of genera.. For S. agalactiae strains, tDNA-PCR resulted in a fingerprint with six reproducibly present peaks. The standard deviation of the amplified tDNA spacer fragment lengths (peak values) was calculated for each of the six peaks obtained in 122 fingerprints of strain LMG14694T. The standard deviation of all samples ranged from 0.19 to 0.38 bp for peaks between 54 and 253 bp, which indicates that reproducibility with regard to peak values ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Standardization of sonographic lung-to-head ratio measurements in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia. T2 - Impact on the reproducibility and efficacy to predict outcomes. AU - Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck. AU - Sananes, Nicolas. AU - Olutoye, Oluyinka O.. AU - Cass, Darrell L.. AU - Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh. AU - Lee, Timothy C.. AU - Cassady, Christopher I.. AU - Mehollin-Ray, Amy. AU - Welty, Stephen. AU - Fernandes, Caraciolo. AU - Belfort, Michael A.. AU - Lee, Wesley. AU - Ruano, Rodrigo. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Objectives - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of standardization of the lung-to-head ratio measurements in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia on prediction of neonatal outcomes and reproducibility. Methods - We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 77 cases of isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia managed in a single center between 2004 and 2012. We compared lung-to-head ratio measurements that were performed ...
Key concepts in classical test theory are reliability and validity. A reliable measure is one that measures a construct consistently across time, individuals, and situations. A valid measure is one that measures what it is intended to measure. Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient, for validity. Both reliability and validity can be assessed statistically. Consistency over repeated measures of the same test can be assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient, and is often called test-retest reliability.[14] Similarly, the equivalence of different versions of the same measure can be indexed by a Pearson correlation, and is called equivalent forms reliability or a similar term.[14] Internal consistency, which addresses the homogeneity of a single test form, may be assessed by correlating performance on two halves of a test, which is termed split-half reliability; the value of this Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for two half-tests is adjusted with the Spearman-Brown ...
Objective: To report the agreement between gray-scale intravascular ultrasound (GS-IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in assessing the bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) structures and their respective reproducibility. Background: BVS are composed of an erodible polymer. Ultrasound and light signals backscattered from polymeric material differs from metallic stents using GS-IVUS and OCT. Methods: Forty-five patients included in the ABSORB trial were treated with a 3.0 × 18 mm BVS and imaged with GS-IVUS 20 MHz and OCT post-implantation. Qualitative (ISA, side-branch struts, protrusion, and dissections) and quantitative (number of struts, lumen, and scaffold area) measurements were assessed by two investigators. The agreement and the inter- and intraobserver reproducibility were investigated using the kappa (κ) and the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: GS-IVUS and OCT agreement was predominantly poor at a lesion, frame, and strut level analysis (κ and ICC ,0.4) ...
We investigated the interrater reliability and accuracy of two independent medical doctors in using NINCDS/ADRDA criteria to classify 82 elderly subjects enrolled in OPTIMA, a longitudinal study investigating dementia. Kappa statistics revealed moderate agreement (0.5) in overall classification of dementia type, and almost perfect agreement (0.9) on the absence or presence of dementia. Combining NINCDS/ADRDA possible and probable Alzheimers disease (AD) categories produced substantial agreement (0.7). Comparison with CERAD histopathological criteria for AD showed that combining possible and probable AD resulted in a high sensitivity and accuracy, but a low specificity. To increase specificity, the NINCDS/ADRDA probable AD category should be used alone. An important finding was that the accuracy of diagnoses of AD made from the case notes alone was not different from the diagnoses obtained following active involvement with participants.
Responsiveness of physicians is the social actions that physicians do to meet the legitimate expectations of service seekers. Since there is no such scale, this study aimed at developing one for measuring responsiveness of physicians in rural Bangladesh, by structured observation method. Data were collected from Khulna division of Bangladesh, through structured observation of 393 patient-consultations with physicians. The structured observation tool consisted of 64 items, with four Likert type response categories, each anchored with a defined scenario. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by same three raters observing 30 consultations. Data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), followed by assessment of internal consistency by ordinal alpha coefficient, inter-rater reliability by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), concurrent validity by correlating responsiveness score with waiting time, and known group validity by comparing public and private sector physicians. After removing
RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 38.13 years (SD = 11.45) and all men were married. Cronbach α of the MGSIS-I was 0.89 and interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Significant correlations were found between the MGSIS-I and the International Index of Erectile Function (P , .01), whereas correlation of the scale with non-similar scales was lower than with similar scale (confirming convergent and divergent validity). The scale could differentiate between subgroups in age, smoking status, and income (known-group validity). A single-factor solution that explained 70% variance of the scale was explored using exploratory factor analysis (confirming uni-dimensionality); confirmatory factor analysis indicated better fitness for the five-item version than the seven-item version of the MGSIS-I (root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, comparative fit index , 1.00 vs root mean square error of approximation = 0.10, comparative fit index , 0.97, respectively ...
Looking for online definition of test-retest reliability in the Medical Dictionary? test-retest reliability explanation free. What is test-retest reliability? Meaning of test-retest reliability medical term. What does test-retest reliability mean?
Cognitive diagnostic classification models (DCMs) have been developed to assess the cognitive processes underlying assessment responses. Current dissertation aims to provide theoretical and practical considerations for estimation of DCMs for educational applications by investigating several important underexplored issues. To avoid problems related to retrofitting of DCMs to an already existing data, test construction of the newly mathematics assessment for primary school DMA was based on a-priori defined Q-matrices. In this dissertation we compared DCMs with established psychometric models and investigated the incremental validity of DCMs profiles over traditional IRT scores. Furthermore, we addressed the issue of the verification of the Q-matrix definition. Moreover, we examined the impact of invalid Q-matrix specification on item, respondent parameter recovery, and sensitivity of selected fit measures. In order to address these issues one simulation study and two empirical studies illustrating ...
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility and relative validity and calibrate the dietary intake assessment of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using a random sample of 195 adults aged 20 to 50 years from the Central-West Region of Brazil. The reference method used by the study was two 24-hour recalls (24hR) that provided energy-adjusted deattenuated food intake data for comparison purposes. With respect to reproducibility, the average weighted kappa was 0.43 and exact agreement was 41.5%. With regard to relative validity, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.32 (thiamin) to 0.51 (carbohydrates), with a mean of 0.41. Deattenuation and adjustment for energy intake decreased most correlation coefficients in relation to crude values. The food frequency questionnaire showed good reliability and moderate validity for most nutrients based on classification into quartiles of energy and nutrient intake. The calibrated means of the FFQ were more similar to the means ...
Abstract: Motivation: Reproducibility analyses of biologically relevant microarray studies have mostly focused on overlap of detected biomarkers or correlation of differential expression evidences across studies. For clinical utility, direct inter-study prediction (i.e. to establish a prediction model in one study and apply to another) for disease diagnosis or prognosis prediction is more important. Normalization plays a key role for such a task. Traditionally, sample-wise normalization has been a standard for inter-array and inter-study normalization. For gene-wise normalization, it has been implemented for intra-study or inter-study predictions in a few papers while its rationale, strategy and effect remain unexplored.. Results: In this article, we investigate the effect of gene-wise normalization in microarray inter-study prediction. Gene-specific intensity discrepancies across studies are commonly found even after proper sample-wise normalization. We explore the rationale and necessity of ...
To err is human. Scientists being human, they make mistakes. Many if not most of the rules for doing science are designed to weed out mistakes. Reproducibility and replicability are recognized as playing a central role in this process. But a lot of confusion remains about the difference between these two labels and the relation between them. In this essay, I will explain why replicability is the foundation on top of which reproducibility can be constructed, and introduce verifiability as the missing link between them, which deserves particular attention in the context of computer-aided research.. First, a note about terminology. Some people use reproducible and replicable in the sense I will soon define, whereas others exchange the definitions of the two terms, and yet others seem to consider them synonyms. I hope that the scientific community will ultimately converge to common definitions, but we arent there yet.. To make the relation between replicability, reproducibility, and ...
This study evaluated the reproducibility of 24 soft tissue landmarks on six three-dimensional (3D) facial scans. The scans were taken on a DSP400 facial scanner and were viewed using a customized software program. Intraoperator data were obtained by one researcher placing the 24 landmarks on all six scans a total of 30 times. Thirty different orthodontists of varying experience were then asked to place all 24 landmarks on each of the six facial scans in order to establish interoperator reproducibility. The standard deviations (SDs) from the mean were calculated from the data for each individual landmark in the x-, y-, and z-axes.. For the intraoperator data, 12 of the 24 landmarks were found to be reproducible to within a 1 mm SD for each plane of space. The interoperator data showed lower reproducibility with just two landmarks showing less than a 1 mm SD in all three planes of space.. Familiarity with 3D facial scans and associated software programs is important in improving reproducibility. ...
Following guidelines from the Patient-Centred Outcomes Research Institute and using a mixed methods study, a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for both nerve trauma and compression affecting the hand, the Impact of a Hand Nerve Disorders (I-HaND) Scale, was developed. Face-to-face interviews with 14 patients and subsequent pilot-testing with 61 patients resulted in the development of the 32-item PROM. A longitudinal validation study with 82 patients assessed the psychometric properties of the I-HaND. Content and construct validity was confirmed by cognitive interviews with patients and through principal component analysis. The I-HaND has high internal consistency (α = 0.98) and excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97). Responsiveness statistics showed that the I-HaND can detect change over 3 months and discriminate between improvers and non-improvers. We conclude that the I-HaND can be used as a PROM for people with a range of hand nerve ...
Scientific research informs decisions that address many pressing issues, but what happens when results from one lab or study cannot be confirmed in another? Inconsistent results undermine the validity of scientific findings and contribute to the growing concern about replicability and reproducibility in science. A widespread strategy involving a variety of stakeholders is essential in order to promote openness and transparency in the research enterprise.. Three recent reports from the National Academies identify opportunities for meaningful improvement in research practices and offer guidance toward open, consistent, and objective science. Most recently, our 2019 report, Reproducibility and Replicability in Science, defines the terms reproducibility and replicability as distinct concepts that are each critical in achieving this goal. While many use these terms interchangeably, this differentiation is a critical step towards stronger scientific research practices and more reliable science. To ...
The psychometric properties of the Persian-language version of Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory- Revised (OCI-R) were studied in a sample of Iranian college students (N = 450). The total and each of the subscales of OCI-R-Persian demonstrated very high internal consistency as well as high test-retest reliability. Convergent and divergent validity of the OCI-R-Persian total scale and subscales were satisfactory. In general, the OCI-R-Persian appears to be a reliable and valid measure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in this non-clinical sample of Iranian college students.
Procedures for Estimating Internal Consistency Reliability Prepared by the Iowa Technical Adequacy Project (ITAP) July, 003 Table of Contents: Part Page Introduction...1 Description of Coefficient Alpha...3
The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of self-measurements taken by novice lay persons using a self-assembled tape measure after viewing a brief online instructional video. Results indicate that participants were able to accurately assemble the tape measure and demonstrate proficiency in measuring themselves when observed by lab technicians. The low technical error measurements and high reliability for duplicate measurements demonstrates excellent intra-observer accuracy and reliability. The high ICCs between participant home and lab waist, hip, and neck circumferences indicate that participant self-measurements are highly reliable over time, which is congruent with the limited research reporting reliability of self-measurements [10, 36]. The high reliability indicates that measurements individuals take over time can help them accurately track physical changes that may enable them, their health care providers, and researchers to better realize ...
In order to conduct studies on shared decision-making (SDM) and to implement SDM in routine practice, psychometrically tested measures are needed. The development of the short 5-item version of the OPTION scale (Observer OPTION5) allows to assess SDM from an observer perspective. Observer OPTION5 is so far only available in English and Dutch. The aim of this study was to translate the Observer OPTION5 rating scale into German and to test its psychometric properties. The German Observer OPTION5 was tested in a secondary data analysis of audio-recordings of patient-physician-consultations (N = 79) in German primary care practices. Demographic data were analysed using descriptive statistics. To assess inter- and intra-rater reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. For assessing concurrent validity, a correlation (Spearmans Rho) of the sum score of Observer OPTION5 and Observer OPTION12 was calculated. The consultations dealt with decisions regarding type 2 diabetes (N = 31)
Using emerging international guidelines, stringent procedures were used to develop and evaluate Canadian-French, German and UK translations/adaptions of the 50 item, parent-completed Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50). Multitrait analysis was used to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the hypothesized item sets across countries relative to the results obtained for a representative sample of children in the US. Cronbachs alpha coefficient was used to estimate the internal consistency reliability for each of the health scales. Floor and ceiling effects were also examined. Seventy-nine percent of all the item-scale correlations achieved acceptable internal consistency (0.40 or higher). The tests of the item convergent and discriminant validity were successful at least 87% of the time across all scales and countries. Equal item variance was observed 90% of the time across all countries. The reliability coefficients ranged from a low of 0.43 (parental time impact, Canadian English) to a
Several studies2,7,15,16 have analyzed the intra-rater reliability of the 6MWT; therefore, this test has been considered reliable for assessing functional capacity in patients with COPD after a practice test. However, there is a lack of studies verifying the inter-rater reliability for this population.. The intra-rater 6MWT reliability in our study presented ICC values for walked distance ,0.75, indicating excellent reliability. This analysis has been already studied in subjects with chronic respiratory disease by many authors, who found ICC values ranging from 0.82 to 0.99,7,12,14,15,33-35 confirming the findings of our study. The studies mentioned above were conducted with COPD,7,15,34 with obstructive disease and restrictive lung diseases,12 and with lung disease in the final stage.35 The last 2 studies not performed the second 6MWT, with an interval of 30 min after the first 6MWT, according to the standards of the ATS/ERS.7,14 Furthermore, we found low coefficient of variation values (0.06), ...
A brief measure is needed to examine the role of hopelessness on mental and physical health outcomes in large population studies. We examined the validity and reliability of two brief measures of hopelessness in a large non-clinical sample, one negatively valenced (Brief-H-Neg) and one positively valenced (Brief-H-Pos). Both were shown to correlate strongly with the longer BHS and mirror the positive correlation seen between the BHS and a measure of depression, providing evidence of concurrent validity, with adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability.. The sizes of the 2-week retest correlations for the brief measures reported in our non-clinical sample (0.67 and 0.72) are similar to those reported for the BHS in a sample of university undergraduates over a 3-week retest interval (0.67, female students) or a 10-week interval (0.75).25 ,26 Studies assessing the retest reliability of hopelessness instruments have reported varying retest intervals. Hopelessness may be conceptualised ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the inter-rater reliability and validity of the Netherlands Triage Standard (NTS) for paediatric triage. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using fictional cases for telephone and physical triage. METHOD: An expert panel established in advance the urgency of 40 cases concerning emergency help requests from non-referred children (the reference standard). These requests were presented in an online survey to triagists from three general practitioner (GP) out-of-hours practices, three ambulance dispatching centres and three hospital emergency departments. Triagists assessed all cases, using the NTS. We determined the agreement on degrees of urgency between different triagists and compared them with the reference standard. The outcome measure for inter-rater reliability was the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The outcome measures for validity were the degree of agreement with the reference standard, under-triage and over-triage, and sensitivity and specificity in ...
Iterative algorithms are widely applied in reliability analysis and design optimization. Nevertheless, phenomena of failed convergence, such as periodic oscillation, bifurcation, and chaos, are oftentimes observed in iterative procedures of solving some nonlinear problems. In the present paper, the essential causes of numerical instabilities including periodic oscillation and chaos of iterative solutions are revealed by the eigenvalue-based stability analysis of iterative schemes. To understand and control these instabilities, the stability transformation method (STM), which is capable of tackling numerical instabilities of iterative algorithms in reliability analysis and design optimization, is proposed. Finally, several benchmark examples of convergence control of PMA (performance measure approach) for probabilistic analysis and the SORA (sequential optimization and reliability assessment) for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) are presented. The observations from the benchmark ...
We evaluated the reliability of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and determined its ability to predict functional outcomes in stroke survivors. The rehabilitation effect on 8-OHdG and functional outcomes were also assessed. Sixty-one stroke patients received a 4-week rehabilitation. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The test-retest reliability of 8-OHdG was good (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.76). Upper-limb motor function and muscle power determined by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Medical Research Council (MRC) scales before rehabilitation showed significant negative correlation with 8-OHdG (r = −0.38, r = −0.30; p < 0.05). After rehabilitation, we found a fair and significant correlation between 8-OHdG and FMA (r = −0.34) and 8-OHdG and pain (r = 0.26, p < 0.05). Baseline 8-OHdG was significantly correlated with post-treatment FMA, MRC, and pain scores (r = −0.34, −0.31, and 0.25; p < 0.05), indicating its
The aim was to assess intraobserver reliability of a new semi-automated technique of embryo volumetry. Power calculations suggested 46 subjects with viable, singleton pregnancies were required for reliability analysis. Crown rump length (CRL) of each
The psychometric properties of Chinese version of SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale in patients with stroke Xiaofang Dong,1 Yanjin Liu,2 Aixia Wang,3 Min Wang41Neurology Department, 2Nursing Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, Peoples Republic of ChinaObjective: To test the Chinese version of the SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (C-ESES) in stroke patients and evaluate its validity and reliability.Background: Physical inactivity is a well established and changeable risk factor for stroke, and regular exercise of 3-7 days per week is essential for stroke survivors and the general population. Though regular exercise is beneficial, it has been proved that duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise are generally low in stroke survivors.Methods: The performance of the instrument was assessed intab 350 Chinese stroke survivors and repeated in 50 patients to examine test-retest reliability. Questionnaires included a form on demographic and
We report results from a worldwide interlaboratory comparison of samples among laboratories that measure (or measured) stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of atmospheric CH4 (δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4). The offsets among the laboratories are larger than the measurement reproducibility of individual laboratories. To disentangle plausible measurement offsets, we evaluated and critically assessed a large number of intercomparison results, some of which have been documented previously in the literature. The results indicate significant offsets of δ13C-CH4 and δD- CH4 measurements among data sets reported from different laboratories; the differences among laboratories at modern atmospheric CH4 level spread over ranges of 0.5 ‰ for δ13C-CH4 and 13 ‰ for δD-CH4. The intercomparison results summarized in this study may be of help in future at tempts to harmonize δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4 data sets from different laboratories in order to jointly incorporate them into modelling studies. However,
Background. Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine hindlimb ischemia. We assessed the reproducibility and the accuracy of LDPI acquisitions and identified several critical factors that could affect LDPI measurements in mice. Methods. Twenty mice were analysed. Statistical standardisation and a repeatability and reproducibility analysis were performed on mouse perfusion signals with respect to differences in body temperature, the presence or absence of hair, the type of anaesthesia used for LDPI measurements and the position of the mouse body. Results. We found excellent correlations among measurements made by the same operator (i.e., repeatability) under the same experimental conditions and by two different operators (i.e.,
We have developed a diabetes quality-of-life (DQOL) measure oriented toward the patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The DQOL was assessed for its reliability and validity in a group of patients with IDDM (n = 192). We found that the DQOL and its four scales had high degrees of internal consistency (Cronbachs r = .66−.92) and excellent test-retest reliability (r = .78−.92). Using conceptually relevant measures of psychiatric symptoms, perceived well-being and adjustment to illness, we also demonstrated convergent validity of the DQOL. This instrument was initially designed for use in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, a multicenter controlled clinical trial evaluating the effects of two different diabetes treatment regimens on the appearance and progression of early vascular complications. However, the DQOL may also be useful in evaluating the quality of life in other groups of patients with IDDM.. ...
I am extremely passionate about both reproducibility and replicability in neuroimaging. Reproducibility is the ultimate goal, while replicability should be the bare minimum that we demand in the 21st century. To this end I am committed to releasing all the analysis code from my peer reviewed manuscripts. You can find it at my github page. Please do use whatever you…
This chapter continues review of the excellent book by Carone and Bush (2013a) on symptom validity assessment, MTBI (mild traumatic brain injury), and malingering. The book is quite complementary to the present one. Many of the chapters provide information that parallel or add to the information already presented.
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the commonest global cause of glomerulonephritis. Extent of fibrosis, tubular atrophy and glomerulosclerosis predict renal function decline. Extent of renal fibrosis is assessed with renal biopsy which is invasive and prone to sampling error. We assessed the utility of non-contrast native T1 mapping of the kidney in patients with IgAN for assessment of renal fibrosis. Renal native T1 mapping was undertaken in 20 patients with IgAN and 10 healthy subjects. Ten IgAN patients had a second scan to assess test-retest reproducibility of the technique. Native T1 times were compared to markers of disease severity including degree of fibrosis, eGFR, rate of eGFR decline and proteinuria. All patients tolerated the MRI scan and analysable quality T1 maps were acquired in at least one kidney in all subjects. Cortical T1 times were significantly longer in patients with IgAN than healthy subjects (1540 ms ± 110 ms versus 1446 ± 88 ms, p = 0.038). There was excellent test-retest
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability (VAMA). The VAMA consists of 12 video clips depicting a social drama imposed within an interactive virtual environment with questions assessing the mental states of virtual friends. Response options capture the continuum of ability (i.e., impaired, reduced, accurate, and hypermentalising) within first- and second-order cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM). Sixty-two healthy participants were administered the VAMA, three other ToM measures, and additional measures of neurocognitive abilities and social functioning. The VAMA had sound internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. Significant correlations between performance on the VAMA and other ToM measures provided preliminary evidence of convergent validity. Small to moderate correlations were observed between performance on the VAMA and neurocognitive tasks. Further, the VAMA was found to correlate significantly with indices of ...
Introduction: It is a common finding that despite high levels of specificity and sensitivity, many medical tests are not highly effective in diagnosing diseases exhibiting a low prevalence within a clinical population. What is not widely known or appreciated is how the results of retesting a patient using the same or a different medical or psychological test impacts the estimated probability that a patient has a particular disease. In the absence of a gold standard spe-cial techniques are required to understand the error structure of a medical test. Generalizability can provide guid-ance as to whether a serial Bayes model accurately updates the positive predictive value of multiple test results. Methods: In order to understand how sources of error impact a tests outcome, test results should be sampled across the testing conditions that may contribute to error. A generalizability analysis of appropriately sampled test results should allow researchers to estimate the influence of each error source as a
Kammermann, N., 1950: Studies relating to Potato blight, Pliytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. I. Methodological study concerning the evaluation of Potato tops for resistance to blight. II. The connexion between the peroxidase activity of Potato leaf sap and resistance to Phytophthora
Objective: The assessment of response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is complicated by variable length of treatment, unpredictable clinical course, and often inconsistent compliance. Prospective and retrospective methods of assessment of lithium response have been proposed in the literature. In this study we report the key phenotypic measures of the Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder scale currently used in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) study. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine ConLiGen sites took part in a two-stage case-vignette rating procedure to examine inter-rater agreement [Kappa (\(\kappa\))] and reliability [intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)] of lithium response. Annotated first-round vignettes and rating guidelines were circulated to expert research clinicians for training purposes between the two stages. Further, we analyzed the distributional properties of the treatment ...
Read Test-retest repeatability of myocardial oxidative metabolism and efficiency using standalone dynamic 11C-acetate PET and multimodality approaches in healthy controls, Journal of Nuclear Cardiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequences that incorporate multiple postlabeling delay (PLD) times allow estimation of when arterial blood signal arrives within a region of interest. Sequences that account for such variability may improve the reliability of ASL and therefore make the technique well suited for future clinical and experimental investigations of cerebral perfusion. This study assessed the within- and between-session reproducibility of an optimized pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) sequence that incorporates multiple postlabeling delays (multi-PLD pCASL). Healthy subjects underwent four identical scans separated by 30 minutes, 1 week, and 1 month using multi-PLD pCASL to image absolute perfusion (cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT)) during both rest and a visual-cued motor task. We show good test-retest reliability, with strong consistency across subjects and sessions during rest (inter-session within-subject coefficient of
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequences that incorporate multiple postlabeling delay (PLD) times allow estimation of when arterial blood signal arrives within a region of interest. Sequences that account for such variability may improve the reliability of ASL and therefore make the technique well suited for future clinical and experimental investigations of cerebral perfusion. This study assessed the within- and between-session reproducibility of an optimized pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) sequence that incorporates multiple postlabeling delays (multi-PLD pCASL). Healthy subjects underwent four identical scans separated by 30 minutes, 1 week, and 1 month using multi-PLD pCASL to image absolute perfusion (cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT)) during both rest and a visual-cued motor task. We show good test-retest reliability, with strong consistency across subjects and sessions during rest (inter-session within-subject coefficient of
At an intense Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District board meeting April 3rd, the school board heard a report - mandated by the City Council last year - on the findings of an independent evaluation of the districts controversial Special Education Program.. The districts policy of requiring parents of special education students to sign confidentiality clauses in their settlement agreements was instituted about four years ago and has been met with much opposition.. In June, the City Council threatened to withhold approximately $500,000 in funding to the school district unless the district placed a moratorium on the policy and revisited the issue.. At the meeting April 3rd, the room was filled with emotion. Parents of special education children spoke out, sharing their stories and thoughts on the independent evaluation.. Parents told their horror stories of how they were treated and its unfortunate that, somehow, weve lost empathy for these students and parents, said school board ...
The observer reliability of VLS is fair to good with intraobserver reliability being better than interobserver reliability. This supports the use of VLS for detection of gastrointestinal ischemia. ...
Because the reproducibility of experimental results is an essential part of the scientific method, an inability to replicate ... Although the British newspaper The Independent wrote that the results of the reproducibility project show that much of the ... Fidler, Fiona; Wilcox, John (2018). "Reproducibility of Scientific Results". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ... Early analysis of this procedure has estimated that 61 percent of result-blind studies have led to null results, in contrast to ...
"How replicable are statistically significant results in social psychology? A replication and extension of Motyl et al. (in ... Open Science Collaboration (28 August 2015). "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science". Science. 349 (6251): ... JPSP is one of the journals analyzed in the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project after JPSP's publication of ... maintain the impression that research that is published in JPSP has been thoroughly vetted and is less likely to be the result ...
PEAR's results have been criticized for deficient reproducibility.[16] In one instance two German organizations failed to ... reproduce PEAR's results, while PEAR similarly failed to reproduce their own results.[13] An attempt by York University's Stan ... Alcock concluded there was no reason to believe the results were from paranormal origin.[12] ... Jeffers also failed to replicate PEAR's results.[9] References[edit]. *^ a b Pigliucci, Massimo (2010-05-15). Nonsense on ...
The different faces result in different growth rates and electronic properties. On the SiC(0001) face, large-area single ... These graphene layers do have a good reproducibility. In this case, the graphene layer grows not directly on top of the ... Using this technique, the resulting graphene consists of small grains with varying thickness (30-200 nm). These grains occur ... Because of their different possible orientations, sizes and thickness, the resulting graphene film contains misoriented grains ...
"Codecheck confirms reproducibility of COVID-19 model results". Mirage News. 2 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020. Eglen SJ (29 ... "Codecheck confirms reproducibility of COVID-19 model results". Imperial News. Imperial College London. Retrieved 2021-03-10. ... The results obtained by Imperial using the model are consistent with other models that make similar assumptions. Calibration of ... A June 2020 editorial in Nature declared the original CovidSim codebase met the requirements of scientific reproducibility. ...
Part 1: reproducibility of results for the international intercomparison". Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. 10 (4): 234-251 ... Part of the Geotraces program is to ensure results for trace elements and isotopes collected on different cruises by different ...
... and reproducibility of results. These applications are almost limitless. This is due to the ability of microscope to detect, ... The resulting image can be detected directly by the eye, imaged on a photographic plate, or captured digitally. The single lens ... It gives results much like those of the stereo light microscope. The best resolution for SEM in 2011 was 0.4 nanometer. ... This phenomenon results in a loss of contrast especially when using objectives with a high resolving power, typically oil ...
The result was greatly increased reproducibility for antihydrogen production. In particular, this technique, dubbed SDREVC ( ... The result is a rotating electric field perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the plasma. This field induces an electric ... Enhanced Control and Reproducibility of Non-Neutral Plasmas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 025001 (2018). C. Amole, M. D. Ashkezari, M ... application of a rotating electric field at frequency results in the plasma spinning up to the applied frequency, namely fE = ...
November 2010). "Reproducibility of interictal EEG-fMRI results in patients with epilepsy". Epilepsia. 52 (3): 433-442. doi: ... In practice, the causes of this artifact are not well proven and may be the results of factors such as induced electrical ...
Reproducibility of experimental results is central to the scientific method. A standard system of units facilitates this. ... As a result, units of measure could vary not only from location to location but from person to person. Metric systems of units ... When two different units are multiplied or divided, the result is a new unit, referred to by the combination of the units. For ... This accident was the result of both confusion due to the simultaneous use of metric and Imperial measures and confusion of ...
WBA strives to ensure objectivity, falsifiability and reproducibility of results. The result of a WBA is a why-because graph ( ... This process can be iterated for the newfound causes, and so on, until a satisfactory result has been achieved. At each node ( ...
They conclude "the main the problem of reproducibility and lack of consistent results.". Various experimenters ... The resulting effects on crop growth depend nonspecifically upon multiple factors, including effects of the introduced EM ... 2011) also illustrates that "The result of the experiment shows that EM has the potential to improve the effectiveness of ... Mayer, J.; Scheid, S.; Widmer, F.; Fließbach, A.; Oberholzer (2010). ""Effective microorganisms® (EM)"? Results from a field ...
Method and Data Sharing and Reproducibility of Scientific Results". Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 60 (12): 5868 ...
For instance, it has been shown that results of offline evaluations have low correlation with results from user studies or A/B ... find a common understanding of reproducibility, (3) identify and understand the determinants that affect reproducibility, (4) ... As a result, in December 2009, an anonymous Netflix user sued Netflix in Doe v. Netflix, alleging that Netflix had violated ... The topic of reproducibility is not new in recommender systems. By 2011, Ekstrand, Konstan, et al. criticized that "it is ...
Reproducibility and recovery). In order to ensure maximum reproducibility in gel pore size and to obtain a fully polymerized ... As a result, the prepared gel is homogeneous (in terms of homogeneous distribution of cross-links throughout the gel sample), ... forming covalent acrylamide adduction products that may result in multiple bands. Additionally, the time of polymerization of a ...
Reproducibility has been defined as the ability of a result to be replicated through independent experiments within the same or ... These concerns are part of the larger reproducibility crisis in science. Some of the reasons for the lack of reproducibility in ... Erasmus Darwin was also impacted by the tragedy of the plagues and it resulted in the publication of his Zoonomia where he ... This resulted in several persistent misunderstandings of human anatomy. Another key early contributor to early comparative ...
With a view to improving reproducibility of scientific results, it has been suggested that research-funding agencies finance ... He counselled pursuing results with p values below 0.05 and not wasting time on results above that. Thus arose the idea that a ... A fundamental feature of the scientific enterprise is reproducibility of results. "For decades", writes Shannon Palus, "it has ... These results almost always center on null-hypothesis significance testing, which produces a p value. Such testing does not ...
The data and analysis provenance is maintained for reproducibility of results. BisQue can be easily deployed in cloud computing ... These results are stored back into the system in the form of tags, graphical objects and/or images. Images or metadata are ... In the latter case, BisQue can automatically parallelize analysis over large image datasets and then collect the results in a ... In BisQue, sharing images, metadata and analysis results can be performed through the web. The system contains an export ...
Piette, Elizabeth R.; Moore, Jason H. (19 April 2017). Improving the Reproducibility of Genetic Association Results Using ... Permutation testing makes it possible to generate an empirical p-value for the result. Replication in independent data may also ...
"Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". Scientometrics. 94 (2): 567-587. doi: ... Results[edit]. Greater China Rankings (100) - Top 10[Note 2][38] Institution. 2011. 2012. 2013. 2014 ... a b c d Order shown in accordance with the latest result. ... Whereas in the case of the other rankings the results are ... A 2013 paper in the same journal finally showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced.[26] In a report from ...
Random errors will affect the reproducibility and precision of the resulting structures. If the errors are systematic, the ... The process results in an ensemble of structures that, if the data were sufficient to dictate a certain fold, will converge. ... Thus, the results obtained from nitrogen-15 relaxation measurements may not be representative for the whole protein. Therefore ... However, since nitrogen atoms are found mainly in the backbone of a protein, the results mainly reflect the motions of the ...
But when he finally presented his results he reported an excess heat of only one degree Celsius, a result that could be ... Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method, and its lack led most physicists to believe that the ... xi, 207-209 "The ratio of the worldwide positive results on cold fusion to negative results peaked at approximately 50% (...) ... concluding that results as of that date did not present convincing evidence that useful sources of energy would result from the ...
Best results on reproducibility from lab to production (PDF). Eirechrom. v t e. ... These more sophisticated systems also allow the closed loop control of the reactor as a result of taking readings from the ...
The initial flutemetamol PET scan resulted in 43 positive and 25 negative results for cerebral cortisol amyloid status. 69 of ... The second trial assessed intra-reader reproducibility of PET scans using flutemetamol. Of the 176 patients imaged in this ... These results correlate with the pre-mortem scan. The second clinical trail included 276 subjects with a median age of 72. The ... Final results met the pre-specified success rate with a Fleiss' kappa statistic of 0.83. GE Healthcare's largest marketing ...
In an effort to address issues with the reproducibility of research results, some scholars are asking that authors agree to ... by allowing others to look at the reproducibility of results, and to allow data from many sources to be integrated to give new ... with mixed results, in order to reanalyze them. A recent attempt resulted in only seven data sets out of fifty requests. The ... Open science data or Open Research Data is a type of open data focused on publishing observations and results of scientific ...
Open research computation also addresses the problem of reproducibility of scientific results. The term "open science" does not ... The results of their research showed that the technology is well suited for open science and can provide advantages, for ... Scientists often publish the results of their research by writing articles and donating them to be published in scholarly ... "The Open Access citation advantage: Studies and results to date." (2010). Center for Brains, Minds and Machines (CBMM) (19 ...
Its products are focused to offer quality and the reproducibility of laboratory results. Besides the unit offers customized ...
A decrease in total free energy was observed to be a result of the assembly of nanoparticles at an oil/water interface. When ... The existence of life is strongly dependent on the reproducibility of self-assembly. Challenges There exist several outstanding ... Can result in structural dimensions across orders of magnitude, from nanoscale to macroscale. Is relatively inexpensive ... The decrease in total free energy for microscopic particles is much larger than that of thermal energy, resulting in an ...
Early analysis of such reforms has estimated that 61 percent of result-blind studies have led to null results, in contrast to ... More systematic efforts to assess the extent of the problem, such as the Reproducibility Project of the Center for Open Science ... statistical techniques are used to distinguish unique results of the experiment from the null hypothesis that variations result ... The results of intelligence tests were used to argue for segregated schools and economic functions-i.e. the preferential ...
xi, 207-209 "The ratio of the worldwide positive results on cold fusion to negative results peaked at approximately 50% (...) ... Reproducibility. In 1989, after Fleischmann and Pons had made their claims, many research groups tried to reproduce the ... results.[40] On 10 April 1989, a group at Texas A&M University published results of excess heat and later that day a group at ... concluding that results as of that date did not present convincing evidence that useful sources of energy would result from the ...
7,391 deaths resulted from medication errors. If 44,000 to 98,000 deaths are the direct result of medical mistakes, and the CDC ... and tools should also be formatted and standardized such that EM educators can use the data and count on it for reproducibility ... According to survey results from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) simulation content taught at medical ... The table below shows the results of tests given to 20 students using highly advanced medical simulation training materials and ...
... and is normally repeated at least three times to ensure reproducibility. Since results are dependent on patient cooperation, ... Results are usually given in both raw data (litres, litres per second) and percent predicted-the test result as a percent of ... Generally speaking, results nearest to 100% predicted are the most normal, and results over 80% are often considered normal. ... the FEV1 and FVC are both reduced proportionally and the value may be normal or even increased as a result of decreased lung ...
6) There should be one or more available assay platform for such biomarker with test-retest reliability and reproducibility ... and to define strata based on the results. ...
... 82 also uses fixed-point arithmetic instead of floating-point, to ensure reproducibility of the results across different ... As a result, TeX has been ported to almost all operating systems, usually by using the web2c program to convert the source code ... This resulted in some "hacks" overloading some fields, which in turn required other "hacks". On an aesthetics level, the ... The problem is thus to find the set of breakpoints that will give the most visually pleasing result. Many line breaking ...
Li JT, Andrist D, Bamlet WR, Wolter TD (November 2000). "Accuracy of patient prediction of allergy skin test results". Annals ... 2014). Pollen monitoring: minimum requirements and reproducibility of analysis. Aerobiologia, 30(4), 385-395. ...
... and better reproducibility of results.[5] Naming conventions[edit]. "Record linkage" is the term used by statisticians, ... The resulting total weight is then compared to the aforementioned thresholds to determine whether the pair should be linked, ... Most, if not all, record linkage strategies would result in more accurate linkage if these values were first normalized or ... As this example demonstrates, even a small decrease in data quality or small increase in the complexity of the data can result ...
... concerns throughout the scientific literature resides in the viability and reproducibility on a large scale of observed results ... The assessment is made for certain microorganisms; if the result is favorable, it leads to "Qualified Presumption of Safety" ... 2010). ": Guide to designing, conducting, publishing and communicating results of clinical studies involving probiotic ... and encouraging results were obtained, especially in the relief of chronic constipation.[citation needed] ...
... saving time and improving the quality of results by increasing reproducibility. Etest and related instruments offer one of the ... However, to maximise reproducibility, the medium chosen should fulfil the basic requirements for a susceptibility test medium. ... The inhibition zone sizes from disc test results were compared to Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values based on the ... Therefore, for reliable and reproducible results, the stability of the gradient must be maintained for many hours. The ...
The result was a replication of the repeatedly reported open access citation advantage, with the advantage being equal in size ... Open Science Collaboration (2015). "Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science". Science. 349 (6251): aac4716. doi ... Perhaps paradoxically, the removal of this barrier might actually result in an increase of the quality of published work, as it ... Such modern technology includes posting results to preprint servers, preregistration of studies, open peer review, and other ...
A reproducibility limit is the value below which the difference between two test results obtained under reproducibility ... Reproducibility is the ability to get the same research results or inferences, based on the raw data and computer programs ... that can be used to reproduce the results and create new work based on the research.[11][12][13][14][15] Typical examples of ... think failure to reproduce published results means the result is probably wrong, and most say they still trust the published ...
The result of the last home game by the Washington Redskins prior to the presidential election predicted the outcome of every ... Because results from prospective studies on people who increase their bicycle use show a smaller effect on BMI than cross- ... This is a scientific example that resulted from a study at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center. Published in the May ... However, an observed effect could also be caused "by chance", for example as a result of random perturbations in the population ...
Domingo Docampo (1 July 2012). "Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". ... ResultsEdit. Greater China Rankings (100) - Top 10[Note 2][38]. Institution. 2011. 2012. 2013. 2014. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2018 ... a b c d Order shown in accordance with the latest result. ... ResultsEdit. Academic Ranking of World Universities (500) - Top ... Whereas in the case of the other rankings the results are adjusted to take account of the size of institutions, hardly any such ...
As a result, several studies have shown that the immunogenicity of oats varies depending on the cultivar consumed. Thus, it is ... "Comparison of the interobserver reproducibility with different histologic criteria used in celiac disease". Clin. Gastroenterol ... Not all areas may be equally affected; if biopsies are taken from healthy bowel tissue, the result would be a false negative.[ ... The latter case yields a permanently covalently linked complex between the gliadin and the tTg.[78] This results in the ...
Reproducibility: This allows for researchers to use the exact methods used to calculate the relations between biological data. ... This is a direct result of major pharmaceutical companies needing more qualified analysts of the large data sets required for ...
... results, and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In ... Among the finding of meta-research is a low rates of reproducibility across a large number of fields. This widespread ... and this under-representation in turn results in disproportionately reduced acceptance of the results of their efforts as ... The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the ...
This results in more reproducible and reliable experimental results. Since patients dislike having their hair filled with gel, ... Barriers to reproducibility and replicability". Psychophysiology. 56 (11): e13437. doi:10.1111/psyp.13437. ISSN 1469-8986. PMID ... EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current within the neurons of the brain.[1] Clinically, EEG refers to ... Unlike other means of studying reaction time, ERPs can elucidate stages of processing (rather than just the final end result)[ ...
Published results of experiments can also serve as a hypothesis predicting their own reproducibility. ... If an experiment cannot be repeated to produce the same results, this implies that the original results might have been in ... For significant or surprising results, other scientists may also attempt to replicate the results for themselves, especially if ... due to his emphasis on experimental data and reproducibility of its results.[15][16] ...
The result would be a consistent yet inaccurate string of results from the flawed experiment. Eliminating the systematic error ... reproducibility - the variation arising using the same measurement process among different instruments and operators, and over ... Appendix D.1: Terminology, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results ... Accuracy is the proximity of measurement results to the true value; precision is the degree to which repeated (or reproducible ...
"On the reproducibility of science: unique identification of research resources in the biomedical literature". PeerJ. 2 ... Some immune deficiencies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia, result in partial or complete lack of ... "Reporting research antibody use: how to increase experimental reproducibility". F1000. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September ... Computational approaches provide a cheaper and faster alternative to crystallography, but their results are more equivocal, ...
Based on the low power of studies, one would expect a large number of non-significant results, but these results are missing ... Reproducibility controversy and conflicting meta analysesEdit. In 2016, a major study (2141 participants) carried out at two ... The results of this study indicated that people who experienced ego depletion felt less guilty and donated less money than non- ... The complexity of consumer decisions in itself can result in ego depletion.[24] This, in turn, could impact any subsequent ...
"The use of p values for nearly a century [since 1925] to determine statistical significance of experimental results has ... contributed to an illusion of certainty and [to] reproducibility crises in many scientific fields. There is growing ... The presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address ... The presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address ...
... which would have resulted in the upper limit of the kilogram's reproducibility being around 10−5 whereas the current ... Impact on reproducibility[edit]. All seven of the SI base units will be defined in terms of defined constants[Note 7] and ... This would result in the dalton and the atomic mass unit potentially differing from each other with a relative uncertainty of ... with the result that the redefinition of the kilogram and the additional rigour in the definitions of the second and metre ...
Bertrand Russell argued that some individual actions based on beliefs for which there is no evidence of efficacy, can result in ... as well as the degree to which their predictions match experimental results.[17] Skepticism in general may be deemed part of ... Unqualified medical practice and alternative medicine can result in serious injury and death[38][39].Skeptical activist Tim ... and then sharing the results with the public. ... Reproducibility. *Scientific reductionism. *Scientism. *Secular ...
The historical results of Coley's vaccine therapy are difficult to compare with modern results because Coley's studies were not ... Although Coley claimed successful treatment of hundreds of patients, the absence of proven benefit or reproducibility led to ... Coley published the results of his work as a case series, making it difficult to interpret them with confidence. According to ... In particular, the therapy resulted in immediate tumor destruction and pain relief. ...
Normalization of results. This step aims to answer "Is that a lot?" by expressing the LCIA results in respect to a chosen ... Consistency and reproducibility of the methods used in the study. *Sources of Data ... The results are used to help decision-makers select products or processes that result in the least impact to the environment by ... Classification of inventory results. In this step, the LCI results are assigned to the chosen impact categories based on their ...
The resulting phage particles that are produced contain the single-stranded phagemids and are used to infect XL-1 Blue cells.[2 ... This approach has a lower rate of reproducibility and tends to yield higher amounts of false positives compared to the matrix ... Each of these points alone can give rise to false results. Due to the combined effects of all error sources yeast two-hybrid ... The exact rate of false positive results is not known, but earlier estimates were as high as 70%. This also, partly, explains ...
... has become popular due to the exact reproducibility of the results.[13] ... compares the results of training on the data sets[Note 1]. threeColors = [255, 0, 0], [0, 255, 0], [0, 0, 255]. eightColors = [ ... The other plots each overlay the resulting map with predicted values on an input dimension: red means a predicted 'yes' vote on ... have been several attempts to modify the definition of SOM and to formulate an optimisation problem which gives similar results ...
Dear Colleague Letter: Reproducibility and Robustness of Results. This document has been archived. ... Intrinsic to our mission is the responsibility to ensure the reliability, reproducibility, and robustness of research and its ...
Workshop on research results reproducibility and resources citation in science and technology of language, Branco et al. (2016 ... Replicability and reproducibility of research results for human language technology: introducing an LRE special section. ... Branco, A., Calzolari, N. & Choukri, K. (Eds.). (2016). Workshop on research results reproducibility and resources citation in ... LREs fostering of submissions reporting results of replicability and reproducibility studies and reports on experimental ...
Reproducibility of Computational Environments for Scientific Experiments using Container-based Virtualization ... In an ideal world, all research papers would be runnable: simply click to replicate all results, using the same setup as the ... In an ideal world, all research papers would be runnable: simply click to replicate all results, using the same setup as the ...
Reproducibility of walking test results in chronic obstructive airways disease. Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
MASSIVE DATA, THE DIGITIZATION OF SCIENCE, AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS. by Victoria Stodden (Postdoctoral Associate in Law ... complete communication of the underlying methodology producing the results, ie. reproducibility. I outline barriers to these ... Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science ...
Improving the Reproducibility of PANs Shared Tasks: - Plagiarism Detection, Author Identification, and Author Profiling ... Improving the Reproducibility of PANs Shared Tasks: Plagiarism Detection, Author Identification, and Author Profiling by ...
Reproducibility of Results Respiration Respiratory Rate Sex Characteristics Tidal Volume Time Factors Walking Abstract. We ... Reproducibility of Results Research Subjects - psychology Risk-Taking Rural Population Urban Population Young Adult Abstract. ... Reproducibility of Results Risk factors Russia Siberia Surveys and Questionnaires Abstract. To determine the 23-year dynamics ( ... Reproducibility of Results Russia Scintillation Counting Sensitivity and specificity Tritium - analysis - standards Abstract. ...
Reproducibility of Results Sweden Translating Abstract. Health literacy (HL) is an important determinant for health and a ... Reproducibility of Results Sweden Translating Abstract. The Melbourne Decision-Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) is an attempt to ... Reproducibility of Results Utilization Review - methods Notes. Cites: CMAJ. 2000 Jun 27;162(13):1809-1310906913 Comment On: ... Reproducibility of Results Sweden Notes. Comment On: Scand J Occup Ther. 2005 Dec;12(4):170-8016457090 ...
Questions about the reproducibility of scientific research have been raised i... ... A lack of reproducibility of scientific results has created some distrust in scientific findings among the general public, ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop (2016) ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop Get This ...
Questions about the reproducibility of scientific research have been raised in numerous setting... ... A lack of reproducibility of scientific results has created some distrust in scientific findings among the general public, ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop (2016) ... Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results: Summary of a Workshop Get This ...
... today announced the publication of an international prospective multicenter study that demonstrates the high reproducibility of ... BioNTech Announces Positive Results of an International Reproducibility Study with MammaTyper® Monday, 15 May 2017 11:40 Hits: ... Inter-site reproducibility of the positive/negative marker results was also correspondingly high - with Kappa values of 1.00, ... The results were subsequently analyzed for their reproducibility both between the institutes (inter-site) and within each ...
... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results. ... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results ... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results ... of Experimental Parameters in Data-Independent Mass Spectrometry Significantly Increases Depth and Reproducibility of Results ...
For 1866, only one result from site B and two results from site C were 64 μg/ml; the other results ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml. ... Reproducibility among MICs and agreement by interpretive category was most variable for imipenem. Based on results reported ... Multisite Reproducibility of Results Obtained by the Broth Microdilution Method for Susceptibility Testing ofMycobacterium ... Multisite Reproducibility of Results Obtained by the Broth Microdilution Method for Susceptibility Testing ofMycobacterium ...
Assessment of Resolution and Intercenter Reproducibility of Results of Genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by Pulsed-Field Gel ... Assessment of Resolution and Intercenter Reproducibility of Results of Genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by Pulsed-Field Gel ... Assessment of Resolution and Intercenter Reproducibility of Results of Genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by Pulsed-Field Gel ... Assessment of Resolution and Intercenter Reproducibility of Results of Genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by Pulsed-Field Gel ...
The reproducibility crisis and the negative results crisis are both coming into their prime, and represent an interesting ... When Crises Collide: The Tension Between Null Results and Reproducibility *By David Crotty ... Every result opens up new questions. Part of answering those new questions relies on the first result being correct. If its ... Its perfectly reasonable to doubt anyone elses results, even your own results. That may require doing the same thing a few ...
... K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This ... From One Environment to Many: The Problem of Reproducibility of Experimental Results. Lin, Jinguang ... Keywords: Reproducibility. Graduation Month: August. Degree: Master of Science. Department: Department of Statistics. Major ... If the environmental effect ratio is too large, the reproducibility probability may be reduced to just a coin toss, and if ...
Spica magnetic resonance imaging for determination of abduction angle: initial results and reproducibility assessment ... Spica magnetic resonance imaging for determination of abduction angle: initial results and reproducibility assessment ... Results. For inter-reader reliability, the ICC of the five physicians was 0.89 (95 % CI 0.84-0.92). For intra-reader ... The high ICC and low standard deviation of independently evaluated hip abduction angles indicates high reproducibility of ...
ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison - Part 1: Reproducibility of concentration and fragment results from 13 individual Quadrupole ... Reproducibility of concentration and fragment results from 13 individual Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (Q- ... The results show that these instruments can produce highly comparable and robust measurements of the NR-PM1 total mass and its ... Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1 ...
The Climate Modeling Leak: Code and Data Generating Published Results Must be Open and Facilitate Reproducibility. Posted on ... The Leak Reveals a Failure of Reproducibility of Computational Results. It appears as though the leak came about through a long ... This is right - reproducibility of results should be the concern (as argued here for example). ... My sense is that making code and data readily available in a way that facilitates reproducibility of results, can help avoid ...
Interobserver reproducibility of the PRECISE scoring system for prostate MRI on active surveillance: results from a two-centre ... Interobserver reproducibility of the PRECISE scoring system for prostate MRI on active surveillance: results from a two-centre ... Interobserver reproducibility of the PRECISE scoring system for prostate MRI on active surveillance: results from a two-centre ... RESULTS: Agreement was substantial both at a per-patient and a per-scan level (κ = 0.71 and 0.61; percent agreement = 79% and ...
Home > News > New Reproducibility of Research Results Module New Reproducibility of Research Results Module. CITI Program is ... "Reproducibility of Research Results" module discusses factors that contribute to the lack of reproducibility and the resulting ... Reproducibility of Research Results. The inability to reproduce findings from prior research, whether it is ones own study or ... The module also describes the stakeholders affected by reproducibility problems, a collection of reproducibility initiatives, ...
Concerns of poor study and microbiome reproducibility also abound in the literature. Despite the well-known, negative-effects ... to self-monitor the success/reproducibility of basic and translational research. Examples are provided to help scientists ... methods reproducibility, results reproducibility, and inferential reproducibility. While these terms are applied predominantly ... The examples here are expected to contribute to improvement of methods reproducibility, results reproducibility, and ...
Purpose We present the evaluation of the reproducibility of measurements performed using robotic ultrasound imaging in ... Results. After repeated image acquisitions, the measurements based on acquisitions performed by the robotic system and expert ... Ultrasound acquisition Robotic ultrasound Autonomous acquisition Reproducibility Thyroid R. Kojcev and A. Khakzar have ... Albu-Schäffer A, Ott C, Frese U, Hirzinger G (2003) Cartesian impedance control of redundant robots: recent results with the ...
Results:. A total of 74 voxels were included for reproducibility analysis. The complete range of biologically interesting CC/C ... Comparison of our results with clinical MR spectroscopy reproducibility studies of other organs is cumbersome, mainly because ... In general, other MR spectroscopic imaging reproducibility studies show highly reproducible results and consider the technique ... Other reproducibility studies investigate reproducibility in healthy tissue or in tissue with known malignancy or in both but ...
RESULTS: The intakes of energy and some nutrients estimated from FFQ1 and FFQ2 were different from those assessed by the DRs. ... Validation and reproducibility of food frequency questionnaire for Korean genome epidemiologic study.. Ahn Y1, Kwon E, Shim JE ...
RESULTS: The RDR test was reproducible for 17 of 23 subjects: 3 scored , 14% on both tests; 14, , 14% on both. Six subjects ... Reproducibility of the relative dose response test (RDR), a test designed to measure vitamin A status, was tested in 23 ... In addition, the reproducibility of the retinyl ester concentrations in serum 5 hours after the retinyl palmitate dose and the ... Reproducibility of relative dose response (RDR) test and serum retinol and retinyl ester concentrations in children after a 2- ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2007) ...
RESULTS-The mean ± SE ratio of the AUC after white bread intake by the AUC after glucose intake for the first set of ... Ko GT, Chan JC, Woo J, Lau E, Yeung VT, Chow CC, Cockram CS: The reproducibility and usefulness of the oral glucose tolerance ... RESULTS-. At baseline, blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and insulin and lipoprotein concentrations were similar between ... There are limited data that have addressed the issue of reproducibility. Therefore, the current study was carried out to assess ...
Results Inter-vendor agreement was highest for GCS followed by LV GLS. GRS and RV GLS showed lower inter-vendor agreement. ... Intra-vendor reproducibility was excellent for GCS, LV GLS and RV GLS, but lower for GRS. The impact of repeated measurements ... Conclusion Cardiac pathology has no influence on CMR-FT reproducibility. LV GLS and GCS qualify as the most robust parameters ... Inter-observer reproducibility was derived from the tracking results of a second skilled observer (TL). To study the impact of ...
  • To address this need, Language Resources and Evaluation (LRE) , the premier journal for publication of papers concerning resources that support HLT research as well as evaluation of both resources and results, is acting to encourage the discussion and advancement of what is commonly referred to as replicability and reproducibility in the field of Human Language Technology. (
  • It should be noted that despite efforts to distinguish reproducibility and replicability (e.g., by definig "levels" of reproducability Dalle ( 2012 )), the line between the two is not always clear. (
  • By establishing a special section on Replicability and Reproducibility, LRE is encouraging submissions of articles providing positive or negative quantitative assessment of previously published results in the field. (
  • According to a U.S. National Science Foundation subcommittee on science replicability, "reproducibility refers to the ability of a researcher to duplicate the results of a prior study using the same materials as were used by the original investigator. (
  • April 18, 2018 - Rockland Immunochemicals, Inc. announced today that Chief Science Officer, Dr. Carl Ascoli testified at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine's third of six public session on Reproducibility and Replicability in Science on April 18th. (
  • B. Thompson , " Exploring the Replicability of a Study's Results: Bootstrap Statistics for the Multivariate Case " , Educational and Psychological Measurement , vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 84-94, 1995. (
  • The terms replicability and repeatability are used in the context of reproducibility, see below. (
  • In recent decades, there has been a rising concern that many published scientific results fail the test of reproducibility, evoking a reproducibility or replicability crisis. (
  • Two major steps are naturally distinguished in connection with reproducibility of experimental or observational studies: When new data is obtained in the attempt to achieve it, the term replicability is often used, and the new study is a replication or replicate of the original one. (
  • His lab is also engaged in the development of neuroinformatics tools to help improve the reproducibility and transparency of neuroscience, including the and data sharing projects and the Cognitive Atlas ontology. (
  • This contribution addresses the following central question/challenge in nanotags based detections: How to improve the reproducibility of nonmagnetic nanotags based assay? (
  • b) The funding organizations perspective was explored by research councils such as the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Medical Research Council (MRC, UK) who have taken a lead in operationalization of measures to improve the reproducibility of data. (
  • To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of dynamic corneal response parameters measured by the Corvis ST (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). (
  • The Corvis ST showed good precision (repeatability and reproducibility) for IOP measurements and for DCR in healthy eyes. (
  • The objective of this study was to establish the repeatability and reproducibility limits of several volume-related PET image-derived indices-namely tumor volume (TV), mean standardized uptake value, total glycolytic volume (TGV), and total proliferative volume (TPV)-relative to those of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ), commonly used in clinical practice. (
  • The accuracy, robustness, repeatability, and reproducibility of image delineation are directly responsible for the reduced use of functional volumes derived from PET images. (
  • Both Scheimpflug-Placido systems show high repeatability and reproducibility for posterior corneal surface measurement. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Expert radiologists achieved substantial reproducibility for the PRECISE scoring system, especially when data were pooled together according to the absence/presence of radiological progression (PRECISE 1-3 vs 4-5). (
  • CONCLUSIONS Scanning laser Doppler flowmetry has an acceptable reproducibility and is appropriate for description of the effect of graded changes in P o 2 on retinal haemodynamics. (
  • This culture discourages the publication of negative results, or alternate conclusions to the premise originally proposed by the author, leading to false expectations for a new drug. (
  • In conclusion, the physical performance and especially the high intensities activities of elite soccer players present good reproducibility when different types of SSG were applied in 2 different sessions in the same period, even if the rules and formats were being manipulated allowing coaches to use it with a target time-motion characteristic and an equivalent workload week after week. (
  • Pathologists reported good reproducibility at both 1% and 50% cut points. (
  • This study supports that the FFQ has a good reproducibility for nutrient and food intake, and can provide a valid estimate of several important nutrients during pregnancy. (
  • We present the evaluation of the reproducibility of measurements performed using robotic ultrasound imaging in comparison with expert-operated sonography. (
  • Subsequently, the same procedure was performed using the robotic system resulting in a cumulative total of 144 clinically relevant measurements. (
  • Our results clearly indicated that robotic ultrasound enables more repeatable measurements. (
  • Reproducibility of retardation measurements with the nerve fiber analyzer II. (
  • These results suggest that the NFA II provides reproducible measurements and that, on average, measurements obtained by separate operators on different days are similar. (
  • Sensitivity to changes in cortical activity and the reproducibility of results are crucial for measurements across participants as well as for longitudinal studies of individual participants. (
  • The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. (
  • The intraindividual reproducibility of circadian HRF measurements was examined in healthy subjects in three locations of the retina. (
  • These data show the best reproducibility of measurements in the superficial layer followed by the intermediate and the deep layer. (
  • We examined intraindividual reproducibility of HRF measurements in healthy subjects in three defined measurement locations within separate tissue layers. (
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and the sensitivity of these measurements. (
  • Assessment of range of motion (ROM) and muscle strength is fundamental in the clinical diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis (OA) but reproducibility of these measurements has mostly involved clinicians from secondary care and has rarely reported agreement parameters. (
  • Therefore, the primary objective of the study was to determine the inter-rater reproducibility of ROM and muscle strength measurements. (
  • Reproducibility of goniometric and dynamometric measurements of ROM and muscle strength in patients with hip OA is poor between experienced orthopaedists and between experienced chiropractors. (
  • Results The overall interobserver agreement for grading MR as severe or nonsevere using qualitative and quantitative parameters was similar and suboptimal: 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1 to 0.52) for jet area-based MR grade, 0.28 (95% CI: 0.11 to 0.45) for VC measurements, and 0.37 (95% CI: 0.16 to 0.58) for PISA measurements. (
  • At the conclusion, a written report will be issued to Congress that includes an assessment of current activities to improve reproducibility and replication highlighting examples of good practices and examine factors that adversely affect reproducibility and replication. (
  • The CTs increased slightly when measured twice over the 15-minute intervals (short-term reproducibility) but remained stable over a period of 2 weeks (long-term reproducibility). (
  • Reluctance to universally recommend the system for use in formulating dietary guidance stems from a number of issues, some relating to uncertainties in reproducibility among people and variability in the composition and preparation of individual foods. (
  • Although, the reproducibility of a 6 minute walk has been addressed in terms of a hospital test, simulated home test and actual home test (Guyatt), its inter-variability is not well studied. (
  • Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science. (
  • The reproducibility crisis and the negative results crisis are both coming into their prime, and represent an interesting conflict. (
  • The reproducibility crisis is based on reports suggesting that the majority of published experiments are not reproducible. (
  • The negative results crisis (also known as the " file drawer problem ") comes from the notion of publication bias , the idea that researchers never publish experiments that don't work or that provide null results. (
  • In this "replication crisis" era, reproducibility is the only thing that can be effectively guaranteed in a published study. (
  • I will discuss a set of approaches that we are developing to address this reproducibility crisis in the context of human neuroimaging research. (
  • Opinion leaders testifying at this session challenged whether a "crisis" of reproducibility exists, as some have claimed in the literature, especially when considering that the clear majority of research performed results in the collection of high quality data sufficient to support and reproduce scientific claims. (
  • A reproducibility crisis? (
  • He cited the NATURE survey 'Is there a reproducibility crisis? (
  • The new "Reproducibility of Research Results" module discusses factors that contribute to the lack of reproducibility and the resulting problems that can emerge. (
  • Much has been written about Fleischmann and Pons, but I have not found if their problem was lack of reproducibility (so they found a plot that looked good and just focused on that) or if there was something darker at work. (
  • Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated using a random effects one way analysis of variance as a measure of reproducibility. (
  • Means and standard deviations of all flow results of a given subject were calculated, at t0-t6 and the coefficients of variation as a measure of reproducibility. (
  • Intrinsic to our mission is the responsibility to ensure the reliability, reproducibility, and robustness of research and its associated scientific outcomes. (
  • Normalisation improved inter-scanner reproducibility in FreeSurfer and SPM-based methods, but the FSL-SIENAX scaling factor did not improve robustness. (
  • Reproducibility can be interpreted to include traits such as repeatability, robustness, reliability and generalizability [ 5 ]. (
  • Subject librarians can work with individuals, research groups, and departments to advise on many aspects of reproducibility and rigor. (
  • The purpose of this workshop is to discuss aspects of reproducibility most relevant to the mathematical sciences among researchers from pure and applied mathematics from academics and other settings, together with interested parties from funding agencies, national laboratories, professional societies, and publishers. (
  • Two methods of image processing, one using a baseline image and another using the individual scans, were used to compare the reproducibility of three summary measures, average retardation, integral, and retardation ratio. (
  • The purpose of this study was to quantify functional MR imaging and magnetoencephalographic measures of the extent of cortical activity and to compare the reproducibility of these measures and their sensitivity to incremental stimulus change. (
  • Evaluating microkeratome efficacy by 3D corneal lamellar flap thickness accuracy and reproducibility using Artemis VHF digital ultrasound arc-scann. (
  • Descriptive statistics revealed central flap thickness accuracy and reproducibility. (
  • A systematic qualitative and quantitative statistical evaluation of microkeratome accuracy and reproducibility can be performed by measuring corneal flap thickness with arc-scanning VHF digital ultrasound. (
  • In spite of its potential usefulness, the accuracy and reproducibility of the gene expression measures obtained in this way are still open to doubt. (
  • To determine the reproducibility of 3D proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ( 1 H-MRSI) of the human prostate in a multicenter setting at 1.5T. (
  • As we have sought to develop FLT for imaging tumor response, it is also necessary to determine the best way to measure FLT retention, including SUV and kinetic variables, and to determine the reproducibility in several tumor types. (
  • You will also learn the importance of reproducibility in data science and how the commercial cloud can help support reproducible research even for experiments involving massive datasets, complex computational infrastructures, or both. (
  • The first to stress the importance of reproducibility in science was the Irish chemist Robert Boyle, in England in the 17th century. (
  • Our purpose was to establish objective criteria for measuring hip abduction angles on MRI after hip reduction and spica casting in patients with DDH, and evaluate reproducibility and reliability of angle measurement using these criteria. (
  • The high ICC and low standard deviation of independently evaluated hip abduction angles indicates high reproducibility of measurement. (
  • The goal of this study was to establish the clinical reproducibility of ceMRI for the measurement of infarct size. (
  • Reproducibility - Measurement variation with either multiple operators on multiple instruments on the same sample (but possibly multiple lots) in multiple locations. (
  • Infarct size measurement by contrast enhanced magnetic resonance can be used as a surrogate parameter for acute myocardial infarction treatment trials, if reproducibility is excellent. (
  • Patients underwent infarct size measurement on 2 consecutive days for reproducibility assessment. (
  • We examine how p-value, effect size, sample size, and the ratio of the standard deviation of environment by treatment interaction and the standard deviation of experimental error interact with one another, and as a whole, affect the experiment's reproducibility. (
  • Central reproducibility (standard deviation of the mean) was 30.3 microm, with a range of 106 to 228 microm. (
  • To assess intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility, within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and test-retest repeatability (TRT, 2.77 Sw) were calculated. (
  • Related to replication is reproducibility, which is the calculation of quantitative scientific results by independent scientist using the original datasets and methods. (
  • Other branches of science have long-established methods to bring reproducibility into their practice. (
  • Computational methods are a relatively new addition to a scientist's toolkit, and the scientific community is only just establishing similar standards for verification and reproducibility in this new context. (
  • This example also illustrates why a decision to leave reproducibility to others, beyond a cursory description of methods in the published text, is wholly inadequate for computational science. (
  • More recently, reproducibility as a scientific concept has been proposed to be divided into three types: methods reproducibility, results reproducibility, and inferential reproducibility. (
  • Methods and Results- Patients with chronic myocardial infarction defined by enzymes (peak creatine kinase-MB 173±119 U/L) were scanned twice by MRI (MRI I and MRI II, n=20) and twice by SPECT (SPECT I and SPECT II, n=15) on the same day. (
  • The relevance of studies using these techniques hinges on the precision of quantification and the reproducibility of the methods used for measuring cortical activity. (
  • Third, for most methods, the raw data produced by the microscopes need to be processed to obtain the desired final result. (
  • This study assessed the methods to measure FLT retention in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to measure the reproducibility of this approach. (
  • In particular, PIs are strongly encouraged to describe, as part of their data management plans, how they will provide access to well-documented datasets, modeling and/or simulation tools, and codebases to support reproducibility of their methods. (
  • The differences in reproducibility between same-species and cross-species analyses observed in previous studies were probably caused by the analytical methods used to calculate the gene expression measures. (
  • Thus, to facilitate reproducibility, researchers are encouraged to publish code and data alongside the original paper. (
  • Responding with raw data when questioned about computational results is merely a canard, not intended to seriously facilitate reproducibility. (
  • Mainz, Germany, May 15, 2017 / B3C newswire / -- BioNTech Diagnostics GmbH today announced the publication of an international prospective multicenter study that demonstrates the high reproducibility of the MammaTyper® in vitro diagnostic test. (
  • These include an integrated platform for the analysis and open sharing of neuroimaging data, frameworks for the description of data and metadata, and the use of software containers and virtual machines to enhance computational reproducibility. (
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the interobserver reproducibility of the Prostate Cancer Radiological Estimation of Change in Sequential Evaluation (PRECISE) criteria for magnetic resonance imaging in patients on active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer (PCa) at two different academic centres. (
  • For interobserver reproducibility, OPA was 84.2% (95% CI, 82.8-85.5) for the 1% cut point and 81.9% (95% CI, 80.4-83.3) for the 50% cut point, and Cohen's κ coefficients were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.65-0.71) and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.55-0.62), respectively. (
  • The training was found to have no or very little impact on intra- or interobserver reproducibility. (
  • A multicenter study was conducted to assess the interlaboratory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of the more common rapidly growing pathogenic mycobacteria. (
  • Currently, however, no standardized testing method for this group of organisms exists, nor has the interlaboratory reproducibility of any method been assessed. (
  • Twenty well-characterized isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were used to study the optimal resolution and interlaboratory reproducibility of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA macrorestriction fragments. (
  • Provide researchers with easily accessible tools to analyze their data in ways that focus on the reproducibility of the results. (
  • To do this we will leverage high-performance computing resources to allow researchers to understand how their results vary across different analysis approaches and different subsets of their data. (
  • If the environmental effect ratio is too large, the reproducibility probability may be reduced to just a coin toss, and if effect sizes are small, researchers should be very cautious about making inferences about reproducibility even if the observed p-value is small and sample size is large. (
  • The University Libraries support students and researchers across the University of Minnesota and have many experts and services that can support research reproducibility and rigor across the research lifecycle. (
  • Guidelines and Examples: A UMN resource to help researchers, librarians, research support staff, students, and administrators find guidelines and examples related to reproducibility for their disciplines. (
  • It showed us that researchers' analysis choices matter to what kind of results they find and report. (
  • Where scientists need to publish new, positive and spectacular results for professional advancement, journals need to publish new, positive and spectacular results to promote their Impact Factor (IF), and institutions and funders support researchers who publish new, positive and spectacular results in high IF journals. (
  • It means that a result obtained by an experiment or observational study should be achieved again with a high degree of agreement when the study is replicated with the same methodology by different researchers. (
  • A place to start may be an agreement on how to report results (either Bayesian or frequentist) and how to better assess the meaning and significance of a study's results. (
  • Release of the code and data used to generate the results in the hockey stick paper likely would have avoided the convening of panels to assess the papers. (
  • The aim of the study was to assess the reproducibility of a short-form, multicomponent dietary questionnaire (SF-FFQ4PolishChildren) in Polish children and adolescents. (
  • The aim of our study was to assess the reproducibility of activations for 2 widely used paradigms: naming and word generation. (
  • Two sample sets of 60 samples each were designed to assess inter- and intraobserver reproducibility considering two cut points for positivity: 1% or 50% of PD-L1 stained tumor cells. (
  • To assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire developed for estimating the food consumption of adults in São Paulo, Brazil, based population study. (
  • The committee was given a timeline to assess issues pertaining to reproducibility and replication, hear testimony by subject matter experts, deliberate and complete their investigations within approximately 18 months of the start of activities in October 2017. (
  • For example, it has been shown that for some published results with major impact, replication of published results is difficult or impossible (e.g. (
  • In fact, several recent articles have reported on reproducibility and/or replication problems in the HLT field (e.g. (
  • 2015 ), and two recent workshops 1 have addressed the need for replication and reproduction of HLT results. (
  • What is clear is that whether for the purposes of replication or reproduction of prior results, access to the resources, procedures, parameters, and test data used in an original work is critical to the exercise. (
  • Assessing whether the replication and the original experiment yielded the same result according to several criteria, they find that about one-third to one-half of the original findings were also observed in the replication study. (
  • Direct replication is the attempt to recreate the conditions believed sufficient for obtaining a previously observed finding and is the means of establishing reproducibility of a finding with new data. (
  • Here, we evaluated reproducibility using significance and P values, effect sizes, subjective assessments of replication teams, and meta-analysis of effect sizes. (
  • and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. (
  • No single indicator sufficiently describes replication success, and the five indicators examined here are not the only ways to evaluate reproducibility. (
  • Reproducibility is not well understood because the incentives for individual scientists prioritize novelty over replication. (
  • The National Academies are charged by Congressional mandate to explore the issues of reproducibility and replication in scientific and engineering research. (
  • Lay people who learned about the low replication rate found in the Reproducibility Project subsequently reported a lower trust in psychology, compared to people who were told that a high number of the studies had replicated. (
  • Now, the results of unique research project, the Neuroimaging Analysis, Replication, and Prediction Study (NARPS), suggest that different analyses can lead to strikingly different results from the same data set. (
  • Reproducibility in the original, wide sense is only acknowledged if a replication performed by an independent researcher team is successful. (
  • A sample of individuals aged above 20 years, of both genders, living in São Paulo, was used for the validation study (n = 77) and reproducibility study (n = 74) of the food frequency questionnaire. (
  • The food frequency questionnaire analyzed has good validity and reproducibility for estimating the food consumption of adults in São Paulo compared to the reference method, so it is an appropriate instrument to be used in epidemiological studies on similar populations. (
  • The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility and validity (against biochemical biomarkers) of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in pregnant women. (
  • To develop a self-administered food frequency questionnaire for older children and adolescents and to demonstrate reproducibility over a 1-year period. (
  • Russell Poldrack, a cognitive neuroscientist at Stanford University and a strong proponent of reproducibility in science (the ability to replicate published studies and get the same results) is no stranger to testing the limits of commonly used neuroscience techniques (See Making the Connectome Personal: One Brain, Many Scans ). (
  • We tested the reproducibility of the assessment of PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue samples by pathologists. (
  • Using this assay, we investigated the inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of pathologists' assessment of PD-L1 staining and the impact of training on reproducibility. (
  • The presence of an identifiable effective regurgitant orifice improves reproducibility of VC and a central regurgitant jet predicts substantial agreement among multiple observers of PISA assessment. (
  • For intraobserver reproducibility, the overall percent agreement (OPA) was 89.7% [95% confidence interval (CI), 85.7-92.6] for the 1% cut point and 91.3% (95% CI, 87.6-94.0) for the 50% cut point. (
  • Reproducibility, interobserver, and intraobserver variabilities were assessed and compared by the Bland-Altman method. (
  • To evaluate the reproducibility of a scanning laser polarimeter, the Nerve Fiber Analyzer II (NFA II, Laser Diagnostic Technologies, San Diego, CA, U.S.A. (
  • To evaluate inter- and intra-observer reproducibility in the histopathology of follicular carcinoma (FTC). (
  • But as neuroimaging technology has advanced, so have the different analysis tools and the number of ways one can evaluate the resulting data. (
  • Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of acute and chronic infarct size (IS) by delayed enhancement (DE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (
  • However, only a few reports exist on the reproducibility or test-retest reliability of functional imaging results with respect to language processes. (
  • Gauging reproducibility is important, and therefore, the reliability of this test can be ascertained. (
  • Reproducibility is reported as agreement and reliability between paired raters of the same profession. (
  • The lack of reliability and reproducibility of the results are major challenges in the application of diagnostics based of SERS substrates. (
  • The reliability of scientific research can be measured by the number of subsequent retractions of previously published articles when it is determined that they are fraudulent or they contain errors of experimentation or interpretation of the results. (
  • It is therefore pharmaceutical companies which are amongst the most interested parties in the reliability of these results, since it is on the basis of these that they will develop projects to test and possibly produce these drugs which have considerable costs attached to them. (
  • We believe that the sharing of data is essential to scientific transparency and reproducibility, and the work of our center will extend the OpenfMRI project to encompass a complete online data analysis and sharing platform. (
  • The Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines (COS, 2014) are a set of 8 standards intended to be adopted by academic journals to improve reproducibility through transparency. (
  • Several authors have investigated the reproducibility and validity of this method for quantification of ocular microcirculation. (
  • To verify the validity and reproducibility of energy and 19 nutrients were applied two food frequency questionnaires (60 items) and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR - reference method). (
  • The validity was verified by Spearman correlation coefficient (crude and de-attenuated) and weighted Kappa, and reproducibility by intraclass correlation coefficients and weighted kappa. (
  • We compared nutrient and food intakes from FFQs estimated for two periods of pregnancy (reproducibility), and compared energy-adjusted intake of several carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C and α-tocopherol of the FFQ in the first trimester with their concentration in blood specimens (validity). (
  • While it is difficult to completely characterize the validity of tractography, we can measure its reproducibility. (
  • But the presence of methodological issues raises questions about the external validity of these results. (
  • It comprises a checklist of 20 items dedicated to internal validity, reproducibility and relevance/context, containing key information necessary to describe a study comprehensively and transparently. (
  • To explore which measures NEURON can embrace to maintain and improve international quality standards, a workshop on 'Quality assurance and reproducibility of results' was organized on January 19th, 2017 in Oslo. (
  • In reproducibility correlation coefficients ranged from 0.36 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0.69 (calcium), and weighted kappa exceeded 0.40 for 80% of the nutrients. (
  • Reproducibility for nutrients ranged from .26 for protein and iron to .58 for calcium, and for foods it ranged from .39 for meats to .57 for soda. (
  • Purpose: The aim of this work is to shed light on the issue of reproducibility in MR image reconstruction in the context of a challenge. (
  • Reproducibility is a rarely discussed, but absolutely critical aspect of trial implementation and data management. (
  • Interpretation of experimental results cannot be performed without deep understanding of what happened to the data. (
  • The second panel on reporting scientific results and sharing scientific study data was moderated by Victoria Stodden (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) and included the following panelists: Keith Baggerly (MD Anderson Cancer Center), Ronald Boisvert (Association for Computing Machinery and National Institute of Standards and Technology), Randy LeVeque (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics and University of Washington), and Marcia McNutt ( Science magazine). (
  • The data shows that MammaTyper® provides virtually identical results - independent of the location, the time of day, the instruments used and the operator performing the test (1). (
  • It appears as though the leak came about through a long battle to get the CRU scientists to reveal the code and data associated with published results, and highlights a crack in the scientific method as practiced in computational science. (
  • Harry seems to have had access to the data and code used and he couldn't replicate the results. (
  • The merging and preprocessing of data in preparation for modeling and estimation encompasses a potentially very large number of steps, and a change in any one could produce different results. (
  • With a 'housing-density cost-calculator-simulator' and fully-annotated statistical examples/code, this themed-framework streamlines the rapid analysis of cage-clustered-data and promotes the use of 'study-power-statistics' to self-monitor the success/reproducibility of basic and translational research. (
  • Voxels with approved spectral quality were included to calculate Bland-Altman parameters for reproducibility from the choline plus creatine to citrate ratio (CC/C). The repeated spectroscopic data were also evaluated with a standardized clinical scoring system. (
  • However, little is known about the reproducibility of imaging data in the language domain. (
  • Before imaging data can be applied within the framework of neurosurgical planning (eg, for determining the extent of a resection), data on the reproducibility of the language paradigms should be available. (
  • In this paper, we will introduce the requirements towards data management arising in this setting (Section 2) and their linkage to reproducibility (Section 3). (
  • Curating and sharing your research data, code, and materials, means others can reproduce your results. (
  • The ability of a researcher to duplicate the results of a prior study if the same procedures are followed but new data are collected. (
  • Previous studies however showed weak reproducibility of data. (
  • If your collected data cannot be automatically linked (probably via metadata) to the exact instrument configuration at the time of collection, then you do not really have a scientific result: you have something suggestive but not convincing. (
  • Where practical, proposers should also propose models and openly accessible repositories for complete data sharing of all results from these experiments. (
  • As the data collection ability of nearly every area of science has ballooned, so has the potential for problematic research practices that can lead to irreproducible results. (
  • These results indicate that the data generated by deep genome sequencing is of the quality necessary for clinical use. (
  • The big question being, if you analyze data in different ways, would you get different results? (
  • The reproducibility of the probe data obtained hybridizing deer, Old-World primates, and human RNA samples to Affymetrix human GeneChip ® U133 Plus 2.0 was compared. (
  • However, the reproducibility and accuracy of these measures largely depends on the use of appropriated algorithms to derive the gene expression data from the probe data. (
  • As such, you should not pay for a Course Certificate in Communicating Data Results if you are unable or unwilling to use AWS, as you will not be able to successfully complete the course without doing so. (
  • Effective data scientists know how to explain and interpret their results, and communicate findings accurately to stakeholders to inform business decisions. (
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (
  • Five papers had reproducibility data for IGT or IFG, two of which where from the same population but sampled differently. (
  • With a narrower scope, reproducibility has been introduced in computational sciences: Any results should be documented by making all data and code available in such a way that the computations can be executed again with identical results. (
  • Obtaining the same results when analyzing the data set of the original study again with the same procedures, many authors use the term reproducibility in a narrow, technical sense coming from its use in computational research. (
  • Nonetheless, collectively these results offer a clear conclusion: A large portion of replications produced weaker evidence for the original findings despite using materials provided by the original authors, review in advance for methodological fidelity, and high statistical power to detect the original effect sizes. (
  • Whether any claimed findings are indeed true or false can only be confirmed via additional studies, but reproducibility can be confirmed immediately. (
  • The project pulled these studies from three different journals, Psychological Science, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, published in 2008 to see if they could get the same results as the initial findings. (
  • The authors emphasized that the findings reflect a problem that affects all of science and not just psychology, and that there is room to improve reproducibility in psychology. (
  • Reproducibility was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient. (
  • Both approaches suffer from a similar problem-negative results, experiments that don't work and failed replications are very difficult to interpret. (
  • By considering the effect of changing experimental environments on the reproducibility of experiments, we try to figure out in what situations the initial experimental results will likely carry over to other environments. (
  • In this article, we propose a methodology enhancing the reproducibility of scientific experiments in the domain of microscopy techniques. (
  • We discuss the criteria and attributes needed for reproducibility of microscopy experiments. (
  • The need to design an environment facilitating reproducibility for microscope experiments arises from the Collaborative Research Center ReceptorLight which started in 2015. (
  • Reproducibility of carefully documented experiments is a cornerstone of the scientific method, and yet is often lacking in computational mathematics, science, and engineering. (
  • Irreproducibility of published experiments, as we have seen, plays a significant role in the failures recorded in projects in the pharmaceutical industry based on pre-clinical results. (
  • Reproducibility can occur across different realms-numerical, empirical, computational and statistical-and may be analytical, direct, systematic or conceptual. (
  • Priming may have affected our results, but the use of a combined task, in which naming is paired with noun generation, improves the reproducibility of activations and is also suitable for IOM. (
  • In an ideal world, all research papers would be runnable: simply click to replicate all results, using the same setup as the authors. (
  • Reproducibility is the ability to produce a copy or duplicate, in this case it is the ability to replicate the results of the original studies. (
  • Regulation and Reproducibility: Can You Reproduce Your Clinical Trial Results? (
  • Robotic imaging for interventional procedures may be a valuable contribution, but requires reproducibility for its acceptance in clinical routine. (
  • The clinical reproducibility of contrast-enhanced MRI for infarct size determination compares favorably with that of routine clinical SPECT. (
  • Although there is substantial experimental evidence supporting the use of ceMRI to detect infarction, 1-4 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ the reproducibility of ceMRI in a clinical setting has not been established, nor has the utility of this approach been compared with that of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. (
  • 5 To allow the reproducibility of ceMRI to be directly compared with the reproducibility of an existing widely used clinical technique, patients were also scanned twice by resting Tc-MIBI SPECT on the same day as the 2 MRI scans. (
  • It is for this reason that pharmaceutical companies validate published results before embarking on a project involving clinical trials. (
  • and reproducibility of experimental results. (
  • The Reproducibility Project: Psychology was a crowdsourced collaboration of 270 contributing authors to repeat 100 published experimental and correlational psychological studies. (
  • Boyle, a pioneer of the experimental method, maintained that the foundations of knowledge should be constituted by experimentally produced facts, which can be made believable to a scientific community by their reproducibility. (
  • The recently published study examines whether the MammaTyper® in vitro diagnostic test is able to supply reliable and reproducible results for the mRNA expression of the genes ERBB2 , ESR1 , PGR and MKI67 . (
  • However, studies carried out by the pharmaceutical companies Bayer (Germany) and Amgen (USA) concluded that between 60% and 70% of studies in the field of biomedicine may include non-reproducible results. (
  • As a result, there is an increasingly urgent call for validation and verification of published research results, both within the academic community and the public at large (e.g. (
  • Because scientific research represents a major public investment and is the basis for many decisions that we make in medicine and society, it is essential that we can trust the results. (
  • The frequent near-impossibility of verification of computational results when reproducibility is not considered a research goal is shown by the miserable travails of "Harry," a CRU employee with access to their system who was trying to reproduce the temperature results. (
  • CITI Program is pleased to announce the availability of a new "Reproducibility of Research Results" module. (
  • Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. (
  • In part two of our conversation with Chris Graf, Wiley's new Director of Research Integrity and Publishing Ethics, we discuss what reproducibility really means and share how the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) works to protect research integrity. (
  • From peer review to reproducibility, publishers, authors, and editors are all exploring how to be more transparent to improve research integrity and impact. (
  • Through this DCL, the participating programs noted above encourage proposals that specifically seek to reproduce, verify and/or characterize recent results in the disciplines covered under each program's ambit of research. (
  • Proposers should be aware that the NSF merit review principles ( ) as well as the NSF merit review criteria ( ) support proposals that advance reproducibility in scientific research to the same extent as those that advance transformative research. (
  • In addition to advancing research and discovery in pure and applied mathematics, computation is pervasive across the sciences and now computational research results are more crucial than ever for public policy, risk management, and national security. (
  • A previous post on this blog addressed the question of the reproducibility of research results and how this topic is attracting increasing attention in the scientific community and society at large. (
  • Eand Medici Sciences , " Reproducibility Issues in Research with Animals and Animal Models " , National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2015. (
  • We found reports documenting research on the kinetics of NNK formation in sidestream cigarette smoke by searching the ∼45 million pages of tobacco industry documents made public as a result of litigation against the tobacco companies. (
  • Visualization is the field of research in computer science that studies effective communication of quantitative results by linking perception, cognition, and algorithms to exploit the enormous bandwidth of the human visual cortex. (
  • The alarming claim is that many or even most biomedical research results are false. (
  • Reproducibility of funded research projects is therefore one of the most important assets, since it clearly affects the perception and acceptance of research funding in society. (
  • The guidelines received consensus between scientists, statisti-cians, journal editors, and research funders and are used to ensure reproducibility of animal research and avoid unnecessary animal use. (
  • Objective To examine the reproducibility and responsiveness to change of a six minute walk test and a quality of life measure in elderly patients with heart failure. (
  • Responsiveness (the sensitivity of a measure to a clinically relevant change in health) and reproducibility (the stability of a test when no important change in health has occurred) are essential properties of outcome measures for intervention studies. (
  • 5 It is important that reproducibility and responsiveness should be demonstrated in all populations in which the measures will be used. (
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the reproducibility and responsiveness to change of a six minute walk test and a heart failure specific quality of life measure in elderly patients with heart failure attending a geriatric outpatient clinic. (
  • Within a given set of imaging parameters, we expect reconstruction reproducibility to vary among white matter tracts depending on their size and trajectory. (
  • Such proposals should identify the key results to be reproduced, motivate the importance of the results to the community and the need for independent validation, and present rigorous methodologies for experimentation with the goal of extensively and thoroughly characterizing the operating parameters under which these results can be reproduced. (
  • Large effect sizes and/or small ratios of the environmental effect ratio favor high probability of reproducibility. (
  • Brannen et al 11 used a phonologic generation task in patients and found a mean reproducibility ratio of 37% for activations in Brodmann areas 9, 44, 45, and 46. (
  • The results were subsequently analyzed for their reproducibility both between the institutes (inter-site) and within each institute (intra-site). (
  • The very precise reproducibility of MammaTyper® compared to immunohistochemistry was shown, especially for the determination of the proliferation marker Ki-67, which is vitally important for the differentiation of luminal breast cancer types and for the prognosis", explained the head of the study, Prof. Dr. med. (
  • The first study arm examined the comparability of quantitative marker results (40-ΔΔ Cq values) between the ten sites. (
  • Concerns of poor study and microbiome reproducibility also abound in the literature. (
  • For the reproducibility study, two blinded, randomized aliquots from 5 follicular and 5 luteal premenopausal women, 5 naturally postmenopausal women, and 5 men were assayed in each of four batches. (
  • This study aimed to mimic real-world conditions for many customers who must reconcile results from multiple operators, units, and locations. (
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate reproducibility of the position of centric relation in patients with disc displacement with reduction. (
  • The ability of a researcher to duplicate the results of a prior study using the same materials and procedures as were used by the original investigator. (
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the reproducibility of the physical activity during different sided games in elite soccer players during different training sessions. (
  • In this study, we have examined the reproducibility of FLT imaging in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • This study showed that the diagnostic reproducibility of minimally invasive FTC is low. (
  • A few studies on the reproducibility of pathological diagnosis in the field of thyroid carcinoma have been published between 1976 and 1993, and another study on a few cases was published in 2002. (
  • A similar study on FNAB reproducibility would obviously be welcome. (
  • Finally, this study shows the need for objective quantitative diagnostic tests that could result from present work, based for instance on the molecular biology of cancers (i.e. gene expression, etc. (
  • Our study demonstrates that cross-species analyses do not significantly affect hybridization reproducibility of GeneChips, at least within the range of the mammal species analysed here. (
  • G. Naik , " Scientists' Elusive Goal: Reproducing Study Results " , Wall Street Journal , 2011. (
  • The reproducibility of the quantitative results for the individual markers both between and within the institutes was calculated by means of variance component analysis and the intra- and inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC). (
  • In the process, the ICC reflects the reproducibility of quantitative results over the entire measuring range (4). (
  • Assessing the reproducibility of activations found with language paradigms in a repeated-measures design poses a special problem with regard to selection of stimuli. (
  • We conducted a large-scale, collaborative effort to obtain an initial estimate of the reproducibility of psychological science. (
  • I plan to discuss how these ideas play into good reproducible science and how one should program to guarantee reproducibility. (
  • I will show how these approaches have the potential to enable a new era of reproducibility in science. (
  • The project has illustrated the growing problem of failed reproducibility in social science. (
  • This project has started a movement that has spread through the science world with the expanded testing of the reproducibility of published works. (
  • Such assertions express a common dogma in modern science that reproducibility is a necessary condition (although not necessarily sufficient) for establishing a scientific fact, and in practice for establishing scientific authority in any field of knowledge. (
  • In animals with increased Ube3a gene dosage, glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, synaptic transmission was suppressed as a result of reduced presynaptic release probability, synaptic glutamate concentration, and postsynaptic action potential coupling. (