The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
Measurement of the thickness of the CORNEA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A specialty concerned with the nature and cause of disease as expressed by changes in cellular or tissue structure and function caused by the disease process.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.
Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The position or attitude of the body.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.
Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
1976 accidental release of DIOXINS from a manufacturing facility in Seveso, ITALY following an equipment failure.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
A method of three-dimensional morphometry in which contour maps are produced from the overlapping interference fringes created when an object is illuminated by beams of coherent light issuing from two different point sources.
Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.
Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from, accessed 2/14/2013)
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.
Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (1/49462)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Urinary lithium: distribution shape, reference values, and evaluation of exposure by inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry. (2/49462)

Inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry (ICPAES) was used to evaluate the lithium content of undiluted urine samples. The method can be performed with 1 mL of urine in a single tube using a routine ICPAES analysis for rapid and convenient assessment of lithium exposure in humans. Urine samples obtained from male workers (n = 86) who had not been exposed to lithium were used for the determination of this element by ICPAES. The obtained concentrations were corrected using a specific gravity of 1.024. The particular frequency distribution resulted in a log-normal distribution diagram for anatomical spread. Geometric mean value for urinary lithium in the nonexposed male workers was 23.5 microg/L, and the confidence interval from a log-normal distribution was 11.0 to 50.5 microg/L. Taking into consideration a short biological half-life and the massive urine excretion of lithium, urinary lithium was considered to be a useful index for monitoring of exposure. Calibration curves obtained for lithium standards had good sensitivity and linearity. Good reproducibility was assessed by lithium addition to urine samples. It was concluded that the obtained lithium reference values would be useful for the early diagnosis of lithium intoxication or in the assessment of the degree of exposure to lithium in subjects at risk.  (+info)

Transient and permanent deficits in motion perception after lesions of cortical areas MT and MST in the macaque monkey. (3/49462)

We examined the nature and the selectivity of the motion deficits produced by lesions of extrastriate areas MT and MST. Lesions were made by injecting ibotenic acid into the representation of the left visual field in two macaque monkeys. The monkeys discriminated two stimuli that differed either in stimulus direction or orientation. Direction and orientation discrimination were assessed by measuring thresholds with gratings and random-dots placed in the intact or lesioned visual fields. At the start of behavioral testing, we found pronounced, motion-specific deficits in thresholds for all types of moving stimuli, including pronounced elevations in contrast thresholds and in signal-to-noise thresholds measured with moving gratings, as well as deficits in direction range thresholds and motion coherence measured with random-dot stimuli. In addition, the accuracy of direction discrimination was reduced at smaller spatial displacements (i.e. step sizes), suggesting an increase in spatial scale of the residual directional mechanism. Subsequent improvements in thresholds were seen with all motion stimuli, as behavioral training progressed, and these improvements occurred only with extensive behavioral testing in the lesioned visual field. These improvements were particularly pronounced for stimuli not masked by noise. On the other hand, deficits in the ability to extract motion from noisy stimuli and in the accuracy of direction discrimination persisted despite extensive behavioral training. These results demonstrate the importance of areas MT and MST for the perception of motion direction, particularly in the presence of noise. In addition, they provide evidence for the importance of behavioral training for functional recovery after cortical lesions. The data also strongly support the idea of functional specialization of areas MT and MST for motion processing.  (+info)

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (4/49462)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Permanent work incapacity, mortality and survival without work incapacity among occupations and social classes: a cohort study of ageing men in Geneva. (5/49462)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the burden of disability and death in men, from middle age to age of retirement, among occupational groups and classes in Geneva. METHODS: Men were included if they resided in the Canton of Geneva, were 45 years of age in 1970-1972, and were not receiving a disability pension at the start of the follow-up. The cohort of 5137 men was followed up for 20 years and linked to national registers of disability pension allowance and of causes of death. RESULTS: There was a steep upward trend in incidence of permanent work incapacity with lower social class for all causes as well as for the seven causes of disability studied. Compared with professional occupations (social class I), the relative risk (RR) of permanent work incapacity was 11.4 for partly skilled and unskilled occupations (class IV+V) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.2-28.0). The social class gradient in mortality was in the same direction as that in work incapacity although much less steep (RR class IV+V to class I = 1.6, 95% CI : 1.1-2.2). Survival without work incapacity at the time of the 65th birthday ranged from only 57% in construction workers and labourers to 89% in science and related professionals. Unemployment in Geneva was below 1.5% during almost all the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Medically-ascertained permanent work incapacity and survival without work incapacity have shown considerably greater socioeconomic differentials than the mortality differentials.  (+info)

A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (6/49462)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

Comparison of active and cancer registry-based follow-up for breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. (7/49462)

The authors compared the relative effectiveness of two distinct follow-up designs in prospective cohort studies--the active approach, based on direct contact with study subjects, and the passive approach, based on record linkages with population-based cancer registries--utilizing available information from the New York University Women's Health Study (WHS) and the New York State Cancer Registry (NYSCR). The analyses were limited to breast cancer cases identified during the period 1985-1992, for which follow-up was considered reasonably complete by both the WHS and the NYSCR. Among 12,947 cohort members who reported a New York State address, 303 pathologically confirmed cases were identified through active follow-up and 284 through record linkage. Sixty-three percent of cancers were identified by both sources, 21% by the WHS only, and 16% by the NYSCR only. The agreement was appreciably better for invasive cancers. The percentage of cases identified only by the NYSCR was increased among subjects whose active follow-up was incomplete, as well as among nonwhites, obese patients, and parous patients. This suggests that relying on either type of follow-up alone may introduce certain biases in evaluating risk factors for breast cancer. Combining both approaches appears to be a better strategy in prospective cohort studies.  (+info)

Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older. (8/49462)

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

There are several different types of glaucoma, including:

* Open-angle glaucoma: This is the most common form of glaucoma, and is caused by slowed drainage of fluid from the eye.
* Closed-angle glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by a blockage in the drainage channels of the eye, leading to a sudden increase in pressure.
* Normal-tension glaucoma: This type of glaucoma is caused by damage to the optic nerve even though the pressure in the eye is within the normal range.
* Congenital glaucoma: This is a rare type of glaucoma that is present at birth, and is caused by a developmental defect in the eye's drainage system.

Symptoms of glaucoma can include:

* Blurred vision
* Loss of peripheral vision
* Eye pain or pressure
* Redness of the eye
* Seeing halos around lights

Glaucoma is typically diagnosed with a combination of visual acuity tests, dilated eye exams, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for glaucoma usually involves medication to reduce pressure in the eye, but may also include surgery to improve drainage or laser therapy to prevent further damage to the optic nerve.

Early detection and treatment of glaucoma is important to prevent vision loss, so it is important to have regular eye exams, especially if you are at risk for the condition. Risk factors for glaucoma include:

* Age (over 60)
* Family history of glaucoma
* Diabetes
* High blood pressure
* African or Hispanic ancestry

Overall, glaucoma is a serious eye condition that can cause vision loss if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing vision loss and maintaining good eye health.

The risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee increases with age, obesity, and previous knee injuries or surgery. Symptoms of knee OA can include:

* Pain and stiffness in the knee, especially after activity or extended periods of standing or sitting
* Swelling and redness in the knee
* Difficulty moving the knee through its full range of motion
* Crunching or grinding sensations when the knee is bent or straightened
* Instability or a feeling that the knee may give way

Treatment for knee OA typically includes a combination of medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications. Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids can help manage symptoms, while physical therapy can improve joint mobility and strength. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition, can also help slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the damaged joint.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

The results of the Reproducibility Project might also affect public trust in psychology. Lay people who learned about the low ... The results of this collaboration were published in August 2015. Reproducibility is the ability to produce the same findings, ... "Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology". Center for Open Science. Retrieved 19 January 2022. Apple, Sam (22 ... The Reproducibility Project: Psychology was a crowdsourced collaboration of 270 contributing authors to repeat 100 published ...
In recent decades, there has been a rising concern that many published scientific results fail the test of reproducibility, ... With a narrower scope, reproducibility has been introduced in computational sciences: Any results should be documented by ... reproducibility - or is it the other way round?". Retrieved 2020-10-15. "IUPAC - reproducibility (R05305)". International Union ... evoking a reproducibility or replication crisis. The first to stress the importance of reproducibility in science was the Irish ...
Because the reproducibility of empirical results is an essential part of the scientific method, such failures undermine the ... Reproducibility can also be distinguished from replication, as referring to reproducing the same results using the same data ... Categorizations and ratings of reproducibility at the study or results level, as well as addition of links to and rating of ... Early analysis of result-blind peer review, which is less affected by publication bias, has estimated that 61% of result-blind ...
JPSP is one of the journals analyzed in the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project after JPSP's publication of ... "How replicable are statistically significant results in social psychology? A replication and extension of Motyl et al. (in ... Open Science Collaboration (28 August 2015). "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science". Science. 349 (6251): ... maintain the impression that research that is published in JPSP has been thoroughly vetted and is less likely to be the result ...
Woolston, Chris (October 29, 2014). "A blueprint to boost reproducibility of results". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.16222. ... He has led or co-led efforts to define and improve reproducibility in science, e.g. computational reproducibility, and to ... "PLOS ONE: Search Results". Archived from the original on February 18, 2022. Retrieved February 18, 2022. ... "Reproducibility in research: taming a "complex beast"". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on March 22, 2022. ...
Junk, Thomas; Lyons, Louis (2020-12-21). "Reproducibility and Replication of Experimental Particle Physics Results". Harvard ... More statistically significant results cannot be mere statistical flukes but can still result from experimental error or ... results from a BaBar experiment may suggest a surplus over Standard Model predictions of a type of particle decay ( B → D(*) τ ... Initial results from Fermilab's Muon g-2 experiment with a standard deviation σ of 4.2 "strengthen evidence of new physics". B ...
The different faces result in different growth rates and electronic properties. On the SiC(0001) face, large-area single ... These graphene layers do have a good reproducibility. In this case, the graphene layer grows not directly on top of the ... Using this technique, the resulting graphene consists of small grains with varying thickness (30-200 nm). These grains occur ... Because of their different possible orientations, sizes and thickness, the resulting graphene film contains misoriented grains ...
"Codecheck confirms reproducibility of COVID-19 model results". Mirage News. 2 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020. Eglen SJ (29 ... "Codecheck confirms reproducibility of COVID-19 model results". Imperial News. Imperial College London. Retrieved 2021-03-10. ... The results obtained by Imperial using the model are consistent with other models that make similar assumptions. Calibration of ... A June 2020 editorial in Nature declared the original CovidSim codebase met the requirements of scientific reproducibility. ...
Part 1: reproducibility of results for the international intercomparison". Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. 10 (4): 234-251 ... Part of the Geotraces program is to ensure results for trace elements and isotopes collected on different cruises by different ...
The result was greatly increased reproducibility for antihydrogen production. In particular, this technique, dubbed SDREVC ( ... The result is a rotating electric field perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the plasma. This field induces an electric ... Enhanced Control and Reproducibility of Non-Neutral Plasmas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 025001 (2018). C. Amole, M. D. Ashkezari, M ... application of a rotating electric field at frequency results in the plasma spinning up to the applied frequency, namely fE = ...
The results are delivered through interactive and configurable interface. Results can be downloaded as publication ready ... All past releases are maintained for reproducibility and transparency. g:Profiler is freely available for all users at https:// ... MOET also displays the corresponding Bonferroni correction and odds ratio on the results page. It is simple to use, and results ... One base change has the potential to affect the protein that results from that gene being expressed; however, it also has the ...
Open research computation also addresses the problem of reproducibility of scientific results. The term "open science" does not ... Union, Publications Office of the European (2020). Reproducibility of scientific results in the EU : scoping report. op.europa. ... The resulting declaration calls for the use of digital tools such as open archives and open access journals, free of charge for ... "Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology". Center for Open Science. Retrieved 19 January 2022. Couchman, John R. (1 ...
November 2010). "Reproducibility of interictal EEG-fMRI results in patients with epilepsy". Epilepsia. 52 (3): 433-442. doi: ... which automatically identifies noise components and results in a more thorough "scrubbing" of the BCG noise In principle, the ...
Reproducibility of experimental results is central to the scientific method. A standard system of units facilitates this. ... As a result, units of measure could vary not only from location to location but from person to person. Metric systems of units ... When two different units are multiplied or divided, the result is a new unit, referred to by the combination of the units. For ... This accident was the result of both confusion due to the simultaneous use of metric and Imperial measures and confusion of ...
WBA strives to ensure objectivity, falsifiability and reproducibility of results. The result of a WBA is a why-because graph ( ... This process can be iterated for the newfound causes, and so on, until a satisfactory result has been achieved. At each node ( ...
They conclude "the main the problem of reproducibility and lack of consistent results.". Various experimenters ... The resulting effects on crop growth depend nonspecifically upon multiple factors, including effects of the introduced EM ... Mayer, J.; Scheid, S.; Widmer, F.; Fließbach, A.; Oberholzer (2010). ""Effective microorganisms® (EM)"? Results from a field ...
Method and Data Sharing and Reproducibility of Scientific Results". Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 60 (12): 5868 ...
As a result of her interests, by age 20, Pockels devised a slide trough for making quantitative measurements on the surface ... She recognized that impurities can affect reproducibility of experimental findings. Pockels developed a refined method of ... Pockels pointed out that even airborne dust can affect results with her experimental apparatus. ... who with very homely appliances has arrived at valuable results respecting the behaviour of contaminated water surfaces. The ...
For instance, it has been shown that results of offline evaluations have low correlation with results from user studies or A/B ... find a common understanding of reproducibility, (3) identify and understand the determinants that affect reproducibility, (4) ... As a result, in December 2009, an anonymous Netflix user sued Netflix in Doe v. Netflix, alleging that Netflix had violated ... The topic of reproducibility is not new in recommender systems. By 2011, Ekstrand, Konstan, et al. criticized that "it is ...
Reproducibility and recovery). In order to ensure maximum reproducibility in gel pore size and to obtain a fully polymerized ... As a result, the prepared gel is homogeneous (in terms of homogeneous distribution of cross-links throughout the gel sample), ... forming covalent acrylamide adduction products that may result in multiple bands. Additionally, the time of polymerization of a ...
Reproducibility has been defined as the ability of a result to be replicated through independent experiments within the same or ... These concerns are part of the larger reproducibility crisis in science. Some of the reasons for the lack of reproducibility in ... Erasmus Darwin was also impacted by the tragedy of the plagues and it resulted in the publication of his Zoonomia where he ... This resulted in several persistent misunderstandings of human anatomy. Another key early contributor to early comparative ...
With a view to improving reproducibility of scientific results, it has been suggested that research-funding agencies finance ... He counselled pursuing results with p values below 0.05 and not wasting time on results above that. Thus arose the idea that a ... A fundamental feature of the scientific enterprise is reproducibility of results. "For decades", writes Shannon Palus, "it has ... "These results," writes Oreskes, "parallel those of a 2018 study. An analysis of 126,000 rumor cascades on Twitter showed that ...
The data and analysis provenance is maintained for reproducibility of results. BisQue can be easily deployed in cloud computing ... These results are stored back into the system in the form of tags, graphical objects and/or images. Images or metadata are ... In the latter case, BisQue can automatically parallelize analysis over large image datasets and then collect the results in a ... In BisQue, sharing images, metadata and analysis results can be performed through the web. The system contains an export ...
Piette, Elizabeth R.; Moore, Jason H. (19 April 2017). Improving the Reproducibility of Genetic Association Results Using ... Permutation testing makes it possible to generate an empirical p-value for the result. Replication in independent data may also ...
Research incorporating sex as a biological variable increases the rigor and reproducibility of results. After publishing the ... In 2001, they presented a report that sex is an important variable in designing studies and assessing results. The quality and ... To improve the rigor and reproducibility of research findings, the European Commission, Canadian Institutes of Health Research ... Research including SABV has strengthened the rigor and reproducibility of findings. Public research institutions including the ...
But when he finally presented his results he reported an excess heat of only one degree Celsius, a result that could be ... Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method, and its lack led most physicists to believe that the ... xi, 207-209 "The ratio of the worldwide positive results on cold fusion to negative results peaked at approximately 50% (...) ... concluding that results as of that date did not present convincing evidence that useful sources of energy would result from the ...
Domingo Docampo (1 July 2012). "Reproducibility of the results of the Shanghai academic ranking of world universities". ... Whereas in the case of the other rankings the results are adjusted to take account of the size of institutions, hardly any such ... A 2013 paper in the same journal finally showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced. In a report from April ... A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced ...
Best results on reproducibility from lab to production (PDF). Eirechrom. v t e (Articles needing additional references from May ... These more sophisticated systems also allow the closed loop control of the reactor as a result of taking readings from the ...
The initial flutemetamol PET scan resulted in 43 positive and 25 negative results for cerebral cortisol amyloid status. 69 of ... The second trial assessed intra-reader reproducibility of PET scans using flutemetamol. Of the 176 patients imaged in this ... These results correlate with the pre-mortem scan. The second clinical trial included 276 subjects with a median age of 72. The ... Final results met the pre-specified success rate with a Fleiss' kappa statistic of 0.83. GE Healthcare's largest marketing ...
Researchers demonstrated a way of semi-automated testing for reproducibility: statements about experimental results were ... Repeatability and reproducibility are improved as automated systems as less likely to have variances in reagent quantities and ... Roper K, Abdel-Rehim A, Hubbard S, Carpenter M, Rzhetsky A, Soldatova L, King RD (April 2022). "Testing the reproducibility and ... The use of automated laboratory robots will improve antibody testing capacity, resulting in more data to help monitor and ...
This effort has resulted in large quantities of data, which are ever increasing at higher levels of complexity. The data ... INCF also provides training on how standards and best practices facilitate reproducibility and enables the publishing of the ... INCF promotes collaboration in neuroinformatics and reproducibility in brain research by providing coordination of global ... as well as provide training on how standards and best practices facilitate reproducibility and enables the publishing of the ...
As a result, product codes often differ depending on whether the miniatures were produced in the United States, Canada, or ... Throughout the company's history, figures were modified to improve reproducibility, unpopular designs were re-sculpted, and ... FanPro's support of the Shadowrun and Battletech game worlds resulted in continued demand for metal miniatures by gaming ...
Hypothesizing After the Results are Known) in the discipline, all indicators of poor reproducibility." Fidler has continuing ... in 2015 Fidler received an ARC Future Fellowship to explore reproducibility and open science in conservation science. She took ... "Science is in a reproducibility crisis - how do we resolve it?". The Conversation. Retrieved 27 October 2019. Fidler, Fiona; ... Fiona Fidler (born 1974) is an Australian professor and lecturer with interests in meta-research, reproducibility, open science ...
Among the results from this work is that the so-called third heart sound, "S3", formerly taught to be pathological, is actually ... feasibility and reproducibility. BMC Medical Imaging (2016) 16:60. Shmuylovich L, Kovács SJ. A load-independent index of ...
The merger vastly increased the global scope of the company, which, as a result, operated in 18 countries. Mettler acquired ... which significantly increases the reproducibility of basic research steps. An estimated 3 million scientists have benefited ... from improved research results and reductions in repetitive strain injuries (RSI) with the ergonomic Rainin LTS pipettes and ...
Rios, Fernando (April 28, 2016). "Beyond Data: Reproducibility in Scientific Software and the Role of Digital Preservation". ... sometimes as a result of services shutting down Efforts at converting physical/analog information to more modern digital media ...
A resource for reproducibility in biomedical data analysis, curation and digital preservation". Journal of Biomedical Semantics ... "Graph-based analysis and visualization of experimental results with ONDEX". Bioinformatics. 22 (11): 1383-1390. doi:10.1093/ ...
The results showed that M-CSF increased the monocyte and neutrophil count by more than 200% and the eosinophil count by 1000%. ... Institutions must do their part for reproducibility". Nature News. 525 (7567): 25-7. Bibcode:2015Natur.525...25B. doi:10.1038/ ...
Over the following months, all scientists who tried to duplicate her results failed, and suspicion arose that Obokata's results ... To address the problem of reproducibility in other laboratories, Obokata published some technical 'tips' on the protocols on ... all scientists who tried to duplicate Obokata's results failed and suspicion arose that her results were due to error or fraud ... On April 1, 2014, RIKEN concluded that Obokata had falsified data to obtain her results. On June 4, 2014, Obokata agreed to ...
7. Once the results for the near PCT have been recorded, the procedure should be repeated at 6m with the Snellen chart and if ... poor reproducibility and reliability' In order to perform a PCT, you must first perform a cover test as this gives an ... When recording the results obtained on a PCT it must be noted: If correction (glasses or contact lenses) was worn at the time ... and are always tested with their head tilt and then without their head tilt The results leading on from the cover test will ...
Zamboni's results were criticized because his study was not blinded and his results needed to be verified by further studies. ... The poor reproducibility across studies and diagnostic modalities has led some authors to conclude that CCVSI might be nothing ... The results of the study were described as a "death knell" for Zamboni's theory. Another study released by the University of ... Such outstanding results have raised suspicions of a possible spectrum bias, which originates on a diagnostic test not being ...
Its products are focused to offer quality and the reproducibility of laboratory results. Besides the unit offers customized ...
This results in exponential multiplication of replications of the mutated genes, along with large amounts of genotoxic waste in ... "Tissue array technology for testing interlaboratory and interobserver reproducibility of immunohistochemical estrogen receptor ... The IHC analysis was then performed the same day using anti-ER monoclonal antibodies, and resulted in a consistently strong ... This ultimately leads to a higher risk of replication errors, and the disruption of the normal cellular processes result in ...
Owing to their much higher combustion temperatures (resulting from their high cylinder compression ratios as well as ... The main challenges in the sensor development are selectivity, sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, response time, limit of ...
Negative results are more reliable. Statistical power of 0.8 produces 875 negative results of which only 20 are false, giving ... The Reproducibility Initiative is a service allowing life scientists to pay to have their work validated by an independent lab ... Unlikeliness is a measure of the degree of surprise in a result. Scientists prefer surprising results, leading them to test ... Negative results however account for a minority of published results, varying by discipline. A study of 4,600 papers found that ...
It can also result in erroneous scientific support for widely held cultural myths, on the other hand, as in the scientific ... However, the need for reproducibility requires that observations by different observers can be comparable. Human sense ... "Observe always that everything is the result of a change, and get used to thinking that there is nothing Nature loves so well ... Measurement reduces an observation to a number that can be recorded, and two observations which result in the same number are ...
According to the Detroit Free Press, "the result is a venue that's intimate (240-person capacity) and loaded with details. Its ... These latter works demanded reproducibility and rapid availability for circulation, and were thus well suited to the ... the results can be spectacular." Spank the Monkey marked both the gradual institutional acceptance of street art, and FAILE's ...
The use of traditional TEM techniques typically results in better resolution than the 4D STEM approach but can fail in regions ... in analysis and experimental methods brings up questions of comparability across different datasets as well as reproducibility ... of the CBED patterns was found to provide comparable results to those found using segmented detectors. 4D STEM allows for phase ... of the detector due to the electron's interaction with the scintillator resulting in a broadening of the signal. In contrast, ...
As a result, there are two chronologies for a given ice core: one for the ice, and one for the trapped gases. To determine the ... reproducibility and principal trends". Climate of the Past. 7 (3): 707-708. Bibcode:2011CliPa...7..707P. doi:10.5194/cp-7-707- ... As a result, alternating bands of lighter and darker ice can be seen in an ice core. Ice cores are collected by cutting around ... The results have to be corrected for the presence of 14 C produced directly in the ice by cosmic rays, and the amount of ...
The resulting voltage will be the potential difference between the two sides of the glass membrane possibly offset by some ... The silver chloride electrode is simple to manufacture and provides high reproducibility. The reference electrode usually ... Details of the fabrication and resulting microstructure of the glass membrane of the pH electrode are maintained as trade ... Potentiometric pH meters measure the voltage between two electrodes and display the result converted into the corresponding pH ...
... reproducibility and construct validity. The ASQoL was initially developed in UK English and Dutch, but to date a total of 37 ... Results from a randomized controlled study". Arthritis Care & Research. 57 (6): 1050-1057. doi:10.1002/art.22887. PMID 17665483 ...
Clinical study design aims to ensure the scientific validity and reproducibility of the results. Costs for clinical trials can ... Results found that there is a positive relationship between a lack of willingness to talk with their doctor and clinical trial ... Results found that potential clinical trial candidates were less likely to enroll in clinical trials if the patient is more ... The sponsor is also responsible for monitoring the results of the study as they come in from the various sites as the trial ...
The result is an infinitely sustained sound. The system controls the damping of the movement of the skin, and therefore the ... To maintain agile execution and adequate reproducibility of the phenomena, the first classification of sounds and performance ... In fact it can be presumed that the approximation of the non-rigid membrane results less valid with the increase of the mode ... and results must be verified experimentally. However, even in the absence of a solution, it is possible to note that decay of ...
For example, Nature Human Behaviour has adopted the registered report format, as it "shift[s] the emphasis from the results of ... "Promoting reproducibility with registered reports". Nature Human Behaviour. 1 (1): 0034. 10 January 2017. doi:10.1038/s41562- ... Recent moves have been made by the European Science Foundation (ESF) to change the situation, resulting in the publication of ... the paper resulting from this peer-reviewed procedure will be published, regardless of the study outcomes." Some journals are ...
This resulted in an outcry from the scientific community, citing a violation of Colquhoun's academic freedom. Grant ultimately ... Colquhoun, David (2017). "The reproducibility of research and the misinterpretation of p-values". Royal Society Open Science. 4 ... had resulted in a complaint to Malcolm Grant, provost of UCL. In response to legal threats from Alan Lakin, husband of Walker, ... and to the discussion of reproducibility in science. This paper has been followed by others which have explored the basis of ...
Without MAF, monitoring of the airflow is very difficult, and so the chances of reproducibility of the desired performance in ... As airflow is measured from the MAP sensor, turbocharger variations will affect the fuel flow measurement resulting in higher ... resulting in less finely tuned injection systems that cannot adjust for other variables or engine hardware changes accurately. ...
... and data used to produce analysis results. Pipelines can be used to create, edit and share reproducible in silico results. ... Reproducibility: Automated history and provenance tracking with versioning so that any user can share, repeat and understand a ...
These results not only advance the development of high-performance photodetectors based on the graphene/Si Schottky junction, ... reproducibility, scale-up of the production process and a better control over release properties. In addition, significant ... Absorption is a result of mutually coupled Fabry-Perot resonators represented by each graphene-quartz substrate. A repeated ... The resulting devices were mechanically flexible, surviving 8,000 bending cycles. This makes them potentially suitable for ...
While this method has been proven effective, the insertion sites of the P elements are often uncontrollable, resulting in an ... Unfortunately, the presence of these additional insertions has been found to affect the level and reproducibility of transgene ... Success of this insertion results in the nonreversible addition of the transgene of interest into the genome. ...
The low reproducibility found for the physical activity items assessing the inactive time spent might be a result the students ... The results of present study revealed no difference in reproducibility between the males and females. There are other previous ... also reported similar results in their study (12).. Although the reproducibility of the weight behaviour items and physical ... As a result, the reproducibility for the "type of milk consumed" might be underestimated due to the fact that many individuals ...
Results of search for su:{Reproducibility of results.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Results. Validation of analytical methods for food control : report of joint FAO/IAEA consultation, Vienna, Austria, 2-4 ... Contribution of trends in survival and coronary-event rates to changes in coronary heart disease mortality : 10-year results ... Your search returned 5 results. Sort. Sort by:. Relevance. Popularity (most to least). Popularity (least to most). Author (A-Z) ...
Reproducibility of Results * Sex Distribution ...
Reproducibility of Results • Scattering, Radiation • Semiconductor doping • Sensitivity and Specificity • Sex Factors • Signal ...
Statistically significant results from FDR corrected Mann-Whitney U two-sided tests are denoted as: *q-value,0.05; **q-value , ... Statistics and reproducibility. Unless otherwise annotated, all statistical comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney U two ... Statistically significant results from FDR corrected Mann-Whitney U tests are denoted as: *q-value , 0.05; **q-value , 0.01 ... Our results demonstrated that, in contrast to UVC radiation, UV emitted by a nail polish dryer induced neither CPDs nor 6-4PPs ...
reproducibility. Closeness of agreement between independent test results for the same measurand under changed conditions ... in-range result. Newborn screening result that is within the expected range of normal or negative test results established for ... out-of-range result. Newborn screening result that is outside the expected range of normal or negative test results established ... reportable range of test results. The span of test result values over which the laboratory can establish or verify the accuracy ...
R2016a: Reproducibility change. *. Reproducibility. Calling svds. multiple times in succession now produces the same result. To ... Check the results by computing the full singular value decomposition of A. . Convert A. to a full matrix and use svd. . ... Nonconverged singular values are removed from the output, which can result in svds. returning fewer singular values than ... generates the default starting vectors using a private random number stream to ensure reproducibility across runs. Setting the ...
Reproducibility of Results. 3. 2021. 19537. 0.050. Why? Transcription, Genetic. 1. 2016. 7885. 0.050. Why? ...
RESULTS: Good to excellent reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficients = 0.46-0.85) for MDT was found in controls at ... In addition, MDT reproducibility in controls was assessed for a pre-typing and three post-typing time periods over three trials ...
According to the results, 100% beverages and 85% confectioneries contained permitted synthetic food colours. Out ... The reproducibility test was performed after 14 days of TLC analysis.. 3. Results and Discussion. The study was conducted to ... the current results are similar to the results of the previous studies in other countries. ... The resulting coloured liquid was centrifuged at 30,000 rpm for 15 minutes. The separated liquid was evaporated on the water ...
Training that promotes reproducibility of results and scientific rigor. This program is not intended to support training or ... Training in Methods for Enhancing Reproducibility. Does the plan for Instruction in Methods for Enhancing Reproducibility ... It is expected that the program will provide research training opportunities in a manner that will result in the recruitment ... Failure by the recipient institution to submit required forms in a timely, complete, and accurate manner may result in an ...
Open inquiry through reproducing results is fundamental to the scientific process. Contemporary research relies on software ... We will discuss how these projects can individually and jointly improve reproducibility in scientific communication. Finally, ...
The Life Science industry has been in the grips of a reproducibility crisis for a number of years. Abcam is leading the way in ... Porencephaly type 1 is usually unilateral and results from focal destructive lesions such as fetal vascular occlusion or birth ... Research with confidence - consistent and reproducible results with every batch. *Long-term and scalable supply - powered by ...
The test was also validated in independent clinical studies [46,47,48]. The reproducibility of qPCR-based results was also ... delivered reliable results [7]. Although the reproducibility was good for all antibodies used for ESR1 status determination, ... In vitro results also show that IGFBP3 has a significant role in cell proliferation control [68]. The CDK8 gene was identified ... Figure 1. Reproducibility of the molecular subtypes in three different approaches. Author: as published in GEO by the authors ...
MedicinalQuality ControlReproducibility of ResultsTriterpenes ... and its reproducibility is good. It will be a scientific ... RESULTS. Detected 12 batches samples of different species Lopuat Leaf Fingerprint by the method of HPLC. Eight peaks in the ... RESULTS: Detected 12 batches samples of different species Lopuat Leaf Fingerprint by the method of HPLC. Eight peaks in the ... CONCLUSION: The method is convenient, quick and exact, and its reproducibility is good. It will be a scientific reference for ...
Weighing yourself properly and looking at the reproducibility of results may help. However you look for accuracy, make sure you ... A scale that is miscalibrated will still give the same results. Weight measurements are inaccurate, but reproducible. ... Over time, springs in analog scales may develop gradual wear and tear, which can lower both their accuracy and reproducibility. ... Again, this speaks to scales reproducibility and precision, which we mentioned above: When you weigh the same object, how much ...
Next comes reproducibility - the same result recorded again and again. Reproducibility is a critical component of science. ... Separate teams use different methods of analysis, and finally compare results.. ...
Results of first mapping of soil-transmitted helminths in Benin: Evidence of countrywide hookworm predominance ... Pooling as a strategy for the timely diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths in stool: value and reproducibility ... What does soil-transmitted helminth elimination look like? Results from a targeted molecular detection survey in Japan ... results from a three-country hybrid study ...
Categories: Reproducibility of Results Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
The outcomes of the muscle tests were interpreted consistently: a weak result indicated a Lie and a strong result indicated a ... In the fourth study, the reproducibility and repeatability of kMMT were examined. In the final study, TPs were presented with ... New search , Advanced search , Search results Login / Register , About , Help , FAQ , Follow ... Also, these results suggest that kMMT may be about 60% accurate, which is statistically different from Intuition and ...
The green laser also improves the reproducibility of the results. Regardless of whether the surface is oxidized, ground, ... The use of shielding gases like argon and nitrogen will result in a welded seam of even higher quality. These shielding gases ... A newly developed pulsed green laser welds copper with high reproducibility and little spatter - regardless of the nature of ... The two greatest challenges here are good reproducibility and low spattering. At a wavelength of 1,000 nanometers (IR), copper ...
Results from up to 4 successful exhalation trials (ENXTR1Q, ENXTR2Q, ENXTR3Q, ENXTR4Q) were used to assess reproducibility, and ... ENXTR1G - Trial 1 result status. Variable Name: ENXTR1G. SAS Label: Trial 1 result status. English Text: Trial 1: Status of ... ENXTR2G - Trial 2 result status. Variable Name: ENXTR2G. SAS Label: Trial 2 result status. English Text: Trial 2: Status of ... ENXTR3G - Trial 3 result status. Variable Name: ENXTR3G. SAS Label: Trial 3 result status. English Text: Trial 3: Status of ...
Reproducibility of Micro-Mills Procedure for Pesticide Residues in Fat.. 1972. 43. Results : interlaboratory comparison - ... Search Results for the EPA National Library Catalog. Items Found: 47. Showing: Items 1 - 47. Your Search: (SUBJECT=DDE ... Sort Results: Publication dates (newest-oldest). Publication dates (oldest-newest). Title. Choose a Library:. (CTRL-CLICK for ...
Best Reproducibility High-resolution scales (0.004 µm) offer the highest reproducibility of measurement results.. High ...
Reproducibility of quantitative coronary computed tomography angiography in asymptomatic individuals and patients with acute ...
There are many different libraries for GUI (graphical user interfaces), many of them with Python bindings: PyGTK, PyQt, PySide, etc. Tkinter is one of the oldest Python GUI libraries and is considered to be the standard one. Another popular choice is wxPython, a Python interface for wxWidgets C++ library. ...
  • In the fourth study, the reproducibility and repeatability of kMMT were examined. (
  • To assess the reproducibility and validity of the QUEFAC to children aged 7 to 10 years. (
  • To assess inter-examiner reproducibility in the detection of 20 occlusal caries in permanent teeth using three diagnostic codes and criteria: WHO (1997), Nyvad and ICDAS-II. (
  • The main cause attributed to the observations described above is a publication and incentive system that rewards the impact and novelty of scientific findings, but does not systematically assess their reproducibility, which is rarely considered in the evaluation of researchers (14,15). (
  • The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. (
  • ABSTRACT This study aimed to generate a Turkish version of the School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) (2009) questionnaire for high-school students and to test its validity and reproducibility. (
  • It was tested and re-tested on 318 high-school students to evaluate its validity and reproducibility. (
  • The reproducibility and validity of the Turkish version of SPAN questionnaire is acceptable and it is a rapid, easily used tool for the assessment of nutrition and physical activity in schoolchildren. (
  • However, its validity and reproducibility must be tested to assert that the instrument has a recognized quality. (
  • The highest test−re-test results were on foods consumed the day before, with an agreement percentage range of 56%−96% and a kappa range of 0.43−0.95. (
  • For reproducibility, mean differences were observed for all nutrients investigated, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 and Kappa values from 0.01 to 0.39. (
  • 0.70) and an acceptable to excellent reproducibility (weighted kappa=0.55, adjusted kappa=0.89). (
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente étude avait pour objectif de générer une version turque du questionnaire SPAN (School Physical Activity and Nutrition) [activité physique et nutrition en milieu scolaire (2009) pour les élèves du secondaire et de tester sa validité et sa reproductibilité. (
  • La validité a été déterminée en comparant les parties du questionnaire sur les aliments consommés le jour d'avant avec celle comprenant des listes relatives à la consommation alimentaire sur une durée de 24h. (
  • The Life Science industry has been in the grips of a reproducibility crisis for a number of years. (
  • It was developed in response to the so-called reproducibility crisis. (
  • H&E-like digital staining also allows rapid identification of extracapillary proliferation (κ = 0.88), necrosis and segmental sclerosis (κ = .88) in the glomerular compartment, but the results reported here are limited because of the small number of cases with these glomerular findings. (
  • In recent years, data on the reproducibility of published findings in some areas of research has become available. (
  • In experimental psychology, several warning signs about the low reproducibility of published findings emerged in the early 2010s (7,8). (
  • Thus, the acceptance of an article, particularly in journals that are very selective for high-impact findings, ends up depending not only on the research's methods but also on its results. (
  • Another point often related to the lack of reproducibility in biomedical research is the biased use of statistical models. (
  • Repeated buccal occlusal scans made of the same side showed fair reproducibility, and this aspect would benefit from further investigation. (
  • The reproducibility revealed precise answers in the occlusal caries lesions diagnosis according to the criteria used. (
  • dental diagnosis, tooth decay, reproducibility. (
  • Scale accuracy is a major issue, especially in the clinical field, where population studies and medical decisions rely on measurement results. (
  • High-resolution scales (0.004 µm) offer the highest reproducibility of measurement results. (
  • This is where scientists around the world struggle to replicate results from experiments that were carried out in other laboratories. (
  • Public health laboratories are responsible for providing timely and reliable results primarily for the purpose of disease control and prevention. (
  • Codes indicating a result either above or below the range of the device detection limit, as well as error codes are also displayed on the screen. (
  • Results indicating a value above the limit of detection are unusual, and subsequent measurements are most often within the normal range of the test device. (
  • By optimising experimental design, researchers hope to improve the reliability of their results and boost the chances of success for potential treatments that are taken forward into human clinical trials. (
  • and reproducibility of experimental results. (
  • Separate teams use different methods of analysis, and finally compare results. (
  • The full description of methods is available in the Global Tuberculosis Report 2013 and the data sets are available from the WHO global TB database ( ). (
  • The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the virtual interocclusal records of an intraoral scanning system compared with conventional polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) interocclusal records . (
  • Two cutoff points were used for ICDAS-II and Nyvad to represent reproducibility values: the A- lesion, B- cavity lesion. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using ex vivo confocal microscopy in fusion mode (FuCM) and the haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-like digital staining that results for the analysis of basic patterns of lesion in nephropathology. (
  • Over time, springs in analog scales may develop gradual wear and tear, which can lower both their accuracy and reproducibility. (
  • RESULTS: Good to excellent reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficients = 0.46-0.85) for MDT was found in controls at 22 degrees C. At 18 and 22 degrees C, pre-typing MDT differed between controls and cases by number of symptom sites marked on a hand-arm diagram (ANOVA, P or = 0.05), and by number of UEMSD case definitions met (ANOVA, P or = 0.05). (
  • The method is convenient, quick and exact, and its reproducibility is good. (
  • The two greatest challenges here are good reproducibility and low spattering. (
  • Accurate and reliable results depend on accurate equipment, a competent operator, a cooperative patient, a good quality control programme and appropriately selected reference values. (
  • Reproducibility values ranged from good to perfect. (
  • Clinical accuracy and reproducibility of virtual interocclusal records. (
  • Here is a recent report on reproducibility of scientific results in the EU. (
  • Reproducibility of scientific results in the EU : scoping report. (
  • This report scopes the issue of the reproducibility of scientific results, based on a field review and on an expert seminar on the opportunity of policy action in Europe. (
  • Open inquiry through reproducing results is fundamental to the scientific process. (
  • We will discuss how these projects can individually and jointly improve reproducibility in scientific communication. (
  • The process of verification and correction of published science, however, occurs in a non systematic way, which means that reproducibility is not guaranteed by scientific publication in its current format. (
  • It should be noted that the reproducibility of a scientific finding can be defined in many ways, and that there is no consensus on the use of the terms "reproducible" and "replicable" (1,2). (
  • This leads to a literature that is full of positive and impacting results, but usually at the expense of selective or biased analyses and inflated effects, which distort our perception of the scientific problems under study (16). (
  • The QUEFAC was not valid for evaluation of usual food consumption of the last three months in children aged 7 to 10 years in São Paulo and presented moderate reproducibility for energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, magnesium and vitamin B2. (
  • The intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibility were determined for the BD CBA Mouse IL-17F Flex Set by evaluating ten replicates of three different sample levels (intra-assay) and three replicates of three different sample levels from four separate experiments (inter-assay). (
  • However, some sources propose different uses of the two terms to distinguish the reproducibility of analyses based on the same data from those based on new experiments or observations (3). (
  • The outcomes of the muscle tests were interpreted consistently: a weak result indicated a Lie and a strong result indicated a Truth. (
  • For reproducibility, 74% of the SCP were detected consistently for all 3 repeated scans, and 92% of the SCs were identified accurately. (
  • Reproducibility is a sector-wide issue and has been a particular challenge for medical research. (
  • In this chapter, we will use "reproducibility" and "replicability" interchangeably, indicating that a similar result is obtained when collecting new data under conditions similar to those in the original study. (
  • In 2015, the results of a large systematic replication of studies in cognitive and social psychology were released, which indicated success rates between 36% and 47% (9). (
  • Reproducibility is recognized as the ability to obtain similar results on several examination and has been considered of great importance when evaluating a particular method of validation, ensuring uniformity of caries criteria interpretation 14-15 . (
  • Since then, similar projects have found reproducibility rates between 30% and 85% in different samples of studies from the social and behavioral sciences (10-13). (
  • The test result, an integer between 5-300 ppb, is displayed on the screen of the device 140 seconds after a valid test is completed. (
  • It is pleasant to read and it is nice to see (from this report and many others) that a consensus on the importance of and how to advertise and address (at least on an organizational) reproducibility issues is emerging. (
  • Another limitation is these results are not generalisable to other applications of kMMT, such as its use in other paradigms or using muscles other than the deltoid. (
  • These tests, however, are usually applied flexibly after data collection and examination, and end up being reported selectively according to the results found (18,19). (
  • The use of shielding gases like argon and nitrogen will result in a welded seam of even higher quality. (
  • This creates a problematic conflict of interest for the authors, as career advancement depends on obtaining particular results, biasing the conduct and the analysis of studies (17). (
  • As there is no detailed description of all the analysis procedures tested, a reader's ability to interpret the results is severely impaired. (
  • For the Nyvad index values varied from of 0.77 to 1.00 (G) and from 0.65 to 0.74 (UG), for the WHO index, values obtained ranged from 0.66 to 1.00 (UG) and 1.00 (G). Using a cutoff A, interexaminers reproducibility (ICDAS-II) ranged from 0.73 to 0.87 (G) and 1.00 (UG). (
  • RESULTS: Detected 12 batches samples of different species Lopuat Leaf Fingerprint by the method of HPLC. (
  • The diluted samples were assayed and the results were compared with the original spiked sample. (
  • The spiked samples were assayed and the results were compared with expected values. (
  • Summary: With the TruDisk Pulse 421, the welding of copper is more efficient, generates fewer spatters, and achieves greater reproducibility of the welded seam - and all this regardless of the nature of the surface. (
  • According to the results, 100% beverages and 85% confectioneries contained permitted synthetic food colours. (