Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The first DNA-binding protein motif to be recognized. Helix-turn-helix motifs were originally identified in bacterial proteins but have since been found in hundreds of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are constructed from two alpha helices connected by a short extended chain of amino acids, which constitute the "turn." The two helices are held at a fixed angle, primarily through interactions between the two helices. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p408-9)
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
A subclass of repressor proteins that do not directly bind DNA. Instead, co-repressors generally act via their interaction with DNA-BINDING PROTEINS such as a TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING FACTORS or NUCLEAR RECEPTORS.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (1/21399)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (2/21399)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (3/21399)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (4/21399)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (5/21399)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (6/21399)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (7/21399)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. (8/21399)

The first appearance of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis, at cell cycle 17, is accompanied by the down-regulation of E2F-dependent transcription. Mutant alleles of rbf were generated and analyzed to determine the role of RBF in this process. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression. Despite the ubiquitous expression of E2F target genes, most epidermal cells enter G1 normally. Rather than pausing in G1 until the appropriate time for cell cycle progression, many of these cells enter an ectopic S-phase. These results indicate that the repression of E2F target genes by RBF is necessary for the maintenance but not the initiation of a G1 phase. The phenotype of RBF-deficient embryos suggests that rbf has a function that is complementary to the roles of dacapo and fizzy-related in the introduction of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis.  (+info)

B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) is a transcriptional repressor that plays an important role during plasmacytic differentiation and is expressed in normal and transformed plasma cells. We here investigated the importance of continuous Blimp-1 expression. We found that knockdown of Blimp-1 expression by lentiviral vector-delivered short hairpin RNA causes apoptosis in multiple myeloma cell lines and plasmacytoma cells$ indicating that continued expression of Blimp-1 is required for cell survival. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcriptional repressor REST drives lineage stage-specific chromatin compaction at Ptch1 and increases AKT activation in a mouse model of medulloblastoma. AU - Dobson, Tara H.W.. AU - Tao, Rong Hua. AU - Swaminathan, Jyothishmathi. AU - Maegawa, Shinji. AU - Shaik, Shavali. AU - Bravo-Alegria, Javiera. AU - Sharma, Ajay. AU - Kennis, Bridget. AU - Yang, Yanwen. AU - Callegari, Keri. AU - Haltom, Amanda R.. AU - Taylor, Pete. AU - Kogiso, Mari. AU - Qi, Lin. AU - Khatua, Soumen. AU - Goldman, Stewart. AU - Lulla, Rishi R.. AU - Fangusaro, Jason. AU - MacDonald, Tobey J.. AU - Li, Xiao Nan. AU - Hawkins, Cynthia. AU - Rajaram, Veena. AU - Gopalakrishnan, Vidya. PY - 2019/1/22. Y1 - 2019/1/22. N2 - In medulloblastomas (MBs), the expression and activity of RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is increased in tumors driven by the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway, specifically the SHH- (children 3 to 16 years) and SHH- (infants) subgroups. Neuronal maturation is greater in SHH- than ...
Neuron-restrictive silencer factor regulates the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit gene in basal and ethanol-induced gene expression in fetal cortical ne
Previous studies have identified the immunological functions of transcription factor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) in various adaptive immune cell types such as T and B lymphocytes. More recently, it has been shown that Blimp-1 extends its functional roles to dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, two cell types belonging to the innate immune system. The protein acts as a direct and indirect regulator of target genes by recruiting chromatin modification factors and by regulating microRNA expression, respectively. In DCs, Blimp-1 has been identified as one of the components involved in antigen presentation. Genome-wide association studies identified polymorphisms associated with multiple autoimmune diseases such as system lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease in PRDM1, the gene encoding Blimp-1 protein. In this review, we will discuss the immune regulatory functions of Blimp-1 in DCs with a main focus on the tolerogenic mechanisms of Blimp-1
An example of a repressor protein is the methionine repressor MetJ. MetJ interacts with DNA bases via a ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) motif.[2] MetJ is a homodimer consisting of two monomers, which each provides a beta ribbon and an alpha helix. Together, the beta ribbons of each monomer come together to form an antiparallel beta-sheet which binds to the DNA operator (Met box) in its major groove. Once bound, the MetJ dimer interacts with another MetJ dimer bound to the complementary strand of the operator via its alpha helices. AdoMet binds to a pocket in MetJ that does not overlap the site of DNA binding. The Met box has the sequence AGACGTCT which is a palindrome (it shows dyad symmetry) allowing the same sequence to be recognised on either strand of the DNA. The junction between C and G in the middle of the Met box contains a pyrimidine-purine step that becomes positively supercoiled forming a kink in the phosphodiester backbone. This is how the protein checks for the recognition site as it ...
Transcription repressor. Molecular model of the Tup 1 transcription repressor protein. Transcription repressors bind to specific sequences of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and prevent the transcription (transfer) of genetic information from DNA to RNA (ribonucleic acid). - Stock Image F006/9316
Compaction and looping of the ~2.5-Mb Igh locus during V(D)J rearrangement is essential to allow all V(H) genes to be brought in proximity with D(H)-J(H) segments to create a diverse antibody repertoire, but the proteins directly responsible for this are unknown. Because CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been demonstrated to be involved in long-range chromosomal interactions, we hypothesized that CTCF may promote the contraction of the Igh locus. ChIP sequencing was performed on pro-B cells, revealing colocalization of CTCF and Rad21 binding at ~60 sites throughout the V(H) region and 2 other sites within the Igh locus. These numerous CTCF/cohesin sites potentially form the bases of the multiloop rosette structures at the Igh locus that compact during Ig heavy chain rearrangement. To test whether CTCF was involved in locus compaction, we used 3D-FISH to measure compaction in pro-B cells transduced with CTCF shRNA retroviruses. Reduction of CTCF binding resulted in a decrease in Igh locus ...
A central feature of broad host range IncP-1 plasmids is the set of regulatory circuits that tightly control plasmid core functions under steady-state conditions. Cooperativity between KorB and either KorA or TrbA repressor proteins is a key element of these circuits and deletion analysis has implicated the conserved C-terminal domain of KorAand TrbAin this interaction. By NMR we show that KorA and KorB interact directly and identify KorA amino acids that are affected on KorB binding. Studies on mutants showed that tyrosine 84 (or phenylalanine, in some alleles) is dispensable for repressor activity but critical for the specific interaction with KorB in both in vivo reporter gene assays and in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift and co-purification assays. This confirms that direct and specific protein-protein interactions are responsible for the cooperativity observed between KorB and its corepressors and lays the basis for determining the ...
Loss of the chromatin remodeling ATPase CHD5 has been linked to the progression of neuroblastoma tumors, yet the underlying mechanisms behind the tumor suppressor role of CHD5 are unknown. In this study, we purified the human CHD5 complex and found that CHD5 is a component of the full NuRD transcriptional repressor complex, which also contains methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone deacetylases. The CHD5/NuRD complex appears mutually exclusive with the related CHD4/NuRD complex as overexpression of CHD5 results in loss of the CHD4 protein in cells. Following a search for genes that are regulated by CHD5 in neuroblastoma cells, we found that CHD5 binds to and represses the G2/M checkpoint gene WEE1. Reintroduction of CHD5 into neuroblastoma cells represses WEE1 expression, demonstrating that CHD5 can function as a repressor in cells. A catalytically inactive mutant version of CHD5 is able to associate with a NuRD cofactor but fails to repress transcription. Our study shows that CHD5 is a ...
A challenge for functional genomics has been to make meaningful global measurements of the interactions between transcription factors (and cofactors) and DNA. It has been difficult, especially in large genomes, to explicitly map individual binding sites and individual factor-target gene interactions. Johnson et al. (see the Perspective by Fields) have developed a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and ultrahigh-throughput sequencing to achieve high specificity and 50-base pair resolution. This approach was used to study regulation by neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF, also known as REST, for repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor) and identify targets of key positive regulators of pancreatic neuroendocrine development. D. S. Johnson, A. Mortazavi, R. M. Myers, B. Wold, Genome-wide mapping of in vivo protein-DNA interactions. Science 316, 1497-1502 (2007). [Abstract] [Full Text]. S. Fields, Site-seeing by sequencing. Science 316, 1441-1442 (2007). [Summary] [Full ...
Results We found that VEGF release from BMSCs was significantly increased in parallel with high level of HIF-1α in BMSCs following anoxia or hypoxia in time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the level of VEGF released from BMSCs overexpressing CREG and the expression of HIF-1α in BMSCs overexpressing CREG were higher than the normal BMSCs under hypoxia. Rather, HIF-1α steady-state mRNA was also affected by CREG. This effect was associated with constitutive activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and its effector p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), but not extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2. The use of small molecule inhibitors LY294002 or rapamycin to inhibit PI3K/Akt and p70S6K activities, respectively, resulted in diminished HIF-1α activation and subsequent VEGF expression. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of HIF-1α suppressed CREG-induced VEGF synthesis and angiogenic tube formation, confirming that the effect was HIF-1α specific.. ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate lineage choices during development and differentiation. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of how the PcG proteins regulate cell fate decisions and how their deregulation potentially contributes to cancer. In this Review we discuss the emerging roles of long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and a subset of transcription factors, which we call cell fate transcription factors, in the regulation of PcG association with target genes. We also speculate about how their deregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. ...
In the present study, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of the corepressor protein Sin3 leads to stabilization of both transfected and endogenous p53. That this effect is a direct impact of interaction of Sin3 with p53 is supported by our finding that a 15-amino-acid deletion mutant of p53 that is incapable of interacting with Sin3 also fails to be stabilized by this protein. Similarly, mutation of proline 71 of p53 to arginine or leucine significantly impairs Sin3 binding and Sin3-mediated stabilization. These data support a tight correlation between Sin3 binding and stabilization of p53. Our data also indicate that stabilization by Sin3 is likely the result of inhibition of proteasome-mediated degradation of p53. Interestingly, unlike p14ARF, MDMX, and pRB, Sin3 does not require the presence of MDM2 for this effect. Therefore, these findings point to the existence of a potentially novel pathway for p53 stabilization that does not involve inhibition of MDM2 function.. At least two proteins ...
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a treatment-refractory subtype of human cancer arising from stratified epithelium of the skin, lung, esophagus, oropharynx and other tissues. A unifying feature of SCC is high-level expression of the p53 related protein p63 (TP63) in 80% of cases. The major p63 isoform expressed in SCC is ΔNp63α, an N-terminally truncated form which functions as a key SCC cell survival factor by mechanisms that are unclear. In this study we demonstrate that ΔNp63α associates with HDAC1 and HDAC2 to form an active transcriptional repressor complex that can be targeted to therapeutic advantage. Repression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member genes including PUMA by p63/HDAC is required for survival of SCC cells. Cisplatin chemotherapy, a mainstay of SCC treatment, promotes dissociation of p63 and HDAC from the PUMA promoter, leading to increased histone acetylation, PUMA activation and apoptosis. These effects are recapitulated upon targeting the p63/HDAC complex selectively ...
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The nonspecific DNA binding capacity of the lac repressor protein has been assessed by two different methods. Boundary sedimentation of repressor and calf thymus DNA fragmented by shearing yielded dissociation constants in good agreement with values previously reported in the literature. The b ...
Previously, this and other laboratories have identified two regions on YY1 that mediate transcriptional repression (1, 26-28). Herein, we have further delineated the repression domain in one region to amino acids 170-200. More important, we have identified a novel mammalian corepressor that interacts with this domain.. YY1, like most eukaryotic repressors described to date, seems to act directly on the general transcription machinery-a mechanism referred to as active repression (for review, see refs. 29-32). Three types of domains have been identified thus far in active transcriptional repressors (for review, see refs. 29-32): alanine-rich, glutamine-rich, and/or proline-rich. Currently, it is not known whether these repression domains function by contact with the general transcriptional machinery, and proteins that interact with these domains have yet to be identified. Inspection of the YY1 amino acid sequence has failed to reveal any resemblance to the primary sequence motifs that characterize ...
Transcription regulator. Forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein complex with MAD1, MAD4, MNT, WBSCR14 and MLXIP which recognizes the core sequence 5-CACGTG-3. The TCFL4-MAD1, TCFL4-MAD4, TCFL4-WBSCR14 complexes are transcriptional repressors. Plays a role in transcriptional activation of glycolytic target genes. Involved in glucose-responsive gene regulation.
Start is the main decision point in eukaryotic cell cycle in which cells commit to a new round of cell division. It involves the irreversible activation of a transcriptional program by G1 CDK-cyclin complexes through the inactivation of Start transcriptional repressors, Whi5 in yeast or Rb in mammals. Here we provide novel keys of how Whi7, a protein related at sequence level to Whi5, represses Start. Whi7 is an unstable protein, degraded by the SCFGrr1 ubiquitin-ligase, whose stability is cell cycle regulated by CDK1 phosphorylation. Importantly, Whi7 associates to G1/S gene promoters in late G1 acting as a repressor of SBF-dependent transcription. Our results demonstrate that Whi7 is a genuine paralog of Whi5. In fact, both proteins collaborate in Start repression bringing to light that yeast cells, as occurs in mammalian cells, rely on the combined action of multiple transcriptional repressors to block Start transition.. ...
MicroRNA (miR)-155 is upregulated in breast cancer cells and in sera of patients with breast cancer, but its clinical relevance remains uncertain. The objective of the present effort was to address the transcriptional regulation of miR-155. A bioinformatics analysis of public datasets validated upre …
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Repressors and activators are often allosteric proteins whose function is modified by ligand binding. In general, a ligand alters the conformation of the protein and affects its ability to bind to specific DNA sequences. For example, some repressors control the synthesis of enzymes for a catabolic pathway. In the absence of substrate for these enzymes, the genes are repressed. When substrate is present, it binds to the repressor, causing the repressor to dissociate from the DNA and allowing the genes to be transcribed. Ligands that bind to and inactivate repressors are called inducers because they induce transcription of the genes controlled by the repressors. In contrast, some repressors that control the synthesis of enzymes for a biosynthetic pathway bind to DNA only when associated with a ligand. The ligand is often the end product of the biosynthetic pathway. This regulatory mechanism ensures that the genes are turned off as product accumulates. Ligands that bind to and activate repressors ...
The galactose represser protein from E. coli has a pI of about 5.9. While purification protocols were being designed, it was found to bind to a Mono-S column at pH values of 7 and below. (Mono-S columns have S-type sulfonic acid.
In chapter 3, The Sense of Sensibility, author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austens most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the bodys stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
1IGQ: An Src homology 3-like domain is responsible for dimerization of the repressor protein KorB encoded by the promiscuous IncP plasmid RP4.
Deposition date: 2010-06-21 Original release date: 2010-07-09. Authors: Goel, Anupam. Citation: Goel, Anupam; Tripet, Brian; Tyler, Robert; Nebert, Lucas; Copie, Valerie. Backbone Amide Dynamics Studies of Apo-L75F-TrpR, a Temperature-Sensitive Mutant of the Tryptophan Repressor Protein (TrpR): Comparison with the (15)N NMR Relaxation Profiles of Wild-Type and A77V Mutant Apo-TrpR Repressors. Biochemistry 49, 8006-8019 (2010).. Assembly members: ...
Exhibits NF-kappaB binding activity. Involved in ameboidal-type cell migration; dorsal/ventral pattern formation; and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Localizes to nucleus. Is expressed in several structures, including blastodisc; germ ring; mesoderm; musculature system; and pharyngeal arch. Orthologous to human SNAI1 (snail family transcriptional repressor 1 ...
General Repressor Of Transcription; Forms Complex With Cyc8p, Involved In The Establishment Of Repressive Chromatin Structure Through Interactions With Histones H3 And H4, Appears To Enhance Expression Of Some Genes
Although genetic evidence suggests that SNI1 is a transcriptional repressor (Li et al., 1999), its vanishingly low level of expression and lack of sequence homology with known proteins or domains have made the application of conventional biochemical and molecular methodologies ineffective. To remedy this, we developed a combination of genetic and genomic approaches to dissect the structure and function of this novel regulator.. The use of the GFP-SNI1 fusion protein allowed the observation of the subcellular localization of SNI1 in planta. Because of the extremely low protein levels and the background fluorescence of chlorophyll in green tissues, GFP-SNI1 fluorescence was visible only in roots. Although SAR is expressed only in the aerial parts of the plant, SNI1 is likely to be functional in roots because in the sni1 mutant, root development is substantially impaired. The GFP-SNI1 fusion complemented all of the sni1 phenotypes in both shoot and root tissues, indicating that the fusion protein ...
Complete information for MXD4 gene (Protein Coding), MAX Dimerization Protein 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The COP1/SPA E3 ubiquitin ligase is a general repressor of photomorphogenesis in the dark. The four SPA family members, SPA1-4, have been shown to have partially overlapping but distinct functions in response to light. SPA1 is a key player of repressing photomorphogenesis, while SPA2 only functions in the dark. SPA2, on one hand, is not as stable as SPA1 in the light. On the other hand, the COP1/SPA2 complex also loses its biological function in the light via unknown mechanisms. This functional divergence of SPA1 and SPA2 has been shown to depend on the differences between their protein sequences. By phenotypical studies of the transgenic seedlings expressing chimeric constructs, I will try to answer the question that which domain is responsible for the diverged function of SPA1 and SPA2. I will also attempt to reveal the molecular basis underlying this divergence. ...
Inducer does NOT bind DNA. Inducer binds either activator OR repressor. It makes activator BETTER able to bind DNA = more transcription OR it makes repressor LESS able to bind DNA = transcription ...
Prohibitin, an evolutionarily conserved gene situated on chromosome 17q21, was originally identified as a gene with antiproliferative properties. Studies of a Japanese population have shown prohibitin to be somatically mutated in a proportion of breast tumours. The gene has not heretofore been shown to have an association with inherited forms of breast or other cancers. In this thesis the technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was developed to analyse the complete coding sequence of the prohibitin gene from fragments generated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This was achieved by examining the melting profiles of different regions of the prohibitin sequence with the melt map program MELT87. Four overlapping fragments were designed and subsequently amplified by reverse transcription PCR thus enabling analysis of the prohibitin cDNA sequence by DGGE. A further five fragments were developed for analysis of prohibitin from genomic DNA. These five fragments were generated ...
Complete information for ASXL3 gene (Protein Coding), Additional Sex Combs Like 3, Transcriptional Regulator, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Filtering by: Creator Maria A. Schumacher Remove constraint Creator: Maria A. Schumacher Degree Ph.D. Remove constraint Degree: Ph.D. Department Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Remove constraint Department: Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Keyword crystallography Remove constraint Keyword: crystallography Keyword repressor proteins Remove constraint Keyword: repressor proteins Keyword dna-binding proteins Remove constraint Keyword: dna-binding proteins Collection Scholars Archive Remove constraint Collection: Scholars Archive ...
cdna:known chromosome:VEGA66:2:153345845:153404007:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000019852 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Asxl1 description:additional sex combs like 1 (Drosophila ...
The inducer binds to the repressor protein and induces a conformational change so that the repressor does not bind to the operator DNA sequence ...
GF ID Tup_N #=GF AC PF08581.11 #=GF DE Tup N-terminal #=GF AU Wood V;0000-0001-6330-7526 #=GF AU Finn RD;0000-0001-8626-2148 #=GF SE Pfam-B_9595 (release 19.0) #=GF GA 28.70 28.70; #=GF TC 28.70 28.70; #=GF NC 28.60 28.50; #=GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Domain #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 12234489 #=GF RT Mutations of the WD repeats that compromise Tup1 repression #=GF RT function maintain structural integrity of the WD domain #=GF RT trypsin-resistant core. #=GF RA Zhang Z, Varanasi U, Carrico P, Trumbly RJ; #=GF RL Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;406:47-54. #=GF DR INTERPRO; IPR013890; #=GF DR SO; 0000417; polypeptide_domain; #=GF CC The N-terminal domain of the Tup protein has been shown to #=GF CC interact with the Ssn6 transcriptional co-repressor [1]. #=GF SQ 757 #=GS A0A1B8CSS6_9PEZI/19-73 AC A0A1B8CSS6.1 #=GS A0A1S8A7M6_ROSNE/15-84 AC A0A1S8A7M6.1 #=GS A0A0W0FM89_9AGAR/18-90 AC A0A0W0FM89.1 #=GS S3D7V2_GLAL2/16-85 AC S3D7V2.1 #=GS ...
The repressor CytR and the activator CRP, two dimeric proteins, interact to form a complex repressor nucleoprotein in the intergenic region. When only CRP is bound to this promoter, it functions as an activator, and then, when CytR binds to DNA and to CRP, the activation is repressed because CytR masks an activating region of CRP that otherwise would contact the RNA polymerase to activate transcription ,CITS:[ 8736525][10766824],. The CytR protein cannot act alone; the synergistic DNA binding is increased by direct interaction with CRP ,CITS:[1962841][ 2170326][1649947],. At times CytR also repositions CRP to alternative DNA-binding sites that are not functional for activation ,CITS:[ 8736525 ...
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Plasmid pFUW-tetO-GFI1B from Dr. Filipe Pereiras lab contains the insert Growth Factor Independent 1B transcriptional repressor and is published in Cell Rep. 2018 Dec 4;25(10):2821-2835.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.032. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid pAKgfplux2 from Dr. Attila Karsis lab contains the insert Bacterial luciferase-lacIq repressor gene and is published in Plasmid. 2007 Jan 4. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Signal transductionRegulatory functionsDNA interactionsGTP-sensing transcriptional pleiotropic repressor CodY (TIGR02787; HMM-score: 351.8) ...
PRDM1/Blimp1山羊多克隆抗体(ab106766)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ChIP实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
PRDM1/Blimp1兔多克隆抗体(ab119401)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
How is B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein abbreviated? BLIMP stands for B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein. BLIMP is defined as B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein somewhat frequently.
TY - JOUR. T1 - SUMOylation of Blimp-1 is critical for plasma cell differentiation. AU - Ying, Hsia Yuan. AU - Su, Shin Tang. AU - Hsu, Pang Hung. AU - Chang, Che Chang. AU - Lin, I. Ying. AU - Tseng, Yu Hsuan. AU - Tsai, Ming Daw. AU - Shih, Hsiu Ming. AU - Lin, Kuo I.. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. Here we show that Blimp-1 is covalently modified by SUMO1 at lysine 816, a modification mediated by SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1. Mutation of Blimp-1 lysine 816 reduces transcriptional repression-correlating with a reduced interaction with a histone deacetylase, HDAC2-and impairs differentiation of antibody-secreting cells. Thus, the SUMO pathway critically regulates Blimp-1 function during plasma cell differentiation.. AB - Transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. Here we show that ...
Polycomb group (PcG) protein are transcriptional repressors that regulate many crucial developmental and physiological procedures in the cell. initiation, advancement, and development. Finally, we discuss the potential worth of PcG protein as molecular biomarkers for the treatment and medical diagnosis of tumor, and as molecular goals for tumor therapy. to human beings.5,6 PcG meats possess been proven to control different biological functions during embryonic advancement, such as cell family tree and fate decisions, cellular memory, come cell function, and tissues homeostasis.7-13 PcG targets include different genes encoding transcription factors, receptors, signaling proteins, morphogens, and regulators included in all main developing pathways.8 During embryonic advancement, the PcG protein and other epigenetic government bodies participate in rules of the transcriptional system, in which the primordial pluripotent embryonic originate cells show temporally limited transcriptional service and ...
摘要(Abstract): 目的探讨不明原因复发性流产(URSA)患者绒毛中滤泡辅助性T(follicular helper T,Tfh)细胞相关因子白介素-21(interleukin-21,IL-21)、趋化因子受体-5(CXC chemokine receptor-5,CXCR5)、B细胞淋巴瘤分子6(B cell lymphoma 6,Bcl-6)和B淋巴细胞诱导成熟蛋白1(B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1,Blimp-1)的表达部位和表达水平及其与URSA发病的免疫学机制。方法收集30例URSA患者(URSA组)和30例要求人工流产的正常早孕妇女(对照组)绒毛组织,采用免疫组织化学法检测IL-21、CXCR5、Bcl-6和Blimp-1的表达情况,采用Pearson相关系数分析4种因子之间的相关性。结果 URSA组绒毛组织中IL-21、CXCR5、Bcl-6和Blimp-1表达水平明显高于对照组( ...
The Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor that functions as an important regulator of vertebrate development and many other processes in the adult including haematopoiesis. The Groucho/TLE family of co-repressor proteins also regulate development and modulate the activity of many DNA-binding transcription factors during a range of diverse cellular processes including haematopoiesis. We have shown previously that PRH is a repressor of transcription in haematopoietic cells and that an Eh-1 motif present within the N-terminal transcription repression domain of PRH mediates binding to Groucho/TLE proteins and enables co-repression. Here we demonstrate that PRH regulates the nuclear retention of TLE proteins during cellular fractionation. We show that transcriptional repression and the nuclear retention of TLE proteins requires PRH to bind to both TLE and DNA. In addition, we characterise a trans-dominant negative PRH protein that inhibits wild type PRH activity by ...
Upon EBV infection, mature human B cells become activated, grow and proliferate. In vivo, in the presence of T cells or T cell-derived factors, infected cells can enter the germinal centre and differentiate into memory B cells, the site of long-term EBV latency and persistence. However, it has not been established what happens if T cell help is unavailable (Th-ve). Usually in the absence of T cell help, antigen-activated B cells can enter the default plasma cell differentiation pathway, resulting in antibody-producing plasma cells. We suggest EBV has evolved to prevent default plasma cell differentiation, thus favouring latency in memory B cells, through specific repression of the plasma cell differentiation factors p18INK4c and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1), by the viral transcription factors EBNA3A and EBNA3C that act in vitro to support the activated B-blast population in establishing continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Since the repression of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Components of the SMRT corepressor complex exhibit distinctive interactions with the POZ domain oncoproteins PLZF, PLZF-RAR∅, and BCL-6. AU - Wong, Chi Wai. AU - Privalsky, Martin L.. PY - 1998/10/16. Y1 - 1998/10/16. N2 - Many transcription factors function by repressing gene transcription. For a variety of these transcription factors the ability to physically recruit auxiliary proteins, denoted corepressors, is crucial for the ability to silence gene expression. We and others have previously implicated the SMRT corepressor in the actions of the PLZF transcription factor and in the function of its oncogenic derivative, PLZF-retinoic acid receptor (RARα), in promyelocytic leukemia. We report here that PLZF, and a structurally similar transcriptional repressor, BCL-6, can interact with a variety of corepressor proteins in addition to SMRT, including the mSin3A protein and (for PLZF) histone deacetylase-1. Unexpectedly, these additional interactions with corepressor components ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutations in λ repressors amino-terminal domain. T2 - Implications for protein stability and DNA binding. AU - Hecht, M. H.. AU - Nelson, H. C.M.. AU - Sauer, R. T.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The DNA binding properties of 52 different single-amino acid substitutions in λ repressors amino-terminal domain have been characterized. Seven proteins bearing mutations that change solvent-exposed side chains have been purified. The amino-terminal domains of these mutant repressors are folded and are comparable to the wild-type amino-terminal domain in thermal stability. In contrast, a purified mutant repressor bearing a substitution in a buried side chain contains an amino-terminal domain with decreased thermal stability. We argue that mutations that alter solvent-exposed wild-type side chains define residues that form the operator DNA binding surface of λ repressor whereas completely or partially buried mutations ...
Project Summary/Abstract Even though Inducible cAMP Early Repressor (ICER) has the functional characteristics of a tumorsuppressor, there is no genetic evidence to demonstrate that ICER is a bona fide tumor suppressor geneproduct. Thus, altered post-translational events might be the cause of the observed abnormalities of ICERprotein expression in cancer cells. On this basis it is hypothesized that in cancer cells, ICER isderegulated by ubiquitination resulting in constitutive proteasomal degradation and/or abnormalsubcellular localization. Finding alternatives to rescue endogenous ICER nuclear expression in malignantcells could lead to the development of novel cancer treatment modalities. Through this project, we will studythe mechanisms and physiological consequences of ICER ubiquitination and subcellular localization. We willuse melanoma as a paradigm for the study. This study will focus on two specific aims.Aim 1. Determine the functional and physiological consequences of ICER ubiquitination ...
Clone REA516 recognizes the human and mouse interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8) antigen, a 50 kDa transcription factor, which is also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP). IRF-8 belongs to the family of interferon regulatory transcription factors, which consists of nine members in both human and mice and is characterized by a conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain with a unique tryptophan pentad repeat. IRF-8 is expressed at very high levels in mononuclear phagocytes, and regulates granulocyte/macrophage differentiation and dendritic cell (DC) development. Acting in heterodimeric complexes with other transcription factors, IRF-8 also controls the transcriptional response of mature myeloid cells to interferons and Toll-like receptor agonists, a response in which IRF-8 binds and transactivates the promotors of IL12B and NOS2. IRF-8 knockout mice display a loss of CD8a+ lymphoid DCs, CD103+ tissue myeloid DCs, and plasmacytoid DCs.Additional information: Clone REA516 displays
View Notes - Handout16Activation from BIS 101 at UC Davis. Model 2: TRANSCRIPTIONAL REPRESSOR - repressor active mRNA____________ > + repressor X inactive repression of repressor active
Rabbit anti IRF8 antibody recognizes Interferon regulatory factor 8, (IRF8) also known as Interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (I
It has been reported that at the onset of pupariation there is an increase of lipid droplets in PG cells that can be seen by Oil Red O staining of precisely staged 120 h AEL wandering larvae (Talamillo et al., 2013). At 120 h AEL, phm,CTCFRNAi PGs had a reduced content of lipid droplets in comparison to controls (Fig. 4B, compare middle and left panels), likely due to developmental delay. However, there is also an increase of lipid droplets at the end of larval development in phm,CTCFRNAi PG cells which tend to be slightly higher than in control animals (Fig. 4B, compare right and left panels and supplementary material Fig. S4). Since the subcellular lipid accumulation phenotype of phm,CTCFRNAi PG cells is similar to that of Niemann-Pick type C (npc) mutants (Huang et al., 2005), we analyzed dnpc1a transcriptional levels but we found no changes between control and phm,CTCFRNAi larvae (data not shown). Increased lipid accumulation in the fat body in EcR knockdown larvae has been reported ...
EN] Mot3 and Rox1 are transcriptional repressors of hypoxic genes. Both factors recently have been found to be involved in the adaptive response to hyperosmotic stress, with an important function in the adjustment of ergosterol biosynthesis. Here, we determine the gene expression profile of a mot3 rox1 double mutant under acute osmostress at the genomic scale in order to identify the target genes affected by both transcription factors upon stress. Unexpectedly, we find a specific subgroup of osmostress-inducible genes to be under positive control of Mot3. These Mot3-activated stress genes also depend on the general stress activators Msn2 and Msn4. We confirm that both Mot3 and Msn4 bind directly to some promoter regions of this gene group. Further-more, osmostress-induced binding of the Msn2 and Msn4 factors to these target promoters is severely affected by the loss of Mot3 function. The genes repressed by Mot3 and Rox1 preferentially encode proteins of the cell wall and plasma membrane. Cell ...
Transcription of genes encoding enzymes for the biosynthesis of methionine and trytophan in Escherichia coli is regulated by the ligand-activated met and trp repressors. X-ray crystallographic studies show how these two small proteins, although similar in size and function, have totally different three-dimensional structures and specifically recognize their respective DNA operator sequences in different ways. A common feature is that both repressors bind as cooperative arrays to tandem repeats of 8 base-pair Met or Trp boxes respectively, and the consensus sequences share the rare tetranucleotide CTAG. A series of structural and functional studies have shown how the two repressors discriminate between their operators, using a combination of direct contacts between side chains and bases, and indirect sensing of conformational properties of the DNA. ...
Specific wiring of gene-regulatory networks is likely to underlie much of the phenotypic difference between species, but the extent of lineage-specific regulatory architecture remains poorly understood. The essential vertebrate transcriptional repressor REST (RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor) targets many neural genes during development of the preimplantation embryo and the central nervous system, through its cognate DNA motif, the RE1 (Repressor Element 1). Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of REST recruitment in multiple species by integrating both sequence and experimental data. We use an accurate, experimentally validated Position-Specific Scoring Matrix method to identify REST binding sites in multiply aligned vertebrate genomes, allowing us to infer the evolutionary origin of each of 1,298 human RE1 elements. We validate these findings using experimental data of REST binding across the whole genomes of human and mouse. We show that one-third of human RE1s are unique to ...
Specific wiring of gene-regulatory networks is likely to underlie much of the phenotypic difference between species, but the extent of lineage-specific regulatory architecture remains poorly understood. The essential vertebrate transcriptional repressor REST (RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor) targets many neural genes during development of the preimplantation embryo and the central nervous system, through its cognate DNA motif, the RE1 (Repressor Element 1). Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of REST recruitment in multiple species by integrating both sequence and experimental data. We use an accurate, experimentally validated Position-Specific Scoring Matrix method to identify REST binding sites in multiply aligned vertebrate genomes, allowing us to infer the evolutionary origin of each of 1,298 human RE1 elements. We validate these findings using experimental data of REST binding across the whole genomes of human and mouse. We show that one-third of human RE1s are unique to ...
The majority of bacterial gene regulators bind as symmetric dimers to palindromic DNA operators of 12-20 base pairs (bp). Multimeric forms of proteins, including tetramers, are able to recognize longer operator sequences in a cooperative manner, although how this is achieved is not well understood due to the lack of complete structural information. Models, instead of structures, of complete tetrameric assembly on DNA exist in literature. Here we present the crystal structures of the multidrug-binding protein TtgV, a gene repressor that controls efflux pumps, alone and in complex with a 42-bp DNA operator containing two TtgV recognition sites at 2.9 Å and 3.4 Å resolution. These structures represent the first full-length functional tetrameric protein in complex with its intact DNA operator containing two continuous recognition sites. TtgV binds to its DNA operator as a highly asymmetric tetramer and induces considerable distortions in the DNA, resulting in a 60° bend. Upon binding to its ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of corepressor binding and release from nuclear hormone receptors. AU - Nagy, Laszlo. AU - Kao, Hung Ying. AU - Love, James D.. AU - Li, Chuan. AU - Banayo, Ester. AU - Gooch, John T.. AU - Krishna, V.. AU - Chatterjee, K.. AU - Evans, Ronald M.. AU - Schwabe, John W.R.. PY - 1999/12/15. Y1 - 1999/12/15. N2 - The association of transcription corepressors SMRT and N-CoR with retinoid and thyroid receptors results in suppression of basal transcriptional activity. A key event in nuclear receptor signaling is the hormone-dependent release of corepressor and the recruitment of coactivator. Biochemical and structural studies have identified a universal motif in coactivator proteins that mediates association with receptor LBDs. We report here the identity of complementary acting signature motifs in SMRT and N- CoR that are sufficient for receptor binding and ligand-induced release. Interestingly, the motif contains a hydrophobic core (ΦxxΦΦ) similar to that found in NR ...
Recent studies in mammalian systems, where methylation clearly plays a role in gene silencing, indicate that methylation mediates the formation of a multiprotein repression complex that induces changes in histone acetylation. This complex is based on the methyl‐binding protein MeCP2 which has been shown to contain, in addition to its methyl binding domain (MBD), a transcriptional repressor domain (TRD) (Nan et al., 1997). This TRD has been shown recently to overlap with a region that interacts directly with the corepressor mSin3A. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that antibodies raised against MeCP2 coprecipitate MeCP2, mSin3A, HDAC1, and HDAC2 (Nan et al., 1998).. Experiments using the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A relieved the TRD‐mediated repression induced by MeCP2 (Nan et al., 1998). Although these important experiments revealed the link between MeCP2‐induced repression and histone deacetylase activity, they failed to show directly that methyl groups present at the 5′ end ...
The Groucho (Gro)/TLE/Grg Family Of Corepressors Operates In Many Signaling Pathways (including Notch And Wnt). Gro/TLE Proteins Recognize A Wide Range Of Transcriptional Repressors By Binding To Divergent Short Peptide Sequences, Including A C-terminal
mitochondrion, nucleus, transcriptional repressor complex, DNA binding, E-box binding, histone deacetylase binding, protein homodimerization activity, RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding, sequence-specific DNA binding, transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding
The Lazar laboratory is studying the transcriptional regulation of metabolism. We are particularly focused on the role played by nuclear receptors (NRs). In the absence of ligand, NRs bind to DNA and function as potent transcriptional repressors by recruiting corepressor complexes that include the chromatin modulating enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3). We are studying the tissue-specific and physiological roles of the corepressor complexes using by combining genomic, genetic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and metabolic phenotyping approaches. We are especially interested in the circadian NR Rev-erb alpha, which utilizes the corepressor complex to potently repress transcription. Rev-erb alpha is a key repressive component of the circadian clock that coordinates metabolism and biological rhythms. We are also studying PPAR gamma, a nuclear receptor that is a master regulator of adipocyte (fat cell) differentiation. Ligands for PPAR gamma have potent antidiabetic activity, and thus PPAR gamma ...
Strains, cell growth and transformations: The S. cerevisiae strain RZ53-6Δtup1 (MATα trp1-289 leu2-3, 112 ura3-52 ade1-100 tup1::ura3) was described previously (Zhanget al. 1991). The following S. cerevisiae strains were constructed by standard methods of yeast genetics (Roseet al. 1990): MZ14-29 (MATa/MATα trp1/trp1 leu2/leu2 ura3/ura3 lys2/lys2 tif51A::TRP1/tif51A::TRP1 tup1::URA3/tup1::URA3 ura3::AZ4/ura3::AZ4 gal-/gal-) and MZ12-16 (MATa trp1 leu2 lys2 his3 tup1::URA3 ura3::AZ4 gal-).. Yeast cells were transformed as described previously (Chenet al. 1992).. Escherichia coli HB101 was maintained and transformed as described previously (Ausubelet al. 1994).. Enzymes and general methods for plasmid constructions: Plasmid constructions were carried out according to standard protocols (Ausubelet al. 1994). Enzymatic reactions were carried out under the conditions recommended by the vendors. Most restriction enzymes and T4 DNA ligase were purchased from New England Biolabs (Beverly, MA) or ...
Predicted to contribute to histone deacetylase activity. Predicted to be involved in histone deacetylation; negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II; and positive regulation of chromatin silencing. Predicted to localize to the nucleoplasm and transcriptional repressor complex. Orthologous to human MIER1 (MIER1 transcriptional regulator ...
Interactions between transcription factors, bound to separate operator sites, commonly play an important role in gene regulation by mediating cooperative binding to the DNA. However, few detailed structural models for understanding the molecular basis of such cooperativity are available. The cI repressor of bacteriophage l is a classic example of a protein that binds to its operator sites cooperatively. The C-terminal domain of the repressor mediates dimerization, as well as a dimer-dimer interaction that results in the cooperative binding of two repressor dimers to adjacent operator sites. We have determined the structure of the l repressor C-terminal domain and identified the interactions that mediate cooperativity. Using the structure, genetics and biochemical data, we have determined the cooperative binding of two l repressor dimers at adjacent operator sites ...
The modulation of the affinity of DNA-binding proteins by small molecule effectors for cognate DNA sites is common to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms by which effector binding to one domain affects DNA binding by a distal domain are poorly understood structurally. In initial studies to provide insight into the mechanism of effector-modulated DNA binding of the lactose repressor family, we determined the crystal structure of the purine repressor bound to a corepressor and purF operator. To extend our understanding, we have determined the structure of the corepressor-free corepressor-binding domain of the purine repressor at 2.2 A resolution. In the unliganded state, structural changes in the corepressor-binding pocket cause each subunit to rotate open by as much as 23 degrees, the consequences of which are the disengagement of the minor groove-binding hinge helices and repressor-DNA dissociation. Mechanism of corepressor-mediated specific DNA binding by the purine ...
We provide here several lines of evidence for the identification of Nrg1 as a transcriptional repressor responsible for glucose repression of the STA1 gene. First, nrg1Δcells, when grown under the repressed conditions, exhibit dramatically increased glucoamylase activity which is comparable to that of cells grown under the derepressed conditions. Second, Northern analyses show that the increased glucoamylase level is correlated with the increased level of STA1 transcript in nrg1Δ cells. Third, gel retardation and DNase I footprinting experiments demonstrate that Nrg1 binds specifically to UAS1-1 element of the STA1promoter. Fourth, tethering of Nrg1 to DNA via LexA-Nrg1 represses transcription of a target gene in glucose-grown cells, and the repression requires the Ssn6-Tup1 complex, which is needed for repression of diverse genes involved in many different cellular processes. And finally, two-hybrid and GST pull-down experiments demonstrate the physical interaction between Nrg1 and Ssn6 both ...
Anxiety disorders and depression are well-documented in subjects exposed to adverse childhood events. Recently, maternal obesity and/or maternal consumption of high-fat diets (HFD) have been also proposed as risk factors for offspring mental health. Here using an animal model in rats, we explored the combinatorial effects of a maternal HFD (40% of energy from fat without impact on maternal weight; during gestation and lactation) and maternal separation (MS) in offspring. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of pups, MS led to changes in the expression of several genes such as Bdnf (brain derived neurotrophic factor), 5HT-r1a (serotonin receptor 1a) and Rest4 (neuron-restrictive silencer element, repressor element 1, silencing transcription factor (Rest), splicing variant 4 ...
EntrezGene ,Full_name_from_nomenclature_authority=CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein) ,GeneID=10664 ,LocusTag=- ,Modification_date=20120108 ,Nomenclature_status=O ,Other_designations=11 zinc finger transcriptional repressor;;11-zinc finger protein;;CTCFL paralog;;transcriptional repressor CTCF ,Symbol=CTCF ,Symbol_from_nomenclature_authority=CTCF ,Synonyms=- ,chromosome=16 ,dbXrefs=HGNC:13723;;MIM:604167;;Ensembl:ENSG00000102974;;HPRD:05005;;Vega:OTTHUMG00000137539;;EpiFactors:10664:genes ,description=CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein) ,map_location=16q21-q22.3 ,tax_id=9606 ,tf?=yes ,transcription_factor= ,type_of_gene=protein-coding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CoREST. T2 - A functional corepressor required for regulation of neural- specific gene expression. AU - Andres, M. E.. AU - Burger, C.. AU - Peral-Rubio, M. J.. AU - Battaglioli, E.. AU - Anderson, M. E.. AU - Grimes, J.. AU - Dallman, J.. AU - Ballas, N.. AU - Mandel, Gail. PY - 1999/8/17. Y1 - 1999/8/17. N2 - Several genes encoding proteins critical to the neuronal phenotype, such as the brain type II sodium channel gene, are expressed to high levels only in neurons. This cell specificity is due, in part, to long-term repression in nonneural cells mediated by the repressor protein REST/NRSF (RE1 silencing transcription factor/neural-restrictive silencing factor). We show here that CoREST, a newly identified human protein, functions as a corepressor for REST. A single zinc finger motif in REST is required for CoREST interaction. Mutations of the motif that disrupt binding also abrogate repression. When fused to a Gal4 DNA-binding domain, CoREST functions as a repressor. CoREST ...
The human body consists of a multitude of cells of varying appearance and function. With a few exceptions they are genetically identical, and the key to their divergence lies in their different specific patterns of gene expression. Gene expression may be regulated at the level of transcription, in two opposing directions; either activation or repression. Gene transcription is controlled by transcription factors, which bind to regulatory DNA sequences, and direct gene expression in concert with auxiliary proteins. Among these the nuclear receptor corepressor N-CoR holds a central position. It serves as a docking unit between many different DNA-bound transcription factors, such as nuclear receptors, and large complexes of repressor proteins. Many repressor complexes of distinct compositions have been shown to contain N-CoR.. N-CoR plays a vital part in normal fetal development, and its involvement has been implicated in several pathological conditions. It has been shown to interact with unliganded ...
The Krueppel-associated box (KRAB) is a domain of around 75 amino acids that is found in the N-terminal part of about one third of eukaryotic Krueppel-type C2H2 zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) [ (PUBMED:14519192) ]. It is enriched in charged amino acids and can be divided into subregions A and B, which are predicted to fold into two amphipathic alpha-helices. The KRAB A and B boxes can be separated by variable spacer segments and many KRAB proteins contain only the A box [ (PUBMED:2023909) ]. The functions currently known for members of the KRAB-containing protein family include transcriptional repression of RNA polymerase I, II and III promoters, binding and splicing of RNA, and control of nucleolus function. The KRAB domain functions as a transcriptional repressor when tethered to the template DNA by a DNA-binding domain. A sequence of 45 amino acids in the KRAB A subdomain has been shown to be necessary and sufficient for transcriptional repression. The B box does not repress by itself but does ...
The Krueppel-associated box (KRAB) is a domain of around 75 amino acids that is found in the N-terminal part of about one third of eukaryotic Krueppel-type C2H2 zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) [ (PUBMED:14519192) ]. It is enriched in charged amino acids and can be divided into subregions A and B, which are predicted to fold into two amphipathic alpha-helices. The KRAB A and B boxes can be separated by variable spacer segments and many KRAB proteins contain only the A box [ (PUBMED:2023909) ]. The functions currently known for members of the KRAB-containing protein family include transcriptional repression of RNA polymerase I, II and III promoters, binding and splicing of RNA, and control of nucleolus function. The KRAB domain functions as a transcriptional repressor when tethered to the template DNA by a DNA-binding domain. A sequence of 45 amino acids in the KRAB A subdomain has been shown to be necessary and sufficient for transcriptional repression. The B box does not repress by itself but does ...
I am expressing a repressor protein that is toxic to cells if it is overexpressed. The theory is that, since it is a DNA binding protein, when the repressor is at high levels it binds to all of the DNA in the cell, wrecking havoc on the critter. I was looking at growth of critters containing the plasmid-borne repressor protein under the control of a pTrc promoter on LB plates containing different amounts of IPTG. I examined this in lacY+ and lacY- cells. In general, the cells did not grow much, if at all, in lacY+ cells. However, growth in lacY- cells was dependent on the amount of IPTG on the plate; too much IPTG and the critters died. Expression of a protein under the control of the repressor protein was also dependent on the amount of IPTG I had on the plate in lacY- cells. I couldnt assess this information for the lacY+ cells, because any cell that expressed the repressor expressed too much of it and killed the cell. Thus, I appear to have titratable control of the pTrc promoter in lacY- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatin adaptor Brd4 modulates E2 transcription activity and protein stability. AU - Lee, A. Young. AU - Chiang, Cheng Ming. PY - 2009/1/30. Y1 - 2009/1/30. N2 - Brd4 is a chromatin adaptor containing tandem bromodomains binding to acetylated histone H3 and H4. Although Brd4 has been implicated in the transcriptional control of papillomavirus-encoded E2 protein, it is unclear how Brd4 regulates E2 function and whether the involvement of Brd4 in transactivation and transrepression is common to different types of E2 proteins. Using DNase I footprinting performed with in vitro reconstituted human papillomavirus (HPV) chromatin and nucleosome-free DNA templates, we found that Brd4 facilitates E2 binding to its cognate sequences in chromatin depending on bromodomains and the E2-interacting region of Brd4. Moreover, the coactivator and corepressor function of Brd4 requires at least one intact bromodomain and is mediated by its direct association with E2 proteins encoded by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CLONING IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI OF A BACILLUS-SUBTILIS ARGININE REPRESSOR GENE THROUGH ITS ABILITY TO CONFER STRUCTURAL STABILITY ON A FRAGMENT CARRYING GENES OF ARGININE-BIOSYNTHESIS. AU - Smith, Margaret Caroline MacHin. AU - MOUNTAIN, A AU - BAUMBERG, S PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. M3 - Article. VL - 205. SP - 176. EP - 182. JO - Molecular Neurobiology. JF - Molecular Neurobiology. SN - 0893-7648. IS - 1. ER - ...
mouse interferon repressor protein: IRP is localized in cell sap and in ribosomal fraction of mouse cells; initially identified in chick embryo fibroblasts in state of hyperreactivity to repeated induction of poly(ri)poly(rc)
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Nakamichi, Norihito et al PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORS 9, 7, and 5 Are Transcriptional Repressors in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock. The Plant Cell 22.3 (2010): 594-605. Web. 27 Feb. 2020. ...
BACKGROUND: The CCTC-binding factor (CTCF) protein is involved in genome organization, including mediating three-dimensional chromatin interactions. Human patient lymphocytes with mutations in a single copy of the CTCF gene have reduced expression of enhancer-associated genes involved in response to stimuli. We hypothesize that CTCF interactions stabilize enhancer-promoter chromatin interaction domains, facilitating increased expression of genes in response to stimuli. Here we systematically investigate this model using computational analyses. RESULTS: We use CTCF ChIA-PET data from the ENCODE project to show that CTCF-associated chromatin loops have a tendency to enclose regions of enhancer-regulated stimulus responsive genes, insulating them from neighboring regions of constitutively expressed housekeeping genes. To facilitate cell type-specific CTCF loop identification, we develop an algorithm to predict CTCF loops from ChIP-seq data alone by exploiting the CTCF motif directionality in loop ...
Transcriptional repressor and activator with two C2-H2 zinc fingers; involved in repression of a subset of hypoxic genes by Rox1p, repression of several DAN/TIR genes during aerobic growth, and repression of ergosterol biosynthetic genes in response to hyperosmotic stress; contributes to recruitment of the Tup1p-Cyc8p general repressor to promoters; involved in positive transcriptional regulation of CWP2 and other genes; can form the [MOT3+] prion ...
Transcriptional repressor and activator with two C2-H2 zinc fingers; involved in repression of a subset of hypoxic genes by Rox1p, repression of several DAN/TIR genes during aerobic growth, and repression of ergosterol biosynthetic genes in response to hyperosmotic stress; contributes to recruitment of the Tup1p-Cyc8p general repressor to promoters; involved in positive transcriptional regulation of CWP2 and other genes; can form the [MOT3+] prion ...
Renaud Dumas. Significance: In most biological processes, genes have to be activated and/or repressed. In plants, the TOPLESS protein is essential for gene repression through its action as a corepressor bridging transcription factor with chromatin remodeling complexes. Here we combine biochemical and structural studies to describe the structure of TOPLESS, how it tetramerizes, and how it interacts with its protein partners. We show that both the tetramerization interface and the binding site for protein partners have been conserved since algae, highlighting the ancestrality of TOPLESS function. Comparison of this plant protein with one of its animal counterparts also shows how corepressors can use a common domain differently to achieve similar properties, illustrating the tinkering of evolution in transcriptional repression.. Abstract: Transcriptional repression involves a class of proteins called corepressors that link transcription factors to chromatin remodeling complexes. In plants such as ...
This model represents the amino-terminal helix-turn-helix repressor region of the biotin--acetyl-CoA-carboxylase ligase/biotin operon repressor bifunctional protein BirA. In many species, the biotin--acetyl-CoA-carboxylase ligase ortholog lacks this DNA-binding repressor region and therefore is not equivalent to the well-characterized BirA of E. coli. This HMM may recognize some other putative repressor proteins, such as DnrO of Streptomyces peucetius with scores below the noise cutoff but with significance shown by low E-value ...
We have generated an extensive genetic map of functionally allowed and/or structurally allowed amino acid substitutions in Arc repressor, a DNA binding protein of unknown structure. Analysis of the allowed substitution patterns identifies residues that are likely to be involved in protein function and identifies side chains that play important structural roles, including residues likely to form the hydrophobic core. The identities of approximately one-third of the residues in Arc repressor are functionally important, about one-half are structurally important, and the remainder are unimportant for either structure or function. The patterns of obligatory hydrophobic positions permit strong predictions of secondary structure. Study holds ProTherm entries: 831, 832, 833, 834, 835, 836, 837, 838, 839, 840, 841, 842, 843, 844, 845, 846, 847, 848, 849 Extra Details: Arc repressor; DNA binding; protein folding;,secondary structure prediction; mutagenesis. ...
Sin3 forms the scaffold for a multiprotein corepressor complex that silences transcription via the action of histone deacetylases. Sin3 is recruited to the DNA by several DNA binding repressors, such as the helix-loop-helix proteins of the Mad family. Here, we elaborate on the Mad-Sin3 interaction based on a binding study, solution structure, and dynamics of the PAH2 domain of mSin3 in complex to an extended Sin3 interacting domain (SID) of 24 residues of Mad1. We show that SID residues Met7 and Glu23, outside the previously defined minimal binding motif, mediate additional hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with PAH2. On the basis of these results we propose an extended consensus sequence describing the PAH2-SID interaction specifically for the Mad family, showing that residues outside the hydrophobic core of the SID interact with PAH2 and modulate binding affinity to appropriate levels ...
negative regulation of Ras protein signal transduction (GO:0046580) ; negative regulation of S phase of mitotic cell cycle (GO:0045749) ; negative regulation of transcription (GO:0016481) ; nucleus (GO:0005634) ; transcriptional repressor activity (GO:0016564) ; transcription factor activity (GO:0003700) ; regulation of cell cycle (GO:0000074) ; regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent (GO:0006355) ; transcription factor complex (GO:0005667 ...
DELLA proteins: Repression of a repressor[edit]. DELLA proteins, such as SLR1 in rice or GAI and RGA in Arabidopsis are ... Targets of DELLA proteins[edit]. Transcription factors[edit]. The first targets of DELLA proteins identified were PHYTOCHROME ... F-box proteins catalyse the addition of ubiquitin to their targets.[52] The addition of ubiquitin to DELLA proteins promotes ... it is thought that DELLA proteins undergo changes in structure that enable their binding to F-box proteins (SLY1 in arabidopsis ...
Bourgeois S, Pfahl M (1976). "Repressors". In Anfinsen CB, Edsall JT, Richards FM (eds.). Advances in Protein Chemistry. 30. pp ... Fast protein liquid chromatography[edit]. Further information: Fast protein liquid chromatography. Fast protein liquid ... The stronger a protein's interaction with DNA, the higher the salt concentration needed to elute that protein.[11] ... It is often used in biochemistry in the purification of proteins bound to tags. These fusion proteins are labeled with ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX1 gene.[3][4] ... This article on a gene on the human X chromosome and/or its associated protein is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding ... The encoded hybrid proteins are probably responsible for transforming activity.[4] References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl ...
These proteins may function as transcriptional repressors. They are also capable of eliciting spontaneously humoral and ... Protein SSX4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSX4 gene.[5] ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
... is a powerful transcriptional repressor, at least in CpG dense contexts. Transcriptional repression of protein- ... methylated DNA may be bound by proteins known as methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBDs). MBD proteins then recruit ... MethylCpG Binding Proteins (MBPs) and fusion proteins containing just the Methyl Binding Domain (MBD) are used to separate ... DNMT3L is a protein that is homologous to the other DNMT3s but has no catalytic activity. Instead, DNMT3L assists the de novo ...
MDM2 is a repressor of protein 53, which itself is a tumor suppressor.[35] On negative diagnosis it was decided to release a ... a repressor group. Fluorescence is only active if the molecules of the substrate are halved. The DNA enzyme simulate logical ... or protein), which may allow organisms to sense magnetic fields. ...
"WD repeat-containing mitotic checkpoint proteins act as transcriptional repressors during interphase". FEBS Letters. 575 (1-3 ... protein binding. • ankyrin binding. • gamma-catenin binding. • beta-catenin binding. • GTPase activating protein binding. • ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ... Several proteins such as SNAI1/SNAIL,[58][59] ZFHX1B/SIP1,[60] SNAI2/SLUG,[61][62] TWIST1[63] and DeltaEF1[64] have been found ...
When a repressor protein binds to the silencer region of DNA, RNA polymerase is prevented from transcribing the DNA sequence ... synaptic vesicle proteins, and channel proteins. A deficiency in the proper development of these proteins can cause the neural ... When a repressor protein is bound to the operator, RNA polymerase cannot bind to the promoter to initiate the transcription of ... Top: lac operon is initially repressed because lactose is not present to inhibit the repressor. Bottom: Repressor LacI is ...
"FLOWERING LOCUS C encodes a novel MADS domain protein that acts as a repressor of flowering". The Plant Cell. 11 (5): 949-56. ... or Type II MADS-domain proteins.[8][13] SRF-like MADS-domain proteins in animals and fungi have a second conserved domain, the ... Two types of MADS-domain proteins are distinguished; the SRF-like or Type I MADS-domain proteins and the MEF2-like (after ... the MEF2-like MADS-domain proteins are also termed MIKC-type proteins referring to their conserved domain structure, where the ...
The repressor protein MetJ, in cooperation with the corepressor protein S-adenosyl-methionine, mediates the repression of ... The degree of repression is determined by the concentrations of the repressor protein and corepressor level.[8] ... Manchester KL (1964). "Sites of Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism". In Munro HN, Allison JB (eds.). Mammalian protein ... Anthranilate synthase is also regulated by feedback inhibition: tryptophan is a co-repressor to the TrpR repressor. ...
Myb-binding protein 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYBBP1A gene.[5][6] ... 2007). "MYBBP1a is a novel repressor of NF-kappaB". J. Mol. Biol. 366 (3): 725-36. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2006.11.099. PMID 17196614 ... 2004). "Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human Par protein complexes reveals an interconnected protein network". J. Biol. ... protein binding. • DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • intracellular ...
transcriptional repressor complex. • transcription factor complex. • protein-DNA complex. Biological process. • negative ... About 90% of the latter mutations occur in 6 ribosomal protein genes viz., RPS19, RPL5, RPS26, RPL11, RPL35A, and RPS24.[8][10] ... "Entrez Gene: GATA1 GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1)".. *^ a b c Da Costa L, O'Donohue MF, van Dooijeweert ... complexes involving the LIM protein RBTN2 and the zinc-finger protein GATA1". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... U.S. Pax6 is a gene in prenatal development referred to as a transcription factor (activator and repressor). This means that ... protein binding. • DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • ubiquitin-protein transferase activity. • transcriptional ... protein kinase binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • histone acetyltransferase binding. • transcription regulatory ...
protein dimerization activity. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • protein complex binding. • ... binds a non-canonical E box and acts as a transcriptional repressor". The EMBO Journal. 16 (10): 2892-906. PMC 1169897 . PMID ... protein complex. • nucleolus. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. Biological process. • Notch signaling pathway. • chromatin ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3: 89. PMC 1847948 ...
TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the ... lambda repressor-like InterPro: IPR010982 SCOP 47413 srf-like (serum response factor) InterPro: IPR002100 Pfam PF00319 SCOP ... Domain architecture example: Lactose Repressor (LacI). The N-terminal DNA binding domain (labeled) of the lac repressor binds ... Chadwick LH, Wade PA (April 2007). "MeCP2 in Rett syndrome: transcriptional repressor or chromatin architectural protein?". ...
The 3'-UTR also may have silencer regions that bind repressor proteins that inhibit the expression of a mRNA. ... For protein methods, see protein methods.. In general, most experiments investigating differential expression used whole cell ... Eventually, the lactase will digest all of the lactose, until there is none to bind to the repressor. The repressor will then ... There is no lactose to inhibit the repressor, so the repressor binds to the operator, which obstructs the RNA polymerase from ...
The 3'-UTR also may have silencer regions that bind repressor proteins that inhibit the expression of a mRNA. ... RNA has been largely investigated within its role as an intermediary in the translation of genes into proteins.[18] More active ... Such 3'-UTRs often contain both binding sites for microRNAs (miRNAs) as well as for regulatory proteins. By binding to specific ... When this happens, the RNAi machinery goes into action, debilitating the mRNAs of the proteins that would be required to move ...
... associated protein as repressor for the selective suppression of TR4-mediated transactivation". The Journal of Biological ... Ishitani T, Takaesu G, Ninomiya-Tsuji J, Shibuya H, Gaynor RB, Matsumoto K (Dec 2003). "Role of the TAB2-related protein TAB3 ... Testicular receptor 4 also known as NR2C2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2) is a protein that in humans is ... Lee YF, Shyr CR, Thin TH, Lin WJ, Chang C (Dec 1999). "Convergence of two repressors through heterodimer formation of androgen ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m Petsko, GA and Ringe, D 2009, 'Protein Structure and Function', Oxford University Press Inc., New ... Mutations in the genes encoding them or their potential activators or repressors can affect any number of functions within an ... It exerts its effect by phosphorylating target proteins such as P53, MDM2 and chk2. Activation of ATM is facilitated by ... This receptor is a protein with an (αβ)2 quaternary structure. The two large α-subunits are extracellular, while the smaller β- ...
"Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB2 gene. The ZEB2 protein is a ... a novel zinc finger/homeodomain repressor, interacts with Smad proteins and binds to 5'-CACCT sequences in candidate target ... ZEB2 protein has 8 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain shown on the right. ZEB2 interacts with ...
... is a gene that encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor repressor protein in various tissues of both humans and ... protein dimerization activity. • protein homodimerization activity. • MRF binding. • GO:0001106 transcription corepressor ... GO:0001948 protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal ... BHLHE40 and BHLHE41 are also known to alter the expression of several contractile proteins and mitochondrial proteins in ...
This often occurs when hormone binding to hormone receptors stimulates ubiquitin-associated degradation of repressor proteins ... proteins with nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains, also known as NLR proteins or STAND proteins, among other ... When this phosphorylation is reduced, EIN2 protein is cleaved and a portion of the protein moves to the nucleus to activate ... However, pathogen effector proteins (see below) are adapted to suppress basal defenses such as PTI. Many receptors for MAMPs ( ...
protein kinase binding. • hydrolase activity. • protein deacetylase activity. • identical protein binding. • core promoter ... transcriptional repressor complex. • sarcomere. • Z disc. • A band. • actomyosin. • cell nucleus. • cytosol. • nucleoplasm. • ... "Both corepressor proteins SMRT and N-CoR exist in large protein complexes containing HDAC3". The EMBO Journal. 19 (16): 4342-50 ... Protein for Sight, Scientific American, 300, 3 (March 2009), p. 23 *^ Chen B, Cepko CL (January 2009). "HDAC4 regulates ...
... who believed that transcription was activated by protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions on largely naked DNA templates, ... SBF is a transcription factor that is activated in late G1 phase, when it dissociates from its repressor Whi5. This occurs when ... Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ... The first step of chromatin structure duplication is the synthesis of histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4. These proteins ...
"Structure of the DNA-binding region of lac repressor inferred from its homology with cro repressor.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... McKay DB, Steitz TA (1981). "Structure of catabolite gene activator protein at 2.9 A resolution suggests binding to left-handed ... Pabo CO, Lewis M (1982). "The operator-binding domain of lambda repressor: structure and DNA recognition.". Nature 298 (5873): ... Anderson WF, Ohlendorf DH, Takeda Y, Matthews BW (1981). "Structure of the cro repressor from bacteriophage lambda and its ...
... it is not yet known if it is regulated by co-repressor protein complexes. Northern blots have revealed that different tissue ... Adenoviral E1A-associated protein of 300kDa (p300) and the CREB-binding protein (CBP) make up the next family of HATs.[10] This ... HDACs 1 and 2 can also bind directly to DNA binding proteins such as Yin and Yang 1 (YY1), Rb binding protein 1 and Sp1.[5] ... MOZ (Monocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein), Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2 and Tip60 (Tat Interacting Protein) all make up MYST, another ...
The majority of identified clock components are transcriptional activators or repressors that modulate protein stability and ... CCA1/LHY and TOC1 proteins repress the expression of each others genes. The result is that as CCA1/LHY protein levels start to ... Methylation of a protein structure adds a methyl group and regulates the protein function or gene expression and in histone ... formation of protein complexes and protein degradation. Each of these processes significantly contributes to keeping the period ...
"WD repeat-containing mitotic checkpoint proteins act as transcriptional repressors during interphase". FEBS Lett. 575 (1-3): 23 ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ... CDH1 protein, human Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos EUA. ... June 2001). "The two-handed E box binding zinc finger protein SIP1 downregulates E-cadherin and induces invasion.". Mol Cell 7 ...
... coli has a similar cAMP-independent catabolite repression mechanism that utilizes a protein called catabolite repressor ... cAMP binds to catabolite activator protein (CAP) and together they will bind to a promoter sequence on the lac operon. However ... Lactose must be present inside the cell to remove the lactose repressor from the operator sequence (transcriptional regulation ... when glucose enters through the cell membrane protein EIIC, and when Hpr is phosphoralated it can then allow CcpA to block ...
The csiR gene encodes a protein that acts as a transcriptional repressor for csiD-ygaF-gab operon hence shutting off the GABA ... The binding of cAMP to the cAMP receptor protein(CRP) causes CRP to bind tightly to a specific DNA site in the csiDp promoter, ... There is a regulatory gene csiR, downstream of the operon, that codes for a putative transcriptional repressor and is activated ... gabDp2: is σ70 dependent and is controlled by Nac (Nitrogen Assimilation Control) regulatory proteins expressed under nitrogen ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Mutations in genes encoding these proteins can lead to inactivation of cadherin cell adhesions and elimination of contact ... "Adjuvant immunochemotherapy with protein-bound polysaccharide K for colon cancer in relation to oncogenic β-catenin activation ...
protein binding. • enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ... The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found ... identical protein binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional ... resulting in formation of messenger RNA that is translated by ribosomes to produce specific proteins. ...
TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... Interaction of TATA boxes with a variety of activators or repressors can influence the transcription of genes in many ways[ ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
... induces the targeting of a class of transcription factor repressors known as Aux/IAA proteins for proteasomal degradation. ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ... Proteins are tagged for degradation with a small protein called ubiquitin. The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ...
The UBQLN2 gene encodes the protein ubiquilin 2 which is responsible for controlling the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins ... with transcriptional repression via interference of transcription factor binding and recruitment of transcriptional repressors ... As that gene's name suggests, BACE1 is an enzymatic protein that cleaves the Amyloid Precursor Protein into the insoluble ... Mutations in UBQLN2 interfere with protein degradation resulting in neurodegeneration through abnormal protein aggregation.[52] ...
Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. These ... In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... thereby reducing that protein's activity. In PSI+ cells, the loss of the Sup35 protein (which is involved in termination of ...
The lacI gene synthesizes LacI repressor protein. The LacI repressor protein represses lacZYA by binding to the operator ... An example of a repressor protein is the methionine repressor MetJ. MetJ interacts with DNA bases via a ribbon-helix-helix (RHH ... lacZYA transcribes the proteins needed for lactose breakdown.[1] lacI synthesizes the repressor of the lacZYA gene.[1] The gene ... In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by ...
protein kinase inhibitor activity. • protein binding. • kinesin binding. • protein kinase binding. • JUN kinase binding. • ... "The Transcriptional Repressor REST Determines the Cell-Specific Expression of the Human MAPK8IP1 Gene Encoding IB1 (JIP-1)". ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK8IP1 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1".. *^ a b c d e f Yasuda, J; Whitmarsh A J; ... It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has ...
Mijelin protein nula • Osteonektin • Protein C • Protein S • Proteoglikan • Serum amiloid P komponenta • Sialoglikoprotein ( ... Liu, Fei; Liu Yin; Li Demin; Zhu Yong; Ouyang Weiming; Xie Xin; Jin Boquan (2002). „The transcription co-repressor TLE1 ... Glikoprotein 130 (takođe poznat kao gp130, IL6ST, IL6-beta ili CD130) je transmembranski protein. On je osnivački član klase ... Kolesterilester transfer protein • Klasterin • Faktor stimulacije kolonije • Hemopeksin • Laktoferin • Membranski glikoproteini ...
In ''negative inducible operons'', a regulatory repressor protein is normally bound to the operator, which prevents the ... repressor. represor. ]] to. ao. the. operador,. operator. que. to. impide. prevent. a. transcription. transcrición. . ... If an [[inducer]] molecule is present, it binds to the repressor and changes its conformation so that it is unable to bind to ...
Rob M Ewing, Chu Peter, Elisma Fred, Li Hongyan, Taylor Paul, et al., Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions ... binds a non-canonical E box and acts as a transcriptional repressor (PDF), in EMBO J., vol. 16, nº 10, maggio 1997, pp. 2892- ... Gazin C, Rigolet M, Briand JP, et al., Immunochemical detection of proteins related to the human c-myc exon 1, in EMBO J., vol ... Q Guo, Xie J, Dang C V, Liu E T, Bishop J M, Identification of a large Myc-binding protein that contains RCC1-like repeats (PDF ...
2002), I.3. Proteins: The Shape and Structure of Proteins *^ Alberts et al. (2002), I.3. Proteins: Protein Function Archived 25 ... changing the repressor's structure such that the repressor binds to the genes. The tryptophan repressor blocks the ... like the fibers formed by the protein collagen. Proteins can bind to other proteins and simple molecules, sometimes acting as ... A single nucleotide difference within DNA can cause a change in the amino acid sequence of a protein. Because protein ...
The 3'-UTR also may have silencer regions that bind repressor proteins that inhibit the expression of a mRNA. ... In fission yeast this complex contains argonaute, a chromodomain protein Chp1, and a protein called Tas3 of unknown function.[ ... This ancestral RNAi system probably contained at least one dicer-like protein, one argonaute, one PIWI protein, and an RNA- ... Left: A full-length argonaute protein from the archaea species Pyrococcus furiosus. Right: The PIWI domain of an argonaute ...
Protein sy'n cael ei godio yn y corff dynol gan y genyn YBX3 yw YBX3 a elwir hefyd yn Y-box binding protein 3 (Saesneg). ... GO:0001078, GO:0001214, GO:0001206 DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific. • nucleic acid ... "DNA binding protein A expression and methylation status in hepatocellular carcinoma and the adjacent tissue. ". Int J Oncol. ... "RNAi-mediated downregulation of DNA binding protein A inhibits tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer. ". Int J Mol Med. 2016. PMID ...
... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import.[3] Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ... Protein Chem. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 67: 181-99. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(04)67007-0. ISBN 9780120342679. PMID 14969728. ... In addition, since contacts between CoA and protein facilitate the formation of favorable histone-protein contacts, it is ... Histones comprise the protein portion of chromatin. There are five different histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. A core ...
miR-181 expression has a reverse correlation with Tcl1 protein expression. mir-181 a and b are over-expressed and act as bad ... a repressor of the differentiation process in mammalians and lower organisms). miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-181c and miR-181d are ... It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein Hox-A11 and participates in establishing muscle tissue ... They target and modulate protein expression by inhibiting translation and / or inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. ...
Tregs utilize beta-galactoside-binding protein to transiently inhibit PI3K/p21ras activity of human CD8+ T cells to block their ... Suppression of T cell function: a potential role for transcriptional repressor ICER. „J Leukoc Biol". 67 (6), s. 774-779, ... Association of allergen-specific regulatory T cells with the onset of clinical tolerance to milk protein. „J Allergy Clin ... Wasp venom immunotherapy induces activation and homing of CD4(+)CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3-positive regulatory T cells ...
8. 2002). „Integral Membrane Proteins of the Chloroplast Envelope: Identification and Subcellular Localization of New ... The JAZ Family of Repressors is the Missing Link in Jasmonate Signaling". Nature. 448 (7154): 666-71. Bibcode:2007Natur.448.. ... a Novel GTPase of the Chloroplast Protein Translocon". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (2): 95-100. PMID 11753431. doi:10.1038/ ...
protein binding. • transcriptional repressor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific ... Protein sy'n cael ei godio yn y corff dynol gan y genyn ETV6 yw ETV6 a elwir hefyd yn ETS variant 6 (Saesneg). Segment o DNA ... protein domain specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. 2005. doi:10.1016/ ... "Defective interplay of activators and repressors with TFIH in xeroderma pigmentosum". Cell. 104 (3): 353-63. 2001. doi:10.1016/ ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... "Manifold decreased protein levels of matrin 3, reduced motor protein HMP and hlark in fetal Down's syndrome brain". Proteomics ...
F-box proteins target other proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin degradation pathway. When TIR1/ AFB proteins bind to ... In the absence of auxin, ARFs bind to a class of repressors known as Aux/IAAs. Aux/IAA suppress the ability of ARFs to enhance ... This process requires modification of the auxin transporters (PIN proteins).[20] Flowering[edit]. Auxin plays also a minor role ... While PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are vital in transporting auxin in a polar manner,[6][15] the family of AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/ ...
... the lac repressor. The structure of the fusion proteins looks like this: FP2-LacI-bait and FP1-prey where the bait and prey ... "Yeast Two-Hybrid Protein-Protein Interaction Networks". Proteomics and Protein-Protein Interactions. Protein Reviews. 3. pp. 19 ... an alternative method for detecting protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. *Protein array, a chip-based method for ... The protein fused to the AD may be referred to as the prey protein and can be either a single known protein or a library of ...
ORF36 - vPK - viral protein kinase with multiple roles in replication cycle ORF37 - SOX - dual function protein - DNase ... K8 - transcriptional repressor - modulates chromatin K8.1 - envelope glycoprotein K9 - vIRF1, viral interferon regulatory ... a G protein-coupled receptor, interferon regulatory factor and Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as DNA synthesis ... ORF45 - tegument protein, interacts with p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) to modulate the ERK/RSK MAPK signaling pathway ...
PURB, ETA, purine-rich element binding protein B, purine rich element binding protein B. ... GO:0001078، ‏GO:0001214، ‏GO:0001206 DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific. • ربط دي إن إي. ... PURB‏ (Purine rich element binding protein B) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين PURB في الإنسان.[1][2] ... "Entrez Gene: PURB purine-rich element binding protein B". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم تجاهله ...
... the p70S6 kinase and the translation repressor protein 4EBP1).[94][96] The suppression of muscle protein breakdown following ... and inhibiting muscle protein breakdown (MPB).[94][95] The stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by resistance training ... Ingestion of a protein-rich meal at any point during this period will augment the exercise-induced increase in muscle protein ... Many amino acids derived from food protein promote the activation of mTORC1 and increase protein synthesis by signaling through ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q57468 - Streptococcus pyogenes 4 * A0A0A7NYJ1 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Names. transcriptional repressor protein MetJ. YP_002345203.1. *when ... transcriptional repressor protein MetJ. Locus tag. YPO0114. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. ... mRNA and Protein(s) * YP_002345203.1 transcriptional repressor protein MetJ [Yersinia pestis CO92] ... metJ transcriptional repressor protein MetJ [ Yersinia pestis CO92 ] Gene ID: 1172961, updated on 30-Jan-2018 ...
The first property requires that the repressor is a protein, since only proteins are known to possess such spatial specificity ... REGULATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE REPRESSOR-OPERATOR HYPOTHESIS* M. GRUBER and R. N. CAMPAGNE\ The ... The effectors of protein synthesis, or possibly their immediate derivatives, were assumed to interact with a "repressor," ... The second property requires that the repressor is a polynucleotide, since proteins of a reasonable molecular weight cannot ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P03023 - Escherichia coli (strain K12) 24 * O95103 - Homo sapiens no matching ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
... the chromosomal regions of interest can be visualized with a fluorescently labeled Lac repressor protein, which binds to the ... Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features methods for visualizing protein dynamics. COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Wed., Jan. 2, 2008) ... It can be used to detect endogenous proteins as well as the products of transgenes. The immunohistochemistry protocol was ... CSH Protocols features methods for visualizing protein dynamics. 01/02/2008. ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. A0A0S2T5F8. R0J9C2. A0A0F6WQV6. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. Q8NP86. A4QET8. A0A1Q6BII1. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. Q8NP86. A0A0S2T5F8. R0J9C2. ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q8XZU1. A0A223GLH0. A0A0S4WG98. A0A1Y0FCG8. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q8XZU1. A0A223GLH0. A0A0S4WG98. A0A1Y0FCG8. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q8XZU1. Q2SVP7. A0A096YM24. A0A2C5V0P6. ...
... repressor proteins include Luciferase Complementation Imaging Assay in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves for Transiently ... Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific Genes or Operons. Classical repressor ... Luciferase Complementation Imaging Assay in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves for Transiently Determining Protein-protein ... proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the Operator region of an operon, or the Enhancer sequences of a ...
"Repressor Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Repressor Proteins" was a major or minor topic ... Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ... "Repressor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Repressor Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
... Cell. 2009 Feb 6;136(3):535-50. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.12. ... We now identify PHLDA3 as a p53 target gene that encodes a PH domain-only protein. We find that PHLDA3 competes with the PH ...
Browse our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 protein, ZNF461 protein, zinc finger protein 213 protein, Zinc finger protein ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins. We offer Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides ...
Allostery in lac repressor ligand binding is based upon the ability of the protein to assume alternate ligand-bound ... All repressor proteins produced by mutating His74 and/or Asp278 possess altered ligand binding behavior. Interestingly, only ... Allostery and assembly oflac repressor protein. dc.contributor.advisor. Matthews, Kathleen S.. ... These results demonstrate unequivocally that the tetrameric lac repressor is an extremely stable protein. However, the ...
mouse interferon repressor protein: IRP is localized in cell sap and in ribosomal fraction of mouse cells; initially identified ... Proteins: 90489*Transcription Factors: 20597*Repressor Proteins: 32*mouse interferon repressor protein ... mouse interferon repressor protein. Subscribe to New Research on mouse interferon repressor protein ... interferon repressor protein, mouse; IRP protein, mouse; interferon repressing protein, mouse. Networked: 0 relevant articles ( ...
Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and Lysates. Multiplex ...
Proteolysis that is inhibited by hedgehog targets Cubitus interruptus protein to the nucleus and converts it to a repressor.. ... Cell-cell communication at anterior/posterior compartment borders in Drosophila involves Hedgehog (Hh), a protein secreted by ... posterior cells, and Cubitus interruptus (Ci), a protein in the Hh response pathway in anterior cells. Although Ci is thought ...
... a protein in the Hh response pathway in anterior cells. Although Ci is thought to have roles as a transcription factor repressi ... a protein secreted by posterior cells, and Cubitus interruptus (Ci), ... Proteolysis that is inhibited by hedgehog targets Cubitus interruptus protein to the nucleus and converts it to a repressor ... Cell-cell communication at anterior/posterior compartment borders in Drosophila involves Hedgehog (Hh), a protein secreted by ...
HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ...
The degradation of specific target proteins is mediated by ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3), which mark their target proteins ... A comprehensive control of protein production includes global co-repressors as the conserved Ssn6(SsnF)-Tup1(RcoA) complex, ... We have identified a novel connection between protein degradation and synthesis through an F-box protein. Fbx15 can be ... The rapid response to environmental changes underlies a well-balanced system of production and degradation of proteins. ...
Expression and Properties of Wild-Type and Mutant Forms of the Drosophila Sex Comb on Midleg (SCM) Repressor Protein. Douglas ... Expression and Properties of Wild-Type and Mutant Forms of the Drosophila Sex Comb on Midleg (SCM) Repressor Protein. Douglas ... Expression and Properties of Wild-Type and Mutant Forms of the Drosophila Sex Comb on Midleg (SCM) Repressor Protein. Douglas ... Expression and Properties of Wild-Type and Mutant Forms of the Drosophila Sex Comb on Midleg (SCM) Repressor Protein ...
Proteins recruited by phosphorylated LIN-1 might reverse the chromatin modifications caused by transcriptional repressors, such ... Conversion of the LIN-1 ETS Protein of Caenorhabditis elegans from a SUMOylated Transcriptional Repressor to a Phosphorylated ... Conversion of the LIN-1 ETS Protein of Caenorhabditis elegans from a SUMOylated Transcriptional Repressor to a Phosphorylated ... Conversion of the LIN-1 ETS Protein of Caenorhabditis elegans from a SUMOylated Transcriptional Repressor to a Phosphorylated ...
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA).. T S ... The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA). ... The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA). ... The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA). ...
proteins. exemplified by ArsR-SmtB family repressors D. Osman and J. S. Cavet, Nat. Prod. Rep., 2010, 27, 668 DOI: 10.1039/ ... proteins. . Indeed, in the case of the ArsR-SmtB family, multiple distinct metal-sensing motifs (and one non-metal-sensing ...
Protein kinase A and TORC1 activate genes for ribosomal biogenesis by inactivating repressors encoded by Dot6 and its homolog ... Protein kinase A and TORC1 activate genes for ribosomal biogenesis by inactivating repressors encoded by Dot6 and its homolog ... Protein kinase A and TORC1 activate genes for ribosomal biogenesis by inactivating repressors encoded by Dot6 and its homolog ... Protein kinase A and TORC1 activate genes for ribosomal biogenesis by inactivating repressors encoded by Dot6 and its homolog ...
Members of the HRT family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins act as transcriptional repressors downstream of Notch signaling. ... Members of the HRT family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins act as transcriptional repressors downstream of Notch signaling ... Members of the HRT family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins act as transcriptional repressors downstream of Notch signaling ... Members of the HRT family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins act as transcriptional repressors downstream of Notch signaling ...
We investigated the evolutionary conservation of the dopaminergic repressor function of Zic proteins and show that it is ... Zic-proteins are repressors of dopaminergic forebrain fate in mice and C. elegans Marie-Catherine Tiveron 1 Christophe Beclin 1 ... We investigated the evolutionary conservation of the dopaminergic repressor function of Zic proteins and show that it is ... Zic-proteins are repressors of dopaminergic forebrain fate in mice and C. elegans. Journal of Neuroscience, Society for ...
The amount of protein in the supernatant was measured by protein assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The proteins were separated by ... In great contrast to the full-length protein, deleting its NH2 terminus enfeebled the repressor activity of FIR (arrows). To ... An Essential Role of Alternative Splicing of c-myc Suppressor FUSE-Binding Protein-Interacting Repressor in Carcinogenesis. ... Recently, an interaction between FUSE-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR) and TFIIH/p89/XPB helicase was found to ...
Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is an endogenous antiapoptotic protein. Here, we report that ARC ... The apoptotic regulatory protein ARC (apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain) prevents oxidant stress-mediated ... TAT protein transduction into isolated perfused hearts: TAT-apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain is ... Identification of DIABLO, a mammalian protein that promotes apoptosis by binding to and antagonizing IAP proteins. Cell 2000; ...
... we asked whether its repressor, FBP-interacting repressor (FIR) is functionally inactivated and how FIR might affect NSCLC cell ... Because over-expression of DNA-interacting far upstream element binding protein (FBP) supports non-small cell lung cancer ( ... Concomitant expression of far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein (FBP) interacting repressor (FIR) and its splice variants ... binding protein (FBP) interacting repressor (FIR) and its splice variants induce migration and invasion of non-small cell lung ...
DELLA proteins are nuclear growth repressors. In many cases, GA opposes the effects of DELLA proteins by promoting DELLA ... Second, ethylene delayed the GA-induced disappearance of the DELLA protein repressor of ga1-3 from root cell nuclei via a ... Ethylene Regulates Arabidopsis Development via the Modulation of DELLA Protein Growth Repressor Function. Patrick Achard, Wim H ... Total protein was extracted and quantified as described by Silverstone et al. (2001). For each treatment, 20 μg of proteins was ...
RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor.. D P Satijn, M J Gunster, ... RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor. ... The Polycomb (Pc) protein is a component of a multimeric, chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) protein complex, which is ... RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor. ...
  • The repressor was assumed to be the product of a regulator gene which is not necessarily spatially or structurally related to the structural genes ofthe operon. (jhu.edu)
  • Whereas genetic analysis has unequivocally demonstrated the existence of regulator genes, i.e., genes which through a cytoplasmic product control the induction or repression process, the identification of this product as a repressor directly interacting with an operator region has not been possible experimentally. (jhu.edu)
  • Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific Genes or Operons . (jove.com)
  • The HTLV-I trans-activator protein Tax can activate the expression of its own long terminal repeat (LTR) and many cellular and viral genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since the DAL and UGA genes are overexpressed and largely inducer independent in dal80 deletion mutants, we have suggested DAL80 protein negatively regulates a wide spectrum of nitrogen-catabolic gene expression, likely in conjunction with a URS element. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, Dot6 and Tod6 mediate different nutrient signals, with Tod6 responsible for efficient repression of Ribi genes after inhibition of the nitrogen-sensitive TORC1 pathway and Dot6 responsible for repression after inhibition of the carbon-sensitive protein kinase A signaling pathway. (pnas.org)
  • The budding yeast ribosome comprises 79 ribosomal proteins encoded by 138 genes (the RP regulon), and four rRNAs (5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 25S) encoded by ≈150 rDNA tandem repeats. (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, another ≈300 genes encoding nonribosomal proteins are involved in various aspects of ribosome assembly and translational capacity (the ribosome biogenesis, or Ribi, regulon): RNA polymerases I and III subunits, tRNA synthetases, rRNA processing and modifying enzymes, translation factors, etc. ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Hairy-related transcription-factor ( HRT ) genes encode three related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that show sequence similarity to the Hairy and Enhancer of split family of transcriptional repressors. (pnas.org)
  • These findings identify HRT genes as downstream targets for Notch signaling and reveal a negative autoregulatory loop whereby HRT proteins repress their own expression through interference with Notch signaling. (pnas.org)
  • In response to Notch signaling, Su(H) activates transcription of the Hairy / Enhancer of split genes [ H / E(spl) ], which encode a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional repressors ( 1 , 2 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • H/E(spl) proteins then inhibit transcription of their target genes, thereby preventing undifferentiated precursors from achieving differentiated phenotypes. (pnas.org)
  • Based on their embryonic expression patterns and on the importance of bHLH proteins for Notch signaling ( 4 , 10 ), we investigated whether HRT genes might be downstream targets for Notch signaling. (pnas.org)
  • these fusions can be evaluated for repressor activity using direct selection with λ phage, or a variety of reporter genes suitable for library screening. (springer.com)
  • The Drosophila extra sex combs (esc) protein, a member of the Polycomb group (PcG), is a transcriptional repressor of homeotic genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mutations in the FIE and MEA genes that encode interacting polycomb proteins cause parent-of-origin effects on seed development by distinct mechanisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We therefore sought to identify target genes for HEY proteins by microarray expression and ChIPseq analyses in HEK293 cells, cardiomyocytes, and murine hearts. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The SSN6-TUP1 protein complex represses transcription of diversely regulated genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alignments of GbsR proteins and analysis of the genetic context of the corresponding structural genes allowed their assignment into four sub-groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • In one of these sub-groups of GbsR-type proteins, gbsR -type genes are associated either with OpuA-, OpuB-, or OpuC-type osmostress protectants uptake systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • repressor EthR is.The lac repressor is a DNA-binding protein which inhibits the expression of genes coding for proteins. (1004682.gq)
  • Lactose is inhibiting the repressor, allowing the RNA polymerase to bind with the promoter, and express the genes, which synthesize lactase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular genetics , a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers . (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter , thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • When SAM is present, it binds to the MetJ protein, increasing its affinity for its cognate operator site, which halts transcription of genes involved in methionine synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under non‐stressed conditions, transcription of the clpC and clpP genes is negatively regulated by CtsR, the global repressor of clp gene expression. (embopress.org)
  • The protein regulates the expression of plasmid genes whose products are involved in replication, transfer, and stable inheritance of RP4 by binding to palindromic 13-bp DNA sequences (5′-TTTAGC(G/C)GCTAAA-3′) present 12 times in the 60-kb plasmid. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The repressor protein binds to Operator region which is present between Promoter region and structural genes. (lifeeasy.org)
  • Our study shows that CHD5 is a NuRD-associated transcriptional repressor and identifies WEE1 as one of the CHD5-regulated genes that may link CHD5 to tumor suppression. (harvard.edu)
  • The BTB domain in these proteins represses the expression of target genes by the BTB-mediated recruitment of HDAC/corepressor complexes to promoter sites recognized by the C-terminal zinc-finger regions. (utoronto.ca)
  • MLDP significantly altered the expression patterns of many genes involved in mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and calcium signaling, transcription factors, primary and secondary metabolism, and other processes in both poplar subgenera. (mdpi.com)
  • however, unlike other TetR repressors that typically repress their own gene expression and that of an adjacent operon, LuxR is capable of activating and repressing a large number of genes. (princeton.edu)
  • Among others, PIL5 induces the expression of the genes encoding the two DELLA proteins GA INSENSITIVE 1 (GAI) and REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA). (beds.ac.uk)
  • The regA protein expressed by the bacteriophage T 4 translationally represses the expression of 30 T4 early genes , including its own gene . (musc.edu)
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or activators of protein kinase A (PKA) up-regulate the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and augment the induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 of the expression of target genes (24-hydroxylase and osteopontin) in osteoblastic cells. (montclair.edu)
  • The lac repressor is a DNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in the metabolism of lactose in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) is a commonly used allolactose mimic which can be used to induce transcription of genes being regulated by lac repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this report, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism of how SLY1 interacts with the DELLA proteins for controlling GA response. (plantcell.org)
  • By yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pull-down assays, we demonstrated that SLY1 interacts directly with RGA and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI, a closely related DELLA protein) via their C-terminal GRAS domain. (plantcell.org)
  • Calsenilin interacts with transcriptional co-repressor C-terminal binding protein(s). (docphin.com)
  • Zaidi NF, Kuplast KG, Washicosky KJ, Kajiwara Y, Buxbaum JD, Wasco W. Calsenilin interacts with transcriptional co-repressor C-terminal binding protein(s). (docphin.com)
  • In vitro DNA-binding experiments reveal that a protein in blastula-stage nuclei interacts specifically with the myb target site. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The bHLH protein SCL/Tal-l interacts with the co-repressor ETO-2 in erythroid cells and megakaryocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGL-27 also binds UBC-9 , an enzyme involved in SUMOylation, and MEP-1 , a zinc-finger protein previously shown to bind LIN-1 . (genetics.org)
  • Prompted by recent studies showing that the yeast protein Dot6 and its homolog Tod6 can bind to a PAC motif sequence in vitro and are required for efficient Ribi gene repression in response to heat shock, we have examined the role of Dot6 and Tod6 in nutrient control of Ribi gene expression in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • To form a lysogen, the repressor of bacteriophage P22 (P22R) must bind and discriminate between its six DNA binding sites on the P22 chromosome. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Eventually, the lactase will digest all of the lactose, until there is none to bind to the repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repressor will then bind to the operator, stopping the manufacture of lactase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A corepressor is a molecule that can bind to repressor and make it bind to the operator tightly, which decreases transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • These DNA sequences bind to repressors to partially or fully repress the expression of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous insights have been obtained in the last two decades into how homeodomain proteins bind to DNA and increase their specificity by interacting with other proteins to regulate cell- and tissue-specific gene expression. (springer.com)
  • To gain a better understanding of the precise role of calsenilin in specific cellular compartments, an interactor hunt for proteins that bind to the N-terminal domain of calsenilin was carried out. (docphin.com)
  • Where does the repressor protein bind? (lifeeasy.org)
  • When does the lac repressor protein bind to the operator? (lifeeasy.org)
  • operators" where specialized proteins called repressors bind to the DNA just upstream of the start point of transcription and prevent access to the DNA by RNA polymerase. (britannica.com)
  • The dominant negative activity of the non-DNA binding mutants suggests sequestration of transformation-specific cofactors and that recruitment of these cellular factors might mediate Evi-1 transforming activity.C-terminal bindingprotein (CtBP) co-repressor family proteins bind PLDLS-like motifs. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • We show that the murine Evi-1 repressor domain has two such sites, PFDLT (site a, amino acids 553-559) and PLDLS (site b, amino acids 584-590), which independently can bind CtBP family co-repressor proteins, with site b binding with higher affinity than site a. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • We show that transcriptional repression and the nuclear retention of TLE proteins requires PRH to bind to both TLE and DNA. (bham.ac.uk)
  • When does the lac repressor protein bind to the. (lifeeasy.org)
  • UIA protein uses a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) motif to bind RNA . (musc.edu)
  • in the presence of cAMP-CRP, however, the repressor and activator bind cooperatively to the DNA. (genetika.ru)
  • The lac repressor (LacI) operates by a helix-turn-helix motif in its DNA-binding domain, binding base-specifically to the major groove of the operator region of the lac operon, with base contacts also made by residues of symmetry-related alpha helices, the "hinge" helices, which bind deeply in the minor groove. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its changed state, the lac repressor is unable to bind tightly to its cognate operator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different representatives of each of the sensor families can regulate gene expression in response to different metals, and the residues that form the sensory metal- binding sites have been defined in a number of these proteins . (rsc.org)
  • The lactose proteins have affinity to the repressor proteins,.Mouse Snail family transcription repressors regulate chondrocyte, extracellular. (1004682.gq)
  • Driven by the hypothesis that other proteins might regulate translation by mechanisms analogous to Sxl we set out to biochemically characterize Sxl-related RNA-binding proteins. (medenbachlab.de)
  • While both proteins are able to repress translation via 5' UTR binding sites in a uORF-dependent manner, the ability of Ssx to regulate translation via the msl-2 3' UTR is severely compromised. (medenbachlab.de)
  • SpMyb functions as an intramodular repressor to regulate spatial expression of CyIIIa in sea urchin embryos. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Groucho/TLE family of co-repressor proteins also regulate development and modulate the activity of many DNA-binding transcription factors during a range of diverse cellular processes including haematopoiesis. (bham.ac.uk)
  • We propose that ZAG-1 acts as a transcriptional repressor to regulate multiple, discrete, neuron-specific aspects of terminal differentiation, including cell migration, axonal development and gene expression. (biologists.org)
  • In the cytoplasm, the encoded protein may function to regulate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic leucine zipper transcription factors characteristically form heterodimers through their leucine zippers with the musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma (Maf) family of proteins yielding NF-E2 transcription factors (reviewed in Ref. 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The DELLA proteins represent a subfamily of the GRAS plant transcription factors, and are characterized by the N-terminal DELLA domain. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In the nucleus, the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to activation of the RTK/Ras/ERK-signaling pathway, LIN-1 functions as a SUMOylated transcriptional repressor that inhibits vulval cell fate. (genetics.org)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that the hDaxx component of ND10 is also a repressor of IE gene expression and inhibits the initiation of the lytic cycle ( 8 , 47 , 52 , 53 , 60 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, we characterise a trans-dominant negative PRH protein that inhibits wild type PRH activity by sequestering TLE proteins to specific sub-nuclear domains. (bham.ac.uk)
  • We offer Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins for use in common research applications: ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • One of the library encoded peptides (C 2 ) is able to form a heterodimer with the target peptide reconstituting the activity of λ repressor. (springer.com)
  • Here we demonstrate using the yeast two-hybrid system that SUMOylation of LIN-1 mediates interactions with a protein predicted to be involved in transcriptional repression: the RAD-26 Mi-2β/CHD4 component of the nu cleosome r emodeling and histone d eacetylation (NuRD) transcriptional repression complex. (genetics.org)
  • The HRT family consists of three proteins, HRT1, -2, and -3, which share structural similarity in their bHLH regions and contain a unique carboxyl-terminal domain similar to, but distinct from, the region of H/E(spl) proteins responsible for transcriptional repression ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Polycomb (Pc) protein is a component of a multimeric, chromatin-associated Polycomb group (PcG) protein complex, which is involved in stable repression of gene activity. (asm.org)
  • Genetic studies have shown that esc protein is required in early embryos at about the time that other PcG proteins become engaged in homeotic gene repression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Far UpStream Element (FUSE)-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR), a c-myc transcriptional suppressor, is alternatively spliced removing the transcriptional repression domain within exon 2 (FIRΔexon2) in colorectal cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two proteins of former unknown function, McsA and McsB, which are also encoded by the clpC operon, act as modulators of CtsR repression. (embopress.org)
  • Calsenilin/potassium channel-interacting protein (KChIP)3/ downstream regulatory element sequence antagonist modulator (DREAM) is a neuronal calcium-binding protein that has been shown to have multiple functions in the cell, including the regulation of presenilin processing, repression of transcription and modulation of A-type potassium channels. (docphin.com)
  • Our data also showed a calsenilin-dependent increase in c-fos protein levels in CtBP knockout fibroblasts, suggesting that CtBP may modulate the transcriptional repression of c-fos by calsenilin. (docphin.com)
  • We have shown previously that PRH is a repressor of transcription in haematopoietic cells and that an Eh-1 motif present within the N-terminal transcription repression domain of PRH mediates binding to Groucho/TLE proteins and enables co-repression. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Whether the DNA-binding domain is always needed for direct DNA binding to target gene promoters or interaction of p53 with other proteins through this domain can evoke p53-dependent repression, remains to be elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • The major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans is CreA, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. (usda.gov)
  • Its repression can be relieved by the sequestration of this protein into promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies or nucleoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • RING1 is associated with the polycomb group protein complex and acts as a transcriptional repressor. (asm.org)
  • This affect is mimicked by activation of protein kinase A (PKA) or by activation of Sch9, the yeast homolog of mammalian Akt/PKB ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we identified the repressor of estrogen receptor activity (REA) as an interacting protein of TRPM6 that binds to the 6(th), 7(th), and 8(th) beta-sheets in its alpha-kinase domain. (ru.nl)
  • Moreover, activation of protein kinase C by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-PMA potentiated the inhibitory effect of REA on TRPM6 channel activity. (ru.nl)
  • Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial regulator of energy metabolic homeostasis and thus a major survival factor in a variety of metabolic stresses and also in the aging process. (springer.com)
  • AMPK is activated via allosteric regulation of increased AMP concentration and by the phosphorylation of α subunit (Thr172) via the upstream kinases serine/threonine kinase 11 (LKB1), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ), and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1. (springer.com)
  • McsB, a putative kinase, can inactivate CtsR by modification to remove the repressor from the DNA and to target CtsR for degradation by the ClpCP protease during stress. (embopress.org)
  • Distinct classes of TGFβ cytokines signal through similar pathways, involving heteromeric transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase receptor complexes at the cell surface and Smad family proteins as cytoplasmic effectors. (biologists.org)
  • Remarkably, nearly all KRAS deficient cells exhibit phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and induced sensitivity to PI3K inhibitors. (nature.com)
  • It exhibits protein kinase activity. (bioinformatics.org)
  • After Fas stimulation, Daxx is activated and plays its role of pro-apoptotic protein in activating the c-JUN-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that LIN-1 recruits multiple proteins that repress transcription via both the SUMOylated amino-terminus and the unSUMOylated carboxy-terminus. (genetics.org)
  • Recently, an interaction between FUSE-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR) and TFIIH/p89/XPB helicase was found to repress c-myc transcription and might be important for suppressing tumor formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A protein known to repress gene transcription at the molecular level in a variety of processes also blocks embryonic neural stem cells from differentiating into neurons, according to a study by University of California, San Diego and Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers published online October 10 in Nature. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The research team focused on a repressor protein called SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor), which has been shown to repress gene expression in a number of molecular pathways. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Furthermore, the finding that histone deacetylase protein and activity were associated with the calsenilin-CtBP immunocomplex suggests a mechanism by which calsenilin-CtBP may act to repress transcription. (docphin.com)
  • The stereospecific interaction with the effector would change the repressor by an allosteric transition [3], thus inducing or destroying its affinity for the operator and thereby preventing or allowing the transcription ofthe operon. (jhu.edu)
  • Such a repressor should have two properties which, in our opinion, cannot be ascribed to any single class of substances: (1) The repressor should interact stowspecifically with the effector, and by this interaction should undergo conformational changes. (jhu.edu)
  • Again, the effect of IE72 on ND10 is mediated via an interaction with PML, although in contrast to results for HSV, IE72 does not appear to promote the degradation of PML, just the relocalization of the protein away from ND10 bodies ( 32 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • However, we found that this DELLA domain is not required for protein-protein interaction with SLY1 in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), suggesting that its role is in a GA-triggered conformational change of the DELLA proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • This effect of sly1-d appears to be caused by an enhanced interaction between sly1-d and the DELLA proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Bunker, C. A. and Kingston, R. E. (1995) Identification of a cDNA for SSRP1, an HMG-box protein, by interaction with the c-Myc oncoprotein in a novel bacterial expression screen. (springer.com)
  • The esc protein consists primarily of multiple copies of the WD repeat, a motif that has been implicated in protein-protein interaction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study aims to study the significance of the FIR-SAP155 interaction for the coordination of c-myc transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and c-Myc protein modification, as well as to interrogate FIRΔexon2 for other functions relating to altered FIR pre-mRNA splicing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, we showed that the interaction between REA and TRPM6 is a dynamic process, as short-term 17beta-estradiol treatment disassociates the binding between these proteins. (ru.nl)
  • Using selected examples, we highlight different mechanisms of homeodomain protein-DNA interaction. (springer.com)
  • We are studying the interactions of BTB domains with corepressor and cullinbased ubiquitin ligase complexes with the objective of developing protein-protein interaction inhibitors to reverse the biological activities of these oncogene products. (utoronto.ca)
  • Cooperativity between KorB and either KorA or TrbA repressor proteins is a key element of these circuits and deletion analysis has implicated the conserved C-terminal domain of KorAand TrbAin this interaction. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Studies on mutants showed that tyrosine 84 (or phenylalanine, in some alleles) is dispensable for repressor activity but critical for the specific interaction with KorB in both in vivo reporter gene assays and in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift and co-purification assays. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Daxx, a Death domain-associated protein, was first discovered through its cytoplasmic interaction with the classical death receptor Fas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several additional interacting proteins are known, but not always is there an understanding of the specific function and relevance of this interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • We, therefore, hypothesized that a third element, an upstream repressor sequence (URS) mediates maintenance of DAL gene expression at a low level when inducer is absent. (asm.org)
  • Here, we show that HRT gene expression in cultured cells is activated by Notch signaling and that HRT proteins interfere with Notch-dependent activation of HRT2 expression, thereby fulfilling a negative autoregulatory loop that tightly regulates HRT expression. (pnas.org)
  • The initial regulation of herpesvirus immediate-early gene expression is associated with proteins found at cellular nuclear domain 10 (ND10) bodies, such as PML, hDaxx, and ATRX. (asm.org)
  • If an inducer , a molecule that initiates the gene expression, is present, then it can interact with the repressor protein and detach it from the operator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, clp gene expression in Gram‐positive bacteria is autoregulated by a novel mechanism of controlled proteolysis, a circuit of down‐regulation by stabilization and protection of a transcription repressor, and induction by presenting the repressor to the protease. (embopress.org)
  • Thus, this abundant late product from the ie2 region may play a role in trans-activation in addition to its role as a repressor of α gene expression. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Thus, the gene is mostly off in the absence of inducer and mostly on in the presence of inducer, although the degree of gene expression depends on the number of repressors in the cell and on the repressor's DNA-binding affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) The repressor should interact se^HeMce-specifically with a rather long polynucleotide sequence. (jhu.edu)
  • Once the tagged cell lines have been established, the chromosomal regions of interest can be visualized with a fluorescently labeled Lac repressor protein, which binds to the lac operator sequence. (cshlpress.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • 30 GRAS proteins, all of which demonstrate high sequence similarity in their C-terminal GRAS domain ( Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, 2000 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Sequence analysis of the DELLA proteins suggested that they are likely transcriptional regulators. (plantcell.org)
  • of the primary protein sequence online at. (1004682.gq)
  • Genetic sequence (gene, or cDNA) of foreign proteins. (1004682.gq)
  • Targeting is achieved by a fusion protein in which one partner is a protein that binds to a specific DNA sequence. (1004682.gq)
  • The LacI repressor protein represses lacZYA by binding to the operator sequence lacO . (wikipedia.org)
  • Acts as a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor in association with BCL6. (genecards.org)
  • The amino-acid sequences of soluble, globular proteins must have hydrophobic residues to form a stable core, but excess sequence hydrophobicity can lead to loss of native state conformational specificity and aggregation. (nebraska.edu)
  • Bach2 forms heterodimers with small Maf proteins, including, MafF, MafG, and MafK, allowing binding to Maf recognition elements (MAREs) with the consensus sequence TGCTGA(G/C)TCA(T/C) ( 7 ) ( Fig. 1B ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Protein structure will be related to function, evolutionary conservation and multiple-sequence alignments, and drug design. (umass.edu)
  • Pfam is a comprehensive collection of protein domains and families, represented as multiple sequence alignments and as profile hidden Markov models. (psu.edu)
  • Here we present evidence that MIG1, a zinc-finger protein in the EGR1/Zif268 family, recruits SSN6-TUP1 to glucose-repressed promoters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ectopic production of the EVI1 transcriptional repressor zinc finger protein is seen in 4-6% of human acute myeloid leukemias. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • Since then, the repressor system has been employed by several laboratories to screen genomic ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ) and cDNA libraries ( 6 ) for homotypic or heterotypic interactions. (springer.com)
  • Repressor fusions are used to detect protein-protein interactions in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Park, S. H. and Raines, R. T. (2000) Genetic selection for dissociative inhibitors of designated protein-protein interactions. (springer.com)
  • Mariño-RamÍrez, L. and Hu, J. C. (2001) Using λ repressor fusions to isolate and characterize self-assembling domains, in Protein-Protein Interactions: A Laboratory Manual , (ed. (springer.com)
  • Edgerton, M. D. and Jones, A. M. (1992) Localization of protein-protein interactions between subunits of phytochrome. (springer.com)
  • protein-DNA interactions can also be studied by co. tetracycline-resistance. (1004682.gq)
  • The KorB-C crystal structure extends the range of protein-protein interactions known to be promoted by SH3 and SH3-like domains. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • STRING is a database of known and predicted protein interactions.The interactions include direct (physical) and indirect (functional) associations. (systemsbiology.net)
  • Transactivation is achieved by interactions with components of the general transcription factor TFIID like the TATA box binding protein (TBP) [ 9 , 10 ] and TAFII31 [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our research centers on the study of protein structure and molecular recognition, with an emphasis on understanding proteinprotein, protein-peptide and protein-lipid interactions. (utoronto.ca)
  • We are also studying the thermodynamics of membrane protein folding, and the fundamental properties of protein-lipid and protein detergent interactions. (utoronto.ca)
  • This confirms that direct and specific protein-protein interactions are responsible for the cooperativity observed between KorB and its corepressors and lays the basis for determining the biological importance of this cooperativity. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Computer modeling was then used to identify other amino acid residues and structural motifs that could be involved in protein:RNA interactions in regA . (musc.edu)
  • These results strongly indicate that cooperative DNA binding of CytR and cAMP-CRP is achieved through protein-protein interactions. (genetika.ru)
  • Repressor Proteins/genetics, Tetracycline. (1004682.gq)
  • These substances-usually compounds of low molecular weight-can elicit or inhibit the co-ordinated synthesis of a group of metabolically related proteins, e.g., the enzymes of a metabolic pathway. (jhu.edu)
  • The effectors of protein synthesis, or possibly their immediate derivatives, were assumed to interact with a "repressor," preventing the transcription ofthe operon into RNA. (jhu.edu)
  • This concept and its elaboration had a very stimulating effect on research in the field of regulated protein synthesis and created order in a mass of seemingly unrelated phenomena. (jhu.edu)
  • The pathways through which the PKA and Sch9 activities impinge on ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein synthesis have been extensively explored ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The maintenance of the Mg(2+) balance of the body is essential for neuromuscular excitability, protein synthesis, nucleic acid stability, and numerous enzymatic systems. (ru.nl)
  • synthesis can be regulated by the co-expressed LacI repressor. (1004682.gq)
  • One major role of AMPK signaling is to respond to metabolic requirements either by stimulating energy production including glucose and lipid catabolism or by inhibiting energy consuming pathways, e.g., synthesis of protein, fatty acids, and cholesterol. (springer.com)
  • The repressor binds to the operator gene and prevents it from initiating the synthesis of the protein called for by the operon. (britannica.com)
  • specify a protein, called a repressor protein, that binds to the region of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) responsible for directing the synthesis of the enzyme. (britannica.com)
  • We demonstrate that temperature specifically modulates HrcA binding to DNA, with a complete and irreversible temperature‐dependent loss of DNA binding activity at 42°C. Intriguingly, although the reduction of HrcA binding capability is not reversible in vitro , transcriptional analysis showed that HrcA exerts its repressive influence in vivo , even when the de novo repressor synthesis is blocked after the temperature challenge. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The N termini of GRAS proteins are in general divergent and probably specify their diverse roles in different cellular pathways. (plantcell.org)
  • A collection of articles that focus on an array of different scientific topics such as pathways, cancer, transmembrane proteins. (cusabio.com)
  • Intracellular and extracellular stress signals can lead to induction of central signalling proteins which generate different downstream effects. (hindawi.com)
  • The transcription factor DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION1 (DAG1) is a repressor of seed germination acting downstream of the master repressor PHYTOCROME INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE 5 (PIL5). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Quite unexpectedly, we find that KorB-C shows a fold closely resembling the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, a fold well known from proteins involved in eukaryotic signal transduction. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • A certain degree of specificity in the intracellular signal transduction cascade with respect to different TGFβ-like cytokines is reached at the level of the receptor-activated Smad proteins, dividing the ligands into two major subgroups, the BMP and the TGFβ/Activin subfamily. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we show that the phytohormone ethylene regulates plant development at least in part via alteration of the properties of DELLA protein nuclear growth repressors, a family of proteins first identified as gibberellin (GA) signaling components. (plantcell.org)
  • DELLA proteins are nuclear growth repressors. (plantcell.org)
  • Also, RING1 colocalizes with these vertebrate PcG proteins in nuclear domains of SW480 human colorectal adenocarcinoma and Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells. (asm.org)
  • For example, herpesvirus infection is profoundly affected by a number of cellular proteins that accumulate at subnuclear structures called nuclear domain 10 (ND10) bodies ( 1 , 3 , 15 , 16 , 26 , 27 , 31 , 38 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • The nuclear DELLA proteins are highly conserved repressors of hormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in plants. (plantcell.org)
  • Testis-specific DNA binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture and transcriptional control, which probably acts by recruiting epigenetic chromatin modifiers. (rcsb.org)
  • Nuclear factors that interact with receptor-activated Smad proteins have been isolated. (biologists.org)
  • tissue-specific nuclear proteins that interact with the signal transducers have not yet been identified. (biologists.org)
  • A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure determination is reported for the polypeptide chain of a globular protein in strongly denaturing solution. (scripps.edu)
  • Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) measurements with a 7 molar urea solution of the amino-terminal 63-residue domain of the 434-repressor and distance geometry calculations showed that the polypeptide segment 54 to 59 forms a hydrophobic cluster containing the side chains of Val54, Val56, Trp58, and Leu59. (scripps.edu)
  • Synthetic oligonucleotides containing the myb target site were used to purify a protein from sea urchin embryo nuclear extracts by affinity chromatography. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The PRH/Hex repressor protein causes nuclear retention of Groucho/TLE corepressors. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Here we demonstrate that PRH regulates the nuclear retention of TLE proteins during cellular fractionation. (bham.ac.uk)
  • RING1 is a protein that contains the RING finger motif, a specific zinc-binding domain, which is found in many regulatory proteins. (asm.org)
  • Protein degradation plays a key role in cell physiology of all organisms by regulating the availability of certain short‐lived regulatory proteins or preventing the accumulation of abnormal proteins. (embopress.org)
  • KorB is a regulatory protein encoded by the conjugative plasmid RP4 and a member of the ParB family of bacterial partitioning proteins. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • A key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising CreB (deubiquitinating enzyme) and HulA (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in the regulatory mechanism. (usda.gov)
  • In H elicobacter pylori the response to thermic stress is transcriptionally controlled by a regulatory circuit that involves two repressors, HspR and HrcA. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To understand regulatory mechanisms involved, we asked whether the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), which serves as a dominant negative regulator of cAMP-induced transcription in other endocrine systems, may similarly play a role in modulation of vitamin D hormone action. (montclair.edu)
  • λ repressor consists of distinct and separable domains: the N-terminal domain which has DNA binding activity and the C-terminal domain which mediates dimerization. (springer.com)
  • [1] lacI synthesizes the repressor of the lacZYA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The lacI gene synthesizes LacI repressor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ribose repressor (RbsR) is a bacterial DNA-binding transcription repressor protein and a member of the LacI/GalR protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Bacillus subtilis, RbsR was shown to interact with Histidine-containing protein (HPr), an allosteric effector of the related LacI/GalR protein Catabolite Control Protein A (CcpA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the Operator region of an operon, or the Enhancer sequences of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release. (jove.com)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA). (asm.org)
  • Here we show that DAL80 protein binds to DAL3 and UGA4 upstream DNA sequences, designated URSGATA, consisting of two GATAA-containing sites separated by at least 15 bp. (asm.org)
  • While class B E-box sequences (CACGYG) clearly represent preferred target sequences, there must be additional and more loosely defined modes of DNA binding since many of the target promoters that are efficiently bound by HEY proteins do not contain an Ebox motif. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • patatras.Target cells that express the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein and contain a. sequences located. (1004682.gq)
  • This protein is immunoprecipitated by antibodies specific to the evolutionarily conserved myb domain, and amino acid sequences obtained from the purified protein were found to be identical to sequences within the myb domain. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Two of the main sources for generating the new families added to release 27.0 were Protein Data Bank (PDB) structures =-=(8)-=- and human sequences. (psu.edu)
  • We explore the ability of a simple simulated annealing procedure to assemble native-like structures from fragments of unrelated protein structures with similar local sequences using Bayesian scoring functions. (psu.edu)
  • When lactose is present, allolactose binds to the lac repressor, causing an allosteric change in its shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose a model in which LIN-1 recruits multiple transcriptional repressors to inhibit the 1° vulval cell fate, and phosphorylation by ERK converts LIN-1 to a transcriptional activator that promotes the 1° vulval cell fate. (genetics.org)
  • The Vibrio harveyi master quorum-sensing regulator, LuxR, a TetR-type protein is both an activator and a repressor: DNA recognition and binding specificity at target promoters. (princeton.edu)
  • Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is an endogenous antiapoptotic protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of Apoptosis Repressor with Caspase Recruitment Domain (ARC), An Antiapoptotic Protein, Is Strongly Prognostic in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). (ashpublications.org)
  • This subfamily includes extensively characterized proteins from three divergent animals: vertebrate Elk-1, Drosophila Aop/Yan, and Caenorhabditis elegans LIN-1 . (genetics.org)
  • ARC is originally identified to be a caspase-inhibiting protein and can specifically inhibit the activation of caspase-2 and caspase-8, thereby blocking apoptosis induced by a variety of stimuli requiring the engagement of these caspases ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • There is no lactose to inhibit the repressor, so the repressor binds to the operator, which obstructs the RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and making lactase. (wikipedia.org)
  • APOBEC3G is an antiviral protein that has long been known to inhibit retrovirus replication by hypermutating viral DNA. (nature.com)
  • for tetracycline-inducible bacteriophage-T7-based expression in the LEXSY host T7.Two mutations in the tetracycline repressor. (1004682.gq)
  • Seven proteins bearing mutations that change solvent-exposed side chains have been purified. (princeton.edu)
  • We argue that mutations that alter solvent-exposed wild-type side chains define residues that form the operator DNA binding surface of λ repressor whereas completely or partially buried mutations exert their effect by decreasing protein stability. (princeton.edu)
  • Hecht, MH , Nelson, HCM & Sauer, RT 1983, ' Mutations in λ repressor's amino-terminal domain: Implications for protein stability and DNA binding ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 80, no. 9 I, pp. 2676-2680. (princeton.edu)
  • Previous studies of polar-to-hydrophobic mutations in the β-sheet of the Arc repressor dimer showed that a single substitution at position 11 (N11L) leads to population of an alternate dimeric fold in which the β-sheet is replaced by helix. (nebraska.edu)
  • Isolated nucleic acid molecules are disclosed, comprising an alphavirus nonstructural protein gene which, when operably incorporated into a recombinant alphavirus.Thomas Simonson's Research Group. (1004682.gq)
  • Exon 2 is a strong translational repressor of TFPIβ production, and a much weaker repressor of TFPIα. (ashpublications.org)
  • Thus, in the regions of lac repressor probed by these substitutions, the inducer-bound form differs from the conformation of the unliganded form. (rice.edu)
  • [1] In the presence of the inducer allolactose , the repressor changes conformation and falls off the operator. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein consists of a modified bacterial Tet repressor. (1004682.gq)
  • The crystal structure of the anti-CRISPR protein AcrF3 bound to Cas3, an essential component of CRISPR-based immunity, sheds light on how phages have found ways to suppress bacterial immunity. (nature.com)
  • Our study is the first toward a better understanding of the co-existence between a lysogenic phage and its carrier plant pathogenic bacterial strain by determining the effect of the prophage Rs551 and its repressor on the virulence and competitive fitness of its carrier strain UW551 of R. solanacearum . (frontiersin.org)
  • An example of a repressor protein is the methionine repressor MetJ . (wikipedia.org)
  • HRT proteins are expressed in specific regions of the developing heart, vasculature, pharyngeal arches and somites, and the periodicity of their expression in somitic precursors mirrors that of Notch signaling-related molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Ectopic expression of HRT proteins also blocked activation of HRT2 expression by Notch1 IC through a mechanism requiring the basic region, but not the conserved carboxyl-terminal YQPW-TEVGAF motif of HRT2. (pnas.org)
  • The FUSE is located 1.5 kb upstream of c-myc promoter P1 and binds the FUSE-binding protein (FBP), a transcription factor stimulating c-myc expression in a FUSE-dependent manner ( 5 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because over-expression of DNA-interacting far upstream element binding protein (FBP) supports non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) migration, we asked whether its repressor, FBP-interacting repressor (FIR) is functionally inactivated and how FIR might affect NSCLC cell biology. (inria.fr)
  • Knockdown of SAP155 or FIR was used to investigate their reciprocal influence on each other and on c-myc transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and protein expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HEY proteins were found to modulate expression of their target gene to a rather limited extent, but with striking functional interchangeability between HEY factors. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • These data clearly establish the three HEY bHLH factors as highly redundant transcriptional repressors in vitro and in vivo, which explains the combinatorial action observed in different tissues with overlapping expression. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • We focus here on GbsR-type proteins, named OpuAR by us, that control the expression of opuA -type gene clusters. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study we show that IL-10 induces the expression of an ETS family transcriptional repressor, ETV3, and a helicase family corepressor, Strawberry notch homologue 2 (SBNO2), in mouse and human macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Evaluation of target protein expression level 16. (1004682.gq)
  • withthepcDNA6/tetracycline repressor expression vector. (1004682.gq)
  • Protein Expression & Production LEXSY protein. (1004682.gq)
  • Reintroduction of CHD5 into neuroblastoma cells represses WEE1 expression, demonstrating that CHD5 can function as a repressor in cells. (harvard.edu)
  • 44, Last annotation update) DE Aliphatic amidase expression-regulating protein. (bioinformatics.org)
  • Increased expression of the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix protein HES1 was required for quiescence to be reversible, because HES1 prevented both premature senescence and inappropriate differentiation in quiescent fibroblasts. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, this does not appear to correlate with protein expression, suggesting that TFPI protein isoform production is regulated during translation. (ashpublications.org)
  • Luciferase (Luc) reporter assays were established to quantify the effect of exon 2 on TFPI isoform protein expression. (ashpublications.org)
  • Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) is a validated and robust proteomic system which can quantitatively determine protein expression and facilitate the selection of molecular-targeted therapies. (ashpublications.org)
  • Daxx is uniformly expressed throughout the body, except in the testes and thymus, which have especially high expression of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-cell communication at anterior/posterior compartment borders in Drosophila involves Hedgehog (Hh), a protein secreted by posterior cells, and Cubitus interruptus (Ci), a protein in the Hh response pathway in anterior cells. (nih.gov)
  • Evolutionary conservation and predicted structure of the Drosophila extra sex combs repressor protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interestingly, only the H74W mutant repressor did not display the characteristic ∼1000-fold decrease in operator affinity when bound to inducer. (rice.edu)
  • In the vicinity of the linker region, an aromatic cage is predicted as the inducer-binding site, whose envisioned architecture resembles that present in choline and glycine betaine substrate-binding proteins of ABC transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • If substrate is present, it acts as an inducer by combining with the repressor so as to prevent its binding to DNA. (britannica.com)
  • These amino acids lie in close proximity on the surface of the CRP tertiary structure in a portion of the protein that is not in contact with the DNA. (genetika.ru)
  • It describes several tricks to chemically and physically manipulate the embryos so that the antibodies-which detect the protein of interest-can efficiently penetrate the embryonic tissue. (cshlpress.com)
  • Abcam: antibodies, proteins, kits. (abcam.com)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • The Phos-tag system was used to show that CreA is a phosphorylated protein, but no ubiquitination was detected using anti-ubiquitin antibodies and Western analysis. (usda.gov)
  • 4 Membrane Protein Production in Escherichia coli: Overview and Protocols 91 promoter, which is weakly sensitive to cAMP regulation, associated with a lacO-.La tétracycline se fixe sur la petite sous-unité du ribosome au niveau d'un site proche de la localisation de l'ARNm.Recombinant protein production in eukaryotic systems. (1004682.gq)
  • Articles Single amino acid substitutions in the cAMP receptor protein specifically abolish regulation by the CytR repressor in Escherichia coli. (genetika.ru)
  • Our results indicate that PAC sites function as Dot6/Tod6-dependent repressor elements in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation studies, we have identified the transcriptional co-repressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP)2 as an interactor for calsenilin and have shown that the two proteins can interact in vivo. (docphin.com)
  • The in vivo search model for the lac repressor includes intersegment transfer and hopping as well as crowding by other proteins which make the genome in E.coli cells less accessible for the repressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small G protein Ras2 regulates PKA through activation of adenylyl cyclase in response to the presence of glucose. (pnas.org)
  • Evidence suggests that Bach2 regulates various facets of T cell function by repressing other key transcriptional regulators such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1. (jimmunol.org)
  • The presence or absence of certain repressor molecules determines whether the operon is off or on. (britannica.com)
  • They showed that in vitro the protein bound to DNA containing the lac operon, and it released the DNA when IPTG (an analog of allolactose) was added. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subcellular localization and function of this protein are modulated by post-translational modifications, including sumoylation, phosphorylation and polyubiquitination. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLEEPY1 ( SLY1 ) encodes an F-box-containing protein, and the loss-of-function sly1 mutant has a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype and accumulates a high level of RGA. (plantcell.org)
  • We show here that mutant murine Evi-1 proteins, lacking either the N-terminal zinc finger DNA binding domain or both DNA binding zinc finger clusters, function as dominant negative mutants by reverting the transformed phenotype of Evi-1 transformed Rat1 fibroblasts. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • The amino-terminal domains of these mutant repressors are folded and are comparable to the wild-type amino-terminal domain in thermal stability. (princeton.edu)
  • In contrast, a purified mutant repressor bearing a substitution in a buried side chain contains an amino-terminal domain with decreased thermal stability. (princeton.edu)
  • Repressors can also have two binding sites: one for the silencer region and one for the promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene binds to the ETS2 promoter and is a strong repressor of ETS2 transcription. (genecards.org)
  • Potent transcriptional repressor that binds to the H1 element of the Ets2 promoter. (genecards.org)
  • Each Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptide and Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Protein is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • B) Active repressor fusions can be reconstituted when a dimeric peptide/protein is placed at the C terminus. (springer.com)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • These repressor proteins thus prevent transcription of the gene by physically blocking the action of the RNA polymerase. (britannica.com)
  • This bound repressor can reduce transcription of the Lac proteins by occluding the RNA polymerase binding site or by prompting DNA looping. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely recognized that new methods are needed for the structural study of membrane proteins, and we are addressing the problem of membrane protein crystallization by developing lipopeptide detergents (LPDs), a fundamentally different class of amphiphile designed specifically for the crystallization of membrane proteins. (utoronto.ca)
  • Transcription of the opuB and gbsAB operons is under control of the MarR-type regulator GbsR, which acts as an intracellular choline-responsive repressor. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor that functions as an important regulator of vertebrate development and many other processes in the adult including haematopoiesis. (bham.ac.uk)
  • In this review, we examine our present understanding of the role of Bach2 in T cell function and highlight the growing evidence that this transcriptional repressor functions as a key regulator involved in maintenance of T cell quiescence, T cell subset differentiation, and memory T cell generation. (jimmunol.org)
  • One such regulator is the transcriptional repressor bric-a-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and cap'n'collar homology (Bach)2. (jimmunol.org)
  • Targets degraded by ClpXP are exemplified by the stationary phase transcription factor σ S , several phage proteins and the heterodimeric form of the UmuD protein involved in SOS mutagenesis. (embopress.org)
  • While the basic and helix-loop-helix domains exhibit strong similarity, large parts of the proteins are still unique and may serve divergent functions. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Is the Subject Area "Protein domains" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • δEF1/ZFH-1 Zn-finger-homeodomain proteins are distinguished by two arrays of highly similar C2H2-type Zn-finger domains and a centrally located homeodomain, and can act as transcriptional repressors through recruitment of the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP). (biologists.org)
  • Pfam is a large collection of protein families and domains. (psu.edu)
  • (1995) solved the crystal structure of T4 regA protein and found that it folds into two structural domains , known as domain I and domain II . (musc.edu)
  • The mechanisms that enable ETS proteins to switch cell fates in response to signaling pathway activation are not fully defined, and to address this important issue it is critical to elucidate the function of these proteins both prior to ERK activation and following phosphorylation by ERK. (genetics.org)
  • We investigated the evolutionary conservation of the dopaminergic repressor function of Zic proteins and show that it is already present in C. elegansSIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The vertebrate brain generates thousands of different neuron types. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • So far, the function of the RING1 protein has remained enigmatic. (asm.org)
  • We also identified a novel gain-of-function sly1-d mutation that increased GA signaling by reducing the levels of the DELLA protein in plants. (plantcell.org)
  • Has a post-transcriptional repressor function in flagellum biogenesis. (cusabio.com)
  • Biochemical studies were undertaken to determine how alternative splicing within the 5' or 3' UTRs of TFPI mRNA may function in the translational regulation of TFPI protein isoform production. (ashpublications.org)
  • While at first Daxx was said to be a "death protein", it is suggested that associating with centromeric components leads to another function of Daxx. (wikipedia.org)
  • A repressor that binds with a corepressor is termed an aporepressor or inactive repressor . (wikipedia.org)