Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.

Noncytopathic flavivirus replicon RNA-based system for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. (1/1244)

Noncytopathic replicons of the flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) were employed for expression and delivery of heterologous genes. Replicon vector C20DX2Arep, containing a unique cloning site followed by the sequence of 2A autoprotease of foot-and-mouth disease virus, was constructed and used for expression of a number of heterologous genes including chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), green fluorescent protein (GFP), beta-galactosidase, glycoprotein G of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the Core and NS3 genes of hepatitis C virus. The expression and proper processing of these genes upon transfection of BHK21 cells with the recombinant replicon RNAs were demonstrated by immunofluorescence, radioimmunoprecipitation, and appropriate reporter gene assays. Most of these recombinant KUN replicon RNAs were also successfully packaged into secreted virus-like particles (VLPs) by subsequent transfection with Semliki Forest virus replicon RNA expressing KUN structural genes. Infection of BHK21 and Vero cells with these VLPs resulted in continuous replication of the recombinant replicon RNAs and prolonged expression of the cloned genes without any cytopathic effect. We also developed a replicon vector for generation of stable cell lines continuously expressing heterologous genes by inserting an encephalomyelocarditis virus internal ribosomal entry site-neomycin transferase gene cassette into the 3'-untranslated region of the C20DX2Arep vector. Using this vector (C20DX2ArepNeo), stable BHK cell lines persistently expressing GFP and CAT genes for up to 17 passages were established. Thus noncytopathic KUN replicon vectors with the ability to be packaged into VLPs should provide a useful tool for the development of noninfectious and noncytopathic vaccines as well as for gene therapy applications.  (+info)

Replication regions from plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae plasmids are similar to ColE2-related replicons. (2/1244)

Many strains of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae contain mutually compatible plasmids that share extensive regions of sequence homology and essential replication determinants. The replication regions of two compatible large plasmids involved in virulence or pathogenicity, pPT23A from P. syringae pv. tomato strain PT23 and pAV505 from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola strain HRI1302A, were isolated. DNA sequencing of the origins of replication revealed homologous ORFs, designated ORF-Pto and ORF-Pph, respectively. Both ORFs are 1311 bp long and encode peptides of 437 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of 48259 (Pto) and 48334 (Pph) Da. Expression of the two ORFs in Escherichia coli produced peptides of 50 kDa (Pto) and 56 kDa (Pph). The predicted peptides showed an overall identity of 897 %, being highly conserved from residues 1 to 373, but showing considerable variation in their C-terminal regions (50% identity over the last 64 aa). The two ORFs had significant similarity with the putative replication protein from plasmid pTiK12 of Thiobacillus intermedius and other CoIE2-related plasmids. However, both peptides were 100 residues longer than any of the known CoIE2-related rep sequences. Subcloning of fragments from the replication region of pPT23A revealed the presence of at least three incompatibility determinants, designated IncA, IncB and IncC. Partial sequencing of the region downstream of ORF-Pto revealed homology to the ru/AB genes, involved in UV resistance, from plasmid pPSR1. It is proposed that the replication origin of pPT23A serves as the prototype of a family of related plasmids.  (+info)

Plant cell-directed control of virion sense gene expression in wheat dwarf virus. (3/1244)

We have used particle bombardment (biolistics) to deliver replication-competent wheat dwarf virus (WDV)-based constructs, carrying reporter gene sequences fused to the virion sense promoter (Pv) or the CaMV 35S promoter, to suspension culture cells and immature zygotic embryos of wheat. While the replication of WDV double-stranded DNA forms (replicons) was equivalent between wheat suspension culture cells and embryos, GUS reporter gene activity was 20-40 times higher in the embryo cultures. Maximum expression of WDV replicons occurred in the embryonic axis tissue of wheat embryos but their expression in suspension cells was compromised, compared with transiently maintained input plasmid DNA containing the same sequences. From these studies, we propose that WDV replicons are subject to a host cell-controlled competency for virion sense transcription. The term competency is used to distinguish between the phenomenon described here and control of gene expression by specific transcription factors. Control of competency is independent of Pv, the replacement 35S promoter and of the complementary sense control of virion sense expression involving specific sequences in Pv. We propose that factors controlling the competency for replicon expression may be present in cells which, as well as maintaining high rates of DNA synthesis, are totipotent. Cell type control of active chromatin, methylation of specific sequences in WDV minichromosomes and/or interaction of virus-encoded proteins with specific host factors are considered as possible mechanisms.  (+info)

Target joining of duplicated insertion sequence IS21 is assisted by IstB protein in vitro. (4/1244)

Tandemly repeated insertion sequence IS21, located on a suicide plasmid, promoted replicon fusion with bacteriophage lambda in vitro in the presence of ATP. This reaction was catalyzed in a cell extract containing the 45-kDa IstA protein (cointegrase) and the 30-kDa IstB helper protein of IS21 after both proteins had been overproduced in Escherichia coli. Without IstB, replicon fusion was inefficient and did not produce the 4-bp target duplications typical of IS21.  (+info)

Enhanced measles virus cDNA rescue and gene expression after heat shock. (5/1244)

Rescue of negative-stranded RNA viruses from full-length genomic cDNA clones is an essential technology for genetic analysis of this class of viruses. Using this technology in our studies of measles virus (MV), we found that the efficiency of the measles virus rescue procedure (F. Radecke et al., EMBO J. 14:5773-5784, 1995) could be improved by modifying the procedure in two ways. First, we found that coculture of transfected 293-3-46 cells with a monolayer of Vero cells increased the number of virus-producing cultures about 20-fold. Second, we determined that heat shock treatment increased the average number of transfected cultures that produced virus another two- to threefold. In addition, heat shock increased the number of plaques produced by positive cultures. The effect of heat shock on rescue led us to test the effect on transient expression from an MV minireplicon. Heat shock increased the level of reporter gene expression when either minireplicon DNA or RNA was used regardless of whether complementation was provided by cotransfection with expression plasmids or infection with MV helper virus. In addition, we found that MV minireplicon gene expression could be stimulated by cotransfection with an Hsp72 expression plasmid, indicating that hsp72 likely plays a role in the effect of heat shock.  (+info)

Selection of RNA replicons capable of persistent noncytopathic replication in mammalian cells. (6/1244)

The natural life cycle of alphaviruses, a group of plus-strand RNA viruses, involves transmission to vertebrate hosts via mosquitoes. Chronic infections are established in mosquitoes (and usually in mosquito cell cultures), but infection of susceptible vertebrate cells typically results in rapid shutoff of host mRNA translation and cell death. Using engineered Sindbis virus RNA replicons expressing puromycin acetyltransferase as a dominant selectable marker, we identified mutations allowing persistent, noncytopathic replication in BHK-21 cells. Two of these adaptive mutations involved single-amino-acid substitutions in the C-terminal portion of nsP2, the viral helicase-protease. At one of these loci, nsP2 position 726, numerous substitution mutations were created and characterized in the context of RNA replicons and infectious virus. Our results suggest a direct correlation between the level of viral RNA replication and cytopathogenicity. This work also provides a series of alphavirus replicons for noncytopathic gene expression studies (E. V. Agapov, I. Frolov, B. D. Lindenbach, B. M. Pragai, S. Schlesinger, and C. M. Rice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:12989-12994, 1998) and a general strategy for selecting RNA viral mutants adapted to different cellular environments.  (+info)

Evidence that a single replication fork proceeds from early to late replicating domains in the IgH locus in a non-B cell line. (7/1244)

In non-B cell lines, like the murine erythroleukemia cell line (MEL), the most distal IgH constant region gene, C alpha, replicates early in S; other heavy chain constant region genes, joining and diversity segments, and the most proximal Vh gene replicate successively later in S in a 3' to 5' direction proportional to their distance from C alpha. In MEL, replication forks detected in the IgH locus also proceed in the same 3' to 5' direction for approximately 400 kb, beginning downstream of the IgH 3' regulatory region and continuing to the D region, as well as within the Vh81X gene. Downstream of the initiation region is an early replicating domain, and upstream of Vh81X is a late replicating domain. Hence, the gradual transition between early and late replicated domains can be achieved by a single replication fork.  (+info)

Replication mechanism and sequence analysis of the replicon of pAW63, a conjugative plasmid from Bacillus thuringiensis. (8/1244)

A 5.8-kb fragment of the large conjugative plasmid pAW63 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73 containing all the information for autonomous replication was cloned and sequenced. By deletion analysis, the pAW63 replicon was reduced to a 4.1-kb fragment harboring four open reading frames (ORFs). Rep63A (513 amino acids [aa]), encoded by the largest ORF, displayed strong similarity (40% identity) to the replication proteins from plasmids pAMbeta1, pIP501, and pSM19035, indicating that the pAW63 replicon belongs to the pAMbeta1 family of gram-positive theta-replicating plasmids. This was confirmed by the facts that no single-stranded DNA replication intermediates could be detected and that replication was found to be dependent on host-gene-encoded DNA polymerase I. An 85-bp region downstream of Rep63A was also shown to have strong similarity to the origins of replication of pAMbeta1 and pIP501, and it is suggested that this region contains the bona fide pAW63 ori. The protein encoded by the second large ORF, Rep63B (308 aa), was shown to display similarity to RepB (34% identity over 281 aa) and PrgP (32% identity over 310 aa), involved in copy control of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmids pAD1 and pCF10, respectively. No significant similarity to known proteins or DNA sequences could be detected for the two smallest ORFs. However, the location, size, hydrophilicity, and orientation of ORF6 (107 codons) were analogous to those features of the putative genes repC and prgO, which encode stability functions on plasmids pAD1 and pCF10, respectively. The cloned replicon of plasmid pAW63 was stably maintained in Bacillus subtilis and B. thuringiensis and displayed incompatibility with the native pAW63. Hybridization experiments using the cloned replicon as a probe showed that pAW63 has similarity to large plasmids from other B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strains and to a strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. alesti.  (+info)

This Application Note shows how the Dual luciferase assay can help to assess the Replication of the Hepatitis C Virus subgenomic replicon. Read more.
The recently developed subgenomic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicons were limited by the fact the fact that series encoding the structural proteins was missing. contaminants, we pointed out that these cells discharge substantial levels of nuclease-resistant HCV RNA-containing buildings using a buoyant thickness of just one 1.04 to at least one 1.1 g/ml in iodixanol gradients. The same observation was manufactured in transient-replication assays using a geniune extremely modified full-length HCV genome that does not have heterologous sequences. Nevertheless, the actual fact that equivalent levels of such RNA-containing buildings were within the supernatant of cells holding subgenomic replicons demonstrates a non-specific discharge in addition to the presence from the structural protein. These results claim that Huh-7 cells lack host cell factors that are important for computer virus particle assembly and/or release. The hepatitis C computer virus (HCV) was identified as the causative agent for ...
The JFH1 replicon was less sensitive to CsA than were genotype 1b replicons.We compared the sensitivity of HCV replication to CsA in several subgenomic replicon cells. We used MH-14 (NN/1b/SG) and #50-1 (NN/1b/SG) cells carrying subgenomic replicons with HCV NN strain (15, 29), SN1 (Con1/1b/SG) cells carrying the Con1 subgenomic replicon (18), and sO (O/1b/SG) cells bearing the subgenomic O strain (12) as genotype 1b replicon-containing cells. We also employed JFH1#4-1 (JFH1/2a/SG) and JFH1#2-3 (JFH1/2a/SG) cell clones carrying the JFH1 subgenomic replicon (13). Treatment of CsA (1 μg/ml; 7 days) drastically decreased HCV RNA in all the subgenomic replicon cells carrying the HCV genotype 1b strain. HCV RNA levels in SN1 (Con1/1b/SG), MH-14 (NN/1b/SG), sO (O/1b/SG), and #50-1 (NN/1b/SG) cells decreased to 1/134, 1/219, 1/128, and 1/295, respectively (Fig. 3A). Genotype 1b replicon cells appeared highly sensitive to CsA. In contrast, the effect of CsA on HCV RNA levels in replicon cells ...
Subgenomic replicons of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been widely used for studying HCV replication. Here, we report a new subgenomic replicon based on a strain isolated from a chronically infected pat
In this study we developed a novel highly adapted HCV replicon that harbors two synergistic mutations in NS3 and one in NS5A. The ECF of this RNA was ∼5 × 105 CFU per μg of RNA, which is ∼20-fold higher than that of the best-adapted replicon we described recently (29). By analyzing this and several other HCV RNAs that differed with respect to their levels of cell culture adaptation, we found a clear correlation between the ECF and RNA replication as determined by two different transient-transfection assays. These results demonstrate that cell culture-adaptive mutations increase RNA replication. They also provide an explanation of how adaptive replicons are generated. As shown with the parental replicon carrying the luciferase gene, this nonadapted RNA replicated only transiently and at a low level in transfected cells. During this time, mutations must have been generated by the viral RNA polymerase that in a few instances were adaptive. By increasing the level of RNA replication, cells ...
Despite the availability of cloned infectious genomes (5), molecular studies of HCV replication and the development of antiviral drugs have been hampered by the low efficiencies of currently available cell culture systems and by the fact that the only animal model is the chimpanzee. Thus, to date, research on HCV replication has depended largely on the infection of cell lines or primary cell cultures with sera and the detection of viral replicative intermediates with the highly sensitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (6).. To overcome these limitations, we established an efficient cell culture system that is based on the transfection of cloned viral consensus genome sequences. Owing to the high amount of HCV RNA, we used as starting material for cloning total liver RNA isolated from a chronically infected patient who had undergone liver transplantation (7). Using long-distance RT-PCR, we amplified the complete ORF in two overlapping fragments. Several clones of each ...
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Described in this unit are protocols for evaluation of new chemical entities for activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) using HCV replicon systems
The research for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has long delayed by missing of ,i,in vitro,/i, culture system. Since the development of replicon system, a replication system of subgenomic HCV RNAs in a hepatoma cell line, has been reported, many virological and clinical findings have been discovered. Recently, in addition of subgenomic replication system, hepatitis C virus full-length RNA replication has been possible, and a few cell culture systems producing viral particles have been produced. These developments enabled us to investigate the life cycle or intracellular circumstance of HCV production. By screening of newly synthesized drugs with this replicon system, several possible medicines have been established and clinical researches are now running. Among them, VX950 and SCH503034 are nearest to clinical use. Other possible agents for reducing viral replication such as cyclophyllin inhibitors, inhibitors of sphingomyelin synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ...
Interferon alpha (IFN-α) binds to a cell surface receptor that activates the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. A critical component of this pathway is the translocation of interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (a complex of three proteins Stat1, Stat2 and IRF9) to the nucleus to activate antiviral genes. A stable sub-genomic replicon cell line resistant to IFN-α was developed in which the nuclear translocation of Stat1 and Stat2 proteins was prevented due to the lack of phosphorylation; whereas the nuclear translocation of IRF9 protein was not affected. In this study, we sought to overcome defective Jak-Stat signaling and to induce an antiviral state in the IFN-α resistant replicon cell line by developing a chimera IRF9 protein fused with the trans activating domain (TAD) of either a Stat1 (IRF9-S1C) or Stat2 (IRF9-S2C) protein. We show here that intracellular expression of fusion proteins using the plasmid constructs of either IRF9-S1C or IRF9-S2C, in the IFN-α resistant cells, resulted in an increase in
Video created by Technical University of Denmark (DTU) for the course Whole genome sequencing of bacterial genomes - tools and applications. Whole genome sequencing tools- demonstration of analysis tools for Serotyping of Salmonella and ...
Keywords: Adjuvant, dendritic cell, replicon, alphavirus Intro Vaccines possess been effective at restricting and actually eliminating many illnesses enormously, however methods that had been effectively utilized to develop existing vaccines possess frequently been insufficient to induce protecting defenses with fresh vaccine applicants. For this good reason, fresh approaches and tools are required for the following generation of vaccines. In the advancement of fresh vaccines, dendritic cell (DC) service and antigen subscriber base are main goals, for these cells are central mediators of the hyperlink between natural and adaptive defenses and therefore possess the capability to highly enhance the degree of an immune system response [1, 2]. A past example of a effective DC-targeting vaccine can be the orange fever vaccine extremely, in which an attenuated orange fever disease infects DCs in human beings, causing powerful defenses [3]. To attain service of DCs that will potently enhance an immune ...
Polymerase chain reaction-based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the evolution of resistance plasmids. We used this approach to study 26 epidemiologically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae and demonstrate the dominance of incompatibility (Inc) A/C or Inc N-related plasmids carrying some emerging resistance determinants to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems.
POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS IN VIRAL RNA REPLICATION, GENE EXPRESSION AND VIRUS-HOST INTERACTIONS Creative, highly motivated researchers are sought for postdoctoral positions studying the functions and interactions of viral and host factors in RNA replication, gene expression, and related events in positive-strand RNA viruses. Unique opportunities to identify and study relevant host factors are available through our demonstration that bromovirus and nodavirus RNA replicons can replicate and express foreign genes in yeast, allowing the use of powerful yeast genetics to identify pertinent host genes and to greatly facilitate other experiments (Janda and Ahlquist [1993] Cell 72:961-970; Quadt et al. [1995] PNAS 92:4892-4896; Price et al. (1996) PNAS 93:9465-9470). Bromoviruses and nodaviruses are well-studied viruses with excellent genetic and biochemical resources for in vivo and in vitro studies of fundamental replication mechanisms. Significant opportunities are available in several areas of ...
The PBRT system is a PCR-based assay that allows fast and easy plasmid characterization and molecular identification. Find more information about this product
FreshBooks vs Replicon TimeBill - See how these Accounting software products stack up against each other with real user reviews, product feature comparisons and screenshots. Find out which one is best for your organization.
Single-stranded RNA replicon vector, for reprogramming somatic cells to iPS cells with high efficiency, in a single transfection step.
PPI-383, identified through an extensive medicinal chemistry effort, exhibits EC50s of 8.3 and 2.2 nM in HCV 1a and 1b replicon assays, respectively. PPI-383 is also active against other major HCV genotypes (2a, 3a and 4a) in stable replicon cell assays (EC50s of 4.4-11.7 nM). The selection of PPI-383 underscores Presidios continued commitment to generate best-in-class compounds for treating HCV, commented Dr. Colonno, who added, It is an excellent complement to our lead NS5A inhibitor, PPI-668, currently completing Phase 1b clinical studies. We intend to develop oral, combination regimens that possess potent, pan-genotypic activity. The distinct mechanism of action of PPI-383 will potentially allow its use in combination regimens with all other classes of HCV inhibitors ...
Immunization with DNA-based allergen vaccines has yielded promising results as a potentially novel modality of immunotherapy. Limitations to this approach include reduced immunologic responses in humans and relatively high concentrations of DNA vaccine required to induce immunity. Investigators examined the effectiveness of using a self-replicating (replicon) DNA vaccine to induce protection against allergenic sensitization in a mouse model. Mice were immunized intradermally with replicon Phl p5 DNA or conventional DNA vaccines followed by sensitization and intranasal challenge with Phl p5. Titers of IgG1, IgG2a and IgE were measured from sera, while eosinophil counts and cytokine levels were measured from BAL fluid. Lung sections were analyzed for presence of inflammatory infiltrates, increased mucus production and epithelial damage. Replicon DNA vaccination with Phl p5 resulted in reduced expression of specific IgE, Th1-biased cytokine expression, fewer eosinophils and reduced markers of ...
This is a temporary file and hence do not link it from a website, instead link the URL of this page if you wish to link the PDF file ...
Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of a chemical synthetic lethality screen in cultured MEFs using a double-label fluorescence system. The major challenge in the present work has been to identify a replicon that can stably replicate in MEFs while under selection and decay spontaneously at a reasonable rate on removal of selection pressure. Our initial attempt, which employed polyoma virus replicons, failed. These replicons, containing wild-type or mutated enhancer/origin of DNA replication and encoding polyoma large T antigen, were shown previously to be capable of replicating in either somatic mouse cells (16) or pluripotent embryonal mouse cells such as EC cells (17, 18) or mouse ES cells (19), respectively. However, we found out that these polyoma-based replicons could not replicate in MEFs, which are late embryonal mouse cells. In contrast, employment of the EBV-based episomal survival plasmid, previously used in human cells (13), turned out to be suitable for synthetic lethality ...
Elbasvir, also known as MK-8742, is a HCV NS5A inhibitor, which is currently in phase 2b clinical trials as part of an all-oral, interferon-free regimen for the treatment of HCV infection. The NS5A protein plays a critical role in the replication of HCV and has been the focus of numerous research efforts over the past few years. NS5A inhibitors have shown impressive in vitro potency profiles in HCV replicon assays, making them attractive components for inclusion in all oral combination regimens.
The PBRT (PCR Based Replicon Typing) is an essential assay for the analysis of evolution, epidemiology and spread of antibacterial resistance.The excl...
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In molecular biology, the Avian encephalitis virus cis-acting replication element (CRE) is an s an RNA element which is found in the coding region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Avian encephalitis virus (AEV). It is structurally similar to the Hepatitis A virus cis-acting replication element. Hepatitis A virus cis-acting replication element Yang, Y; Yi, M; Evans, DJ; Simmonds, P; Lemon, SM (October 2008). Identification of a conserved RNA replication element (cre) within the 3Dpol-coding sequence of hepatoviruses. Journal of Virology. 82 (20): 10118-28. doi:10.1128/jvi.00787-08. PMC 2566277 . PMID 18684812 ...
Alcohol abuse reduces response rates to IFN therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. To model the molecular mechanisms behind this phenotype, we characterized the effects of ethanol on Jak-Stat and MAPK pathways in Huh7 human hepatoma cells, in HCV replicon cell lines, and in primary human hepatocytes. High physiological concentrations of acute ethanol activated the Jak-Stat and p38 MAPK pathways and inhibited HCV replication in several independent replicon cell lines. Moreover, acute ethanol induced Stat1 serine phosphorylation, which was partially mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway. In contrast, when combined with exogenously applied IFN-α, ethanol inhibited the antiviral actions of IFN against HCV replication, involving inhibition of IFN-induced Stat1 tyrosine phosphorylation. These effects of alcohol occurred independently of i) alcohol metabolism via ADH and CYP2E1, and ii) cytotoxic or cytostatic effects of ethanol. In this model system, ethanol directly perturbs the Jak-Stat pathway, and HCV
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dissecting the IFN-induced inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by using a novel host cell line. AU - Windisch, Marc P.. AU - Frese, Michael. AU - Kaul, Artur. AU - Trippler, null. AU - Lohmann, Volker. AU - Bartenschlager, Ralf. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - The Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, is a major cause of chronic liver disease. Patients are currently treated with alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) that is given alone or in combination with ribavirin. Unfortunately, this treatment is ineffective in eliminating the virus in a large proportion of individuals. IFN-induced antiviral activities have been intensively studied in the HCV replicon system. It was found that both IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma inhibit HCV replicons, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been identified. Of note is that nearly all of these studies were performed with the human hepatoma cell line Huh-7. Here, we report that genotypes 1b and 2a replicons also replicate in the ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is dependent on the existence of several highly conserved functional genomic RNA domains. The cis-acting replication element (CRE), located within the 3 end of the NS5B coding region of the HCV genome, has been shown essential for efficient viral replication. Its sequence and structural features determine its involvement in functional interactions with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and distant RNA domains of the viral genome. This work reports the use of an in vitro selection strategy to select aptamer RNA molecules against the complete HCV-CRE. After six selection cycles, five potential target sites were identified within this domain. Inhibition assays using a sample of representative aptamers showed that the selected RNAs significantly inhibit the replication (|80%) of a subgenomic HCV replicon in Huh-7 cell cultures. These results highlight the potential of aptamer RNA molecules as therapeutic antiviral agents.
2003 Bicout DJ and Sache I. Persistent Walk and Spore Dispersal Density Function. Phys. Rev. E. 2003, vol. 67, n° 0319131 - 0319137. Billecocq A, Coudrier D, Boué F, Combes B, Zeller H, Artois M and Bouloy M. Expression of the nucleoprotein of the Puumala virus from the recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon : characterization and use as a potential diagnostic tool. Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology. 2003, vol. 10, n° 4, pp. 658-663. Hours M, Anzivino-Viricel L, Maître A, (...)
These fragments could however be selected indirectZy by means of a specific probe that contains a selectable property, resistance to ampicillin (Ap), and that is incapable of self-replication. In vitro linkage of the probe fragment to a DNA fragment capable of self-replication leads to the formation of a replicon that can be selected in transformation. , 1978). , 1976). This was due to two features of the recombinant replicon: firstly, the inability of one replicon to function would not prevent perpetuation of the plasmid, and secondly, the two component replicons are dissimilar and the replication of each one could be individually inhibited (low levels of DNA polymerase I prevent replication of CoIE1; chloramphenicol treatment prevents the replication of pSC101). For this purpose we used ColE1 for cloning EcoRI-generated DNA fragments and pML21 for cloning HindIII-generated fragments (see Table 2). Table 7 lists the DNA fragments that were cloned and their phenotypes. A specific advantage of ...
These results demonstrate that small molecule inhibitors of cellular SRPK1 and SRPK2 (Fig. 2A) efficiently and specifically suppress intracellular replication of HCV subgenomic replicons and HCV-JFH1 viruses in cell culture, in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 3 and 4). Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that both RNA synthesis and its translation were reduced by SRPIN340. This inhibition was not associated with antiproliferative or nonspecific cytotoxic effects on the host cells (Fig. 3B and 4B). Transgenic overexpression of SRPK1 or SRPK2 resulted in augmentation of HCV replication and infection (Fig. 5). On the other hand, siRNA-mediated knockdown of these SRPKs suppressed HCV replication significantly (Fig. 6). These results demonstrate the dependence of the virus on the host RNA processing machinery that consists of SR proteins and their regulator, SRPK, and indicate that the inhibition of host SRPKs by small molecules may constitute a novel antiviral treatment against ...
3 Oct 2012 J. Virol. doi:10.1128/JVI.01824-12. JVI Accepts, published inhibit Norwalk virus replication in replicon-bearing cells. J Virol 81:12111-. 582.. Mail consultation Online asking price. ...
According to a recent survey (1), reducing costs was among the top IT initiatives for healthcare companies in 2011. Replicon, the global leader in Web-based tim
The conditions that led to the formation of the first organisms and the ways that life originates from a lifeless chemical soup are poorly understood. The recent hypothesis of RNA-peptide coevolution suggests that the current close relationship between amino acids and nucleobases may well have extended to the origin of life. We now show how the interplay between these compound classes can give rise to new self-replicating molecules using a dynamic combinatorial approach. We report two strategies for the fabrication of chimeric amino acid/nucleobase self-replicating macrocycles capable of exponential growth. The first one relies on mixing nucleobase- and peptide-based building blocks, where the ligation of these two gives rise to highly specific chimeric ring structures. The second one starts from peptide nucleic acid (PNA) building blocks in which nucleobases are already linked to amino acids from the start. While previously reported nucleic acid-based self-replicating systems rely on ...
BioMARC will begin manufacturing the vaccines by the end of the year, using a technique called Viral Replicon Particles, which does not use live or infectious viruses.
Duncan Clark wrote: , , I was always curious about the replicons used in some clinical E.colis , that carry umpteen different plasmids. I remember many many years ago , that one such E.coli was used for plasmid markers and had may 10 , different plasmids in it. They didnt appear to lose those plasmids , despite no selection. May have been published in Plasmid back in the , late 70s or early 80s. It all depends on the replication control mechanism of the replicons I suppose. ColE1 replicon is the standard one taught to students and I havent really look into others, so Im speaking in complete ignorance here, but there is no reason why a plasmid with different replicon would necessary result in plasmid incompatibility (because ColE1 has an unusual replication control mechanism?), although I understand that many would. , Duncan ...
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Fig. 3 Virus-host preferences and FSF distribution in viruses infecting different hosts.. (A) The abundance of each viral replicon type that is capable of infecting Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya and major divisions in Eukarya. Virus-host information was retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Viral Genomes Project (119). Hosts were classified into Archaea, Bacteria, Protista (animal-like protists), Fungi, Plants (all plants, blue-green algae, and diatoms), Invertebrates and Plants (IP), and Metazoa (vertebrates, invertebrates, and humans). Host information was available for 3440 of the 3660 viruses that were sampled in this study. Two additional ssDNA archaeoviruses were added from the literature (129, 130). Numbers on bars indicate the total virus count in each host group. (B) Venn diagram shows the distribution of 715 (of 716) FSFs that were detected in archaeoviruses, bacterioviruses, and eukaryoviruses. Host information on the Circovirus-like genome RW_B virus ...
Hepatitis C I. What every physician needs to know. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), previously called non-A, non-B hepatitis is a single stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviradae family that was first described in 1989. HCV is only known to infect humans and chimps, though it can also be grown in cell culture (replicon system). Variations…. ...
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The Fair Labor Standards Act defines the workweek as a fixed and recurring period of 168 hours comprised of seven consecutive 24-hour periods that do not need t
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Overexpression of the HER2/neu gene in breast cancer is associated with an increased incidence of metastatic disease and with a poor prognosis. Although passive immunotherapy with the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) has shown some effect, a vaccine capable of inducing T-cell and humoral immunity could be more effective. Virus-like replicon particles (VRP) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus containing the gene for HER2/neu (VRP-neu) were tested by an active immunotherapeutic approach in tumor prevention models and in a metastasis prevention model. VRP-neu prevented or significantly inhibited the growth of HER2/neu-expressing murine breast cancer cells injected either into mammary tissue or intravenously. Vaccination with VRP-neu completely prevented tumor formation in and death of MMTV-c-neu transgenic mice, and resulted in high levels of neu-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and serum IgG. On the basis of these findings, clinical testing of this vaccine in patients with HER2/neu +
We developed a Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) reporter replicon of West Nile virus (WNV) and used it to quantify viral translation and RNA replication. The advantage of the Gluc replicon is that Gaussia luciferase is secreted into the culture medium from cells transfected with Gluc replicon RNA, and the medium can be assayed directly for luciferase activity. Using a known Flavivirus inhibitor (NITD008), we demonstrated that the Gluc-WNV replicon could be used for antiviral screening. The Gluc-WNV-Rep will be useful for research in antiviral drug development programs, as well as for studying viral replication and pathogenesis of WNV.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Dorothee A Vogt, Grégory Camus, Eva Herker, Brian R Webster, Chia-Lin Tsou, Warner C Greene, Tien-Sze Benedict Yen, Melanie Ott].
Rhizobium spp. are found in soil. They are both free-living and found symbiotically associated with the nodules of leguminous plants. Traditionally, studies have focused on the association of these organisms with plants in nitrogen-fixing nodules, since this is regarded as the most important role of these bacteria in the environment. Rhizobium sp. are known to possess several replicons. Some, like the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid p42d and the plasmid pNGR234b of Rhizobium NGR234, have been sequenced and characterized. The plasmids from these organisms are the focus of this short review.. ...
Background & Aims Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an antioxidant defense and key cytoprotective enzyme, which is repressed by Bach1. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is specifically expressed and highly abundant in human liver and required for replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. This study was to assess whether a specific miR-122 antagomir down-regulates HCV protein replication and up-regulates HO-1. Methods We transfected antagomir of miR-122, 2′-O-methyl-mimic miR-122, or non-specific-control antagomir (NSCA) into wild type Huh-7 cells or Huh-7 stably replicating HCV subgenomic core-NS3 (CNS3 replicon cells), or NS3-5B (9-13 replicon cells). Results Antagomir of miR-122 reduced the abundance of HCV-RNA by 64% in CNS3, and by 84% in 9-13 cells. In contrast, transfection with 2′-O-methlyl-mimic miR-122 increased HCV levels up to 2.5-fold; transfection with NSCA did not change the level of HCV. Antagomir of miR-122 also decreased Bach1 and increased HO-1 mRNA levels in CNS3, 9-13, and WT
According to the IncF replicon sequence typing (RST) scheme, which demonstrates a higher discriminatory power than PBRT (13), blaCTX-M-15-carrying plasmids pCA14 and pCA28 are assigned to FII, FIA, FIB (FAB) formula F31:A4:B1, whereas the blaCTX-M-14-carrying plasmid pCA08 is assigned to F2:A2:B20. These findings are consistent with the BLAST analysis, which indicates that pCA14 is closely related to pCA28, with 99% to 100% identity and 92% coverage, including the conserved backbone region and MRRs. pCA14 shares all backbone genes with pCA28, including genes for replication, plasmid maintenance, and conjugal transfer, as well as modules associated with virulence and biochemical pathways. A total of 20 nucleotide differences are observed between their backbone regions. A one-nucleotide difference and a two-nucleotide difference are found in the genes traE and iucC, respectively, with the remainder observed in genes of hypothetical proteins or intergenic regions. In addition, pCA14 shares all ...
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Journal Article: Depeptidization efforts on P[subscript 3]-P[prime subscript 2] [alpha]-ketoamide inhibitors of HCV NS3-4A serine protease: Effect on HCV replicon activity ...
2010 and Mondal et al., 2009). In 2005, an HCV gt2 infectious clone was described supporting the production of infectious HCV particles in cell culture (HCVcc), enabling for the first time the investigation of the full viral life cycle (Lindenbach et al., 2005, Wakita et al., 2005 and Zhong et al., 2005). An infectious cell culture system for full length HCV gt1 was reported which is the most prevalent genotype worldwide (Li et al., 2012 and Yi et al., 2006), however, screening involving cell-culture adapted HCV have only been performed for gt2 and gt1/2 chimeric viruses (Chockalingam et al., 2010,. Gastaminza et al., 2010, Gentzsch et al., 2011 and Wichroski et al., 2012). SB203580 cell line In this context, by combining the gt1 replicon with the infectious HCV gt2 cell. culture system our goal was to develop a high-throughput phenotypic assay to identify cross-genotype antivirals with a novel selleck chemicals llc mechanism of action. Our devised strategy allows multiparameter data acquisition ...
Survival of the fittest: Self-assemblies made of dynamic block copolymers (dynablocks) can self-replicate by catalyzing the formation of their own building blocks. Moreover, in competition experiments, the differential thermodynamic stabilities and autocatalytic efficiencies of these self-assemblies lead to sigmoid growth of the most efficient self-replicator and to depletion of its competitors. ...
Objections to the Proposal. A few limitations of nanoscale engineering are mentioned in the report, but these apply to different proposals than the current one. For example, Section 3D states that if the technology to create self-replicating nanobots were to be physically possible, which many doubted, it would not be available until the distant future, perhaps 2080 at least. It is certainly true that a fully self-replicating grey goo nanobot would be quite difficult to design. However, general-purpose manufacturing in a limited domain based on carbon-lattice chemistry from special chemical feedstock may be significantly easier to achieve. Section 4E asserts, There is an enormous difference between controlling the physical properties of a single nanostructure in isolation and manufacturing a material whose properties are those of the individual nanostructures. This was stated in the context of optical structures. Mechanical properties are more closely tied to physical structure than optical ...
An astrophysicist thinks Earth may have been visited by alien self-replicating Von Neumann nanoprobes that can only be seen in massive clouds as they create luminous emissions.
Official profile of Olympic athlete Elania NARDELLI (born 07 Jul 1987), including games, medals, results, photos, videos and news.
... replicon GT1b, EC50 = 1.6 nM). Danoprevir has been evaluated in an open-label, single arm clinical trial in combination with ...
This second mechanism varies depending on the replicon. Some replicons such as the virus ΦX174 contain a second active tyrosine ... Many small replicons that have circular genomes such as circular ssDNA viruses and circular plasmids replicate via rolling ... are initiated and terminated by site-specific single-strand nicks made by a replicon-encoded endonuclease, variously called the ...
... s are small (~4kb) circular replicons. They occur naturally in some eukaryotic organelle genomes. In the mitochondria ...
https://www.replicon.com/regulation/south-korea/ Har, Janie (2013). "Is paid maternity leave really the standard around the ...
"Hepatitis C replicon system and drug development - The Lasker Foundation". The Lasker Foundation. Vere Hodge, R. Anthony, ed. ( ...
Geminivurses and Their Uses as Extrachromosomal Replicons. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 45:79-112. Fargette, D. ...
Balsiger, S; Ragaz C; Baron C; Narberhaus F (2004). "Replicon-Specific Regulation of Small Heat Shock Genes in Agrobacterium ...
Balsiger S, Ragaz C, Baron C, Narberhaus F (2004). "Replicon-specific regulation of small heat shock genes in Agrobacterium ...
Each cluster's replicons are similar in length, but individual clusters have replicons of varying length. These replicons all ... However, in animal cells, replication origins gather into bundles called replicon clusters. ...
A fundamental feature of the replicon hypothesis is that it relies on positive regulation to control DNA replication onset, ... By contrast, a model of negative regulation (analogous to the replicon-operator model for transcription) fails to explain the ... More than five decades ago, Jacob, Brenner, and Cuzin proposed the replicon hypothesis to explain the regulation of chromosomal ... Aladjem MI, Fanning E (July 2004). "The replicon revisited: an old model learns new tricks in metazoan chromosomes". EMBO ...
"Replication of subgenomic hepatitis C virus replicons in mouse fibroblasts is facilitated by deletion of interferon regulatory ... "Utilizing liver-specific microRNA-122 to modulate replication of dengue virus replicon". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 396 (3): ...
"Snapshot of a Large Dynamic Replicon in a Halophilic Archaeon: Megaplasmid or Minichromosome?". Genome Research. 8 (11): 1131- ...
One such "mini-replicon" is the plasmid PFF1, which is 5873 basepairs long. PFF1 consists of an origin of replication, oriV, an ... "Construction and use of a versatile set of broad-host-range cloning and expression vectors based on the RK2 replicon", Appl. ... "The RK2 replicon", http://vectronbiosolutions.com/info.php?id=14 Meyer, et al.: "Molecular vehicle properties of the broad host ...
The self-replicating unit, in this case, the plasmid, is called a replicon. A typical bacterial replicon may consist of a ... Plasmids are considered replicons, units of DNA capable of replicating autonomously within a suitable host. However, plasmids, ...
Cohen, Gerald; Etti Or; Wolfgang Minas; Nat L. Sternberg (1996-10-10). "The bacteriophage P 1 lytic replicon: directionality of ... "A novel role for site-specific recombination in maintenance of bacterial replicons". Cell. 25 (3): 729-736. doi:10.1016/0092- ...
This seems to be true for the HCV replicon, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis LCMV, and polyomavirus ADAR1 is known to be proviral ... "New antiviral pathway that mediates hepatitis C virus replicon interferon sensitivity through ADAR1". Journal of Virology. 79 ( ...
The replicon containing the vir genes became known as the vir helper plasmid. The vir helper plasmid is considered disarmed if ... Systems in which T-DNA and vir genes are located on separate replicons are called T-DNA binary systems. T-DNA is located on the ... "Small high-yielding binary Ti vectors pLSU with co-directional replicons for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation ...
"2016 Lasker~DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award: Hepatitis C replicon system and drug development". The Lasker Foundation. ...
Spiers, AJ; Bergquist, PL (December 1992). "Expression and regulation of the RepA protein of the RepFIB replicon from plasmid ...
Yang et al., "Characterization of the mobilization determinants of pAN12, a small replicon from Rhodococcus erythropolis AN12 ...
The genome contains three replicons: a chromosome (~3.7 megabases), a chromid (pSymB; ~1.7 megabases), and a plasmid (pSymA; ~ ... DiCenzo, George; Wellappili, Deelaka; Brian Golding, G; Finan, Turlough (2018-03-21). "Inter-replicon Gene Flow Contributes to ...
Replicon - A blue-skinned shapeshifter who turns parts of his body into automatic weapons. [1] Grenader - Basically a giant, ...
30, 2007). Yang et al., Characterization of the mobilization determinants of pAN12, a small replicon from Rhodococcus ...
"Alphavirus replicon-based adjuvants enhance the immunogenicity and effectiveness of Fluzone® in rhesus macaques". Vaccine. 29 ( ...
"Repression and derepression of minus-strand synthesis in a plus-strand RNA virus replicon". Journal of Virology. 78 (14): 7619- ...
... and Application of the Replicon Region of the Halophilic Temperate Sphaerolipovirus SNJ1". Journal of Bacteriology. 198 (14): ...
M14 - insight into the heavy metal resistome of sinorhizobial extrachromosomal replicons". FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 93 (1): ...
"Assembly of viroplasm and virus-like particles of rotavirus by a Semliki Forest virus replicon". Virology. 242 (2): 255-65. doi ...
However, there is a second P1 replicon- called the P1 lytic replicon- that is controlled by an inducible promoter. This ... BAC vectors contain a replicon derived from E. coli F factor, which ensures they are maintained at one copy per cell. Once an ... P1 vectors also contain a P1 plasmid replicon, which ensures only one copy of the vector is present in a cell. ... they contain a plasmid and a lytic replicon as described above. Unlike P1 vectors, they do not need to be packaged into ...
Nanbo, Asuka; Arthur Sugden; Bill Sugden (2007). "The coupling of synthesis and partitioning of EBV's plasmid replicon is ...
Replicon may refer to: Replicon (genetics), a region of DNA or RNA that replicates from a single origin of replication Replicon ... company providinand expense management software This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Replicon. If ...
Replicon also offers a cloud-based time clock solution called "CloudClock". Replicon TimeBill and TimeCost allow users to track ... Replicon (March 18, 2002). "TimeBill". Retrieved May 1, 2009. Replicon (March 18, 2002). "TimeCost". Retrieved May 1, 2009. ... Replicon (March 18, 2002). "TimeAttend". Retrieved May 1, 2009. Replicon (March 18, 2002). "TimeOff". Retrieved May 1, 2009. ... Replicon (March 18, 2002). "WebExpense". Retrieved May 1, 2009. Replicon (March 18, 2002). "CloudClock". Retrieved May 1, 2009 ...
Three Replicons of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234 Harbor Symbiotic Gene Sequences Margarita Flores, Patrick Mavingui, Lourdes ... Replication Mechanism and Sequence Analysis of the Replicon of pAW63, a Conjugative Plasmid from Bacillus thuringiensis Andrea ...
I consider a viroid-like entity actually a very good candidate for the first replicon that may have populated Earth at the ... and that a viroid-like entity is a prime candidate for the first replicon on Earth. Viroids are subviral world parasites, non- ...
The Fair Labor Standards Act defines the workweek as a fixed and recurring period of 168 hours comprised of seven consecutive 24-hour periods that do not need t
Administration of replicon RNA vectors has resulted in strong immune responses and generation of neutralizing antibodies in ... Replicon RNA vectors have also been subjected to clinical trials. Overall, immunization with self-replicating RNA viruses ... Moreover, recombinant particles and replicon RNAs have been encapsulated by liposomes to improve delivery and targeting. ... Administration of replicon RNA vectors has resulted in strong immune responses and generation of neutralizing antibodies in ...
Review of Replicon TimeAttend Software: system overview, features, price and cost information. Get free demos and compare to ... Replicon Customer Support Services offered to give me a free consultation in order to make my use of Replicon more productive. ... Replicon also provided us a brief "trial" that permitted me to test it to see firsthand the ease of use, how easy it was to ... We use the Replicon system to record all time spent by most members of the company. It has a web interface and everyone in the ...
FreshBooks vs Replicon TimeBill - See how these Accounting software products stack up against each other with real user reviews ... FreshBooks vs Replicon TimeBill FreshBooks vs Replicon TimeBill. FreshBooks has 3372 reviews and a rating of 4.46 / 5 vs ... Replicon TimeBill which has 547 reviews and a rating of 4.56 / 5. Compare the similarities and differences between software ...
Psychiatry related information on Replicon. *The high permissiveness of the cured cells for the replicon was abolished by ... Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Replicon. *Using a selectable subgenomic HCV replicon cell culture system, we ... RNA replicons derived from poliovirus are directly oncolytic for human tumor cells of diverse origins. Ansardi, D.C., Porter, D ... Encapsidation of poliovirus replicons encoding the complete human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene by using a ...
Discover the different ways our customers have benefited from using Replicon. "Replicon sees optimizing time as a core pillar ... "Replicons solution was easy to understand so there was no need to re-educate staff or disrupt time entry by employees." ... I consent to Replicon, its affiliates and service providers processing my personal data for these purposes and as described in ... "Time tracking with Replicon helps us budget effectively for new projects, which helps us be more profitable." ...
Creation and characterisation of a high-copy-number version of the pAL5000 mycobacterial replicon.. Bourn WR1, Jansen Y, Stutz ... Using this method we have selected a copy-up version of the pAL5000 replicon. In Mycobacterium smegmatis the copy-number was ... The majority of mycobacterial plasmid vectors are derived from the pAL5000 replicon and maintained at approximately five copies ...
But it doesnt mean that your genome doesnt have these replicons,. it still has this replicons because the percent identity is ... Plasmid replicon identification and plasmid typing. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a ... identity, meaning that every alignment between the replicons and. the sequence of your genome, they are identical in every ... Today, Im going to be presenting you plasmid replicon identification,. and plasmid typing, PlasmidFinder and pMLST tools ...
COG Distribution Among Replicons.. To make a functional distinction among R. etli replicons, we classified protein-coding genes ... Cointegration of replicons have been shown to occur in S. meliloti, but cointegrates are unstable and revert to the original ... Most of the orthologs found in the R. etli plasmids are shared with the accessory replicons pSymA and pSymB of S. meliloti, the ... Functional Relationships Among Replicons.. We used nebulon (24), a recently described method based on operon rearrangements and ...
Here, we discuss an extended software implementation ofthe mechnaistic model: Replicon. This package allows interested ... Here, we discuss an extended software implementation of the mechnaistic model: Replicon. This package allows interested ... Replicon is written in C++ and supports multi-threading. In our simulations, Replicon was executed on a moderately sized SGE- ... Figure 1. Replicon algorithm flowchart. Replicon predicts DNA replication timing by simulating cell-cycles in an asynchronous ...
Telomere Exchange between Linear Replicons of Borrelia burgdorferi. Wai Mun Huang, Margaret Robertson, John Aron, Sherwood ... Telomere Exchange between Linear Replicons of Borrelia burgdorferi. Wai Mun Huang, Margaret Robertson, John Aron, Sherwood ... Telomere Exchange between Linear Replicons of Borrelia burgdorferi. Wai Mun Huang, Margaret Robertson, John Aron, Sherwood ... Telomere Exchange between Linear Replicons of Borrelia burgdorferi Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Molecular characterization of Bifidobacterium longum biovar longum NAL8 plasmids and construction of a novel replicon screening ... for avoiding possible interference by other functional replication modules on the vector and for screening functional replicons ...
This subgenomic replicon could replicate without common amino acid mutations; however, some of the mutations found in the ... The genotype 2a subgenomic replicon was established in Huh7 cells and replicated efficiently with or without G418 selection. ... The JFH-1 replicon RNA was transmissible to naive Huh7 cells by transfection of cellular RNA from cells containing the replicon ... Efficient Replication of the Genotype 2a Hepatitis C Virus Subgenomic Replicon Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec;125(6):1808-17. doi: ...
We show that Hin-mediated DNA knotting and recombination (i) promote replicon loss by blocking DNA replication; (ii) block gene ... Hin-mediated DNA knotting and recombining promote replicon dysfunction and mutation. BMC Molecular Biology 8: 44. ...
Advances in Genomic Research on Hepatitis C Virus with a Useful Tool, Replicon System * * NAKAMURA Mitsuyasu ... Subgenomic replicon derived from a cell line infected with the hepatitis C virus KISHINE H ... Identification of the hepatitis C virus RNA replication complex in Huh-7 cells harboring subgenomic replicons GOSERT R ... Since the development of replicon system, a replication system of subgenomic HCV RNAs in a hepatoma cell line, has been ...
... of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae was achieved with novel cloning vectors consisting of a mini-replicon from ... On the basis of the pGA1 mini-replicon, an expression vector system was established for C. diphtheriae by means of the P tac ... In addition, other commonly used vector systems from C. glutamicum, including the pBL1 and pHM1519 replicons, and the sacB ... Efficient Electrotransformation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae with a Mini-Replicon Derived from the Corynebacterium glutamicum ...
Several classes of replicons could thus be characterized, and chromosomes, plasmids and SERs differentiated. This sets the ... Here we investigate the relationships of these secondary essential replicons (SERs) to classical chromosomes and plasmids based ... chromosome and one or several additional and essential replicons adapted to the cell cycle. Depending on the authors, these ... and perform a global comparative genomic analysis for all bacterial replicons available from public databases. ...
Polymerase chain reaction-based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the ... Therefore, the A/C-replicon from the US plasmids may represent a new replicon variant, which we designated repA/C2 (DNA ... The sequence of these replicons showed the same 26 characteristic nucleotide substitutions of the A/C2-replicon identified in ... The PCR-based replicon typing method assigned the A/C and I1 replicons to type A and type B plasmids, respectively (Table), ...
Plasmid replicons of Rhizobium. L.C. Crossman. Biochemical Society Transactions Feb 01, 2005, 33 (1) 157-158; DOI: 10.1042/ ... are known to possess several replicons. Some, like the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid p42d and the plasmid pNGR234b of ...
Characterization of the minimal replicon.The minimal replicon for the chromid was characterized by testing the ability of the ... Evolutionary Trajectory of the Replication Mode of Bacterial Replicons. Bin-Bin Xie, Jin-Cheng Rong, Bai-Lu Tang, Sishuo Wang, ... Evolutionary Trajectory of the Replication Mode of Bacterial Replicons. Bin-Bin Xie, Jin-Cheng Rong, Bai-Lu Tang, Sishuo Wang, ... replication directions were predicted for 16,103 large replicons (,200 kb) out of the total 26,371 replicons from 13,550 ...
Antiviral activity against Hepatitis C virus subtype 1b by cell based replicon assay. ...
The WN replicon construct Replicon, with a deletion of greater than 92% of the structural region, was described previously (33 ... Packaging of WN and dengue virus replicons.. To examine whether tetKUNCprME cells can be used to package replicon RNAs derived ... The ∼100-fold-lower packaging efficiency of DEN2 replicon RNAs compared to that of KUN replicon RNA could be attributed to a ... Packaging of WN and dengue virus replicons.. *Immunization with higher doses of KUN replicon VLPs prepared in tetKUNCprME cells ...
Acetylation of E2 by P300 Mediates Topoisomerase Entry at the Papillomavirus Replicon. Yanique Thomas, Elliot J. Androphy ... Acetylation of E2 by P300 Mediates Topoisomerase Entry at the Papillomavirus Replicon ... Acetylation of E2 by P300 Mediates Topoisomerase Entry at the Papillomavirus Replicon ... Acetylation of E2 by P300 Mediates Topoisomerase Entry at the Papillomavirus Replicon ...
To reduce the size of the vector, the minimal replicon of pKW2124 was determined. The pKW2124 plasmid contains a putative ... To conduct the minimal replicon experiment, four different PCR products (MR1, ori+RBS+repA; MR2, RBS+repA; MR2, repA; MR3, ... To conduct the minimal replicon experiment, three different PCR products (MR1, ori + RBS + repA; MR2, RBS + repA; MR2, repA; ... To reduce the size of the vector, the minimal replicon of pKW2124 was determined. The pKW2124 plasmid contains a putative ...
SH2 modified STAT1 induces HLA-I expression and improves IFN-γ signaling in IFN-α resistant HCV replicon cells.. [Bret Poat, ... Furthermore, the resistant replicon cells transfected with STAT1-CC constructs significantly up regulated surface HLA-1 ... Characterization of these IFN-α resistant replicon cells showed defects in the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of ... failed to activate GAS promoter in the replicon cells. Intracellular expression of STAT1-CC protein showed phosphorylation and ...
  • all replicon sequences identified in 559 fully sequenced plasmids. (coursera.org)
  • Plasmids do not show synteny, and their orthologs are mostly shared by accessory replicons of species with multipartite genomes. (pnas.org)
  • Despite the structural partition of the R. etli genome, we infer functional relationships among replicons, indicating that plasmids are not completely dispensable elements. (pnas.org)
  • Molecular characterization of Bifidobacterium longum biovar longum NAL8 plasmids and construction of a novel replicon screening system. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, we developed a system suitable for avoiding possible interference by other functional replication modules on the vector and for screening functional replicons from wild-type plasmids. (nih.gov)
  • Here we investigate the relationships of these secondary essential replicons (SERs) to classical chromosomes and plasmids based on the key processes involved in the maintenance of genomes and replicons, i.e., their replication, partition and segregation, and perform a global comparative genomic analysis for all bacterial replicons available from public databases. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Several classes of replicons could thus be characterized, and chromosomes, plasmids and SERs differentiated. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Polymerase chain reaction-based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the evolution of resistance plasmids. (cdc.gov)
  • Our objective of understanding the relationship among resistance plasmids prompted us to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based replicon typing method ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • PCR-based replicon typing was applied to type the resistance plasmids carried by 26 Escherichia coli transconjugants or transformants obtained from epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae associated with community- or hospital-acquired infections in the United States or southern Europe (Italy and Greece). (cdc.gov)
  • A basic replicon of virulence-associated plasmids of Shigella spp. (asm.org)
  • and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli is homologous with a basic replicon in plasmids of IncF groups. (asm.org)
  • RepFIC of P307, in turn, is very similar to RepFIIA replicons of IncFII R plasmids. (asm.org)
  • We utilized the pCR2 replicon of Corynebacterium renale , which harbours multiple plasmids, for constructing a range of expression vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The alpha replicons of the multi-replicon plasmids pGSH500 and pLV1402 have been characterized by DNA sequence analysis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Comparative analysis of DNA and protein sequences from members of the RepFIIA family provides evidence supporting the roles of both non-selective divergence in co-integrate (multi-replicon) plasmids and Chi-mediated-recombination in replicon evolution, and in particular, that such processes may have been widespread in the evolution of the RepFIIA family. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The molecular identification and classification of plasmids by PCR is currently possible and it is based on the detection of plasmid replication controls (replicons), namely the portion of large, naturally occurring plasmids encoding the replicase gene (rep) and cis-acting regulatory elements, controlling plasmid DNA replication and copy number. (diatheva.com)
  • All three plasmids belong to the repA1 family of Buchnera plasmids, which is characterized by the presence of a repA1-replicon responsible for replication initiation. (mediu.edu.my)
  • Plasmids and bacteriophages are usually replicated as single replicons , but large plasmids in Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to carry several replicons. (golifescience.com)
  • It's the plasmid replicon directly from whole genome sequencing data. (coursera.org)
  • The PFGE profile of the intact (undigested) DNA of the type A6 isolates exhibited a unique genome structure consisting of 3 large replicons ( Figure ). (cdc.gov)
  • A DNA replicon vector, pmSAV3, based upon a pVAX1 backbone and the SAV3 genome was constructed, and the SAV3 non-structural proteins were used to express a reporter gene controlled by the SAV3 subgenomic promoter. (uib.no)
  • A Renilla luciferase gene was engineered into the replicon or into the full-length viral genome to monitor viral replication. (asm.org)
  • A) WNV genome and a reporting replicon. (asm.org)
  • Three extrachromosomal replicons designated lcp1 (65,732 bp), lcp2 (56,757 bp), and lcp3 (54,986 bp) in the L. interrogans serovar Linhai strain 56609 were identified through whole genome sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • a) HCV genome and HCV subgenomic replicon constructs used in this study. (nih.gov)
  • NSR particles can be produced by transfection of replicon cells, which stably maintain replicating RVFV S and L genome segments, with an expression plasmid encoding the RVFV glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, normally encoded by the M-genome segment. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Self-replicating RNAs (replicons), with or without reporter gene sequences, derived from the genome of the Paderborn strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) have been produced. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Thus, these replicons provide a system for determining specific regions of the CSFV genome required for genome replication without the constraints of maintaining infectivity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The ability to select for cells replicating the neo-expressing replicon RNA led to the discovery that efficient replication of most HCV replicons in cell culture requires adaptive mutations in the viral genome [ 9 - 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we show that anti-NS3 scFvs suppress HCV RNA replication when expressed intracellularly in Huh7 hepatoma cells bearing either subgenomic or genome-length HCV RNA replicons. (elsevier.com)
  • A guaranteeing VEE-based adjuvant can be VEE replicon contaminants (VRP) [10C12], which are made up of the wildtype VEE capsid and package encapsulating a truncated VEE genome coding just the nonstructural proteins series [13]. (acancerjourney.info)
  • The CCGE502 genome comprises one chromosome and two extrachromosomal replicons (ERs), pRgrCCGE502a and pRgrCCGE502b. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Administration of replicon RNA vectors has resulted in strong immune responses and generation of neutralizing antibodies in various animal models. (mdpi.com)
  • Replicon RNA vectors have also been subjected to clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • The majority of mycobacterial plasmid vectors are derived from the pAL5000 replicon and maintained at approximately five copies per cell. (nih.gov)
  • Efficient transformation of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae was achieved with novel cloning vectors consisting of a mini-replicon from the cryptic C. glutamicum plasmid pGA1 as well as of the aph(3′)-IIa or tetA( Z ) antibiotic resistance genes. (springer.com)
  • We have previously developed replicon vectors derived from the Australian flavivirus Kunjin that have a unique noncytopathic nature and have been shown to direct prolonged high-level expression of encoded heterologous genes in vitro and in vivo and to induce strong and long-lasting immune responses to encoded immunogens in mice. (asm.org)
  • Subgenomic replicon vectors of positive-strand RNA viruses offer great potential as gene expression vectors and for development of vaccines ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • KUN replicons have been extensively used as vectors for expression of heterologous genes in vitro and in vivo and for the development of vaccines ( 1 , 9 , 14 , 16 , 36 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. (unl.edu)
  • Incorporation of alphavirus replicons into plasmid DNA vectors to direct the amplification of RNA expressing the gene of interest has been an exciting approach toward improving DNA vaccination ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus, alphavirus plasmid replicons may offer both quantitative and qualitative advantages compared with conventional plasmid vectors. (asm.org)
  • The vectors constructed with the rep genes of the three replicons successfully transformed into saprophytic and pathogenic Leptospira species alike, but this was partly dependent on genetic compatibility between the rep sequences of both plasmid and host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have constructed a series of expression vectors based on the pCR2 replicon and demonstrated its high stability and sustained expression capacity, in the absence of selection pressure which will make it an efficient tool for metabolic engineering and co-expression studies, as well as for scale up of expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of these genes was perturbed with siRNAs and with overexpression vectors in HCV replicon cells, and the effect on HCV replication and translation was assessed. (nih.gov)
  • This distinction has been blurred in recent years by the characterization of multipartite genomes constituted of a primary "standard" chromosome and one or several additional and essential replicons adapted to the cell cycle. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Characterization of these IFN-α resistant replicon cells showed defects in the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2 proteins due to a defective Jak-STAT pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We report the characterization of recent isolates of V. cholerae O1 from Thailand that carry a novel gigantic replicon (Rep.3) in addition to Ch1 and Ch2. (cdc.gov)
  • Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the cryptic Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid pGI3 reveal a new family of rolling circle replicons. (ugent.be)
  • Characterization of an autonomous subgenomic pestivirus RNA replicon. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The PBRT 2.0 system is a PCR-based assay that allows fast and easy plasmid characterization and molecular identification through replicons detection. (diatheva.com)
  • Construction and characterization of the MERS-CoV replicon. (cdc.gov)
  • The development of a subgenomic replicon system, encoding only the viral non-structural proteins required for RNA replication, allows the study of replication of the virus, without the release of infectious particles and the necessary containment facilities required for this work. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Replicon particles that express bovine viral diarrhea virus sub-genotype 1b E2 glycoprotein were generated and expression was confirmed in vitro using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to E2. (unl.edu)
  • Mutations were introduced into the NS3 helicase region of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) Con1 subgenomic replicon to ascertain the role of the helicase in viral replication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we compare three cell-based HTS assays for West Nile virus (WNV) drug discovery: (i) an assay that uses a cell line harboring a persistently replicating subgenomic replicon (containing a deletion of viral structural genes), (ii) an assay that uses packaged virus-like particles containing replicon RNA, and (iii) an assay that uses a full-length reporting virus. (asm.org)
  • I amplified a viral gene by PCR and cloned it into a Sindbis virus replicon plasmid vector.The vector has a human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) immediate-early promoter/enhancer element. (biotechniques.com)
  • Inclusion of the viral E2 coding region within the replicon was advantageous for replication efficiency. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Viral RNA replication efficiency in mouse cells was comparable to that observed in human Huh-7 replicon cells, with negative-strand HCV RNA and the viral NS5A protein being readily detected by Northern and Western Blot analysis, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably however, HCV replicons based on engineered viral genomes into which the antibiotic resistant marker neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) has been inserted [ 8 ](Fig. 1A ) provide a means of experimentally by-passing viral entry and actively selecting for HCV replication after transfection of RNA into cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The adaptation of hepatitis C replicons to cell culture, which greatly increased their replication capacity, and the subsequent identification of viral point mutations responsible for this adaptation are prime examples of the type of phenotype-genotype connection that viral RNA sequencing methods can provide. (scripps.edu)
  • More recently, researchers have used similar sequencing methods to identify changes in replicons that represent viral adaptation to engineered mutations, adaptation to a variety of host cells, and viral evasion of antiviral compound susceptibility. (scripps.edu)
  • Despite the genetic alterations introduced, reporter replicons have been shown to be reliable systems for screening and identification of viral replication inhibitors and, therefore, an important tool for the discovery of new DAAs. (cdc.gov)
  • Schematic representation of a viral infection ( a ) compared to the transfection of cells with subgenomic RNA replicon systems ( b ). (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, recombinant particles and replicon RNAs have been encapsulated by liposomes to improve delivery and targeting. (mdpi.com)
  • Sequencing of cloned replicon RNAs revealed that all but 1 had at least 1 nonsynonymous mutation. (nih.gov)
  • Since the development of replicon system, a replication system of subgenomic HCV RNAs in a hepatoma cell line, has been reported, many virological and clinical findings have been discovered. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The differences were small, but apparently were sufficient to affect the target specificity of the inc RNAs, thus rendering the replicons compatible with each other. (asm.org)
  • and (4) Huh-7 cells transiently transfected with pFK-I389neo/NS3-3'/5.1 or pFK-I389neo/NS3-3'/Δ5B replicon RNAs and treated with 25-HC as indicated in Fig. 2b. (nih.gov)
  • The translation and replication of the replicon RNAs could be followed by the accumulation of luciferase (from Renilla reniformis or Gaussia princeps ) protein expression (where appropriate), as well as by detection of CSFV NS3 protein production within the cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be utilized in a standard prime/boost vaccination strategy in calves against a commercially significant bovine pathogen. (unl.edu)
  • Alphavirus-derived replicon particle (RP) vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and safety in a wide range of disease and animal models. (iastate.edu)
  • Development of an Alphavirus Replicon Classical Swine Fever Virus Vacc" by J. Dustin Loy, Mark Mogler et al. (iastate.edu)
  • Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein was expressed in an alphavirus based replicon expression system. (iastate.edu)
  • Keywords: Adjuvant, dendritic cell, replicon, alphavirus Intro Vaccines possess been effective at restricting and actually eliminating many illnesses enormously, however methods that had been effectively utilized to develop existing vaccines possess frequently been insufficient to induce protecting defenses with fresh vaccine applicants. (acancerjourney.info)
  • and (iv) the relative ease of constructing replicon-based vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Replicon particle vaccines administered in a prime/boost regimen expressing BVDV E2 glycoprotein can induce cross-neutralizing titers, reduce leukopenia post challenge, and mitigate clinical disease in calves. (unl.edu)
  • San Diego, CA - Jan. 5, 2017 - Synthetic Genomics, Inc., announced today that it has entered a research and licensing option agreement with Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V., part of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, to apply Synthetic Genomics' proprietary replicon RNA technology toward the design and development of novel RNA-based medicines for specific infectious diseases. (syntheticgenomics.com)
  • In this position you are the designated expert in Replicon Particle (RP) technology and will provide end-to-end support of manufacturing science and technology for both commercial products and pipeline vaccines with a global scope. (isupark.org)
  • Properly administered, dengue virus replicons expressing HIV epitopes might thus serve as dual vaccines, conferring protection against dengue virus as well as HIV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replicon-particle-based vaccines combine the efficacy of live-attenuated vaccines with the safety of inactivated or subunit vaccines. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon requires an active NS3 RNA helicase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing " by John Dustin Loy, Jill Gander et al. (unl.edu)
  • Vaccine-induced NS3/4A(gt2a)-specific T cells protected against HCV replicon tumours in wild-type, but not in HCV NS3/4A(gt1a)-transgenic mice with dysfunctional HCV-specific T cells. (bmj.com)
  • Classical swine fever virus replicon particles lacking the E rns gene: a potential marker vaccine for intradermal application. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We previously constructed the first flavivirus replicons based on KUN cDNA by deleting the majority of the genomic region encoding structural genes and retaining only the first 20 codons of the C gene and the last 22 codons of the E gene ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Fewer genes were observed to be upregulated (22) in the presence of 25-HC and 5 genes were uniquely upregulated in the HCV replicon bearing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of Huh-7 cells bearing HCV replicons with 25-HC leads to the downregulation of many key genes involved in the mevalonate pathway leading to an antiviral state within the host cell. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, dysregulation of a larger subset of genes not directly related to the mevalonate pathway occurs both in 25-HC-treated HCV replicon harbouring cells as well as during the initial rise in viremia in infected chimpanzees. (nih.gov)
  • Previously we reported the successful construction of dengue virus replicons which lack structural genes necessary for virion release and spreading infection in culture but which can replicate intracellularly and abundantly produce dengue non-structural proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We cloned into a Δpre-M/E dengue virus replicon genes for either green fluorescent protein (GFP), HIV gp160 or HIV gp120 and tested the ability of these constructs to express dengue virus proteins as well as the heterologous proteins in tissue culture after transfection of replicon RNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oligonucleotide primers homologous to consensus regions in the copB and repA genes, and the oriR regions from a number of IncFII-related replicons were used to amplify replication regions from pLV1402. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, this need not be the case: the replicon for amplified chorion genes in silkmoths has an origin close to, but separable from, the replicator. (golifescience.com)
  • Here, we describe the cloning and isolation of HCV replicon-bearing cells, the extraction of total RNA, the generation of cDNA, and the amplification of specific HCV replicon sequences for sequence analysis. (scripps.edu)
  • The expression of intrabodies directed against NS3 inhibited the autonomous amplification of HCV replicons resistant to small-molecule inhibitors of the NS3/4A protease, and replicons derived from different HCV genotypes. (elsevier.com)
  • Withdrawal of tetracycline from the medium resulted in production of Kunjin structural proteins that were capable of packaging transfected and self-amplified Kunjin replicon RNA into the secreted VLPs at titers of up to 1.6 × 10 9 VLPs per ml. (asm.org)
  • Our replicon RNA platform is designed to enable controlled expression of antigens and therapeutic proteins to elicit effective immune response against diseases that have historically been difficult to treat or prevent," said Oliver Fetzer, Ph.D., chief executive officer of Synthetic Genomics. (syntheticgenomics.com)
  • Gp160 expressing replicons were found to express proteins abundantly at 36 hours post transfection, but after 50 hrs of transfection, few replicon positive cells could be found despite the presence of cellular debris positive for replicon proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Flavivirus replicons can replicate inside cells and achieve prolonged expression of high levels of virally encoded proteins with minimal toxicity [ 11 , 12 ] and are unable to recombine or mutate to produce infectious HIV particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, by eliciting an immune reaction against the dengue non-structural proteins remaining in replicons, dengue virus replicons may induce a protective immunity against dengue which would not predispose vaccinated individuals to DHF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data show that the VSV replicon vector can induce immune responses to heterologous proteins in pigs, but that the PRRSV envelope proteins expressed from VSV VRP are poorly immunogenic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After in vitro transcription, the corresponding RNA can be transfected into cells to give rise to a replicon that is self-replicative and can express the non-structural virus proteins but is unable to produce infectious particles. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of Rep protein sequences from the RepFIIA family of antisense-control-regulated replicons revealed the presence of three distinct subgroups of Rep proteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of selected 3′-NTR-binding proteins in an HCV replicon cell line reduced replicon RNA to undetectable levels, suggesting important roles for these cellular factors in HCV replication. (mcponline.org)
  • Initiator proteins have now been identified for some replicons, such as the DnaA protein in E. coli and the Origin Recognition Complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (golifescience.com)
  • We examined two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to compare and identify differentially expressed proteins between HCV subgenomic replicon-harboring cells and their "cured" cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Skarstad, K & Løbner-Olesen, A 2003, ' Stable coexistence of separate replicons in Escherichia coli is dependent on once-per cell-cycle initiation ', EMBO Journal , bind 22, s. 140-150. (ruc.dk)
  • Compatibility of this plasmid was studied with different Escherichia coli plasmid replicons viz. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mode of replicon fusion mediated by the duplicated insertion sequence IS21 in Escherichia coli. (unil.ch)
  • The origin of the replicon could not be traced from the coding sequences in the public databases. (cdc.gov)
  • The EMBL accession numbers for the sequences reported in this paper are AJ009980 (pGSH500 alpha replicon) and AJ009981 (pLV1402 alpha replicon). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • For many replicons, such as the E. coli ori.C and the autonomously replicating sequences (or ARS) in yeast, the replicator is also an origin. (golifescience.com)
  • Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replicon particles (VRP) have been used successfully to induce protection against influenza A virus (IAV) in chickens and bluetongue virus in sheep. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This page lists the EVAg products having been categorized as "DNA template for recombinant virus or replicon" . (european-virus-archive.com)
  • For most prokaryotic chromosomes , the replicon is the entire chromosome . (golifescience.com)
  • For Eukaryotic chromosomes , there are multiple replicons per chromosome . (golifescience.com)
  • We say that this element acts in cis since the replicator and the replicon are on the same chromosome. (golifescience.com)
  • Thus is acting in trans, since it does not have to be encoded on the same chromosome as the replicon that it controls. (golifescience.com)
  • Hi Nicole, Thank you for using Replicon community, Our PM team is reviewing your idea. (replicon.com)
  • NS3 Peptide, a novel potent hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase inhibitor: its mechanism of action and antiviral activity in the replicon system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Use of a luciferase-expressing replicon cell line in an HTS antiviral assay. (asm.org)
  • Transcriptome profiling was conducted on Huh-7 human hepatoma cells bearing subgenomic HCV replicons with and without treatment with 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC), an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway that alters lipid metabolism, to assess metabolic determinants of pro- and antiviral states within the host cell. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, the MERS-replicon cell line can be used for high-throughput screening of antiviral drugs without the need for live virus handling, providing an effective and safe tool for the discovery of antiviral drugs against MERS-CoV. (cdc.gov)
  • Herein, we review decades of the use of (+) ssRNA viruses replicon systems for the discovery of antiviral agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Three Replicons of Rhizobium sp. (asm.org)
  • The extrachromosomal replicons from R. grahamii were more similar to those found in phylogenetically related Rhizobium species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • and enteroinvasive E. coli constitute a homogeneous group, containing one basic replicon that belongs to the RepFIIA family of replicons. (asm.org)
  • Utilize the tools for Salmonella and E.coli typing, plasmid replicon detection and plasmid typing in real cases of other bacterial and pathogen genomes. (coursera.org)
  • The genomes of several α-proteobacteria are partitioned into replicons of variable size ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Leveraging its scientific leadership in writing genomes that improve upon or repurpose natural systems, Synthetic Genomics has developed a replicon RNA technology that enables a tunable, multigenic approach to elicit desired antigen expression and immune response for a variety of applications. (syntheticgenomics.com)
  • Variable degrees of nucleotide identity and gene content conservation were found among the different R. grahamii CCGE502 replicons in comparison to R. mesoamericanum genomes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The usual 'end-replication problem' for linear replicons is overcome by the hairpin telomeres presenting to the cellular replication machinery an uninterrupted DNA chain. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Replication foci contain multiple replicons. (rupress.org)
  • Examples of bacterial species that have been found to possess multiple replicons include Rhodobacter sphaeroide s, Vibrio cholerae , and Burkholderia multivorans . (golifescience.com)
  • Subgenomic replicons of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been widely used for studying HCV replication. (springer.com)
  • These compounds were investigated for their anti-HCV activities using genotype 2a JFH-1 subgenomic replicons and infectious virus systems. (nature.com)
  • Three extrachromosomal replicons co-exist in L. interrogans , one of which we consider to be an inducible prophage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently a subgenomic replicon has been generated from the efficiently replicating genotype 2a strain of HCV (JFH1), incorporating the firefly luciferase gene under the control of the HCV internal ribosome entry site element. (bmglabtech.com)
  • As previously reported [8,11], the treatment of Huh-7 cells bearing HCV replicons with 25-HC caused a dose-dependent decrease in HCV replication at non-toxic concentrations as measured by firefly luciferase activity in Huh-7 cells transfected with HCV replicon RNA from pFK-I389luc/NS3-3'/5.1 (Fig. 2a). (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we constructed a MERS-CoV replicon containing the Renilla luciferase (Rluc) reporter gene and a stable luciferase replicon-carrying cell line. (cdc.gov)
  • On the basis of the pGA1 mini-replicon, an expression vector system was established for C. diphtheriae by means of the P tac promoter and the green fluorescent reporter protein. (springer.com)
  • In addition, other commonly used vector systems from C. glutamicum , including the pBL1 and pHM1519 replicons, and the sacB conditionally lethal selection marker from Bacillus subtilis , were shown to be functional in C. diphtheriae . (springer.com)
  • To reduce the size of the vector, the minimal replicon of pKW2124 was determined. (frontiersin.org)
  • Is a Kozak sequence necessary in Sindbis replicon vector? (biotechniques.com)
  • Furthermore, the JFH-1 replicon RNA replicated efficiently without G418 selection in a transient replication assay. (nih.gov)
  • All three replicons were stable outside of the bacterial chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike other published studies that focus exclusively on HCV replication in human and/or primate cell lines, Zhu et al (2003) further demonstrated that replication of the HCV-N genotype 1b subgenomic replicon could be initiated in one of the several mouse cell lines tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of the Minimal Replicon of Lactococcus lactis subsp. (asm.org)
  • A combination of transposon Tn 5 mutagenesis and subcloning in pCI341 and pCI3330 with individual Tn 5 insertions around the replication region facilitated the identification of a 1.6-kb minimal replicon on pCI305. (asm.org)
  • Identification of the minimal replicon of the streptomycete plasmid pIJ101. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The minimal replicon of pIJ101 was defined to a 2.0-kb BalI-SacII fragment containing the rep ORF and a non-coding region of DNA, but not orf56 (pQR435). (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The replication origin has been identified and sequenced, and the minimal pCM1 replicon has been localized to a 1,600-bp region which includes two functionally discrete regions, the oriV region and the repA gene. (us.es)
  • In effort to develop experimental HCV mouse models, we screened a panel of HCV replicons to identify clones capable of replicating in mouse hepatocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To understand whether these results were influenced by an altered response of cholesterol influx in hepatoma cells, we analyzed the effect of statins in non-transformed murine hepatocytes (MMHD3) harboring subgenomic HCV replicons. (elsevier.com)
  • Sequence analysis of sgJFH-1 replicons in mouse hepatocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The replicon region contains copA , tapA , repA and oriR , and replication initiation and termination sites are related to those from the IncFII replicon of R1. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The JFH-1 replicon RNA was transmissible to naive Huh7 cells by transfection of cellular RNA from cells containing the replicon. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, HCV replication could not be initiated in these mouse cells by transfection of in vitro transcribed replicon RNA generated from either the parental replicon construct or from any of the "adapted" replicon clones isolated from their original mouse replicon cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The utility of high-titer KUN replicon VLPs was demonstrated by showing increasing CD8 + -T-cell responses to encoded foreign protein with increasing doses of KUN VLPs. (asm.org)
  • However, replacing the Paderborn NS5B coding sequence with the RNA polymerase coding sequence from the Koslov strain greatly enhanced expression of the reporter protein from the replicon. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We employed proteomic techniques in HCV replicon-harboring cells to determine the effects of HCV replication on host-cell protein expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Replicon-harboring cells showed higher expression of retinal dehydrogenase 1 (RALDH-1), which converts retinol to retinoic acid, and the cured cells showed higher expression of retinol-binding protein (RBP), which transports retinol from the fiver to target tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that protein expression profiling demonstrated that HCV replicon eradication affected retinol-related protein expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. (unl.edu)
  • We mimicked this situation in vivo in immune-competent mice by syngeneic transplantation of HCV replicon-containing mouse hepatoma cells. (bmj.com)
  • Design A total of 5 million H-2 b positive Hep56.1D cells, carrying a subgenomic genotype (gt) 2a replicon (HCV replicon cells) or stably expressing comparable levels of the HCV NS3/4A protease/helicase complex (NS3/4A hepatoma cells), were injected subcutaneously into syngeneic H-2 b -restricted mice. (bmj.com)
  • Results HCV replicon and NS3/4A hepatoma cells generated solid tumours in vivo. (bmj.com)
  • Here we attempted to express heterologous genetic material from these replicons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, as in human HCV infection, HCV replicon cells neither primed nor boosted a strong NS3/4A-specific T cell response. (bmj.com)
  • Comparison of replication kinetics of the WNV replicon delivered through electroporation and that delivered through VLP-mediated infection. (asm.org)
  • A genotype 2a replicon was constructed by isolating the consensus sequence of JFH-1, transfecting G418-selectable subgenomic transcripts into Huh7 cells, and estimating the replication efficiency. (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: Transconjugants of 74 bla CTX-M-1-positive isolates were analyzed by PCR-based replicon typing and by PCR-based plasmid multilocus sequence typing. (uzh.ch)
  • We report the establishment of stable HCV replication in mouse hepatocyte and fibroblast cell lines using replicons derived from the JFH-1 genotype 2a consensus sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of the DNA sequence of a 3672 bp Hin dIII fragment from pFDT100, which contains the pGSH500 alpha replicon, revealed similarity to a number of replicons belonging to, or related to, those of the IncFII family. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The replicator is a sequence of DNA needed for synthesis of the rest of the DNA in a replicon. (golifescience.com)
  • These and other related replicons constitute the RepFIIA family. (asm.org)
  • With one pINV, pWR110, a plasmid of Shigella flexneri 5, we demonstrated the existence of a functional replicon, RepINV, with a restriction map similar to that of RepFIIA of plasmid R1. (asm.org)
  • Replicon TimeBill and TimeCost allow users to track time against projects, enter billable and non-billable time, and compare expected revenue to the total cost of the project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replicon TimeAttend, part of the Time Intelligence Platform, is a cloud-based workforce management solution that helps businesses across various industries to streamline time tracking and manage payrolls of their employees. (softwareadvice.com)
  • Replicon TimeAttend can be set up to send automatic reminders to ensure timesheets get submitted and approved on time. (softwareadvice.com)
  • Replicon TimeAttend gives employees visibility into the schedules assigned to them. (softwareadvice.com)
  • Replicon TimeAttend offers services on a monthly subscription basis that includes support via phone, email and live chat. (softwareadvice.com)
  • Accessory replicons generally have the RepABC replication system, but their origin remains largely unknown ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although the hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic replicon system has been widely used in the study of HCV, this system is available only for a few related genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • To develop a new replicon system, the genotype 2a clone JFH-1 was isolated from a patient with fulminant hepatitis. (nih.gov)
  • By screening of newly synthesized drugs with this replicon system, several possible medicines have been established and clinical researches are now running. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore the mechanism for development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the HCV infected liver has been vigorously studied using the HCV replicon system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A temperature-regulated replicon-based DNA expression system. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Replicon clusters are stable over many cell generations. (rupress.org)
  • Notably, although MMH cells exhibit relatively low transfection efficiency, numerous G418-resistant colonies form following transfection of HCV replicon RNA. (biomedcentral.com)