Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The act of constricting.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.
General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.
Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A vasodilator used in angina of effort or ischemic heart disease.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A subclass of adenosine A2 receptors found in LEUKOCYTES, the SPLEEN, the THYMUS and a variety of other tissues. It is generally considered to be a receptor for ADENOSINE that couples to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.

Endothelin up-regulation and localization following renal ischemia and reperfusion. (1/4643)

BACKGROUND: Endothelin (ET), a potent vasoconstrictor, is known to play a role in ischemic acute renal failure. Although preproET-1 (ppET-1) mRNA is known to be up-regulated following ischemia/reperfusion injury, it has not been determined which component of the injury (ischemia or reperfusion) leads to initial gene up-regulation. Likewise, although ET-1 peptide expression has been localized in the normal kidney, its expression pattern in the ischemic kidney has not been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine whether ischemia alone or ischemia plus reperfusion is required for the up-regulation of ppET-1 mRNA to occur, and (b) to localize ET-1 peptide expression following ischemia in the rat kidney to clarify better the role of ET in the pathophysiology of ischemia-induced acute renal failure. METHODS: Male Lewis rats underwent clamping of the right renal vascular pedicle for either 30 minutes of ischemia (group 1), 60 minutes of ischemia (group 2), 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion (group 3), or 60 minutes of ischemia followed by three hours of reperfusion (group 4). The contralateral kidney acted as a control. ppET-1 mRNA up-regulation and ET-1 peptide expression were examined using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction yielded a control (nonischemic) value of 0.6 +/- 0.2 densitometric units (DU) of ppET-1 mRNA in the kidney. Group 1 levels (30 min of ischemia alone) were 1.8 +/- 0.4 DU, a threefold increase (P < 0.05). Group 2 levels (60 min of ischemia alone) increased almost six times above baseline, 3.5 +/- 0.2 DU (P < 0.01), whereas both group 3 and group 4 (ischemia plus reperfusion) did not experience any further significant increases in mRNA levels (1.9 +/- 0.4 DU and 2.8 +/- 0.6 DU, respectively) beyond levels in group 1 or 2 animals subjected to similar ischemic periods. ET-1 peptide expression in the ischemic kidneys was significantly increased over controls and was clearly localized to the endothelium of the peritubular capillary network of the kidney. CONCLUSIONS: Initial ET-1 gene up-regulation in the kidney occurs secondary to ischemia, but reperfusion most likely contributes to sustaining this up-regulation. The marked increase of ET-1 in the peritubular capillary network suggests that ET-induced vasoconstriction may have a pathophysiological role in ischemic acute tubular necrosis.  (+info)

Hypothermic neuroprotection of peripheral nerve of rats from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. (2/4643)

Although there is much information on experimental ischaemic neuropathy, there are only scant data on neuroprotection. We evaluated the effectiveness of hypothermia in protecting peripheral nerve from ischaemia-reperfusion injury using the model of experimental nerve ischaemia. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. We used a ligation-reperfusion model of nerve ischaemia where each of the supplying arteries to the sciatic-tibial nerves of the right hind limb was ligated and the ligatures were released after a predetermined period of ischaemia. The right hind limbs of one group (24 rats) were made ischaemic for 5 h and those of the other group (24 rats) for 3 h. Each group was further divided into three and the limbs were maintained at 37 degrees C (36 degrees C for 5 h of ischaemia) in one, 32 degrees C in the second and 28 degrees C in the third of these groups for the final 2 h of the ischaemic period and an additional 2 h of the reperfusion period. A behavioural score was recorded and nerve electrophysiology of motor and sensory nerves was undertaken 1 week after surgical procedures. At that time, entire sciatic-tibial nerves were harvested and fixed in situ. Four portions of each nerve were examined: proximal sciatic nerve, distal sciatic nerve, mid-tibial nerve and distal tibial nerve. To determine the degree of fibre degeneration, each section was studied by light microscopy, and we estimated an oedema index and a fibre degeneration index. The groups treated at 36-37 degrees C underwent marked fibre degeneration, associated with a reduction in action potential and impairment in behavioural score. The groups treated at 28 degrees C (for both 3 and 5 h) showed significantly less (P < 0.01; ANOVA, Bonferoni post hoc test) reperfusion injury for all indices (behavioural score, electrophysiology and neuropathology), and the groups treated at 32 degrees C had scores intermediate between the groups treated at 36-37 degrees C and 28 degrees C. Our results showed that cooling the limbs dramatically protects the peripheral nerve from ischaemia-reperfusion injury.  (+info)

Does soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) affect neutrophil activation and adhesion following ischaemia-reperfusion? (3/4643)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of reperfusion plasma and sICAM-1 on neutrophil integrin expression and neutrophil adhesion to determine if sICAM-1 has a potential role in the regulation of neutrophil adhesion. MATERIALS: Twenty-seven patients, 17 men and 10 women undergoing femorodistal surgery. Blood was taken preoperatively and from the femoral vein following the release of the cross-clamp. Neutrophils were obtained from five volunteers and incubated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), preoperative plasma or reperfusion plasma with and without sICAM-1. Neutrophil expression of CD11b and adhesion were measured. MAIN RESULTS: Neutrophil CD11b expression did not change following incubation in the three media. Neutrophil adhesion increased significantly following exposure to reperfusion plasma compared to PBS or preoperative plasma (45.5 adhesion vs. 12.75%, p < 0.01 Mann-Whitney U-test). Soluble ICAM-1 decreased CD11b expression and adhesion in neutrophils exposed to reperfusion plasma only (CD11b expression fell from 15.9 to 3.4 mcf, p < 0.01 Mann-Whitney U-test and adhesion fell to 11.6% cells adhered, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: An increase in CD11b expression is not required for an increase in neutrophil adhesion. The change in neutrophil adhesion produced by reperfusion plasma can be blocked by sICAM-1. Soluble ICAM-1 may have a physiological role in the regulation of neutrophil adhesion.  (+info)

Modification of postsynaptic densities after transient cerebral ischemia: a quantitative and three-dimensional ultrastructural study. (4/4643)

Abnormal synaptic transmission has been hypothesized to be a cause of neuronal death resulting from transient ischemia, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we present evidence that synapses are markedly modified in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia. Using both conventional and high-voltage electron microscopy, we performed two- and three-dimensional analyses of synapses selectively stained with ethanolic phosphotungstic acid in the hippocampus of rats subjected to 15 min of ischemia followed by various periods of reperfusion. Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) from both area CA1 and the dentate gyrus were thicker and fluffier in postischemic hippocampus than in controls. Three-dimensional reconstructions of selectively stained PSDs created using electron tomography indicated that postsynaptic densities became more irregular and loosely configured in postischemic brains compared with those in controls. A quantitative study based on thin sections of the time course of PSD modification indicated that the increase in thickness was both greater and more long-lived in area CA1 than in dentate gyrus. Whereas the magnitude of morphological change in dentate gyrus peaked at 4 hr of reperfusion (140% of control values) and declined thereafter, changes in area CA1 persisted and increased at 24 hr of reperfusion (191% of control values). We hypothesize that the degenerative ultrastructural alteration of PSDs may produce a toxic signal such as a greater calcium influx, which is integrated from the thousands of excitatory synapses onto dendrites, and is propagated to the neuronal somata where it causes or contributes to neuronal damage during the postischemic phase.  (+info)

Intestinal reperfusion injury is mediated by IgM and complement. (5/4643)

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on complement. This study examines the role of the alternative and classic pathways of complement and IgM in a murine model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Wild-type animals, mice deficient in complement factor 4 (C4), C3, or Ig, or wild-type mice treated with soluble complement receptor 1 were subjected to 40 min of jejunal ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion. Compared with wild types, knockout and treated mice had significantly reduced intestinal injury, indicated by lowered permeability to radiolabeled albumin. When animals deficient in Ig were reconstituted with IgM, the degree of injury was restored to wild-type levels. Immunohistological staining of intestine for C3 and IgM showed colocalization in the mucosa of wild-type controls and minimal staining for both in the intestine of Ig-deficient and C4-deficient mice. We conclude that intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is dependent on the classic complement pathway and IgM.  (+info)

Riluzole improves functional recovery after ischemia in the rat retina. (6/4643)

PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia leads to neuronal death. The effects of riluzole, a drug that protects against the deleterious effect of cerebral ischemia by acting on several types of ion channels and blocking glutamatergic neurotransmission, were investigated in a rat model of retinal ischemic injury. METHODS: Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure above systolic blood pressure for 30 minutes. Electroretinograms were recorded before ischemia and at different periods of reperfusion. Riluzole was injected or topically applied to the eye before or after ischemia and twice daily during the reperfusion period. Retinas were harvested for histopathology (toluidine blue and silver-impregnation stainings, Tdt-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling [TUNEL] method) and immunohistochemistry for cytoskeletal glial fibrillary acid protein and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (p-JNK). RESULTS: Ischemia for 30 minutes caused a reduction of a- and b-waves of the electroretinogram. Systemic and topical treatments with riluzole significantly enhanced the recovery of the reduced a- and b-waves after defined reperfusion times. Riluzole also prevented or attenuated ischemia-induced retinal cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and reduced the activation of p-JNK, c-jun phosphorylation, and the increase of cytoskeletal proteins induced by ischemic injury. CONCLUSIONS: Riluzole acted in vivo as a potent neuroprotective agent against pressure-induced ischemia. Therefore, riluzole may be a major drug for use in protection against retinal injury.  (+info)

The effect of mannitol versus dimethyl thiourea at attenuating ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury to skeletal muscle. (7/4643)

OBJECTIVE: Mannitol is used as a treatment for skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in humans, despite the fact that its effectiveness in vivo is still disputed. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of mannitol in attenuating I/R injury at the microcirculatory level. METHODS: The study was designed as an experimental study with male Wistar rats. The main outcome measures were intravital microscopy, which was used to measure capillary perfusion, capillary and venular red blood cell velocity (VRBC), and leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat hind limb before and after ischemia. In addition, tissue injury was assessed during reperfusion with the fluorescent vital dyes bisbenzimide and ethidium bromide. Dimethyl thiourea (DMTU), a highly effective therapeutic agent of experimental I/R injury, was used as a positive control. RESULTS: No-flow ischemia (2 hour) resulted in a 40% drop in capillary perfusion, a decline in capillary and venular VRBC, and increased leukocyte venular adherence and tissue infiltration. Tissue injury increased to a constant level during reperfusion. Mannitol attenuated capillary malperfusion during the first 60 minutes of reperfusion and prevented a decline in capillary VRBC. However, mannitol did not reduce tissue injury or leukocyte adherence and infiltration during reperfusion. By comparison, DMTU not only prevented the perfusion deficits and the increases in leukocyte venular adherence and tissue infiltration but significantly reduced the magnitude of tissue injury. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that mannitol may be of limited value for the prevention of early reperfusion-induced injury after no-flow ischemia in skeletal muscle. By comparison, DMTU was highly efficacious by not only reducing microvascular perfusion deficits but by also reducing leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and the incidence of cellular injury.  (+info)

Bcl-2 inhibits ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium of transgenic mice. (8/4643)

Little is known about the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on the inductive, commitment, or execution phases of apoptosis. We have created a genetically defined model to study the response of small intestinal epithelial cells to ischemia-reperfusion injury as a function of their proliferative status and differentiation. Occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 20 min in adult FVB/N or C57BL/6 mice results in the appearance of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in the jejunal epithelium within 4 h, with a maximum response occurring at 24 h. Stimulation of apoptosis is greater in postmitotic, differentiated epithelial cells located in the upper portions of villi compared with undifferentiated, proliferating cells in the crypts of Lieberkuhn (7-fold vs. 2-fold relative to sham-operated controls). Comparisons of p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) mice established that the apoptosis is p53 independent. To further characterize this response, we generated FVB/N transgenic mice that express human Bcl-2 in epithelial cells distributed from the base of crypts to the tips of their associated villi. The fivefold elevation in steady-state Bcl-2 concentration is not accompanied by detectable changes in the levels or cellular distributions of the related anti-apoptotic regulator Bcl-xL or of the proapoptotic regulators Bax and Bak and does not produce detectable effects on basal proliferation, differentiation, or death programs. The apoptotic response to ischemia-reperfusion is reduced twofold in the crypts and villi of transgenic mice compared with their normal littermates. These results suggest that both undifferentiated and differentiated cells undergo a commitment phase that is sensitive to Bcl-2. Forced expression of Bcl-2 also suppressed the p53-dependent death that occurs in proliferating crypt epithelial cells following gamma-irradiation. Thus suppressibility by Bcl-2 operationally defines a common feature of the apoptosis induced in the crypt epithelium by these two stimuli.  (+info)

Reperfusion injury can cause inflammation, cell death, and impaired function in the affected tissue or organ. The severity of reperfusion injury can vary depending on the duration and severity of the initial ischemic event, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment to restore blood flow.

Reperfusion injury can be a complicating factor in various medical conditions, including:

1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle after a heart attack, leading to inflammation and cell death.
2. Stroke: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the brain after an ischemic stroke, leading to inflammation and damage to brain tissue.
3. Organ transplantation: Reperfusion injury can occur when a transplanted organ is subjected to ischemia during harvesting or preservation, and then reperfused with blood.
4. Peripheral arterial disease: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to a previously occluded peripheral artery, leading to inflammation and damage to the affected tissue.

Treatment of reperfusion injury often involves medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In some cases, experimental therapies such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy may be used to promote tissue repair and regeneration.

MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.

The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.

The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.

The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.

Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.

In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

There are several different types of brain injuries that can occur, including:

1. Concussions: A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury that occurs when the brain is jolted or shaken, often due to a blow to the head.
2. Contusions: A contusion is a bruise on the brain that can occur when the brain is struck by an object, such as during a car accident.
3. Coup-contrecoup injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is injured as a result of the force of the body striking another object, such as during a fall.
4. Penetrating injuries: A penetrating injury occurs when an object pierces the brain, such as during a gunshot wound or stab injury.
5. Blast injuries: This type of injury occurs when the brain is exposed to a sudden and explosive force, such as during a bombing.

The symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage in the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Headaches
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Slurred speech or difficulty with communication
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Personality changes
* Difficulty with coordination and balance

In some cases, brain injuries can be treated with medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. However, in more severe cases, the damage may be permanent and long-lasting. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.

There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:

1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.

Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.

There are several types of ischemia, including:

1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.

Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:

1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.

Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.

Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.

Example Sentences:

1. The star quarterback suffered a serious athletic injury during last night's game and is out for the season.
2. The athlete underwent surgery to repair a torn ACL, one of the most common athletic injuries in high-impact sports.
3. The coach emphasized the importance of proper technique to prevent athletic injuries among his team members.
4. After suffering a minor sprain, the runner was advised to follow the RICE method to recover and return to competition as soon as possible.

There are several different types of spinal cord injuries that can occur, depending on the location and severity of the damage. These include:

1. Complete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is completely severed, resulting in a loss of all sensation and function below the level of the injury.
2. Incomplete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is only partially damaged, resulting in some remaining sensation and function below the level of the injury.
3. Brown-Sequard syndrome: This is a specific type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects one side of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.
4. Conus medullaris syndrome: This is a type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects the lower part of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis in the legs and bladder dysfunction.

The symptoms of spinal cord injuries can vary depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may include:

* Loss of sensation in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Weakness or paralysis in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Difficulty walking or standing
* Difficulty with bowel and bladder function
* Numbness or tingling sensations
* Pain or pressure in the neck or back

Treatment for spinal cord injuries typically involves a combination of medical and rehabilitative therapies. Medical treatments may include:

* Immobilization of the spine to prevent further injury
* Medications to manage pain and inflammation
* Surgery to relieve compression or stabilize the spine

Rehabilitative therapies may include:

* Physical therapy to improve strength and mobility
* Occupational therapy to learn new ways of performing daily activities
* Speech therapy to improve communication skills
* Psychological counseling to cope with the emotional effects of the injury.

Overall, the prognosis for spinal cord injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the age and overall health of the individual. While some individuals may experience significant recovery, others may experience long-term or permanent impairment. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a spinal cord injury are present.

The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.

There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.

Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.

Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells are exposed to excessive stress, injury, or inflammation, leading to damage to the cell membrane and the release of cellular contents into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to the formation of gangrene, which is the death of body tissue due to lack of blood supply.

There are several types of necrosis, including:

1. Coagulative necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a lack of blood supply to the tissues, leading to the formation of a firm, white plaque on the surface of the affected area.
2. Liquefactive necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is an infection or inflammation that causes the death of cells and the formation of pus.
3. Caseous necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is a chronic infection, such as tuberculosis, and the affected tissue becomes soft and cheese-like.
4. Fat necrosis: This type of necrosis occurs when there is trauma to fatty tissue, leading to the formation of firm, yellowish nodules.
5. Necrotizing fasciitis: This is a severe and life-threatening form of necrosis that affects the skin and underlying tissues, often as a result of bacterial infection.

The diagnosis of necrosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the necrosis and may include antibiotics, surgical debridement, or amputation in severe cases.

1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): This is a severe and life-threatening condition that occurs when the lungs become inflamed and fill with fluid, making it difficult to breathe.
2. Pneumonia: This is an infection of the lungs that can cause inflammation and damage to the air sacs and lung tissue.
3. Aspiration pneumonitis: This occurs when food, liquid, or other foreign substances are inhaled into the lungs, causing inflammation and damage.
4. Chemical pneumonitis: This is caused by exposure to harmful chemicals or toxins that can damage the lungs and cause inflammation.
5. Radiation pneumonitis: This occurs when the lungs are exposed to high levels of radiation, causing damage and inflammation.
6. Lung fibrosis: This is a chronic condition in which the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
7. Pulmonary embolism: This occurs when a blood clot forms in the lungs, blocking the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart and other organs.

Symptoms of lung injury can include:

* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain or tightness
* Coughing up blood or pus
* Fever
* Confusion or disorientation

Treatment for lung injury depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include oxygen therapy, medications to reduce inflammation, antibiotics for infections, and mechanical ventilation in severe cases. In some cases, lung injury can be a life-threatening condition and may require hospitalization and intensive care.

The term ischemia refers to the reduction of blood flow, and it is often used interchangeably with the term stroke. However, not all strokes are caused by ischemia, as some can be caused by other factors such as bleeding in the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87% of all strokes.

There are different types of brain ischemia, including:

1. Cerebral ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain and responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thought, emotion, and voluntary movement.
2. Cerebellar ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating and regulating movement, balance, and posture.
3. Brainstem ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the brainstem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
4. Territorial ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to a specific area of the brain, often caused by a blockage in a blood vessel.
5. Global ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the entire brain, which can be caused by a cardiac arrest or other systemic conditions.

The symptoms of brain ischemia can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden vision loss or double vision
4. Dizziness or loss of balance
5. Confusion or difficulty with memory
6. Seizures
7. Slurred speech or inability to speak
8. Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm, or leg
9. Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
10. Difficulty with coordination and balance.

It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms, as brain ischemia can cause permanent damage or death if left untreated.

Some common types of leg injuries include:

1. Sprains and strains: These are common injuries that occur when the ligaments or muscles in the legs are stretched or torn.
2. Fractures: These are breaks in the bones of the legs, which can be caused by falls, sports injuries, or other traumatic events.
3. Tendinitis: This is inflammation of the tendons, which connect muscles to bones.
4. Bursitis: This is inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion the joints and reduce friction between the bones, muscles, and tendons.
5. Contusions: These are bruises that occur when the blood vessels in the legs are damaged as a result of trauma or overuse.
6. Shin splints: This is a common overuse injury that occurs in the front of the lower leg, causing pain and inflammation.
7. Compartment syndrome: This is a serious condition that occurs when pressure builds up within a compartment of the leg, cutting off blood flow to the muscles and nerves.
8. Stress fractures: These are small cracks in the bones of the legs that occur as a result of overuse or repetitive stress.
9. Osteochondritis dissecans: This is a condition in which a piece of cartilage and bone in the joint becomes detached, causing pain and stiffness.
10. Peroneal tendinitis: This is inflammation of the tendons on the outside of the ankle, which can cause pain and swelling.

Treatment for leg injuries depends on the severity and type of injury. Some common treatments include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), physical therapy, bracing, medications, and surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, or if there is a loss of function or mobility in the affected leg.

The symptoms of ALI can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest pain or tightness (pleurisy)
* Cough, which may produce mucus or pus
* Fatigue, confusion, or disorientation
* Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia)

If left untreated, ALI can progress to a more severe condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which can be fatal. Treatment for ALI typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, medications to manage inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs, and management of underlying causes. In severe cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or lung transplantation may be necessary.

It's important to note that ALI can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, so it's important to seek medical attention right away if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of the condition.

Types of Eye Injuries:

1. Corneal abrasion: A scratch on the cornea, the clear outer layer of the eye.
2. Conjunctival bleeding: Bleeding in the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
3. Hyphema: Blood in the space between the iris and the cornea.
4. Hemorrhage: Bleeding in the eyelid or under the retina.
5. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from the underlying tissue, which can cause vision loss if not treated promptly.
6. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the nerve that carries visual information from the eye to the brain, which can cause vision loss or blindness.
7. Orbital injury: Injury to the bones and tissues surrounding the eye, which can cause double vision, swelling, or vision loss.

Symptoms of Eye Injuries:

1. Pain in the eye or around the eye
2. Redness and swelling of the eye or eyelid
3. Difficulty seeing or blurred vision
4. Sensitivity to light
5. Double vision or loss of vision
6. Discharge or crusting around the eye
7. Swelling of the eyelids or face

Treatment of Eye Injuries:

1. Depending on the severity and nature of the injury, treatment may include antibiotics, pain relief medication, or surgery.
2. In some cases, a tube may be inserted into the eye to help drain fluid or prevent pressure from building up.
3. In severe cases, vision may not return completely, but there are many options for corrective glasses and contact lenses to improve remaining vision.
4. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if there is a foreign object in the eye, as this can cause further damage if left untreated.
5. In cases of penetrating trauma, such as a blow to the eye, it is important to seek medical attention right away, even if there are no immediate signs of injury.
6. Follow-up appointments with an ophthalmologist are essential to monitor healing and address any complications that may arise.

Infarction Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the middle cerebral artery. This artery supplies blood to the temporal lobe of the brain, which controls many important functions such as memory, language, and spatial reasoning. When this artery becomes blocked or ruptured, it can cause a lack of blood supply to the affected areas resulting in tissue death (infarction).

The symptoms of an MCA infarction can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. Some common symptoms include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. Patients may also experience sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and fever.

The diagnosis of MCA infarction is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. Imaging studies can help to identify the location and severity of the blockage, while laboratory tests may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.

Treatment for MCA infarction depends on the underlying cause of the blockage or rupture. In some cases, medications such as thrombolytics may be given to dissolve blood clots and restore blood flow to the affected areas. Surgery may also be required to remove any blockages or repair damaged blood vessels. Other interventions such as endovascular procedures or brain bypass surgery may also be used to restore blood flow.

In summary, middle cerebral artery infarction is a type of stroke that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue. It can cause a range of symptoms including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. The diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options include medications, surgery, endovascular procedures, or brain bypass surgery.

There are several types of neck injuries that can occur, including:

1. Whiplash: This is a common type of neck injury caused by sudden movement or force, such as in a car accident or a fall. It can cause strain or sprain of the muscles and ligaments in the neck, leading to pain and stiffness.
2. Herniated discs: A herniated disc occurs when the soft tissue between the vertebrae bulges out due to injury or wear and tear. This can put pressure on the nerves and cause pain and numbness in the neck and arms.
3. Fractures: A fracture is a break in one of the bones of the neck, which can be caused by trauma such as a fall or a car accident.
4. Sprains and strains: These are common injuries that occur when the muscles or ligaments in the neck are stretched or torn due to sudden movement or overuse.
5. Cervical spine injuries: The cervical spine is the upper part of the spine, which can be injured due to trauma or compression. This can cause pain and numbness in the neck, arms, and hands.

Neck injuries can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Pain and stiffness in the neck
2. Limited mobility and range of motion
3. Numbness or tingling sensations in the arms and hands
4. Weakness or fatigue in the muscles of the neck and shoulders
5. Headaches and dizziness

Treatment for neck injuries depends on the severity of the injury and can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy, medication, and rest to surgical interventions in severe cases. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated neck injuries can lead to long-term complications and disability.

During myocardial stunning, the heart muscle cells experience a temporary reduction in contractility and an increase in the amount of lactic acid produced. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In severe cases, myocardial stunning can progress to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or cardiac arrest.

Myocardial stunning is often seen in athletes who engage in intense exercise, such as marathon runners or professional football players. It can also occur in people with pre-existing heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease or hypertension.

Treatment of myocardial stunning typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as reducing stress on the heart or improving blood flow to the myocardium. In severe cases, medications such as nitrates or beta blockers may be used to reduce the workload on the heart and improve contractility. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor the condition and provide appropriate treatment.

Prevention of myocardial stunning involves taking steps to reduce the risk factors for heart disease, such as maintaining a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and managing stress. It is also important to seek medical attention if symptoms of myocardial stunning are present, as prompt treatment can help prevent more severe complications.

There are several types of abdominal injuries that can occur, including:

1. Blunt trauma: This type of injury occurs when the abdomen is struck or crushed by an object, such as in a car accident or fall.
2. Penetrating trauma: This type of injury occurs when an object, such as a knife or bullet, pierces the abdomen.
3. Internal bleeding: This occurs when blood vessels within the abdomen are damaged, leading to bleeding inside the body.
4. Organ damage: This can occur when organs such as the liver, spleen, or kidneys are injured, either due to blunt trauma or penetrating trauma.
5. Intestinal injuries: These can occur when the intestines are damaged, either due to blunt trauma or penetrating trauma.
6. Hernias: These occur when an organ or tissue protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.

Symptoms of abdominal injuries can include:

* Abdominal pain
* Swelling and bruising
* Difficulty breathing
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Weak pulse or no pulse
* Protrusion of organs or tissues through the abdominal wall

Treatment for abdominal injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury. Some common treatments include:

1. Immobilization: This may involve wearing a brace or cast to immobilize the affected area.
2. Pain management: Medications such as painkillers and muscle relaxants may be prescribed to manage pain and discomfort.
3. Antibiotics: These may be prescribed if there is an infection present.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged organs or tissues.
5. Monitoring: Patients with abdominal injuries may need to be closely monitored for signs of complications such as infection or bleeding.

Types: There are several types of arm injuries, including:

1. Fractures: A break in one or more bones of the arm.
2. Sprains: Stretching or tearing of ligaments that connect bones to other tissues.
3. Strains: Tears in muscles or tendons.
4. Dislocations: When a bone is forced out of its normal position in the joint.
5. Tendinitis: Inflammation of the tendons, which can cause pain and stiffness in the arm.
6. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion the joints and reduce friction.
7. Cuts or lacerations: Open wounds on the skin or other tissues of the arm.
8. Burns: Damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by heat, chemicals, or electricity.
9. Nerve injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and sensation in the arm.
10. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that can affect any part of the arm.

Symptoms: The symptoms of arm injuries can vary depending on the type and severity of the injury. Some common symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility, deformity, and difficulty moving the arm.

Diagnosis: A healthcare professional will typically perform a physical examination and may use imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI to diagnose arm injuries.

Treatment: Treatment for arm injuries can range from conservative methods such as rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to surgical interventions. The goal of treatment is to relieve pain, promote healing, and restore function to the affected arm.

There are many different types of liver diseases, including:

1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.

Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.

There are two main types of blast injuries: primary and secondary. Primary blast injuries are caused directly by the explosion and include injuries from shrapnel, fragmentation, and overpressure. Secondary blast injuries are caused by the blast wave and include injuries from flying debris, collapse of structures, and crush injuries.

The symptoms of blast injuries can vary depending on the type and severity of the injury. Common symptoms include:

* Loss of hearing or vision
* Dizziness or disorientation
* Headache or ringing in the ears
* Bruising or lacerations from flying debris
* Internal bleeding or organ damage
* Fractures or other skeletal injuries

The diagnosis of blast injuries is typically made based on a combination of physical examination, medical imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment of blast injuries may involve a multidisciplinary approach, including emergency medicine, surgery, critical care, and rehabilitation.

Some of the complications of blast injuries include:

* Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
* Extremity injuries, such as amputations or fractures
* Internal organ damage or failure
* Respiratory problems, such as pulmonary contusions or pneumonia
* Psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Prevention of blast injuries is challenging, but some measures that can be taken include:

* Increasing awareness of the risks associated with explosives and improving emergency preparedness
* Developing and implementing safety protocols for handling explosive materials
* Improving the design of protective equipment and structures to mitigate the effects of blast waves.

Overall, blast injuries can have a significant impact on individuals, communities, and societies as a whole. It is important to improve our understanding of these injuries and to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies to reduce their impact.

1. Fractures: A break in one or more of the bones in the hand or wrist.
2. Sprains and strains: Overstretching or tearing of the ligaments or tendons in the hand or wrist.
3. Cuts and lacerations: Deep cuts or puncture wounds to the skin and underlying tissue.
4. Burns: Damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by heat, electricity, or chemicals.
5. Amputations: The loss of a finger or part of a finger due to trauma or surgical intervention.
6. Crush injuries: Injuries caused by a heavy object falling on the hand or fingers.
7. Nerve damage: Damage to the nerves in the hand, causing numbness, tingling, or loss of function.
8. Tendon and ligament injuries: Injuries to the tendons and ligaments that connect muscles and bones in the hand.
9. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A common condition caused by compression of the median nerve in the wrist.
10. Thumb injuries: Injuries to the thumb, including fractures, sprains, and strains.

Treatment for hand injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and may include immobilization, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated hand injuries can lead to long-term complications and decreased function.

Types of Thoracic Injuries:

1. Rib fractures: These are common in people who have been involved in a traumatic event, such as a car accident or fall.
2. Pneumothorax: This is when air leaks into the space between the lungs and chest wall, causing the lung to collapse.
3. Hemothorax: This is when blood accumulates in the space between the lungs and chest wall.
4. Pulmonary contusions: These are bruises on the lung tissue caused by blunt trauma to the chest.
5. Flail chest: This is a condition where two or more ribs are broken and the affected segment of the chest wall is unable to move properly.
6. Thoracic spine injuries: These can include fractures, dislocations, or compressions of the vertebrae in the upper back.
7. Injuries to the aorta or pulmonary artery: These can be caused by blunt trauma to the chest and can lead to life-threatening bleeding.

Symptoms of Thoracic Injuries:

1. Chest pain or tenderness
2. Difficulty breathing
3. Coughing up blood
4. Sudden shortness of breath
5. Pain in the shoulder or arms
6. Bluish tinge to the skin (cyanosis)
7. Decreased consciousness or confusion

Diagnosis and Treatment of Thoracic Injuries:

1. Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI may be used to diagnose thoracic injuries.
2. Treatment may involve immobilization of the affected area with a cast or brace, pain management with medication, and breathing exercises to help restore lung function.
3. Surgery may be necessary to repair damaged organs or tissues, such as a thoracotomy to repair a punctured lung or a surgical splint to stabilize broken ribs.
4. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU) may be required to monitor and treat the injury.
5. Physical therapy may be necessary after the initial treatment to help restore full range of motion and prevent future complications.

Prevention of Thoracic Injuries:

1. Wear protective gear such as seatbelts and helmets during high-risk activities like driving or riding a bike.
2. Use proper lifting techniques to avoid straining the back and chest muscles.
3. Avoid falling or jumping from heights to prevent fractures and other injuries.
4. Keep the home environment safe by removing any hazards that could cause falls or injuries.
5. Practice good posture and body mechanics to reduce the risk of strains and sprains.
6. Maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced diet, to keep the muscles and bones strong.
7. Avoid smoking and limit alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of chronic diseases that can lead to thoracic injuries.

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for effective management of thoracic injuries. If you suspect that you or someone else has sustained a thoracic injury, seek medical attention immediately. A prompt and accurate diagnosis will help ensure the best possible outcome and reduce the risk of complications.

Symptoms of spinal injuries may include:

* Loss of sensation below the level of the injury
* Weakness or paralysis below the level of the injury
* Pain or numbness in the back, arms, or legs
* Difficulty breathing or controlling bladder and bowel functions
* Changes in reflexes or sensation below the level of the injury.

Spinal injuries can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:

* X-rays or CT scans to assess the alignment of the spine and detect any fractures or dislocations
* MRI scans to assess the soft tissues of the spine and detect any damage to the spinal cord
* Electromyography (EMG) tests to assess the function of muscles and nerves below the level of the injury.

Treatment for spinal injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, and may include:

* Immobilization using a brace or cast to keep the spine stable
* Medications to manage pain, inflammation, and other symptoms
* Rehabilitation therapies such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and recreational therapy to help restore function and mobility.

In summary, spinal injuries can be classified into two categories: complete and incomplete, and can be caused by a variety of factors. Symptoms may include loss of sensation, weakness or paralysis, pain, difficulty breathing, and changes in reflexes or sensation. Diagnosis is typically made using X-rays, MRI scans, and EMG tests, and treatment may involve immobilization, medications, and rehabilitation therapies.

1. Meniscal tears: The meniscus is a cartilage structure in the knee joint that can tear due to twisting or bending movements.
2. Ligament sprains: The ligaments that connect the bones of the knee joint can become stretched or torn, leading to instability and pain.
3. Torn cartilage: The articular cartilage that covers the ends of the bones in the knee joint can tear due to wear and tear or trauma.
4. Fractures: The bones of the knee joint can fracture as a result of a direct blow or fall.
5. Dislocations: The bones of the knee joint can become dislocated, causing pain and instability.
6. Patellar tendinitis: Inflammation of the tendon that connects the patella (kneecap) to the shinbone.
7. Iliotibial band syndrome: Inflammation of the iliotibial band, a ligament that runs down the outside of the thigh and crosses the knee joint.
8. Osteochondritis dissecans: A condition in which a piece of cartilage and bone becomes detached from the end of a bone in the knee joint.
9. Baker's cyst: A fluid-filled cyst that forms behind the knee, usually as a result of a tear in the meniscus or a knee injury.

Symptoms of knee injuries can include pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility. Treatment for knee injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may range from conservative measures such as physical therapy and medication to surgical intervention.

Example sentence: "The patient experienced a transient ischemic attack, which was caused by a temporary blockage in one of the blood vessels in their brain."

Synonyms: TIA, mini-stroke.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Some common types of facial injuries include:

1. Cuts and lacerations: These are open wounds that can be caused by sharp objects or broken glass.
2. Bruises and contusions: These are caused by blunt trauma and can lead to swelling and discoloration.
3. Fractures: Facial bones, such as the nasal bone, orbital bone, and jawbone, can be fractured due to trauma.
4. Eye injuries: The eyes can be injured due to trauma, such as blows to the head or foreign objects penetrating the eye.
5. Dental injuries: Teeth can be chipped, fractured, or knocked out due to trauma to the face.
6. Soft tissue injuries: The soft tissues of the face, including the skin, muscles, and ligaments, can be injured due to trauma.
7. Burns: Burns can occur on the face due to exposure to heat or chemicals.
8. Scars: Facial scars can be caused by burns, cuts, or other forms of trauma.
9. Nerve damage: The nerves of the face can be damaged due to trauma, leading to numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
10. Cosmetic injuries: Facial injuries can also affect the appearance of the face, leading to scarring, disfigurement, or loss of facial features.

Treatment for facial injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with self-care measures, such as ice packs, elevation of the head, and over-the-counter pain medications. More severe injuries may require medical attention, including stitches, casts, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, or if there are signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or pus.

There are several types of heart injuries that can occur, including:

1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): This occurs when the blood flow to the heart is blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle.
2. Cardiac tamponade: This occurs when fluid accumulates in the space between the heart and the sac that surrounds it, putting pressure on the heart and impeding its ability to function properly.
3. Myocarditis: This is an inflammation of the heart muscle that can be caused by a virus or bacteria.
4. Pericardial tamponade: This occurs when fluid accumulates in the space between the heart and the sac that surrounds it, putting pressure on the heart and impeding its ability to function properly.
5. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
6. Coronary artery disease: This occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to damage to the heart muscle.
7. Cardiac rupture: This is a rare and severe injury that occurs when the heart muscle tears or ruptures.

Symptoms of heart injuries can include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and irregular heartbeat. Treatment options for heart injuries depend on the severity of the injury and can range from medications to surgery. In some cases, heart injuries may be fatal if not properly treated.

In conclusion, heart injuries are a serious medical condition that can have long-term consequences if not properly treated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a heart injury are present.

Symptoms of Spinal Cord Ischemia may include weakness, paralysis, loss of sensation, and loss of reflexes in the affected area. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and laboratory tests.

Treatment for Spinal Cord Ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to repair arterial damage, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further damage. In severe cases, Spinal Cord Ischemia can lead to permanent neurological damage or death.

Spinal Cord Ischemia is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death.

There are many different types of back injuries that can occur, including:

1. Strains and sprains: These are common injuries that occur when the muscles or ligaments in the back are stretched or torn.
2. Herniated discs: When the gel-like center of a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, it can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
3. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the spinal discs wear down over time and lose their cushioning ability, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra in the spine slips out of place, which can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
5. Fractures: These are breaks in one or more of the bones in the back, which can be caused by trauma or overuse.
6. Spinal cord injuries: These are injuries that affect the spinal cord, either from trauma (e.g., car accidents) or from degenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
7. Radiculopathy: This is a condition where a compressed nerve root in the back can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms or legs.

Treatment for back injuries depends on the specific type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated back injuries can lead to chronic pain and decreased mobility.

In this answer, we will explore the definition of 'Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute' in more detail, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.

What is Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute?
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Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute (ATN) is a condition that affects the tubules of the kidneys, leading to inflammation and damage. The condition is often caused by various factors such as sepsis, shock, toxins, or medications.

The term "acute" refers to the sudden and severe nature of the condition, which can progress rapidly within hours or days. The condition can be life-threatening if left untreated, and it is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Causes of Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute
--------------------------------------

There are various factors that can cause Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute, including:

### 1. Sepsis

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to an infection, which can lead to damage to the tubules of the kidneys.

### 2. Shock

Shock can cause a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, leading to damage and inflammation.

### 3. Toxins

Exposure to certain toxins, such as heavy metals or certain medications, can damage the tubules of the kidneys.

### 4. Medications

Certain medications, such as antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can cause damage to the tubules of the kidneys.

### 5. Infection

Infections such as pyelonephritis or perinephric abscess can spread to the kidneys and cause inflammation and damage to the tubules.

### 6. Radiation necrosis

Radiation therapy can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to inflammation and scarring.

### 7. Kidney transplant rejection

Rejection of a kidney transplant can lead to inflammation and damage to the tubules of the transplanted kidney.

Symptoms of Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute
------------------------------------------

The symptoms of acute tubular necrosis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the underlying cause. Some common symptoms include:

### 1. Fatigue

Fatigue is a common symptom of acute tubular necrosis, as the condition can lead to a decrease in the kidneys' ability to filter waste products from the blood.

### 2. Nausea and vomiting

Nausea and vomiting can occur due to electrolyte imbalances and changes in fluid levels in the body.

### 3. Decreased urine output

Acute tubular necrosis can cause a decrease in urine production, as the damaged tubules are unable to filter waste products from the blood effectively.

### 4. Swelling (edema)

Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet can occur due to fluid buildup in the body.

### 5. Abdominal pain

Abdominal pain can be a symptom of acute tubular necrosis, as the condition can cause inflammation and scarring in the kidneys.

### 6. Fever

Fever can occur due to infection or inflammation in the kidneys.

### 7. Blood in urine (hematuria)

Hematuria, or blood in the urine, can be a symptom of acute tubular necrosis, as the damaged tubules can leak blood into the urine.

## Causes and risk factors

The exact cause of acute tubular necrosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be due to damage to the kidney tubules, which can occur for a variety of reasons. Some possible causes and risk factors include:

1. Sepsis: Bacterial infections can spread to the kidneys and cause inflammation and damage to the tubules.
2. Toxins: Exposure to certain toxins, such as heavy metals or certain medications, can damage the kidney tubules.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics, can cause kidney damage and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
4. Hypotension: Low blood pressure can reduce blood flow to the kidneys and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
5. Shock: Severe shock can lead to damage to the kidney tubules.
6. Burns: Severe burns can cause damage to the kidneys and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
7. Trauma: Traumatic injuries, such as those caused by car accidents or falls, can damage the kidneys and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
8. Surgery: Major surgery can cause damage to the kidneys and increase the risk of acute tubular necrosis.
9. Kidney disease: People with pre-existing kidney disease are at increased risk of developing acute tubular necrosis.
10. Chronic conditions: Certain chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, can increase the risk of developing acute tubular necrosis.

It is important to note that acute tubular necrosis can occur in people with no underlying medical conditions or risk factors, and it is often a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning that other potential causes of the person's symptoms must be ruled out before the diagnosis can be made.

Examples of closed head injuries include:

* Concussions
* Contusions
* Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain)
* Brain hemorrhages (bleeding in the brain)

Closed head injuries can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, such as falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and assaults.

Symptoms of closed head injuries may include:

* Headache
* Dizziness or loss of balance
* Confusion or disorientation
* Memory loss or difficulty concentrating
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or sensitivity to light

Closed head injuries can be difficult to diagnose, as there may be no visible signs of injury. However, a healthcare provider may use imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI to look for evidence of damage to the brain. Treatment for closed head injuries typically involves rest, medication, and rehabilitation to help the patient recover from any cognitive, emotional, or physical symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the brain or repair damaged blood vessels.

Soft tissue injuries can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility, and can impact an individual's ability to perform daily activities. Treatment for soft tissue injuries may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), as well as physical therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the severity of the injury.

Some common examples of soft tissue injuries include:

* Sprains: stretching or tearing of ligaments, which connect bones to other bones and provide stability to joints.
* Strains: stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons, which connect muscles to bones.
* Contusions: bruises that occur when blood collects in soft tissues as a result of trauma.
* Tendinitis: inflammation of tendons, which connect muscles to bones.
* Bursitis: inflammation of bursae, small fluid-filled sacs that cushion joints and reduce friction between tendons and bones.
* Fasciitis: inflammation of the fascia, a thin layer of tissue that surrounds muscles and other organs.

DAI is often seen in cases of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also known as concussion, and is thought to be caused by the shearing forces that occur when the brain is subjected to rapid acceleration and deceleration, such as during a car accident or sports injury.

The symptoms of DAI can vary widely depending on the severity of the injury and may include:

* Memory loss
* Confusion
* Difficulty concentrating
* Dizziness and balance problems
* Sleep disturbances
* Mood changes, such as irritability or depression
* Changes in behavior, such as increased impulsivity or aggression

DAI is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for DAI typically focuses on managing symptoms and supporting the brain's natural healing process, and may include medication, physical therapy, and cognitive rehabilitation.

Prognosis for DAI varies depending on the severity of the injury, but in general, people with DAI can expect a full recovery within a few months to a year after the initial injury. However, some individuals may experience persistent symptoms or develop long-term cognitive and emotional changes as a result of the injury.

In medical terms, craniocerebral trauma is defined as any injury that affects the skull, brain, or both, as a result of an external force. This can include fractures of the skull, intracranial hemorrhages (bleeding inside the skull), and diffuse axonal injuries (DAI), which are tears in the fibers of the brain.

Craniocerebral trauma can be classified into two main categories: closed head injury and open head injury. Closed head injury occurs when the skull does not fracture, but the brain is still affected by the impact, such as from whiplash or shaking. Open head injury, on the other hand, involves a fracture of the skull, which can cause the brain to be exposed to the outside environment and increase the risk of infection.

Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury and may include observation, medication, surgery, or a combination of these. In severe cases, craniocerebral trauma can lead to long-term cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments, and may require ongoing rehabilitation and support.

The definition of DILI has been revised several times over the years, but the most recent definition was published in 2013 by the International Consortium for DILI Research (ICDCR). According to this definition, DILI is defined as:

"A clinically significant alteration in liver function that is caused by a medication or other exogenous substance, and is not related to underlying liver disease. The alteration may be biochemical, morphological, or both, and may be acute or chronic."

The ICDCR definition includes several key features of DILI, including:

1. Clinically significant alteration in liver function: This means that the liver damage must be severe enough to cause symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction, such as jaundice, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
2. Caused by a medication or other exogenous substance: DILI is triggered by exposure to certain drugs or substances that are not related to underlying liver disease.
3. Not related to underlying liver disease: This means that the liver damage must not be caused by an underlying condition such as hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, or other genetic or metabolic disorders.
4. May be acute or chronic: DILI can occur as a sudden and severe injury (acute DILI) or as a slower and more insidious process (chronic DILI).

The ICDCR definition provides a standardized way of defining and diagnosing DILI, which is important for clinicians and researchers to better understand the cause of liver damage in patients who are taking medications. It also helps to identify the drugs or substances that are most likely to cause liver injury and to develop strategies for preventing or treating DILI.

Occupational Injuries can affect any part of the body, including the musculoskeletal system (e.g., back injuries, sprains and strains), the respiratory system (e.g., occupational asthma), the skin and eyes (e.g., exposure to chemicals or radiation), and more.

Some common types of Occupational Injuries include:

1. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs): These injuries affect the muscles, nerves, tendons, and joints, often caused by repetitive tasks, poor posture, or heavy lifting. Examples include carpal tunnel syndrome, back strain, and tendonitis.
2. Hearing loss: Prolonged exposure to loud noises in the workplace can cause permanent hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
3. Skin diseases: Occupational skin diseases can result from exposure to chemicals, cleaning products, or other substances. Examples include contact dermatitis and occupational eczema.
4. Respiratory problems: Inhaling hazardous materials or substances can cause respiratory issues, such as asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer.
5. Eye injuries: Prolonged exposure to bright lights, glare, or flying objects can cause eye injuries, including retinal damage and cataracts.
6. Traumatic injuries: Accidents in the workplace, such as falls or being struck by an object, can result in traumatic injuries, including broken bones, concussions, and head trauma.
7. Repetitive motion injuries: Repeating the same tasks over time can cause injuries to muscles, tendons, and joints, such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger.
8. Heat-related illnesses: Working in high temperatures without proper ventilation or hydration can lead to heat exhaustion or heat stroke.
9. Cold-related illnesses: Exposure to cold temperatures for extended periods can cause hypothermia and other cold-related illnesses.
10. Psychological injuries: Stress, bullying, and harassment in the workplace can lead to psychological injuries, including depression and anxiety disorders.

It's important for employees to be aware of these potential hazards and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), following safety protocols, and reporting any incidents or concerns to their supervisors or human resources department. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and take proactive measures to prevent injuries and illnesses from occurring in the first place.

There are several types of carotid artery injuries, including:

1. Carotid artery dissection: This is a tear in the inner lining of the artery that can lead to bleeding and inflammation.
2. Carotid artery thrombosis: This is the formation of a blood clot within the artery that can block blood flow to the brain.
3. Carotid artery occlusion: This is the complete blockage of the artery, which can cause a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Carotid artery injury due to trauma: This type of injury can occur as a result of a blow to the neck or head.
5. Carotid artery injury due to surgery: This type of injury can occur during surgical procedures that involve the carotid arteries, such as endarterectomy or stenting.

The symptoms of carotid artery injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage. Some common symptoms include:

* Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Sudden confusion or trouble speaking
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Sudden difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Sudden severe headache

The diagnosis of carotid artery injuries is typically made using imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for carotid artery injuries depend on the severity and location of the injury, and may include medications, endovascular procedures, or surgery.

Prevention of carotid artery injuries is key to reducing the risk of complications. This can be achieved through:

* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced diet
* Avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes
* Properly managing medications that may increase the risk of bleeding or injury
* Using appropriate precautions during surgical procedures, such as using sterile equipment and monitoring for signs of bleeding or injury.

In conclusion, carotid artery injuries can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for these injuries in order to provide appropriate care and prevent complications. Proper precautions during surgical procedures and a healthy lifestyle can also help reduce the risk of carotid artery injuries.

Types of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Traumatic Nerve Injury: This type of injury occurs due to direct trauma to the nerve, such as a blow or a crush injury.
2. Compression Neuropathy: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is compressed or pinched, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.
3. Stretch Injury: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is stretched or overstretched, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.
4. Entrapment Neuropathy: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is compressed or trapped between two structures, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.

Symptoms of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Weakness or paralysis of specific muscle groups
2. Numbness or tingling in the affected area
3. Pain or burning sensation in the affected area
4. Difficulty with balance and coordination
5. Abnormal reflexes
6. Incontinence or other bladder or bowel problems

Causes of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Trauma, such as a car accident or fall
2. Sports injuries
3. Repetitive strain injuries, such as those caused by repetitive motions in the workplace or during sports activities
4. Compression or entrapment of nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome or tarsal tunnel syndrome
5. Infections, such as Lyme disease or diphtheria
6. Tumors or cysts that compress or damage nerves
7. Vitamin deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 deficiency
8. Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus
9. Toxins, such as heavy metals or certain chemicals

Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Physical therapy to improve strength and range of motion
2. Medications to manage pain and inflammation
3. Surgery to release compressed nerves or repair damaged nerves
4. Electrical stimulation therapy to promote nerve regeneration
5. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy to stimulate healing
6. Stem cell therapy to promote nerve regeneration
7. Injection of botulinum toxin to relieve pain and reduce muscle spasticity
8. Orthotics or assistive devices to improve mobility and function

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a peripheral nerve injury, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

There are many different types of ankle injuries, ranging from mild sprains and strains to more severe fractures and dislocations. Some common causes of ankle injuries include:

* Rolling or twisting the ankle
* Landing awkwardly on the foot
* Direct blows to the ankle
* Overuse or repetitive motion

Symptoms of an ankle injury can vary depending on the severity of the injury, but may include:

* Pain and tenderness in the ankle area
* Swelling and bruising
* Difficulty moving the ankle or putting weight on it
* Instability or a feeling of the ankle giving way
* Limited range of motion

Ankle injuries can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment for ankle injuries may include:

* Rest and ice to reduce swelling and pain
* Compression bandages to help stabilize the ankle
* Elevation of the injured ankle to reduce swelling
* Physical therapy exercises to strengthen the muscles around the ankle and improve range of motion
* Bracing or taping to provide support and stability
* In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged ligaments or bones.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated ankle injuries can lead to chronic pain, instability, and limited mobility. With proper treatment and care, however, many people are able to recover from ankle injuries and return to their normal activities without long-term complications.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

The word "edema" comes from the Greek word "oidema", meaning swelling.

Cerebral infarction can result in a range of symptoms, including sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, sudden vision loss, dizziness, and confusion. Depending on the location and severity of the infarction, it can lead to long-term disability or even death.

There are several types of cerebral infarction, including:

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of cerebral infarction, accounting for around 87% of all cases. It occurs when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, leading to bleeding and cell death.
3. Lacunar infarction: This type of cerebral infarction affects the deep structures of the brain, particularly the basal ganglia, and is often caused by small blockages or stenosis (narrowing) in the blood vessels.
4. Territorial infarction: This type of cerebral infarction occurs when there is a complete blockage of a blood vessel that supplies a specific area of the brain, leading to cell death and tissue damage in that area.

Diagnosis of cerebral infarction typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and location of the infarction, but may include medication to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove blockages, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

The vascular system is responsible for circulating blood throughout the body, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs, and removing waste products. Any damage to the blood vessels can disrupt this function, leading to serious health complications.

There are several types of vascular system injuries, including:

1. Arterial injuries: These occur when an artery is damaged or torn, either due to trauma or a medical condition such as aneurysm or atherosclerosis.
2. Venous injuries: These occur when a vein is damaged or blocked, causing blood to pool in the affected area.
3. Lymphatic injuries: These occur when the lymphatic system is damaged or obstructed, leading to swelling and other complications.
4. Capillary injuries: These occur when the tiny blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to tissues are damaged or torn.

Vascular system injuries can have serious consequences if left untreated, including loss of limb, organ failure, and even death. Treatment for these injuries depends on the severity and location of the damage, and may involve medication, surgery, or other interventions to repair or replace damaged blood vessels.

Contusions are bruises that occur when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. They can be painful and may discolor the skin, but they do not involve a break in the skin. Hematomas are similar to contusions, but they are caused by bleeding under the skin.

Non-penetrating wounds are typically less severe than penetrating wounds, which involve a break in the skin and can be more difficult to treat. However, non-penetrating wounds can still cause significant pain and discomfort, and may require medical attention to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

Examples of Non-Penetrating Wounds

* Contusions: A contusion is a bruise that occurs when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. This can happen when someone is hit with an object or falls and strikes a hard surface.
* Hematomas: A hematoma is a collection of blood under the skin that can cause swelling and discoloration. It is often caused by blunt trauma, such as a blow to the head or body.
* Ecchymoses: An ecchymosis is a bruise that occurs when blood leaks into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. This can happen due to blunt trauma or other causes, such as injury or surgery.

Types of Non-Penetrating Wounds

* Closed wounds: These are injuries that do not involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by blunt trauma or other forms of injury, and may result in bruising, swelling, or discoloration of the skin.
* Open wounds: These are injuries that do involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by penetrating objects, such as knives or gunshots, or by blunt trauma.

Treatment for Contusions and Hematomas

* Rest: It is important to get plenty of rest after suffering a contusion or hematoma. This will help your body recover from the injury and reduce inflammation.
* Ice: Applying ice to the affected area can help reduce swelling and pain. Wrap an ice pack in a towel or cloth to protect your skin.
* Compression: Using compression bandages or wraps can help reduce swelling and promote healing.
* Elevation: Elevating the affected limb above the level of your heart can help reduce swelling and improve circulation.
* Medication: Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can help manage pain and inflammation.

Prevention

* Wear protective gear: When engaging in activities that may cause injury, wear appropriate protective gear, such as helmets, pads, and gloves.
* Use proper technique: Proper technique when engaging in physical activity can help reduce the risk of injury.
* Stay fit: Being in good physical condition can help improve your ability to withstand injuries.
* Stretch and warm up: Before engaging in physical activity, stretch and warm up to increase blood flow and reduce muscle stiffness.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:

* Increasing pain or swelling
* Difficulty moving the affected limb
* Fever or chills
* Redness or discharge around the wound
* Deformity of the affected limb.

The primary graft dysfunction syndrome is a complex clinical entity characterized by severe respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, which develops within the first week after transplantation. PGD is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, and it is one of the leading causes of graft failure after solid organ transplantation.

There are several risk factors for primary graft dysfunction, including:

1. Recipient age and comorbidities
2. Donor age and comorbidities
3. Cold ischemic time (CIT)
4. Hypoxic injury during procurement
5. Delayed recipient surgery
6. Inadequate immunosuppression
7. Sepsis
8. Pulmonary infection
9. Hemodynamic instability
10. Pulmonary edema

The diagnosis of primary graft dysfunction is based on a combination of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings. The condition can be classified into three categories:

1. Mild PGD: characterized by mild respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, with no evidence of severe inflammation or fibrosis.
2. Moderate PGD: characterized by moderate respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, with evidence of severe inflammation and/or fibrosis.
3. Severe PGD: characterized by severe respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, with extensive inflammation and/or fibrosis.

The treatment of primary graft dysfunction is aimed at addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may include administration of immunosuppressive drugs, management of infections, and correction of any anatomical or functional abnormalities. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary.

Prevention of primary graft dysfunction is crucial to minimize the risk of complications after lung transplantation. This can be achieved by careful donor selection, optimization of recipient condition before transplantation, and meticulous surgical technique during the procedure. Additionally, prompt recognition and management of early signs of PGD are essential to prevent progression to more severe forms of the condition.

In conclusion, primary graft dysfunction is a complex and multifactorial complication after lung transplantation that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the causes, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of PGD is essential for optimal management of patients undergoing lung transplantation.

First-degree burns are the mildest form of burn and affect only the outer layer of the skin. They are characterized by redness, swelling, and pain but do not blister or scar. Examples of first-degree burns include sunburns and minor scalds from hot liquids.

Second-degree burns are more severe and affect both the outer and inner layers of the skin. They can cause blisters, redness, swelling, and pain, and may lead to infection. Second-degree burns can be further classified into two subtypes: partial thickness burns (where the skin is damaged but not completely destroyed) and full thickness burns (where the skin is completely destroyed).

Third-degree burns are the most severe and affect all layers of the skin and underlying tissues. They can cause charring of the skin, loss of function, and may lead to infection or even death.

There are several ways to treat burns, including:

1. Cooling the burn with cool water or a cold compress to reduce heat and prevent further damage.
2. Keeping the burn clean and dry to prevent infection.
3. Applying topical creams or ointments to help soothe and heal the burn.
4. Taking pain medication to manage discomfort.
5. In severe cases, undergoing surgery to remove damaged tissue and promote healing.

Prevention is key when it comes to burns. Some ways to prevent burns include:

1. Being cautious when handling hot objects or substances.
2. Keeping a safe distance from open flames or sparks.
3. Wearing protective clothing, such as gloves and long sleeves, when working with hot materials.
4. Keeping children away from hot surfaces and substances.
5. Installing smoke detectors and fire extinguishers in the home to reduce the risk of fires.

Overall, burns can be a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatments for burns, individuals can take steps to prevent them and seek help if they do occur.

Types of Kidney Diseases:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:

1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:

1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)

Treatment of Kidney Diseases:

1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)

Prevention of Kidney Diseases:

1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings

Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.

1. Strains and sprains: These are common injuries that occur when the muscles or ligaments in the foot are stretched or torn. They can be caused by overuse or sudden movement.
2. Fractures: A fracture is a break in a bone. In the foot, fractures can occur in any of the five long bones (metatarsals) or the heel bone (calcaneus).
3. Plantar fasciitis: This is a common condition that affects the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot. It can cause pain and stiffness in the heel and bottom of the foot.
4. Achilles tendinitis: This is an inflammation of the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It can cause pain and stiffness in the back of the ankle.
5. Bunions and hammertoes: These are deformities that can occur when the bones in the foot are not properly aligned. They can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness in the foot.
6. Infections: Foot injuries can increase the risk of developing an infection, especially if they become exposed to bacteria or other microorganisms. Signs of an infection may include redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.
7. Ulcers: These are open sores that can develop on the skin of the foot, often as a result of diabetes or poor circulation. They can be difficult to heal and can lead to further complications if left untreated.

Treatment for foot injuries will depend on the severity of the injury and may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) as well as physical therapy exercises to improve strength and flexibility. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or realign bones.

Types of Finger Injuries
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1. Cuts and Lacerations: These are the most common type of finger injury and can occur when the skin is cut or torn due to a sharp object or blunt force.
2. Sprains and Strains: These injuries occur when the ligaments or muscles in the fingers are stretched or torn, causing pain and swelling.
3. Fractures: Finger fractures can occur when the bones in the finger are broken due to a direct blow or crushing force.
4. Dislocations: This occurs when the bones in the finger are forced out of their normal position.
5. Tendon Injuries: Tendons connect muscles to bones and can become injured due to overuse or sudden strain.
6. Nerve Injuries: Finger injuries can also affect the nerves, causing numbness, tingling, or pain in the fingers.

Causes of Finger Injuries
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1. Accidents: Car accidents, falls, and other accidents can cause finger injuries.
2. Sports: Contact sports such as basketball, football, and hockey can lead to finger injuries due to collisions or falls.
3. Work-related Activities: Jobs that involve manual labor or heavy machinery can increase the risk of finger injuries.
4. Overuse: Repetitive movements or overuse of the fingers can lead to injuries such as tendonitis or sprains.
5. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions such as arthritis, gout, and diabetes can increase the risk of finger injuries.

Symptoms of Finger Injuries
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1. Pain: Pain is the most common symptom of finger injuries, ranging from mild to severe.
2. Swelling: Swelling in the affected finger or fingers can occur due to inflammation or bruising.
3. Limited Mobility: Finger injuries can limit mobility and make it difficult to move the fingers or perform everyday activities.
4. Deformity: In severe cases, finger injuries can cause deformities such as bone misalignment or muscle imbalance.
5. Numbness or Tingling: Finger injuries can cause numbness or tingling sensations in the affected fingers.

Treatment of Finger Injuries
-------------------------

1. Rest: Resting the injured finger and avoiding activities that exacerbate the injury is essential for recovery.
2. Ice: Applying ice to the affected area can reduce swelling and relieve pain.
3. Compression: Wrapping the injured finger with a bandage or compression glove can help reduce swelling and stabilize the joints.
4. Elevation: Elevating the injured hand above heart level can reduce swelling and promote healing.
5. Medications: Over-the-counter pain medications such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen can relieve pain and reduce inflammation.
6. Immobilization: Immobilizing the injured finger with a splint or cast can help promote healing and prevent further injury.
7. Physical Therapy: Gentle exercises and stretches can help improve mobility and strength in the affected finger.
8. Surgery: In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or realign bones.

Prevention of Finger Injuries
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1. Warm-up Exercises: Performing warm-up exercises before engaging in physical activities can help prevent finger injuries by increasing blood flow and flexibility.
2. Proper Equipment: Using proper equipment such as gloves or protective gear can help prevent finger injuries, especially in sports or high-risk activities.
3. Careful Lifting: Lifting objects with proper technique and using the legs instead of the fingers can help prevent strains and sprains.
4. Finger Stretching: Regular stretching exercises can help improve flexibility and reduce the risk of finger injuries.
5. Strengthening Exercises: Strengthening the muscles in the hand and fingers through exercises such as grip strengthening can help prevent injuries.
6. Avoiding Overuse: Taking regular breaks and avoiding overuse can help prevent fatigue and reduce the risk of finger injuries.

Examples of penetrating wounds include:

1. Gunshot wounds: These are caused by a bullet entering the body and can be very serious, potentially causing severe bleeding, organ damage, and even death.
2. Stab wounds: These are caused by a sharp object such as a knife or broken glass being inserted into the skin and can also be very dangerous, depending on the location and depth of the wound.
3. Puncture wounds: These are similar to stab wounds but are typically caused by a sharp point rather than a cutting edge, such as a nail or an ice pick.
4. Impaling injuries: These are caused by an object being pushed or thrust into the body, such as a broken bone or a piece of wood.

Penetrating wounds can be classified based on their severity and location. Some common classifications include:

1. Superficial wounds: These are wounds that only penetrate the skin and do not involve any underlying tissue or organs.
2. Deep wounds: These are wounds that penetrate deeper into the body and may involve underlying tissue or organs.
3. Critical wounds: These are wounds that are potentially life-threatening, such as gunshot wounds to the head or chest.
4. Non-critical wounds: These are wounds that are not immediately life-threatening but may still require medical attention to prevent infection or other complications.

The treatment of penetrating wounds depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments for penetrating wounds include:

1. Wound cleaning and irrigation: The wound is cleaned and irrigated to remove any debris or bacteria that may be present.
2. Debridement: Dead tissue is removed from the wound to promote healing and prevent infection.
3. Stitches or staples: The wound is closed with stitches or staples to bring the edges of the skin together and promote healing.
4. Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat infection.
5. Tetanus shot: If the patient has not had a tetanus shot in the past 10 years, they may receive one to prevent tetanus infection.
6. Pain management: Pain medication may be prescribed to manage any discomfort or pain associated with the wound.
7. Wound dressing: The wound is covered with a dressing to protect it from further injury and promote healing.

It is important to seek medical attention if you have sustained a penetrating wound, as these types of injuries can be serious and potentially life-threatening. A healthcare professional will be able to assess the severity of the wound and provide appropriate treatment.

There are several types of penetrating eye injuries, including:

1. Perforating injuries: These occur when an object punctures the globe of the eye, creating a hole in the retina or the sclera. These injuries can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.
2. Non-perforating injuries: These occur when an object does not penetrate the globe of the eye but still causes damage to the surrounding tissues. These injuries are typically less severe than perforating injuries but can still cause significant vision loss.
3. Hyphemas: These occur when blood collects in the space between the cornea and the iris, often due to a blow to the eye.
4. Retinal detachments: These occur when the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, often due to a traumatic injury.

Symptoms of penetrating eye injuries can include:

* Severe pain in the eye
* Redness and swelling of the affected eye
* Difficulty seeing or blindness
* Floaters or flashes of light
* A feeling of something in the eye

Treatment of penetrating eye injuries depends on the severity of the injury and can include:

1. Immediate medical attention to assess the extent of the injury and provide appropriate treatment.
2. Surgery to repair any damage to the eye, such as removing a foreign object or repairing a retinal detachment.
3. Antibiotics to prevent infection.
4. Pain management with medication.
5. Monitoring for complications, such as glaucoma or cataracts.

Preventive measures for penetrating eye injuries include:

1. Wearing protective eyewear when performing activities that could potentially cause eye injury, such as playing sports or working with power tools.
2. Avoiding touching the eyes or face to prevent the spread of infection.
3. Keeping the environment clean and free of hazards to reduce the risk of injury.
4. Properly storing and disposing of sharp objects to prevent accidents.
5. Seeking medical attention immediately if an eye injury occurs.

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a penetrating eye injury, as timely treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several types of edema, including:

1. Pitting edema: This type of edema occurs when the fluid accumulates in the tissues and leaves a pit or depression when it is pressed. It is commonly seen in the skin of the lower legs and feet.
2. Non-pitting edema: This type of edema does not leave a pit or depression when pressed. It is often seen in the face, hands, and arms.
3. Cytedema: This type of edema is caused by an accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the limbs, particularly in the hands and feet.
4. Edema nervorum: This type of edema affects the nerves and can cause pain, numbness, and tingling in the affected area.
5. Lymphedema: This is a condition where the lymphatic system is unable to properly drain fluid from the body, leading to swelling in the arms or legs.

Edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as imaging studies and blood tests. Treatment options for edema depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications, lifestyle changes, and compression garments. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to remove excess fluid or tissue.

The "no-reflow" phenomenon is defined as the absence of hyperemia (increased blood flow) in the myocardium after successful reperfusion therapy, which includes primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolysis. It is characterized by a decrease in the size of the infarct area, but not complete resolution of the infarction.

The no-reflow phenomenon can be diagnosed using various techniques such as echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging. Treatment for the no-reflow phenomenon is aimed at addressing the underlying cause, such as managing blood pressure, controlling blood sugar levels, and administering medications to reduce inflammation and improve coronary blood flow.

In summary, the no-reflow phenomenon is a complex condition that can occur after reperfusion therapy, characterized by reduced or absent blood flow to certain areas of the heart muscle despite adequate perfusion pressure. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent further damage and improve outcomes in patients with this condition.

The symptoms of hemorrhagic shock may include:

* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Fast heart rate
* Shallow breathing
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
* Decreased urine output

Treatment of hemorrhagic shock typically involves replacing lost blood volume with IV fluids and/or blood transfusions. In severe cases, medications such as vasopressors may be used to raise blood pressure and improve circulation. Surgical intervention may also be necessary to control the bleeding source.

The goal of treatment is to restore blood flow and oxygenation to vital organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys, and to prevent further bleeding and hypovolemia. Early recognition and aggressive treatment of hemorrhagic shock are critical to preventing severe complications and mortality.

The committee defined "brain death" as follows:

* The absence of any clinical or electrophysiological signs of consciousness, including the lack of response to pain, light, sound, or other stimuli.
* The absence of brainstem reflexes, such as pupillary reactivity, oculocephalic reflex, and gag reflex.
* The failure of all brain waves, including alpha, beta, theta, delta, and epsilon waves, as detected by electroencephalography (EEG).
* The absence of any other clinical or laboratory signs of life, such as heartbeat, breathing, or blood circulation.

The definition of brain death is important because it provides a clear and consistent criteria for determining death in medical settings. It helps to ensure that patients who are clinically dead are not inappropriately kept on life support, and that organ donation can be performed in a timely and ethical manner.

Types of Electric Injuries There are several types of electric injuries that can occur, including:

1. Electrical shock: This occurs when a person's body is exposed to an electric current, which can cause muscle contractions, nerve damage, and other systemic effects.
2. Electrical burns: These are burns caused by the heat generated by electrical currents flowing through the body. They can be superficial or deep, and may require surgical intervention.
3. Lightning strikes: This is a type of electric injury caused by direct exposure to lightning. It can cause a range of symptoms, including burns, cardiac arrest, and neurological damage.
4. Arc flash burns: These are burns caused by the intense heat generated when electrical currents flow through the body in an enclosed space. They can be severe and may require prolonged treatment.

Symptoms of Electric Injuries The symptoms of electric injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury, but may include:

1. Muscle contractions or spasms
2. Numbness or tingling in the affected area
3. Burns or redness of the skin
4. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias
5. Neurological damage or seizures
6. Respiratory distress or difficulty breathing
7. Weakness or fatigue
8. Dizziness or loss of consciousness

Treatment of Electric Injuries The treatment of electric injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include:

1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if the patient has cardiac arrest or is unresponsive
2. Burn care, including debridement and wound dressing
3. Electrolyte replacement to maintain fluid balance and prevent dehydration
4. Pain management with analgesics and sedatives
5. Physical therapy to restore strength and mobility
6. Monitoring of neurological function and seizure control
7. Psychological support to cope with the injury and its effects

Prevention of Electric Injuries Prevention of electric injuries is important, especially in workplaces where electrical hazards are present. Some measures for prevention include:

1. Proper training on electrical safety and equipment use
2. Regular inspection and maintenance of electrical equipment
3. Use of protective gear such as gloves, safety glasses, and hard hats
4. Avoiding direct contact with electrical sources
5. Use of ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) to prevent electrical shock
6. Proper storage of electrical equipment when not in use
7. Emergency preparedness and response plans in place

In conclusion, electric injuries can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Prompt medical attention is essential for proper treatment and prevention of complications. It is important to be aware of the hazards of electricity and take measures to prevent electrical injuries in the workplace and at home. Proper training, equipment maintenance, and safety precautions can go a long way in preventing these types of injuries.

Types: There are several types of brain infarction, including:

1. Cerebral infarction: This type of infarction occurs when there is a blockage or obstruction in the blood vessels that supply the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain.
2. Cerebellar infarction: This type of infarction occurs when there is a blockage or obstruction in the blood vessels that supply the cerebellum, which is located at the base of the brain.
3. Brain stem infarction: This type of infarction occurs when there is a blockage or obstruction in the blood vessels that supply the brain stem, which is the part of the brain that controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

Symptoms: The symptoms of brain infarction can vary depending on the location and size of the affected area, but common symptoms include:

1. Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
2. Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden difficulty seeing or blindness
4. Sudden difficulty walking or loss of balance
5. Sudden severe headache
6. Difficulty with coordination and movement
7. Slurred speech
8. Vision changes
9. Seizures

Diagnosis: Brain infarction is typically diagnosed using a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Other diagnostic tests may include blood tests to check for signs of infection or blood clotting abnormalities, and an electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure the electrical activity of the brain.

Treatment: The treatment of brain infarction depends on the underlying cause, but common treatments include:

1. Medications: To control symptoms such as high blood pressure, seizures, and swelling in the brain.
2. Endovascular therapy: A minimally invasive procedure to open or remove blockages in the blood vessels.
3. Surgery: To relieve pressure on the brain or repair damaged blood vessels.
4. Rehabilitation: To help regain lost function and improve quality of life.

Prognosis: The prognosis for brain infarction depends on the location and size of the affected area, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, the earlier treatment is received, the better the outcome. However, some individuals may experience long-term or permanent disability, or even death.

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Diverticulosis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the intestine, often causing abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
4. Intestinal obstruction: A blockage that prevents food, fluids, and gas from passing through the intestine, often causing abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Intestinal ischemia: A reduction in blood flow to the intestine, which can cause damage to the tissues and lead to life-threatening complications.
6. Intestinal cancer: Cancer that develops in the small intestine or large intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
7. Gastrointestinal infections: Infections caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites that affect the gastrointestinal tract, often causing symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Intestinal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the movement of food through the intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
9. Malabsorption: A condition in which the body is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, often caused by conditions such as celiac disease or pancreatic insufficiency.
10. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A condition in which the intestine becomes narrowed or blocked, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.

These are just a few examples of the many potential complications that can occur when the gastrointestinal system is not functioning properly. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in order to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Examples of retinal diseases include:

1. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): a leading cause of vision loss in people over the age of 50, AMD affects the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision.
2. Diabetic retinopathy (DR): a complication of diabetes that damages blood vessels in the retina and can cause blindness.
3. Retinal detachment: a condition where the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, causing vision loss.
4. Macular edema: swelling of the macula that can cause vision loss.
5. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO): a blockage of the small veins in the retina that can cause vision loss.
6. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP): a group of inherited disorders that affect the retina and can cause progressive vision loss.
7. Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA): an inherited disorder that causes blindness or severe visual impairment at birth or in early childhood.
8. Stargardt disease: a rare inherited disorder that affects the retina and can cause progressive vision loss, usually starting in childhood.
9. Juvenile macular degeneration: a rare inherited disorder that causes vision loss in young adults.
10. Retinal dystrophy: a group of inherited disorders that affect the retina and can cause progressive vision loss.

Retinal diseases can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) or fluorescein angiography. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, laser surgery, or vitrectomy.

It's important to note that many retinal diseases can be inherited, so if you have a family history of eye problems, it's important to discuss your risk factors with your eye doctor. Early detection and treatment can help preserve vision and improve quality of life for those affected by these diseases.

Injuries caused by needles or other sharp objects that puncture the skin and can potentially introduce infectious agents, such as bloodborne pathogens like HIV or hepatitis, into the body. These injuries are a common occupational hazard for healthcare workers and others who handle sharp objects, and can also occur in non-work related settings, such as during medical procedures or at home.

Needlestick injuries can be serious and potentially life-threatening, particularly if the needle or other sharp object is contaminated with an infectious agent. In addition to the risk of infection, needlestick injuries can also cause physical injury, such as lacerations or puncture wounds, and may require medical attention.

There are several measures that can be taken to prevent needlestick injuries, including using safer needle devices, proper disposal of sharp objects, and appropriate training for healthcare workers on safe needle use and handling techniques. In addition, vaccination against certain infectious agents, such as hepatitis B, can help protect against the risk of infection from a needlestick injury.

Treatment for whiplash injuries typically involves rest, ice and heat applications, physical therapy, and medication to manage pain and inflammation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or realign the spine. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated whiplash injuries can lead to chronic pain and other complications.

Also known as: Whiplash associate disorders (WAD), Cervical acceleration-deceleration injury (CAD), Post-traumatic cervical injury (PTCI).

Examples of 'Whiplash Injuries' in a sentence:

The patient suffered a whiplash injury in the car accident and required several weeks of physical therapy to recover.

She was diagnosed with a whiplash injury after falling from her horse and experiencing neck pain and stiffness.

He developed chronic whiplash injuries as a result of repetitive head and neck movements during his career as a professional football player.

The whiplash injury caused her to experience dizziness, nausea, and blurred vision, in addition to neck pain.

The severity of smoke inhalation injury can vary depending on factors such as the amount and type of smoke inhaled, the duration of exposure, and the individual's overall health. In mild cases, symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, and shortness of breath, while more severe cases can lead to respiratory failure, burns, and even death.

Treatment for smoke inhalation injury typically involves supportive care such as oxygen therapy, hydration, and pain management, as well as medications to help reduce inflammation and open up airways. In severe cases, hospitalization and mechanical ventilation may be necessary.

Long-term effects of smoke inhalation injury can include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis, among others. These conditions can significantly impact an individual's quality of life and may require ongoing medical care and monitoring.

Prevention of smoke inhalation injury involves taking steps to avoid exposure to smoke, such as evacuating a building during a fire or wearing protective equipment when working with flammable materials. In cases where exposure has already occurred, prompt medical attention can help reduce the risk of long-term health effects and improve outcomes for those affected.

Mesenteric vascular occlusion can be caused by various factors, such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), blood clots, or inflammation. This condition can lead to a reduction in blood flow to the intestines, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. In severe cases, it can also lead to tissue death and potentially life-threatening complications.

There are several types of mesenteric vascular occlusion, including:

1. Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI): This is a sudden and severe blockage of the blood vessels that supply the intestines, which can cause tissue death and potentially life-threatening complications.
2. Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI): This is a gradual and less severe blockage of the blood vessels that supply the intestines, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea.
3. Mesenteric venous thrombosis: This is the formation of a blood clot in the veins that drain blood from the intestines.

Diagnosis of mesenteric vascular occlusion typically involves imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and blood tests to check for signs of inflammation or tissue damage. Treatment options vary depending on the severity and cause of the condition, and may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to repair or bypass blocked blood vessels, or in severe cases, removal of the affected intestine.

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.

Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:

* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke

Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.

There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:

* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet

In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.

Symptoms of pulmonary edema may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Coughing up frothy sputum
* Chest pain or tightness
* Fatigue
* Confusion or disorientation

Pulmonary edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, chest x-rays, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood tests. Treatment options include oxygen therapy, diuretics, and medications to manage underlying conditions such as heart failure or sepsis. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide mechanical ventilation.

Prevention measures for pulmonary edema include managing underlying medical conditions, avoiding exposure to pollutants and allergens, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

In summary, pulmonary edema is a serious condition that can impair lung function and lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other respiratory symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

The severity of a gunshot wound is determined by the location, size, and depth of the wound, as well as the type and caliber of the weapon used. Treatment for gunshot wounds usually involves immediate medical attention, including surgery to repair damaged tissues and organs, and antibiotics to prevent infection. In some cases, these wounds may require lengthy hospital stays and rehabilitation to recover fully.

Gunshot wounds can be classified into several types, including:

1. Entry wound: The point of entry where the bullet enters the body.
2. Exit wound: The point where the bullet exits the body.
3. Penetrating wound: A wound that penetrates through the skin and underlying tissues, causing damage to organs and other structures.
4. Perforating wound: A wound that creates a hole in the body but does not penetrate as deeply as a penetrating wound.
5. Grazing wound: A superficial wound that only scratches the surface of the skin, without penetrating to deeper tissues.
6. Fracture wound: A wound that causes a fracture or break in a bone.
7. Soft tissue injury: A wound that affects the soft tissues of the body, such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
8. Nerve damage: A wound that damages nerves, causing numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
9. Infection: A wound that becomes infected, leading to symptoms such as redness, swelling, and pain.
10. Sepsis: A severe infection that can spread throughout the body, leading to organ failure and death if left untreated.

Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.

The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back

Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Preventative measures for coronary disease include:

* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.

Contusion vs Hematoma: A hematoma is similar to a contusion but it is a more severe injury that results in the accumulation of blood outside of blood vessels. Both conditions can cause pain, swelling, and bruising, but hematomas are usually larger and more severe than contusions.

Treatment: Treatment for contusions may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to reduce swelling and relieve pain. In some cases, medical professionals may also use physical therapy or bracing to help the body heal. If the contusion is severe or if it does not heal on its own, surgery may be necessary to drain excess blood and promote healing.

Prevention: Preventing contusions can be challenging, but taking steps to protect yourself from trauma, such as wearing protective gear during sports or using proper lifting techniques, can help reduce your risk of developing a contusion. Additionally, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise, can help improve your body's overall resilience and ability to heal from injuries.

In Vfib, the electrical activity of the heart becomes disorganized, leading to a fibrillatory pattern of contraction. This means that the ventricles are contracting in a rapid, unsynchronized manner, rather than the coordinated, synchronized contractions that occur in normal heart function.

Vfib can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, and electrolyte imbalances. It can also be triggered by certain medications, such as digoxin, or by electrical shocks to the heart.

Symptoms of Vfib include palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, and loss of consciousness. If not treated promptly, Vfib can lead to cardiac arrest and death.

Treatment of Vfib typically involves electrical cardioversion, which involves delivering an electric shock to the heart to restore a normal heart rhythm. In some cases, medications may also be used to help regulate the heart rhythm. In more severe cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to address any underlying causes of Vfib.

Overall, ventricular fibrillation is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment to prevent complications and ensure effective cardiac function.

There are several types of shock, including:

1. Hypovolemic shock: This type of shock occurs when there is a significant loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to a decrease in blood volume and pressure. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or internal bleeding.
2. Septic shock: This type of shock occurs when an infection causes inflammation throughout the body, leading to a drop in blood pressure and organ dysfunction.
3. Anaphylactic shock: This type of shock is caused by an allergic reaction and can be life-threatening. Symptoms include difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, and a drop in blood pressure.
4. Neurogenic shock: This type of shock occurs when there is damage to the nervous system, leading to a drop in blood pressure and loss of autonomic functions.
5. Adrenal insufficiency: This type of shock occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and aldosterone hormones, leading to a decrease in blood pressure and metabolism.

Symptoms of shock include:

* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Fast or weak pulse
* Shallow breathing
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
* Low blood pressure

Treatment of shock depends on the underlying cause and may include fluids, medications, oxygen therapy, and other supportive measures to maintain blood pressure and organ function. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit may be necessary.

Penetrating head injuries can cause significant damage to the brain and surrounding tissues, leading to a range of neurological symptoms and complications. Treatment for penetrating head injuries typically involves emergency surgery to remove the foreign object and repair any damaged tissue. The prognosis for these types of injuries depends on the severity of the injury, the location and extent of damage, and the promptness and quality of medical treatment received.

Some common causes of penetrating head injuries include:

1. Gunshot wounds: These are caused by high-velocity projectiles that can penetrate the skull and cause extensive damage to the brain.
2. Stabbing: This can occur with a sharp object, such as a knife or ice pick, that is inserted into the skull.
3. Impalement: This occurs when an object, such as a wooden stake or metal rod, is driven through the skull and into the brain.
4. Blunt trauma: This can occur when the head is struck with a blunt object, such as a hammer or baseball bat, causing a penetrating injury.

Symptoms of penetrating head injuries can vary depending on the location and extent of the injury. Some common symptoms include:

1. Seizures
2. Confusion or disorientation
3. Dizziness or loss of balance
4. Weakness or numbness in the face or limbs
5. Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
6. Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
7. Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
8. Difficulty with coordination and balance

If you suspect that someone has sustained a penetrating head injury, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Prompt treatment can help to minimize damage to the brain and improve outcomes.

Multiple trauma can involve various types of injuries, including:

1. Blunt trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a blow or impact, such as those sustained in a car accident or fall.
2. Penetrating trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a sharp object, such as a gunshot wound or stab wound.
3. Burns: This refers to injuries caused by heat or chemicals that can cause tissue damage and scarring.
4. Neurological trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the brain and spinal cord, such as concussions or herniated discs.
5. Orthopedic trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the musculoskeletal system, such as fractures or dislocations.
6. Soft tissue trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues, such as lacerations or contusions.
7. Visceral trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the internal organs, such as internal bleeding or organ damage.

The severity of multiple trauma can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. In some cases, multiple trauma may be caused by a single incident, while in other cases, it may result from a series of events over time.

Treatment for multiple trauma typically involves a comprehensive approach that addresses all of the injuries and takes into account the patient's overall health and well-being. This may include surgery, medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. In severe cases, multiple trauma can result in long-term disability or even death, making prompt and appropriate treatment essential for optimal outcomes.

There are several types of tooth injuries that can occur, including:

1. Tooth fractures: A crack or break in a tooth, which can vary in severity from a small chip to a more extensive crack or split.
2. Tooth avulsions: The complete loss of a tooth due to trauma, often caused by a blow to the mouth or face.
3. Tooth intrusions: When a tooth is pushed into the jawbone or gum tissue.
4. Tooth extrusions: When a tooth is forced out of its socket.
5. Soft tissue injuries: Damage to the lips, cheeks, tongue, or other soft tissues of the mouth.
6. Alveolar bone fractures: Fractures to the bone that surrounds the roots of the teeth.
7. Dental luxation: The displacement of a tooth from its normal position within the jawbone.
8. Tooth embedded in the skin or mucous membrane: When a tooth becomes lodged in the skin or mucous membrane of the mouth.

Treatment for tooth injuries depends on the severity of the injury and can range from simple restorative procedures, such as fillings or crowns, to more complex procedures, such as dental implants or bone grafting. In some cases, urgent medical attention may be necessary to prevent further complications or tooth loss.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several types of tendon injuries, including:

1. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive strain or overuse.
2. Tendon rupture: A complete tear of a tendon, which can be caused by trauma or degenerative conditions such as rotator cuff tears in the shoulder.
3. Tendon strain: A stretch or tear of a tendon, often caused by acute injury or overuse.
4. Tendon avulsion: A condition where a tendon is pulled away from its attachment point on a bone.

Symptoms of tendon injuries can include pain, swelling, redness, and limited mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the severity of the injury and may include rest, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. Preventive measures such as proper warm-up and cool-down exercises, stretching, and using appropriate equipment can help reduce the risk of tendon injuries.

Fibrosis can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including inflammation, infection, injury, or chronic stress. It is a natural healing process that helps to restore tissue function and structure after damage or trauma. However, excessive fibrosis can lead to the loss of tissue function and organ dysfunction.

There are many different types of fibrosis, including:

* Cardiac fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the heart muscle or walls, leading to decreased heart function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Pulmonary fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the lungs, leading to decreased lung function and difficulty breathing.
* Hepatic fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the liver, leading to decreased liver function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Neurofibromatosis: a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of benign tumors (neurofibromas) made up of fibrous connective tissue.
* Desmoid tumors: rare, slow-growing tumors that are made up of fibrous connective tissue and can occur in various parts of the body.

Fibrosis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:

* Biopsy: the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope.
* Imaging tests: such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to visualize the accumulation of scar tissue.
* Blood tests: to assess liver function or detect specific proteins or enzymes that are elevated in response to fibrosis.

There is currently no cure for fibrosis, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. These may include:

* Medications: such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or chemotherapy to reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of scar tissue.
* Lifestyle modifications: such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet to improve overall health and reduce the progression of fibrosis.
* Surgery: in some cases, surgical removal of the affected tissue or organ may be necessary.

It is important to note that fibrosis can progress over time, leading to further scarring and potentially life-threatening complications. Regular monitoring and follow-up with a healthcare professional are crucial to managing the condition and detecting any changes or progression early on.

During ventricular remodeling, the heart muscle becomes thicker and less flexible, leading to a decrease in the heart's ability to fill with blood and pump it out to the body. This can lead to shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.

Ventricular remodeling is a natural response to injury, but it can also be exacerbated by factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. Treatment for ventricular remodeling typically involves medications and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet, to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.

The process of ventricular remodeling is complex and involves multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is thought to be driven by a variety of factors, including changes in gene expression, inflammation, and the activity of various signaling pathways.

Overall, ventricular remodeling is an important condition that can have significant consequences for patients with heart disease. Understanding its causes and mechanisms is crucial for developing effective treatments and improving outcomes for those affected by this condition.

A sprain is a stretch or tear of a ligament, which is a fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones and provides stability to joints. Sprains often occur when the joint is subjected to excessive stress or movement, such as during a fall or sudden twisting motion. The most common sprains are those that affect the wrist, knee, and ankle joints.

A strain, on the other hand, is a stretch or tear of a muscle or a tendon, which is a fibrous cord that connects muscles to bones. Strains can occur due to overuse, sudden movement, or injury. The most common strains are those that affect the hamstring, calf, and back muscles.

The main difference between sprains and strains is the location of the injury. Sprains affect the ligaments, while strains affect the muscles or tendons. Additionally, sprains often cause joint instability and swelling, while strains may cause pain, bruising, and limited mobility.

Treatment for sprains and strains is similar and may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to reduce inflammation and relieve pain. Physical therapy exercises may also be recommended to improve strength and range of motion. In severe cases, surgery may be required to repair the damaged tissue.

Prevention is key in avoiding sprains and strains. This can be achieved by maintaining proper posture, warming up before physical activity, wearing appropriate protective gear during sports, and gradually increasing exercise intensity and duration. Proper training and technique can also help reduce the risk of injury.

Overall, while sprains and strains share some similarities, they are distinct injuries that require different approaches to treatment and prevention. Understanding the differences between these two conditions is essential for proper diagnosis, treatment, and recovery.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

The effects of hypoxia-ischemia on the brain can vary depending on the severity and duration of the insult, but may include:

* Cellular damage and death
* Inflammation and oxidative stress
* Neurotransmitter imbalances
* Blood-brain barrier disruption
* White matter degeneration

The long-term consequences of hypoxia-ischemia, brain may include cognitive impairments such as memory loss, attention deficits, and language difficulties. Behavioral changes, such as depression, anxiety, and mood swings, may also occur. In severe cases, the condition can lead to permanent vegetative state or death.

The diagnosis of hypoxia-ischemia, brain is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment options may include supportive care, medications, and rehabilitation therapies to address cognitive and behavioral impairments. In some cases, surgical interventions may be necessary to relieve pressure or restore blood flow to the affected areas.

Overall, hypoxia-ischemia, brain is a serious medical condition that requires prompt recognition and appropriate treatment to minimize long-term cognitive and functional impairments.

Some common symptoms of chronic brain injury include:

* Memory loss or difficulty with concentration
* Dizziness or balance problems
* Headaches or migraines
* Mood changes, such as depression or irritability
* Sleep disturbances
* Fatigue or lethargy

Chronic brain injury can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Repeated blows to the head, such as from playing contact sports or experiencing physical abuse
* Traumatic injuries, such as those sustained in car accidents or falls
* Infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Stroke or other cardiovascular problems
* Poor nutrition or exposure to toxins

Treatment for chronic brain injury typically involves a team of healthcare professionals, including neurologists, psychiatrists, physical therapists, and occupational therapists. Treatment may include medication, physical therapy, cognitive rehabilitation, and lifestyle changes.

Prognosis for chronic brain injury varies depending on the severity of the injury and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. Some people may experience significant improvement with treatment, while others may have ongoing symptoms and disabilities.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of VILI, including:

1. High inspiratory pressures: Ventilators that set peak inspiratory pressures too high can cause damage to the lungs.
2. Volume-targeted ventilation: This type of ventilation can lead to over-inflation of the lungs, particularly in patients with poor compliance (i.e., those who do not easily expand their lungs).
3. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): PEEP is a mode of ventilation that keeps the airways open during expiration, but can cause over-inflation of the lungs if set too high.
4. Frequent or deep tidal volumes: Tidal volume is the amount of air exchanged with each breath. Frequent or deep tidal volumes can cause over-inflation of the lungs and lead to VILI.
5. Duration of mechanical ventilation: Prolonged use of mechanical ventilation can increase the risk of VILI, particularly if the patient requires high levels of support.

To diagnose VILI, a physician may perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or CT scans to assess lung function and look for signs of inflammation or scarring. Treatment for VILI typically involves adjusting the ventilator settings to reduce the risk of further injury, providing supportive care to manage symptoms, and addressing any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the injury. In severe cases, patients with VILI may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or other forms of respiratory support to help restore lung function.

Types of Wrist Injuries:

1. Sprains and Strains: These are common wrist injuries that occur when the ligaments or muscles are stretched or torn due to sudden movements or overuse.
2. Fractures: A fracture is a break in one or more of the bones in the wrist, which can be caused by a fall onto an outstretched hand or by a direct blow to the wrist.
3. Tendinitis: This is inflammation of the tendons, which connect muscles to bones. Wrist tendinitis can occur due to repetitive movements such as typing or gripping.
4. Carpal tunnel syndrome: This is a condition where the median nerve, which runs down the arm and into the hand through a narrow passageway in the wrist, becomes compressed or pinched. It can cause pain, numbness, and tingling in the hand and wrist.
5. Wrist fracture-dislocations: This is a type of injury where a bone in the wrist is broken and displaced from its normal position.
6. Ganglion cysts: These are non-cancerous lumps that can develop on the top of the wrist, usually due to repetitive movement or inflammation.
7. De Quervain's tenosynovitis: This is a condition that affects the tendons on the thumb side of the wrist, causing pain and stiffness in the wrist and thumb.

Symptoms of Wrist Injuries:

1. Pain
2. Swelling
3. Bruising
4. Limited mobility or stiffness
5. Difficulty gripping or grasping objects
6. Numbness or tingling in the hand or fingers
7. Weakness in the wrist or hand

Treatment of Wrist Injuries:

The treatment for wrist injuries depends on the severity of the injury and can range from conservative methods such as rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to surgical intervention. Some common treatments include:

1. Immobilization: A cast or splint may be used to immobilize the wrist and allow it to heal.
2. Physical therapy: Gentle exercises and stretches can help improve mobility and strength in the wrist.
3. Medications: Pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or steroid injections may be prescribed to manage pain and inflammation.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or realign bones.
5. Rest: Avoid activities that aggravate the injury and give your wrist time to heal.
6. Ice: Apply ice to the affected area to reduce pain and inflammation.
7. Compression: Use a compression bandage to help reduce swelling.
8. Elevation: Keep your hand elevated above the level of your heart to reduce swelling.

It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:

* Severe pain that doesn't improve with medication
* Swelling or bruising that gets worse over time
* Difficulty moving your wrist or fingers
* Deformity or abnormal alignment of the wrist
* Numbness or tingling in your hand or fingers
* Weakness or difficulty gripping objects

If you suspect that you have a wrist injury, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms and provide an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

There are two types of heart arrest:

1. Asystole - This is when the heart stops functioning completely and there is no electrical activity in the heart.
2. Pulseless ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation - This is when the heart is still functioning but there is no pulse and the rhythm is abnormal.

Heart arrest can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, and echocardiography. Treatment options for heart arrest include cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and medications to restore a normal heart rhythm.

In severe cases of heart arrest, the patient may require advanced life support measures such as mechanical ventilation and cardiac support devices. The prognosis for heart arrest is generally poor, especially if it is not treated promptly and effectively. However, with proper treatment and support, some patients can recover and regain normal heart function.

In adults, RDS is less common than in newborns but can still occur in certain situations. These include:

* Sepsis (a severe infection that can cause inflammation throughout the body)
* Pneumonia or other respiratory infections
* Injury to the lung tissue, such as from a car accident or smoke inhalation
* Burns that cover a large portion of the body
* Certain medications, such as those used to treat cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Symptoms of RDS in adults can include:

* Shortness of breath
* Rapid breathing
* Chest tightness or pain
* Low oxygen levels in the blood
* Blue-tinged skin (cyanosis)
* Confusion or disorientation

Diagnosis of RDS in adults is typically made based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood gas analysis. Treatment may involve oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation (a machine that helps the patient breathe), and medications to help increase surfactant production or reduce inflammation in the lungs. In severe cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.

Prevention of RDS in adults includes avoiding exposure to risk factors such as smoking and other pollutants, maintaining good overall health, and seeking prompt medical attention if any respiratory symptoms develop.

Stab wounds are often accompanied by other injuries, such as lacerations or broken bones, and may require immediate medical attention. Treatment for a stab wound typically involves cleaning and closing the wound with sutures or staples, and may also involve surgery to repair any internal injuries.

It is important to seek medical attention right away if you have been stabbed, as delayed treatment can lead to serious complications, such as infection or organ failure. Additionally, if the wound is deep or large, it may require specialized care in a hospital setting.

Types of Optic Nerve Injuries:

1. Traumatic optic neuropathy: This type of injury is caused by direct damage to the optic nerve as a result of trauma, such as a car accident or sports injury.
2. Ischemic optic neuropathy: This type of injury is caused by a lack of blood flow to the optic nerve, which can lead to cell death and vision loss.
3. Inflammatory optic neuropathy: This type of injury is caused by inflammation of the optic nerve, which can be caused by conditions such as multiple sclerosis or sarcoidosis.
4. Tumor-induced optic neuropathy: This type of injury is caused by a tumor that compresses or damages the optic nerve.
5. Congenital optic nerve disorders: These are present at birth and can cause vision loss or blindness. Examples include optic nerve hypoplasia and coloboma.

Symptoms of Optic Nerve Injuries:

* Blurred vision or double vision
* Loss of peripheral vision
* Difficulty seeing in dim lighting
* Pain or discomfort in the eye or head
* Redness or swelling of the eye

Diagnosis and Treatment of Optic Nerve Injuries:

Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, and visual field testing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the injury, but may include medication, surgery, or vision rehabilitation. In some cases, vision loss may be permanent, but early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Prognosis for Optic Nerve Injuries:

The prognosis for optic nerve injuries varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the injury. In some cases, vision may be partially or fully restored with treatment. However, in other cases, vision loss may be permanent. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any symptoms of an optic nerve injury are present, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

The term "maxillofacial" refers to the bones of the skull and face, including the maxilla (the bone that forms the upper jaw), the zygoma (cheekbone), and the mandible (lower jaw). Injuries to these bones can be complex and may require specialized medical attention.

Maxillofacial injuries can range from mild to severe and may include:

1. Fractures of the skull or face bones
2. Soft tissue injuries (such as lacerations, bruises, or burns)
3. Injuries to the teeth, jaw, or tongue
4. Eye injuries
5. Nose and sinus injuries
6. Facial paralysis or nerve damage
7. Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Maxillofacial injuries can be caused by a variety of mechanisms, such as:

1. Blunt trauma (e.g., car accidents, falls, or sports injuries)
2. Penetrating injuries (e.g., gunshot wounds or stabbing injuries)
3. Blows to the head or face
4. Sports-related injuries (e.g., facial hits or falls)
5. Assault or violence

Treatment for maxillofacial injuries may involve a combination of medical and surgical interventions, such as:

1. Immobilization of broken bones with casts or splints
2. Repair of soft tissue lacerations or avulsions (tearing away of tissues)
3. Drainage of blood or fluid accumulation
4. Treatment of associated injuries, such as concussion or other forms of TBI
5. Reconstruction or repair of damaged facial structures (e.g., nose, jaw, or eye sockets)
6. Plastic surgery to restore form and function to the face
7. Dental procedures to repair damaged teeth or jaw structure
8. Antibiotics to prevent or treat infection
9. Pain management with medication and other therapies.

The specific treatment plan for a patient with a maxillofacial injury will depend on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the individual needs and medical history of the patient.

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience any signs or symptoms of a maxillofacial injury, such as:

1. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
2. Numbness or weakness in the face
3. Severe pain or tenderness in the head or face
4. Swelling or bruising of the face or neck
5. Difficulty opening or closing the mouth
6. Changes in vision or hearing
7. Cuts or lacerations to the face or mouth.

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Fishbein, M. C. (1990). "Reperfusion injury". Clinical Cardiology. 13 (3): 213-217. doi:10.1002/clc.4960130312. PMID 2182247. ... suspicious for acute injury and a possible candidate for acute reperfusion therapy with thrombolytics or primary PCI), those ... Until the 1980s, the enzymes SGOT and LDH were used to assess cardiac injury. Now, the markers most widely used in detection of ... The primary purpose of the electrocardiogram is to detect ischemia or acute coronary injury in broad, symptomatic emergency ...
After MI, the myocardium suffers from reperfusion injury which leads to death of cardiomyocytes and detrimental remodelling of ... Transfection of cardiac myocytes with human HGF reduces ischemic reperfusion injury after MI. The benefits of HGF therapy ... Yellon, D. M.; Hausenloy, D. J. (2007). "Myocardial Reperfusion Injury". New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (11): 1121-1135. ... It is produced and proteolytically cleaved to its active state in response to cellular injury or during apoptosis. HGF binds to ...
Injury to the myocardium also occurs during re-perfusion. This might manifest as ventricular arrhythmia. The re-perfusion ... Kloner R, Hale SL (15 September 2016). "Reperfusion Injury: Prevention and Management". In Morrow DA (ed.). Myocardial ... Buja LM (July 2005). "Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury". Cardiovascular Pathology. 14 (4): 170-5. doi:10.1016/j. ... A rise in troponin occurs within 2-3 hours of injury to the heart muscle, and peaks within 1-2 days. The level of the troponin ...
RIC not only confers protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, but also increases cerebral blood flow, which may ... "Automated Remote Ischemic Conditioning Device Easier to Use than Manual Cuff to Reduce Reperfusion Injury". www.abstractsonline ... This "conditioning" activates the body's natural protective physiology against reperfusion injury and the tissue damage caused ... Hausenloy, Derek J.; Yellon, Derek M. (2016). "Ischaemic conditioning and reperfusion injury". Nature Reviews Cardiology. 13 (4 ...
They speculated that the effect was related to its antioxidant action on the initial ischemia/reperfusion injury of the renal ... Thus, free radical-mediated reperfusion injury was seen to contribute to the process of innate and subsequent adaptive immune ... Kalogeris T, Baines CP, Krenz M, Korthuis RJ (2012). "Cell biology of ischemia/reperfusion injury". International Review of ... "Acute kidney injury", Wikipedia, 2020-06-13, retrieved 2020-06-16 Anders HJ, Schaefer L (July 2014). "Beyond tissue injury- ...
Her research primarily focuses on the molecular basis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and in developing ways to ... Her subsequent work has explored the role of proteases and mitochondrial dysfunction in ischemia/reperfusion injury, and most ... "Enhancing Macroautophagy Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Cardiac Myocytes". "Gottlieb Lab". Delbridge, Lea M. D ... the importance of autophagy in mitigating reperfusion injury. She has developed tools and techniques in her lab for studying ...
Pretreatment it reduced reperfusion injury in volunteers. It has been shown to increase myocardial perfusion and left ...
... renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and polycystic kidney disease. The protective role of EETs in these animal model diseases ... ischemic versus reperfusion injury". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 291 (2): H537-42. doi: ... ventricle contraction immediately after blockade of coronary artery blood flow in animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury ... EETs also reduce the size of heart enlargement that occurs long after these experiment-induced injuries. Humans with ...
Brain ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated via complex I impairment. Recently it was found that oxygen deprivation leads to ... September 2019). "Redox-Dependent Loss of Flavin by Mitochondrial Complex I in Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury". Antioxidants ... Galkin A (November 2019). "Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Mitochondrial Complex I Damage". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia. 84 ... "Critical Role of Flavin and Glutathione in Complex I-Mediated Bioenergetic Failure in Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury". ...
H 2S donors reduce myocardial injury and reperfusion complications. Increased H 2S levels within the body will react with ... "Reduction of Ischemia-Reperfusion Mediated Cardiac Injury in Subjects Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery". ... PKG also limits smooth muscle cell proliferation, reducing intima thickening following AMI injury, ultimately decreasing ...
Nrf2 augments skeletal muscle regeneration after ischaemia-reperfusion injury. J Pathol. 2014 Dec;234(4):538-47. doi: 10.1002/ ... Hölzle worked on micro circulatory characteristics of these transplants and with the phenomenon of the reperfusion injury. ... A novel laser-Doppler flowmetry assisted murine model of acute hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion for free flap research. PLoS One. ...
August 2019). "Targeting PFKFB3 alleviates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 11670. ... PFKFB3 inhibitor alleviates motor discoordination and brain infarct injury The Warburg effect, proposed by Otto Warbug in 1956 ...
Nighoghossian N, Ovize M, Mewton N, Ong E, Cho TH (2016). "Cyclosporine A, a Potential Therapy of Ischemic Reperfusion Injury. ... Manabe H, Okonkwo DO, Gainer JL, Clarke RH, Lee KS (October 2010). "Protection against focal ischemic injury to the brain by ... Liu G, Song J, Guo Y, Wang T, Zhou Z (October 2013). "Astragalus injection protects cerebral ischemic injury by inhibiting ... Chen C, Cui H, Li Z, Wang R, Zhou C (November 2013). "Normobaric oxygen for cerebral ischemic injury". Neural Regeneration ...
May 2010). "Exosome secreted by MSC reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury". Stem Cell Research. 4 (3): 214-22. doi: ...
Ischemia results from the dysfunction and, combined with reperfusion injury, causes the tissue damage that leads to the wounds ... As in other chronic ulcers, reperfusion injury damages tissue. Though treatment of the different chronic wound types varies ... reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonization. Ischemia is an important factor in the formation and persistence of wounds, ... repeated bouts of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonization with resulting inflammatory host response. Since more ...
Kosieradzki, M; W Rowinski (December 2008). "Ischemia/reperfusion injury in kidney transplantation: mechanisms and prevention ... Traumatic brain injury Bainbridge reflex Ayling, J (2002). "Managing head injuries". Emergency Medical Services. 31 (8): 42. ... It is usually seen in the terminal stages of acute head injury and may indicate imminent brain herniation. It can also be seen ... Different patterns indicate a different location of the brain where the injury occurred. The increase in ventilation is ...
... has also been shown to prevent oxidative and reperfusion injury in heart and liver tissues. Bucillamine has both ... Prevents Transplantation-Associated Reperfusion Injury". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (13): 8915-8920. ... It is hypothesized that similar processes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in acute lung injury during ... giving it vastly superior function in restoring glutathione and therefore greater potential to prevent acute lung injury during ...
Galkin, A (2019). "Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Mitochondrial Complex I Damage". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia. 84 (11): ... "Critical Role of Flavin and Glutathione in Complex I-Mediated Bioenergetic Failure in Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury". ... of flavin mononucleotide from mitochondrial complex I has been shown to occur during ischemia/reperfusion brain injury during ...
H 2S therapy reduces myocardial injury and reperfusion complications. Due to its effects similar to NO (without its potential ... Yang X, de Caestecker M, Otterbein LE, Wang B (July 2020). "Carbon monoxide: An emerging therapy for acute kidney injury". ... potential to be used to prevent the development of a series of pathological conditions including ischemia reperfusion injury, ...
... helps to prevent cardiac dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative mtDNA ...
Thus, cyclophilins may function in cardioprotection during ischemia-reperfusion injury. PPIB contributes to the replication and ... such as ischemic reperfusion injury, AIDS, and cancer. It is also associated with viral infections. In eukaryotes, cyclophilins ...
Suspension trauma Reperfusion injury, a similar but separate condition Thomassen; et al. (2009). "Does the horizontal position ...
"Histone deacetylase inhibition reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice". FASEB Journal. 22 (10): 3549-60. doi: ...
Future Perspectives in Kidney Ischemia Reperfusion Injury". Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2016: 2950503. doi: ... October 2020). "Traumatic Brain Injury: Oxidative Stress and Novel Anti-Oxidants Such as Mitoquinone and Edaravone". ...
... or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and ... The VDAC2 protein has been implicated in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, such as during ischemic ... "Past and present course of cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury". Journal of Applied Physiology. 103 (6): 2129- ... IBD, the equivalent HIV in birds, can compromise their immune systems and even cause fatal injury to the lymphoid organ, ...
Succinate accumulation under hypoxic conditions has been implicated in the reperfusion injury through increased ROS production ... In animal models, pharmacological inhibition of ischemic succinate accumulation ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion injury. As of ... a new therapeutic target for myocardial reperfusion injury". Cardiovascular Research. 111 (2): 134-141. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvw100 ... "Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS". Nature. 515 (7527): 431-5. Bibcode: ...
Most notably, SOD1 is pivotal in reactive oxygen species (ROS) release during oxidative stress by ischemia-reperfusion injury, ... In addition, SOD1 has been implicated in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, such as during ischemic ... "Past and present course of cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury". Journal of Applied Physiology. 103 (6): 2129- ... During ischemia reperfusion, ROS release substantially contribute to the cell damage and death via a direct effect on the cell ...
... or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and ... In addition, VDAC3 has been implicated in cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, such as during ischemic ... "Past and present course of cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury". Journal of Applied Physiology. 103 (6): 2129- ...
... it may also lead to reperfusion injury. Reperfusion injury is classified as the damage that ensues after restoration of blood ... Treatment strategies for brain hypoxia vary depending on the original cause of injury, primary and/or secondary. Mechanism of ... While reperfusion may be essential to protecting as much brain tissue as possible, ... "Metabolic crisis without brain ischemia is common after traumatic brain injury: a combined microdialysis and positron emission ...
The diagnostic potential of the biomarker H-FABP for heart injury was discovered in 1988 by Professor Jan Glatz (Maastricht, ... "Release of fatty acid-binding protein from isolated rat heart subjected to ischemia and reperfusion or to the calcium paradox ... Pelsers MM, Hermens WT, Glatz JF (Feb 2005). "Fatty acid-binding proteins as plasma markers of tissue injury". Clinica Chimica ... "Discrimination between myocardial and skeletal muscle injury by assessment of the plasma ratio of myoglobin over fatty acid- ...
... or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and ... Most notably, Enodnuclease G is pivotal during oxidative stress by ischemia-reperfusion injury, specifically in the myocardium ... During ischemia reperfusion, ROS release substantially contribute to the cell damage and death via a direct effect on the cell ... Braunwald E, Kloner RA (Nov 1985). "Myocardial reperfusion: a double-edged sword?". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 76 ( ...
During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... apoptosis by increasing the stability of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury". Mol Med ... Alternatively, overexpression of Hsp70 can mitigate damage from ischemia-reperfusion in cardiac muscle, as well damage from ... "Inducible heat shock protein 70 kD and inducible nitric oxide synthase in hemorrhage/resuscitation-induced injury". Cell ...
Acidification of the mitochondrial matrix, as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury, can disrupt the quaternary structure of ...
"Nerve growth factor reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts". Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and ... and traumatic brain injury. Lazarovici also contributed to the characterization of NGF angiogenic properties and ... pan-hematopoietic subpopulation derived from human umbilical cord blood in a traumatic brain injury model". Cytotherapy. 20 (2 ...
... attenuates cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats". J. Mol. Histol. 45 (2): 129-40. doi:10.1007/s10735-013-9539-y. ... Wu CH, Hung TH, Chen CC, Ke CH, Lee CY, Wang PY, Chen SF (2014). "Post-injury treatment with 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a TrkB ... traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, fragile X syndrome, and Rett syndrome. Tropoflavin also shows efficacy in animal ... receptor agonist, protects against experimental traumatic brain injury via PI3K/Akt signaling". PLOS ONE. 9 (11): e113397. ...
The Pringle manoeuvre can directly lead to reperfusion injury in the liver, causing impaired function. This is particularly ... The Pringle manoeuvre is applied during closure of a vena cava injury when an atriocaval shunt is placed.[citation needed] The ... Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 58 (1): 201-205. doi:10.1097/01.TA.0000149331.71639.89. ISSN 0022-5282. PMID 15674176. ... by James Hogarth Pringle in the early 1900s in order to attempt to control bleeding during severe liver traumatic injuries. He ...
... in glucose oxidation associated with an improvement in the functional recovery of the heart during ischaemia/reperfusion injury ...
... reperfusion injury - hemorrhagic transformation - cold exposure - rupture of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (AVM) - ...
... azotemia or acute kidney injury. Studies have also helped elucidate how light has a direct effect on human health through its ... "SR9009 administered for one day after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion prevents heart failure in mice by targeting the cardiac ... Disruption Worsens Neurologic Impairment and Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury". ...
"Intracellular sodium accumulation during ischemia as the substrate for reperfusion injury". Circulation Research. 84 (12): 1401 ... In ischemia, the major damage to the cardiac myocyte, due to hypoxia, is seen following the reperfusion of blood. High ... in an ischemia-reperfusion model in the pig". European Journal of Pharmacology. 624 (1-3): 16-22. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.09. ... intracellular sodium levels from the persistent current results in high influx of calcium during reperfusion; leading to ...
Abnormalities in microcirculation within the testicle Reperfusion injury: This type of injury is seen in tissues that have been ... Testicular size is often diminished, and injury to the unaffected testicle is common. The effect of a torsion event on long- ... It is thought that following injury to the testicle, the body's immune system is activated to clean up damaged cells. In the ... it could lead to sepsis and cause severe life-threatening infections and injuries through the blood and organs, which could ...
... other A&E/minor injury unit/walk-in centre, treating minor injuries and illnesses Historically, waits for assessment in A&E ... A patient's chance of survival is greatly improved if the patient receives definitive treatment (i.e. surgery or reperfusion) ... These units are for people with non-life-threatening injuries. The use of these units within a department have been shown to ... The probability of death increases each 3 minutes for 1% in case of major injuries in the abdomen part. (Journal of Trauma and ...
During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and ... "Molecular pathways in protecting the liver from ischaemia/reperfusion injury: a 2015 update". Clinical Science. 129 (4): 345-62 ... respiration are important elements of cell death pathways and have underlying mechanistic roles in ischemia-reperfusion injury ...
It is being investigated as a possible treatment for reperfusion injury and stroke, Ménière's disease, hearing loss and ...
Solhjoo S, O'Rourke B (January 2015). "Mitochondrial instability during regional ischemia-reperfusion underlies arrhythmias in ... "Neuroprotective effect of Ro5-4864 following brain injury". Experimental Neurology. 214 (2): 201-8. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol. ... improves cardiac functional recovery during postischemia reperfusion in rats". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 235 (4): 478- ...
... and renal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 15 (8): 2152-60. doi:10.1097/ ... and cardiac damage induced by oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ...
doi:10.1016/j.injury.2007.03.028. PMID 17640641. Ventura, Christian (20 January 2021). "1: The EMS System". The Emergency ... Bogaty P, Buller CE, Dorian P, O'Neill BJ, Armstrong PW (October 2004). "Applying the new STEMI guidelines: 1. Reperfusion in ... They have a particular advantage for major trauma injuries. The well-established theory of the golden hour suggests that major ... BS Roudsari (2007). "International comparison of prehospital trauma care systems". Injury. 38 (9): 993-1000. ...
... to increase the likelihood of successful endovascular reperfusion. Mayer's work in helping victims of severe brain injury has ... Stephan Mayer: "Loss of Consciousness a Marker of Early Brain Injury in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage" , Mount Sinai - New York". ... "Shifting Paradigms for Intensive Care of Severe Brain Injury". Dana Foundation. Retrieved 2022-02-26. "Dr. ... and outcomes after severe brain injury. He has gained media attention for popularizing the concept that physicians have ...
Zheng YQ, Liu JX, Wang JN, Xu L (2006). "Effects of crocin on reperfusion-induced oxidative/nitrative injury to cerebral ... traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and acute management of neurotoxin consumption (i.e. methamphetamine overdoses). ... Common mechanisms of neuronal injury include decreased delivery of oxygen and glucose to the brain, energy failure, increased ... Progesterone: Administration of progesterone is well known to aid in the prevention of secondary injuries in patients with ...
... which have a role in reperfusion injury after asphyxia. Clinical trial evidence suggests that resuscitation using air probably ... After cooling is achieved, an MRI is obtained roughly 1 week after hypoxic brain injury in order to classify the severity of ... putting them at risk of irreversible organ injury and death. Through positive airway pressure, and in severe cases chest ... One serious complication is a brain injury known as neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.[citation needed] The most widely ...
The resulting neurologic injuries may lead to a persistent subtle decline of cognitive abilities, especially in elderly or very ... "Propofol metabolism in man during the anhepatic and reperfusion phases of liver transplantation". Xenobiotica. 22 (1): 105-114 ...
... protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via the sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Journal of ... N-methyluronamides with high selectivity for human adenosine A3 receptors reduce ischemic myocardial injury. American Journal ...
This study called attention to the role of active interventions, including antioxidants, to limit this injury, and provided the ... Rosenkranz, Eliot R.; Buckberg, Gerald D. (1983). "Myocardial protection during surgical coronary reperfusion". Journal of the ... Buckberg introduced the concept of "unintended reoxygenation injury" when blue babies (cyanotic) are placed on cardiopulmonary ... Buckberg, Gerald D. (1995). "Studies of hypoxemic/reoxygenation injury: I. Linkage between cardiac function and oxidant damage ...
It has been studied for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and for use in avoiding reperfusion injury. As an analog of ...
Mechanically unloading the left ventricle before coronary reperfusion reduces left ventricular wall stress and myocardial ... power expenditure of the ventricle and limits the hemodynamic forces that lead to ventricular remodeling after insult or injury ...
These involve pharmacologic means to reduce reperfusion injury, the use of therapeutic ultrasound for noninvasive venous ... "Hydrogen Sulfide Protects Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in an in Vitro Model of Cutaneous Tissue Transplantation1". ...
Reduction of the incidence of amputation in frostbite injury with thrombolytic therapy. Arch Surg. 2007; 142: 546-51. Lijnen HR ... Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI): comparative studies of coronary reperfusion and systemic fibrinogenolysis with ...
Ischaemia/reperfusion, inflammatory responses and acute lung injury. Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
After 45 min of ischemia, HCH (67% H2 and 33% O2) was administered to mice during a 90-min reperfusion. To investigate the role ... After a 4-h reperfusion, serum biochemistry, histological, western blotting, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to ... Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / drug therapy * Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / metabolism* * Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / ...
Hyperglycemic Exacerbation of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury after Ischemic Insult (R01) PA-07-323. NHLBI ... Purpose. To clarify the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia may exacerbate ischemic and reperfusion injury in the setting of ... Title: Hyperglycemic Exacerbation of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury after Ischemic Insult (R01). Announcement Type New ... the preclinical development of strategies that mitigate the effects of acute hyperglycemia on ischemia and reperfusion-injury ...
Reduction of liver ischemia reperfusion injury by silencing of TNF-α gene with shRNA. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad ... Alpha-lipoic acid protects against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.. *Attenuation of liver ischemia/reperfusion ... Reduction of liver ischemia reperfusion injury by silencing of TNF-α gene with shRNA.. J Surg Res. 2012 Aug; 176(2):614-20.JS ... "Reduction of Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury By Silencing of TNF-α Gene With ShRNA." The Journal of Surgical Research, vol. ...
This reperfusion injury has a multifactorial etiology but it is associated with a fulminating infiltration of leukocytes, with ... Prompt reperfusion of ischemic tissue is critical for restoring normal function, but it can precipitate a progressive ... of these various pathways have been instrumental in demonstrating the importance of neutrophils in ischemia-reperfusion injury ... Efficacy has also been demonstrated for MAbs administered just before reperfusion directed against the following molecules: L ...
... on myocardial and endothelial function after hypothermic ischemia and reperfusion in a heterotopic rat heart tra … ... Poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase inhibition reduces reperfusion injury after heart transplantation Gábor Szabó 1 , Susanne Bährle, ... Poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase inhibition reduces reperfusion injury after heart transplantation Gábor Szabó et al. Circ Res. 2002 ... Effects of inosine on reperfusion injury after heart transplantation. Szabó G, Stumpf N, Radovits T, Sonnenberg K, Gerö D, Hagl ...
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a predominant cause of hepatic injury, which is of clinical significance following liver surgery ... However, the effect of GP on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced hepatic injury has, to the best of our knowledge, not ... Yu HC, Bai L, Yue SQ, et al: Notch signal protects non-parenchymal cells from ischemia/reperfusion injury in vitro by ... Zhang SC, Shi Q, Feng YN and Fang J: Tissue-protective effect of glutamine on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury via induction ...
Measurements of kidney injury markers in blood and urine. Two novel markers of early stage kidney injury, urinary kidney injury ... Antithrombin nanoparticles improve kidney reperfusion and protect kidney function after ischemia-reperfusion injury. American ... Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is commonly seen in various clinical settings such as kidney transplantation, ... As expected, ischemia-reperfusion led to typical tubular injury characterized by pronounced renal tubular detachment, luminal ...
... these data show that Ogfod1 deletion alters the myocardial proteome and metabolome to confer protection against I/R injury. ... reperfusion injury Michael Harris 1 , Junhui Sun 1 , Karen Keeran 2 , Angel Aponte 3 , Komudi Singh 4 , Danielle Springer 5 , ... but not KO hearts from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. (A) Schematic showing the ischaemia-reperfusion protocol as well as the ... A) In vivo ischaemia reperfusion injury was induced by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation in WT and KO ...
However, the efficacy of Indobufen on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its mechanisms remain to be investigated. ... we speculated that Indobufen may be able to treat cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. In MCAO/R induced I/R injury, ... Zhou L, Ao LY, Yan YY, Li WT, Ye AQ, Li CY, Shen WY, Liang BW, Xiong Z, Li YM: JLX001 Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury ... However, the efficacy of Indobufen on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its mechanisms remain to be investigated. ...
To explore the role of perioperative hyperglycemia in ischemia reperfusion injury, we conducted a prospective study of 40 ... and hyperglycemia increases ischemia reperfusion injury in animal models. Methods. ... Both creatinine and NGAL, a marker of ischemic injury and renal function, fall less rapidly in patients with elevated blood ... Hyperglycemia is associated with increased ischemic injury in renal transplantation. ...
title = "Low-dose sodium nitroprusside reduces pulmonary reperfusion injury",. abstract = "Background. Reperfusion injury is a ... Reperfusion injury is a significant cause of early allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation. We hypothesized that ... Low-dose sodium nitroprusside reduces pulmonary reperfusion injury. In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1997 ; Vol. 63, No. 5. pp. ... Reperfusion injury is a significant cause of early allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation. We hypothesized that ...
Hence prevention is better than cure for myocardial reperfusion injury and one should make every attempt in opening up the ... Animal studies have shown promise in reducing reperfusion injury with few agents such as cyclosporine and Bendavia. However, ...
Calpain: the regulatory point of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Liu, Guo-Yang; Xie, Wan-Li; Wang, Yan-Ting; Chen, Lu; ... Calpain: the regulatory point of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. ... reperfusion. In addition, we also discussed the abnormal activation of calpain during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, the ... Abnormally elevation of Ca2+ promotes the abnormal activation of calpain during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, resulting in ...
J. (1994). The pH Paradox in the Pathophysiology of Reperfusion Injury to Rat Neonatal Cardiac Myocytes. Annals of the New York ... The pH Paradox in the Pathophysiology of Reperfusion Injury to Rat Neonatal Cardiac Myocytes. Annals of the New York Academy of ... The pH Paradox in the Pathophysiology of Reperfusion Injury to Rat Neonatal Cardiac Myocytes. In: Annals of the New York ... The pH Paradox in the Pathophysiology of Reperfusion Injury to Rat Neonatal Cardiac Myocytes. / BOND, JOHN M.; HARPER, IAN S.; ...
Increases Peripheral Hypersensitivity After Repetitive Ischemia With Reperfusion Injury Download Download PDF ...
This phenomenon is known as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), which can be responsible for up to 50% of the final infarct size ... A number of different studies in animal models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) suggest that ischemia-reperfusion injury ( ... Zhou, T.; Chuang, C.C.; Zuo, L. Molecular Characterization of Reactive Oxygen Species in Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury ... Ruiz-Meana, M.; García-Dorado, D. Pathophysiology of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: New Therapeutic Options for Acute Myocardial ...
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keywords = "rat, mouse, kidney, reperfusion injury, renal dysfunction, tubular injury, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide ... followed by reperfusion (6 hours). Serum and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction, tubular and reperfusion injury were ... followed by reperfusion (6 hours). Serum and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction, tubular and reperfusion injury were ... followed by reperfusion (6 hours). Serum and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction, tubular and reperfusion injury were ...
... ... critical role of the CD4+ T cell with the Th1/Th2 paradigm as a possible effector mechanism in ischemia and reperfusion injury ... the IL-4-deficient mice had a statistically significant increase in tubular injury and impairment in cell regeneration. the IRI ...
Kudo Y, Egashira T, Takayama F, Yamanaka Y. Investigation of the other organ injury caused by liver ischemia-reperfusion. ... Investigation of the other organ injury caused by liver ischemia-reperfusion. / Kudo, Y.; Egashira, T.; Takayama, F. et al. In ... Investigation of the other organ injury caused by liver ischemia-reperfusion. In: Journal of Toxicological Sciences. 1992 ; Vol ... title = "Investigation of the other organ injury caused by liver ischemia-reperfusion", ...
Results: Ischemia-reperfusion significantly decreased the observed Hb and Hct values. The histopathological findings in the IR ... Conclusions: Treatment with EPO and MEL had a beneficial effect on renal IR injury. The results may also indicate that MEL ... After 24 hours of reperfusion and following decapitation, blood samples were collected for the determination of the hemoglobin ... on IR-induced renal injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and then ...
Reperfusion injury. The gross pathology of reperfusion injury (harvest injury, preservation injury) is essentially the same as ... In the acute phase, this injury must be differentiated from ischemic/reperfusion injury by the simultaneous presence of ... ischemic reperfusion injury outside the context of transplantation. A transplanted heart with sufficient reperfusion injury to ... Knowing that there is a history of reperfusion injury is helpful in interpreting histopathologic evidence of tissue damage or ...
This myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury can lead to postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which can ... Extracorporeal circulation and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Bei Operationen mit einer Herz-Lungen-Maschine (HLM) und ... The extracellular isoform of superoxide dismutase has a significant impact on cardiovascular ischaemia and reperfusion injury ... The combination approach with Rhokinase inhibition and mechanical circulatory support in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury ...
Keywords: Hyperbaric oxygenation, Iloprost, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Reperfusion injury, TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR, TNF-ALPHA, ... Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and iloprost on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury ... levels after tissue or organ ischemia-reperfusion, and on ischemia-reperfusion induced lung neutrophil sequestration. ... Purpose: To research the effects of iloprost (IL) and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) combination treatment on lung injury and on tumor ...
The role of aldosterone inhibitors in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Authors: Dragasevic N.. Jakovljevic, Vladimir ... Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a well-known term for exacerbation of cellular destruction and dysfunction ... This review paper aimed to summarize current knowledge on the effects of MR antagonists on myocardial I/R injury as well as ...
Ogfod1 deletion increases cardiac beta-alanine levels and protects mice against ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...
RNAi-based therapy is a promising strategy for the prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, systemic ... Targeted gene silencing of TLR4 using liposomal nanoparticles for preventing liver ischemia reperfusion injury.. ... Feasibility of combination allogeneic stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury: a case report.. Clinical Use, MSCs, Stem Cells ... Histopathology displayed an overall reduction of the injury area in the Gal-LipoNP TLR4 siRNA treated mice. Additionally, ...
... that rivaroxaban pretreatment might play a role in reducing the complications of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) ... cardiac reperfusion would result in cardiac injury called myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). 2, 3 ... Home » RIVAROXABAN IMPROVES MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY COMPLICATIONS IN OBESE RATS RIVAROXABAN IMPROVES MYOCARDIAL ... RIVAROXABAN IMPROVES MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY COMPLICATIONS IN OBESE RATS. Hoda E. Mohamed *1, Sousou I. Ali1, ...
  • Hence prevention is better than cure for myocardial reperfusion injury and one should make every attempt in opening up the occluded artery as soon as possible. (emedinexus.com)
  • Role of adenine nucleoside transport in myocardial reperfusion injury. (nih.gov)
  • This phenomenon is known as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), which can be responsible for up to 50% of the final infarct size [ 6 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • This injury model, known as ischemia reperfusion, is similar to what occurs during organ transplantation, stroke, or heart attack in humans. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, we investigated whether silencing TNF-α gene with shRNA can prevent liver ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this study we hypothesis that rivaroxaban pretreatment might play a role in reducing the complications of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) in a rat model of obesity. (ijpsr.com)
  • In addition, certain pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines are key during the initial period of reperfusion, whereas the late period of hepatic injury is neutrophil-mediated ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We investigated the effect of PGE 1 given only during the period of reperfusion, on ischemic lung injury in an in situ rabbit model. (wustl.edu)
  • Ischaemia/reperfusion, inflammatory responses and acute lung injury. (bmj.com)
  • Catestatin Reduces Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion Injury: Involvement of PI3K/Akt, PKCs, Mitochondrial KATP Channels and ROS Signalling. (unito.it)
  • Catestatin (CST) limits myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury with unknown mechanisms. (unito.it)
  • Prompt reperfusion of ischemic tissue is critical for restoring normal function, but it can precipitate a progressive destruction of reversibly damaged cells, leading to paradoxical tissue dysfunction and necrosis. (neurology.org)
  • Thus, pharmacological PARP inhibition reduces reperfusion injury after heart transplantation due to prevention of energy depletion and downregulation of adhesion molecules and exerts a beneficial effect against reperfusion-induced graft coronary endothelial dysfunction. (nih.gov)
  • Our results showed that sulodexide pretreatment improved renal dysfunction and alleviated tubular pathological injury at 24h after reperfusion, which was accompanied with inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation and cell apoptosis. (oncotarget.com)
  • Reperfusion injury is a significant cause of early allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • Abnormally elevation of Ca2+ promotes the abnormal activation of calpain during myocardial ischemia - reperfusion , resulting in myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction. (bvsalud.org)
  • Serum and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction, tubular and reperfusion injury were measured, specifically, serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) enzymuria. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • Mice (wild-type, administered 5 mg/kg GW274150, and iNOS-/-) were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia (30 minutes) followed by reperfusion (24 hours) after which renal dysfunction (serum urea, creatinine), renal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • Results GW274150, administered prior to I/R, significantly reduced serum urea, serum creatinine, AST, and NAG indicating reduction of renal dysfunction and injury caused by I/R. GW274150 reduced histologic evidence of tubular injury and markedly reduced immunohistochemical evidence of nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, indicating reduced peroxynitrite formation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, respectively. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • We propose that selective inhibitors of iNOS activity may be useful against renal dysfunction and injury associated with I/R of the kidney. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • Myocardial Injury due to IRI results in cardiac contractile dysfunction, arrhythmias, and irreversible myocytes damage. (ijpsr.com)
  • 5. Is adenosine 5'-triphosphate derangement or free-radical-mediated injury the major cause of ventricular dysfunction during reperfusion? (nih.gov)
  • 9. Nucleoside trapping during reperfusion prevents ventricular dysfunction, "stunning," in absence of adenosine. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Myocardial protection in beating heart cardiac surgery: I: pre- or postconditioning with inhibition of es-ENT1 nucleoside transporter and adenosine deaminase attenuates post-MI reperfusion-mediated ventricular fibrillation and regional contractile dysfunction. (nih.gov)
  • To clarify the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia may exacerbate ischemic and reperfusion injury in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia. (nih.gov)
  • Although numerous efforts had been made to avoid or alleviate renal IRI, the morbidity and mortality of ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) still remains high [ 2 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • A number of different studies in animal models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) suggest that ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) accounts for up to 50% of the final myocardial infarct size. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) contributes to the development of acute renal failure (ARF). (traumamon.com)
  • Inpatient observation for acute compartment syndrome may be advisable, according to the investigators, in patients who have suffered a high-energy injury, who have a displaced fracture, or who also have a fibular fracture. (medscape.com)
  • The cutaneous microvascular vasodilator response to local heating with or without prior ischemia-reperfusion injury is not affected by acute consumption of a caffeinated soft drink sweetened with HFCS. (cdc.gov)
  • After a 4-h reperfusion, serum biochemistry, histological, western blotting, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of the PI3K-Akt1 pathway in the protection of HCH. (nih.gov)
  • The assessment of left ventricular pressure-volume relations, total coronary blood flow, endothelial function, myocardial high energy phosphates, and histological analysis were performed at 1 and 24 hours of reperfusion. (nih.gov)
  • A number of studies have demonstrated that oxidative and nitrosative stress are leading causes of IRI, prompted by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the process of ischemia followed by reperfusion. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Thirty minutes following beverage consumption local skin heating commenced on the right forearm (Protocol 1), while on the left forearm ischemia-reperfusion commenced with 20 min of ischemia followed by 20 min of reperfusion and then local skin heating (Protocol 2). (cdc.gov)
  • Six hours after reperfusion, IRI injury was examined by serum level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), liver histopathology, MPO, and MDA level, as well as by relative quantities of TNF-α mRNA. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Gypenoside (GP), the predominant component of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, exhibits a therapeutic effect on chronic hepatic injury, fibrosis and fatty liver disease via its anti-inflammatory and anti‑oxidant activity. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a predominant cause of hepatic injury, which is of clinical significance following liver surgery, hemorrhagic shock and liver transplantation ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Furthermore, GP exhibits a therapeutic effect on chronic hepatic injury, fibrosis, as well as fatty liver disease, which were induced by a high fat, high cholesterol diet and alcohol in mice ( 5 , 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Targeted gene silencing of TLR4 using liposomal nanoparticles for preventing liver ischemia reperfusion injury. (neilriordan.com)
  • Studies with two genetic mouse models of eosinophil deficiency and a mouse model of antibody-mediated eosinophil depletion revealed exacerbated liver injury after hepatic ischemia and reperfusion. (nih.gov)
  • Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived eosinophils normalized liver injury of eosinophil-deficient mice and reduced hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury in wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a central mediator in the hepatic response to ischemia/reperfusion. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, the effect of GP on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced hepatic injury has, to the best of our knowledge, not previously been investigated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the present study, a hepatic I/R‑injury model was successfully established using C57BL/6 mice. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In conclusion, the present study indicated that GP effectively protected against I/R-induced hepatic injury via its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic bioactivity. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Therefore, developing effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for I/R-induced hepatic injury is required. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that I/R-induced hepatic injury is initially triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce oxidative damage and apoptosis, an important mechanism for cell death following hepatic I/R injury ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, the role of GP in hepatic I/R injury and the underlying molecular mechanism, have not yet been investigated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Therefore, in the present study the protective effects of GP against I/R-induced hepatic injury in mice was studied. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Eosinophils attenuate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice through ST2-dependent IL-13 production. (nih.gov)
  • The percentage change in neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a protein whose expression is increased with renal ischemia, was then used to determine the extent of injury. (escholarship.org)
  • Purpose: To research the effects of iloprost (IL) and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) combination treatment on lung injury and on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels after tissue or organ ischemia-reperfusion, and on ischemia-reperfusion induced lung neutrophil sequestration. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • Additionally, neutrophil accumulation and lipid peroxidase-mediated tissue injury, detected by MPO, MDA and ROS respectively, were attenuated after Gal-LipoNP TLR4 siRNA treatment. (neilriordan.com)
  • After 45 min of ischemia, HCH (67% H 2 and 33% O 2 ) was administered to mice during a 90-min reperfusion. (nih.gov)
  • the IL-4-deficient mice had a statistically significant increase in tubular injury and impairment in cell regeneration. (unifesp.br)
  • Histopathology displayed an overall reduction of the injury area in the Gal-LipoNP TLR4 siRNA treated mice. (neilriordan.com)
  • Pulmonary arterial infusion of low-dose SNP during lung reperfusion significantly improves pulmonary hemodynamics, oxygenation, compliance, and edema formation. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Ischemia-reperfusion significantly decreased the observed Hb and Hct values. (traumamon.com)
  • In isolated hearts CST (75nM, CST-Post) given in early-reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size, limited post-ischaemic contracture, and improved recovery of developed left ventricular pressure. (unito.it)
  • 10. On-pump inhibition of es-ENT1 nucleoside transporter and adenosine deaminase during aortic crossclamping entraps intracellular adenosine and protects against reperfusion injury: role of adenosine A1 receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Qi et al ( 9 ) reported that GP protected against DNA damage in neurons in I/R-induced cerebral injury. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, the efficacy of Indobufen on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its mechanisms remain to be investigated. (researchsquare.com)
  • In this study, the efficacy of Indobufen with both pre- and post-treatment on rats suffering middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) was investigated. (researchsquare.com)
  • The pharmacodynamic tests revealed that Indobufen ameliorated I/R injury by decreasing the platelet aggregation, infarct size, brain edema and neurologic impairment in rats and rescuing cell apoptosis/pyroptosis in HUVECs. (researchsquare.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GW274150, a novel, highly selective, potent and long-acting inhibitor of iNOS activity in rat and mouse models of renal I/R. Methods Rats were administered GW274150 (5 mg/kg intravenous bolus administered 30 minutes prior to I/R) and subjected to bilateral renal ischemia (45 minutes) followed by reperfusion (6 hours). (brighton.ac.uk)
  • Objectives: In this study, we compared the effects of melatonin (MEL) and erythropoietin (EPO), both known antioxidant and antiinflammatory agents, on IR-induced renal injury in rats. (traumamon.com)
  • Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and then subjected to 45 minutes of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. (traumamon.com)
  • Ferroptosis has been studied in different ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models, concluding that it is the most important driver of the final infarct size [ 8 ] [ 9 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Blood glucose levels were monitored intraoperatively, and serum samples were obtained at the time anesthesia was induced and one hour after allograft reperfusion. (escholarship.org)
  • Direct intravascular infusion of SNP via pulmonary arterial catheters could potentially abate reperfusion injury immediately after allograft implantation. (elsevier.com)
  • Awards will support the preclinical testing of new therapeutic interventions to reduce ischemia/reperfusion induced myocardial damage in patients with acutely elevated blood glucose levels following an ischemic insult. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, these studies indicates that Indobufen exerts protective and therapeutic effects against I/R injury by pyroptosis suppression via downregulating NF-κB/Caspase-1/GSDMD pathway. (researchsquare.com)
  • We have previously reported that Indobufen could inhibit the coagulation process and reduce thrombosis [5], so we speculated that Indobufen may also have therapeutic and preventive effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. (researchsquare.com)
  • In this study, we investigated by prophylactic and therapeutic administration the effects of Indobufen on I/R injury as well as its anti-apoptosis/apoptosis efficacy in rat brain and HUVECs cells, conjecturing that the molecular mechanisms involved signal regulation of NF-κB/GSDMD/NLRP3 both in vivo and in vitro. (researchsquare.com)
  • We focus on the investigation of different endogenous mediators as well as pharmacological agents as a therapeutic approach to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. (ukaachen.de)
  • We hypothesized that direct pulmonary arterial infusion of an intravascular nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), would ameliorate pulmonary reperfusion injury more effectively than inhaled nitric oxide without causing profound systemic hypotension. (elsevier.com)
  • Using an isolated, ventilated, whole-blood-perfused rabbit lung model, we studied the effects of both inhaled and intravascular nitric oxide during lung reperfusion. (elsevier.com)
  • Groups II, III, and IV received pulmonary arterial infusions of SNP at 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 μg · kg -1 · min -1 , respectively, whereas group V was ventilated with 60% oxygen and nitric oxide at 80 ppm during reperfusion. (elsevier.com)
  • Background Generation of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may contribute to renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, we noticed that antithrombin III (ATIII) was activated at 3h after reperfusion, which preceded the alleviation of renal injury. (oncotarget.com)
  • In addition, renal sections were used for histologic scoring of renal injury and for immunologic evidence of nitrotyrosine formation and poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] (PAR). (brighton.ac.uk)
  • The results may also indicate that MEL protects against morphological damage better than EPO in renal IR injury. (traumamon.com)
  • This study tested the hypotheses that compared to drinking water, consumption of a caffeinated soft drink sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) attenuates the cutaneous vasodilatory response to local skin heating without (Protocol 1) and following ischemia-reperfusion injury (Protocol 2). (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions These results suggest that (1) an enhanced formation of NO by iNOS contributes to the pathophysiology of renal I/R injury and (2) GW274150 reduces I/R injury of the kidney. (brighton.ac.uk)
  • 6 (anti-CD11a, anti-CD18, anti-ICAM-1) were among the first to demonstrate that MAbs directed against either leukocyte or endothelial cell adhesion glycoproteins were effective in limiting the myocardial necrosis that developed in response to an ischemia-reperfusion protocol. (neurology.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor PJ34 (N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydro-phenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide) on myocardial and endothelial function after hypothermic ischemia and reperfusion in a heterotopic rat heart transplantation model. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and underwent oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury for in vitro studies. (researchsquare.com)
  • For in vitro study, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model for HK2 cells was carried out and apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were evaluated after sulodexide pretreatment. (oncotarget.com)
  • Consistently, sulodexide pretreatment could reduce apoptosis and ROS level in HK2 cells under H/R injury. (oncotarget.com)
  • In this paper , we mainly reviewed the effects of calpain in various programmed cell death (such as apoptosis , mitochondrial-mediated necrosis , autophagy-dependent cell death , and parthanatos ) in myocardial ischemia - reperfusion . (bvsalud.org)
  • Finally, these reactive species increase cellular injury through the attack on biomolecules such as lipids, DNA and proteins, besides the activation of various cell death pathways, such as apoptosis, necrosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis [ 7 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • This myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury can lead to postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which can then result in multiorgan failure. (ukaachen.de)
  • a mediator of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. (ijpsr.com)
  • Intraoperative hyperglycemia augments ischemia reperfusion injury in renal transplantation: a prospective study. (escholarship.org)
  • Diabetes is a risk factor for delayed graft function in kidney transplantation, and hyperglycemia increases ischemia reperfusion injury in animal models. (escholarship.org)
  • To explore the role of perioperative hyperglycemia in ischemia reperfusion injury, we conducted a prospective study of 40 patients undergoing living donor renal transplantation. (escholarship.org)
  • Hyperglycemia is associated with increased ischemic injury in renal transplantation. (escholarship.org)
  • Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is commonly seen in various clinical settings such as kidney transplantation, hemorrhagic shock or cardiovascular surgery [ 1 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • The animals were randomly allocated into four groups based on treatment received only during reperfusion: PGE 1 , PGI 2 , nitroprusside (NP), or no treatment (controls). (wustl.edu)
  • 1. Differential cardioprotection with selective inhibitors of adenosine metabolism and transport: role of purine release in ischemic and reperfusion injury. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions: Treatment with EPO and MEL had a beneficial effect on renal IR injury. (traumamon.com)
  • Group I (control lungs (New Zealand White rabbits, 3 to 3.5 kg) were harvested en bloc, flushed with Euro- Collins solution, and then stored inflated for 18 hours at 4°C. Lungs were then reperfused with whole blood and ventilated with 60% oxygen for 30 minutes. (elsevier.com)
  • 1,2 An early event in the reperfusion process is the adhesion and accumulation of neutrophils. (neurology.org)
  • 10 However, little is known about its effect in decreasing the complications that might be associated with the reperfusion of ischemic heart. (ijpsr.com)
  • 11. Modulation of adenosine effects in attenuation of ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat heart. (nih.gov)
  • To reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury, a number of clinical lung transplant programs employ prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 ) or prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) before donor lung flush and harvest. (wustl.edu)
  • Background/Aims: Recent evidence shows a critical role of the CD4+ T cell with the Th1/Th2 paradigm as a possible effector mechanism in ischemia and reperfusion injury. (unifesp.br)
  • This treatment is the gold standard therapy to restore blood flow, but paradoxically it can also induce tissue injury. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • After 24 hours of reperfusion and following decapitation, blood samples were collected for the determination of the hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels. (traumamon.com)
  • Role of myocardial hypoxanthine and xanthine in free radical-mediated reperfusion injury. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanistic studies combining genetic and adoptive transfer approaches identified a critical role of suppression of tumorigenicity (ST2)-dependent production of interleukin-13 by eosinophils in the hepatoprotection against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury. (nih.gov)
  • Apelin/APJ signaling suppresses the pressure ulcer formation in cutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury mouse model. (nih.gov)
  • Botulinum toxin B suppresses the pressure ulcer formation in cutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury mouse model: Possible regulation of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. (nih.gov)
  • Sulodexide is a potent antithrombin agent, however, whether it has beneficial effects on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains unknown. (oncotarget.com)
  • This study may provide us new insights into the effects of Indobufen on I/R injury and suggest Indobufen as a potential strategy for ischemic stroke. (researchsquare.com)