Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.OcimumCulicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Tunga: A genus of parasitic fleas in the family Pulicidae. They are found mainly in Africa, South America, and Central America.Tungiasis: An infestation with the flea TUNGA PENETRANS causing inflammation, pruritus, and pain, in both humans and other mammals. There is a high incidence of secondary infections such as BACTEREMIA and TETANUS.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Cymbopogon: A plant genus of the family POACEAE which is a source of citronella oil and lemongrass oil.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Meliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Suregada: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that contains gelonin, a ribosome-inactivating protein.Acaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Semaphorin-3A: The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Adansonia: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE that is used for FOOD and MEDICINE, TRADITIONAL.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Sensory Rhodopsins: Photosensory rhodopsins found in microorganisms such as HALOBACTERIA. They convert light signals into biochemical information that regulates certain cellular functions such as flagellar motor activity.Menthol: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Verbenaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are opposite or whorled. The flowers are aggregated in spikes, clusters, or racemes.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Nepeta: A genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known for its mild calming effect and for the way cats are attracted to the aroma.Apium graveolens: A plant species of the family APIACEAE. The stalks are a food source.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Zanthoxylum: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Some members of Zanthoxylum are reclassified from ELEUTHEROCOCCUS, Melicope, and EVODIA. The twigs are used as dental brushing sticks (TOOTHBRUSHING). Most plants that are called Fagara have been reclassified as Zanthoxylum, however some Fagara were reclassified to MELICOPE (also in the Rutacea family) or to GLEDITSIA (a genus in the FABACEAE family).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Halorhodopsins: Light driven chloride ion pumps that are ubiquitously found in halophilic archaea (HALOBACTERIALES).Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Ephrin-A2: A GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR-containing ephrin with a high affinity for the EPHA3 RECEPTOR. Early in embryogenesis it is expressed at high levels in the MESENCEPHALON; SOMITES; branchial arches, and LIMB BUDS.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)BenzaldehydesTenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Halobacterium salinarum: A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Allethrin: Synthetic analogs of the naturally occurring insecticides cinerin, jasmolin, and pyrethrin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Convolvulaceae: The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Semaphorins: A family of proteins that mediate axonal guidance. Semaphorins act as repulsive cues for neuronal GROWTH CONES and bind to receptors on their filopodia. At least 20 different molecules have been described and divided into eight classes based on domain organization and species of origin. Classes 1 and 2 are invertebrate, classes 3-7 are vertebrate, and class V are viral. Semaphorins may be secreted (classes 2, 3, and V), transmembrane (classes 1, 4, 5, and 6), or membrane-anchored (class 7). All semaphorins possess a common 500-amino acid extracellular domain which is critical for receptor binding and specificity, and is also found in plexins and scatter factor receptors. Their C termini are class-specific and may contain additional sequence motifs.Halobacterium: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.Olea: A plant genus of the family Oleaceae. The olive fruit is the source of olive oil.
  • The findings, published in the July issue of Ecology Letters , may provide new environmentally friendly tactics for repelling and controlling disease-carrying insects. (
  • These newly identified compounds, and others that remain to be discovered, might be effective in controlling populations of disease-carrying insects . (
  • Avoid dressing your child in clothing with bright colors or flowery prints because they seem to attract insects. (
  • Equipped with a 2800 volt grid and emitting a 365 nm wavelength - which has been scientifically proven to attract insects - flies, mosquitoes, and other flying insects have to go into the light. (