Renal Artery Obstruction
Coronary Artery Bypass
Mesenteric Artery, Superior
Carotid Artery, Internal
Carotid Artery Diseases
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Carotid Artery, Common
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Middle Cerebral Artery
Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
Carotid Artery, External
Carotid Artery Injuries
Kidney Function Tests
Mesenteric Artery, Inferior
Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
Retinal Artery Occlusion
Carotid Artery Thrombosis
Acute Kidney Injury
Disease Models, Animal
Predictive Value of Tests
Sensitivity and Specificity
Severity of Illness Index
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Rats, Inbred WKY
NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid
Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection
Multidetector Computed Tomography
Blood Flow Velocity
Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump
Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Vertebral Artery Dissection
Vascular Access Devices
Rats, Inbred SHR
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic
The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (1/1299)In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC. (+info)
Prevalence of angiographic atherosclerotic renal artery disease and its relationship to the anatomical extent of peripheral vascular atherosclerosis. (2/1299)BACKGROUND: Recognition of the possible presence of atherosclerotic renal artery disease (ARAD) is important because of its progressive nature, and because of the potential for precipitating an acute deterioration in renal function by administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of ARAD in patients undergoing peripheral angiography and its relationship to the extent of their peripheral vascular disease (PVD). METHODS: The reports of the 218 patients who underwent peripheral angiography to investigate PVD in one centre in a calendar year, and in whom it was possible to image the renal arteries, were analysed retrospectively. The presence of atherosclerotic disease in the renal, aortic, iliac, femoral and distal areas was recorded for each patient. RESULTS: The prevalence of ARAD was 79/218 (36.2%). The greater the number of atherosclerotic areas of the arterial tree, the higher the prevalence of ARAD. Patients with aortic disease and bilateral iliac, femoral and distal vessel disease had the highest incidence of ARAD 19/38 (50%). The incidence of ARAD in those with femoral artery atherosclerosis was significantly higher than in those without femoral artery atherosclerosis (42.1% compared with 9.7%, P=0.001 chi2). There was no significant difference in those groups with or without iliac and distal disease. None of the 11 patients with normal femoral and iliac arteries had ARAD. CONCLUSIONS: Renal artery atherosclerosis is a common occurrence in patients with PVD. If extensive PVD is recognized during aortography, a high flush should be considered to examine the renal arteries, if they are not included in the main study. (+info)
NH2-terminal fragments of the 130 kDa subunit of myosin phosphatase increase the Ca2+ sensitivity of porcine renal artery. (3/1299)1. The effects of the NH2-terminal fragments of M130, a 130 kDa regulatory subunit of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase, on contraction and myosin light chain phosphorylation were investigated in Triton X-100-permeabilized porcine renal artery. 2. Incubation of the permeabilized fibres with M1301-633 (a fragment containing amino acid residues 1-633) or M13044-633 enhanced the Ca2+-induced contraction and shifted the [Ca2+]i-force relationship to the left (EC50 of Ca2+: 330 nM, control, without fragment; 145 nM, M1301-633; 163 nM, M13044-633). Pre-incubation for 1-3 h was needed for these long constructs. 3. M1301-374, M130304-511 and M130297-374, i.e. relatively short constructs compared with M1301-633 and M13044-633, also induced leftward shifts of the [Ca2+]i-force relationship (EC50 of Ca2+: 65 nM, 72 nM and 180 nM, respectively). However, these required no pre-incubation. 4. Deletion of residues 304-374 from the most potent construct, M1301-374, abolished the Ca2+-sensitizing effect. 5. Wortmannin inhibited the enhancement of contraction induced by M130 fragments when added before contraction was initiated and partially inhibited the effects when added after steady-state contraction. 6. M1301-374 slowed the rate of relaxation in Ca2+-free medium. The time for 50 % relaxation with this fragment was 510 +/- 51 s, compared with 274 +/- 14 s for control. 7. The levels of myosin light chain phosphorylation (22.4 %) and force (34. 5 %) obtained with 300 nM Ca2+ were increased by 3 microM M1301-374 to 35.7 and 92.2 %, respectively. However, M1301-374 had no effect on the phosphorylation-force relationship. 8. In conclusion, the NH2-terminal M130 fragments containing residues 304-374 inhibited myosin phosphatase, increased myosin light chain phosphorylation and increased the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in permeabilized porcine renal artery. (+info)
Altered renal hemodynamics and impaired myogenic responses in the fawn-hooded rat. (4/1299)The present study examined whether an abnormality in the myogenic response of renal arterioles that impairs autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) contributes to the development of renal damage in fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats. Autoregulation of whole kidney, cortical, and medullary blood flow and PGC were compared in young (12 wk old) FHH and fawn-hooded low blood pressure (FHL) rats in volume-replete and volume-expanded conditions. Baseline RBF, cortical and medullary blood flow, and PGC were significantly greater in FHH than in FHL rats. Autoregulation of renal and cortical blood flow was significantly impaired in FHH rats compared with results obtained in FHL rats. Myogenically mediated autoregulation of PGC was significantly greater in FHL than in FHH rats. PGC rose from 46 +/- 1 to 71 +/- 2 mmHg in response to an increase in renal perfusion pressure from 100 to 150 mmHg in FHH rats, whereas it only increased from 39 +/- 2 to 53 +/- 1 mmHg in FHL rats. Isolated perfused renal interlobular arteries from FHL rats constricted by 10% in response to elevations in transmural pressure from 70 to 120 mmHg. In contrast, the diameter of vessels from FHH rats increased by 15%. These results indicate that the myogenic response of small renal arteries is altered in FHH rats, and this contributes to an impaired autoregulation of renal blood flow and elevations in PGC in this strain. (+info)
Cyclosporine-induced renal artery smooth muscle contraction is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of specific contractile regulatory proteins. (5/1299)Cyclosporine A (CSA) is a type 2B phosphatase inhibitor which can induce contraction of renal artery smooth muscle. In this investigation, we examined the phosphorylation events associated with CSA-induced contraction of bovine renal artery smooth muscle. Contractile responses were determined in a muscle bath and the corresponding phosphorylation events were determined with whole cell phosphorylation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. CSA-induced contractions were associated with increases in the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chains (MLC20) and different isoforms of the small heat shock protein, HSP27. Cyclic nucleotide-dependent relaxation of CSA-induced contractions was associated with increases in the phosphorylation of another small heat shock protein, HSP20, and decreases in the phosphorylation of the MLC20, and some isoforms of HSP27. These data suggest that CSA-induced contraction and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of specific contractile regulatory proteins. (+info)
Hypotensive response to captopril: a potential pitfall of scintigraphic assessment for renal artery stenosis. (6/1299)A characteristic pattern seen on captopril renography is described that is due to systemic hypotensive response. Most patients with these findings on captopril renography do not receive renal artery angiograms in our clinic because it is usually recognized. However, this pattern has received little attention in the medical literature and may be misinterpreted as being due to physiologically significant renal artery hypertension. METHODS: Over the last 3 y, renal artery angiograms were performed on three patients with systemic hypotensive response pattern on captopril renography. This allowed a unique opportunity to correlate the results of the captopril renogram with the renal artery angiograms in this patient population. Captopril renography was performed with a glomerular filtration agent, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), and a tubular agent, o-iodohipurate (OIH). RESULTS: Renal artery angiograms showed no evidence of renal artery stenosis in three patients with systemic hypotensive response pattern on captopril renography. Systemic hypotension on captopril renograms results in preserved uptake of both DTPA and OIH and hyperconcentration in the cortex and collecting system. CONCLUSION: The systemic hypotensive response pattern seen on captopril renography is a distinctive pattern that does not represent physiologically significant renal artery stenosis. (+info)
The effects of crossing porcine renal artery ostia with various endovascular stents. (7/1299)OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of crossing renal artery ostia with various stents. METHODS: The renal artery ostia of 24 large white pigs were covered with a Wallstent (nine ostia), a Palmaz stent (nine ostia) and a Memotherm stent (13 ostia). After an interval of 6-15 weeks, aortography, renal pressure and blood samples were performed and the pigs then sacrificed for histological examination. RESULTS: Histological examination revealed an organised collagen matrix with endothelial cells covering the struts in contact with the aorta. This occurred with all stents but was most organised with the Wallstent. This matrix did not involve the renal artery ostia crossed by Wallstents, but in one Palmaz stent and in 12/13 Memotherm stents, a disorganised acellular matrix caused partial ostial occlusion. There was no mean fall in renal artery pressure but traces were damped in 8/13 cases of partial occlusion. There was a rise in serum creatinine in two cases using the Palmaz stent. CONCLUSIONS: Covering renal arteries with the Wallstent appears to be safe in the short-term. Placement of stents with larger struts across renal arteries will require imaging methods, such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to ensure that the ostia are not obstructed. (+info)
Inhibition of prostaglandin and nitric oxide synthesis prevents cortisol-induced renal vasodilatation in sheep. (8/1299)Glucocorticoids increase renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate in many species, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We investigated whether cortisol-induced renal vasodilatation in conscious sheep depends on interactions with prostaglandins or angiotensin II. Intravenous infusion of cortisol (5 mg/h) for 5 h increased renal conductance (RC) by 1.06 +/- 0.24 ml. min-1. mmHg-1 more than vehicle. During intrarenal infusion of indomethacin (0.25 mg. kg-1. h-1), the cortisol-induced increase in RC (0.28 +/- 0.21 ml. min-1. mmHg-1) was significantly reduced. The cortisol-induced rise in RBF (103 +/- 17 ml/min) was not significantly reduced by indomethacin treatment (76 +/- 9 ml/min). Combined intrarenal infusion of indomethacin (0.25 mg. kg-1. h-1) with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (2.0 mg. kg-1. h-1), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, abolished the cortisol-induced increases in both RC and RBF. Inhibition of angiotensin II synthesis with intravenous captopril (40 mg/h) blocked the renal vasoconstrictor action of angiotensin I but did not inhibit the cortisol-induced increases in RBF and RC. This study provides evidence that nitric oxide and prostaglandins play a role in cortisol-induced renal vasodilatation but indicates that this response is independent of an interaction with angiotensin. (+info)
Renal artery obstruction can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries): This is the most common cause of renal artery obstruction and occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages.
2. Stenosis (narrowing of the arteries): This can be caused by inflammation or scarring of the arteries, which can lead to a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys.
3. Fibromuscular dysplasia: This is a rare condition that causes abnormal growth of muscle tissue in the renal arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages.
4. Embolism (blood clot): A blood clot can break loose and travel to the kidneys, causing a blockage in the renal artery.
5. Renal vein thrombosis: This is a blockage of the veins that drain blood from the kidneys, which can lead to decreased blood flow and oxygenation of the kidneys.
Symptoms of renal artery obstruction may include:
1. High blood pressure
2. Decreased kidney function
3. Swelling in the legs or feet
4. Pain in the flank or back
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Weight loss
Diagnosis of renal artery obstruction is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
1. Ultrasound: This can help identify any blockages or narrowing in the renal arteries.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: This can provide detailed images of the renal arteries and any blockages or narrowing.
3. Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA): This is a non-invasive test that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the renal arteries.
4. Angiography: This is a minimally invasive test that involves inserting a catheter into the renal artery to visualize any blockages or narrowing.
Treatment for renal artery obstruction depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some possible treatment options include:
1. Medications: Drugs such as blood thinners, blood pressure medication, and anticoagulants may be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Endovascular therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the renal artery to open up any blockages or narrowing.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any blockages or repair any damage to the renal arteries.
4. Dialysis: This is a procedure in which waste products are removed from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Kidney transplantation: In severe cases of renal artery obstruction, a kidney transplant may be necessary.
It is important to note that early detection and treatment of renal artery obstruction can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients.
Symptoms of renovascular hypertension may include:
* High blood pressure that is resistant to treatment
* Flank pain or back pain
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Decreased kidney function
Diagnosis of renovascular hypertension typically involves imaging tests such as angiography, CT or MRI angiography, or ultrasound to evaluate the renal arteries and identify any blockages or narrowing. Other tests such as arenography, captopril test, or adrenomedullin testing may also be used to support the diagnosis.
Treatment of renovascular hypertension typically involves medications to lower blood pressure, such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, or calcium channel blockers. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the kidneys. For example, atherosclerosis can be treated with angioplasty or bypass surgery.
It is important to note that renovascular hypertension is a relatively rare cause of hypertension and only accounts for about 5-10% of all cases of hypertension. However, it is an important differential diagnosis for hypertension that is resistant to treatment or has a sudden onset.
There are several types of aneurysms, including:
1. Thoracic aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the chest cavity and is usually caused by atherosclerosis or other conditions that affect the aorta.
2. Abdominal aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the abdomen and is usually caused by high blood pressure or atherosclerosis.
3. Cerebral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the brain and can cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and stroke.
4. Peripheral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the peripheral arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood to the arms and legs.
Symptoms of an aneurysm can include:
1. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
2. Swelling or bulging of the affected area
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain (in the case of a thoracic aneurysm)
5. Headaches, seizures, or stroke (in the case of a cerebral aneurysm)
If an aneurysm is not treated, it can lead to serious complications such as:
1. Rupture: This is the most serious complication of an aneurysm and occurs when the aneurysm sac bursts, leading to severe bleeding and potentially life-threatening consequences.
2. Stroke or brain damage: If a cerebral aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a stroke or brain damage.
3. Infection: An aneurysm can become infected, which can lead to serious health problems.
4. Blood clots: An aneurysm can form blood clots, which can break loose and travel to other parts of the body, causing blockages or further complications.
5. Kidney failure: If an aneurysm is not treated, it can cause kidney failure due to the pressure on the renal arteries.
6. Heart problems: An aneurysm in the aorta can lead to heart problems such as heart failure or cardiac arrest.
7. Sepsis: If an aneurysm becomes infected, it can lead to sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause organ failure and death.
Treatment options for an aneurysm include:
1. Observation: Small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups to see if they are growing or changing.
2. Surgery: Open surgery or endovascular repair are two common methods for treating aneurysms. In open surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm. In endovascular repair, a small tube is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it is expanded to fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
3. Embolization: This is a minimally invasive procedure where a small catheter is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it releases tiny particles or coils that fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
4. Medications: Certain medications such as antibiotics and blood thinners may be prescribed to treat related complications such as infection or blood clots.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of an aneurysm, such as sudden severe headache, vision changes, difficulty speaking, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
A type of hypertension that is caused by a problem with the kidneys. It can be acute or chronic and may be associated with other conditions such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or polycystic kidney disease. Symptoms include proteinuria, hematuria, and elevated blood pressure. Treatment options include diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers.
Note: Renal hypertension is also known as renal artery hypertension.
The most common carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the inner lining of the arteries. This buildup can lead to a narrowing or blockage of the arteries, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other conditions that can affect the carotid arteries include:
1. Carotid artery stenosis: A narrowing of the carotid arteries caused by atherosclerosis or other factors.
2. Carotid artery dissection: A tear in the inner lining of the arteries that can cause bleeding and blockage.
3. Carotid artery aneurysm: A bulge in the wall of the arteries that can lead to rupture and stroke.
4. Temporal bone fracture: A break in the bones of the skull that can cause damage to the carotid arteries and result in stroke or other complications.
Carotid artery diseases are typically diagnosed using imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Treatment options for carotid artery diseases depend on the underlying condition and its severity, but may include lifestyle changes, medications, surgery, or endovascular procedures.
Prevention of carotid artery diseases is key to reducing the risk of stroke and other complications. This includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes, as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle and getting regular check-ups with your doctor.
An abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, back pain, and difficulty breathing if it ruptures. It can also be diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for an abdominal aortic aneurysm include watchful waiting (monitoring the aneurysm for signs of growth or rupture), endovascular repair (using a catheter to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel), or surgical repair (open surgery to repair the aneurysm).
Word Origin and History
The word 'aneurysm' comes from the Greek words 'aneurysma', meaning 'dilation' and 'sma', meaning 'a vessel'. The term 'abdominal aortic aneurysm' was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe this specific type of aneurysm.
Prevalence and Incidence
Abdominal aortic aneurysms are relatively common, especially among older adults. According to the Society for Vascular Surgery, approximately 2% of people over the age of 65 have an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms increases with age, and men are more likely to be affected than women.
Several risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm, including:
* High blood pressure
* Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
* Family history of aneurysms
* Previous heart attack or stroke
* Marfan syndrome or other connective tissue disorders.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Abdominal aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, some people may experience symptoms such as:
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Back pain
* Weakness or fatigue
* Shortness of breath
If an abdominal aortic aneurysm is suspected, several diagnostic tests may be ordered, including:
* Computed tomography (CT) scan
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Treatment and Management
The treatment of choice for an abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on several factors, including the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:
* Watchful waiting (for small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms)
* Endovascular repair (using a stent or other device to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel)
* Open surgical repair (where the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm)
In some cases, emergency surgery may be necessary if the aneurysm ruptures or shows signs of impending rupture.
Complications and Risks
Abdominal aortic aneurysms can lead to several complications and risks, including:
* Rupture (which can be life-threatening)
* Blood clots or blockages in the blood vessels
* Kidney damage
* Heart problems
There is no guaranteed way to prevent an abdominal aortic aneurysm, but several factors may reduce the risk of developing one. These include:
* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle (including a balanced diet and regular exercise)
* Not smoking
* Managing high blood pressure and other medical conditions
* Getting regular check-ups with your healthcare provider
Prognosis and Life Expectancy
The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysms depends on several factors, including the size of the aneurysm, its location, and whether it has ruptured. In general, the larger the aneurysm, the poorer the prognosis. If treated before rupture, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy. However, if the aneurysm ruptures, the survival rate is much lower.
In conclusion, abdominal aortic aneurysms are a serious medical condition that can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of an aneurysm, and to seek medical attention immediately if any are present. With proper treatment, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy.
Arteriosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arteries of the heart, brain, and legs. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often associated with aging and other factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking.
There are several types of arteriosclerosis, including:
1. Atherosclerosis: This is the most common type of arteriosclerosis and occurs when plaque builds up inside the arteries.
2. Arteriolosclerosis: This type affects the small arteries in the body and can cause decreased blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and brain.
3. Medial sclerosis: This type affects the middle layer of the artery wall and can cause stiffness and narrowing of the arteries.
4. Intimal sclerosis: This type occurs when plaque builds up inside the innermost layer of the artery wall, causing it to become thick and less flexible.
Symptoms of arteriosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain or cramping during exercise, and numbness or weakness in the limbs. Treatment for arteriosclerosis may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to open up or bypass blocked arteries.
Types of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a condition where plaque builds up inside the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages that can restrict blood flow to certain areas of the body.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): PAD is a condition where the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain or cramping in the affected limbs.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CAD is a condition where the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Carotid artery disease is a condition where the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked, leading to stroke or mini-stroke.
5. Renal Artery Stenosis: Renal artery stenosis is a condition where the blood vessels that supply the kidneys become narrowed or blocked, leading to high blood pressure and decreased kidney function.
Symptoms of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Pain or cramping in the affected limbs
2. Weakness or fatigue
3. Difficulty walking or standing
4. Chest pain or discomfort
5. Shortness of breath
6. Dizziness or lightheadedness
7. Stroke or mini-stroke
Treatment for Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Medications: Medications such as blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications may be prescribed to treat arterial occlusive diseases.
2. Lifestyle Changes: Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
3. Endovascular Procedures: Endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and stenting may be performed to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat arterial occlusive diseases, such as bypass surgery or carotid endarterectomy.
Prevention of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Quit smoking and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke
3. Exercise regularly
4. Manage high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
5. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
6. Get regular check-ups with your healthcare provider
Early detection and treatment of arterial occlusive diseases can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and prevent complications such as heart attack or stroke.
There are two types of hypertension:
1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.
Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:
* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use
There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:
* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:
* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease
Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.
The disease begins with endothelial dysfunction, which allows lipid accumulation in the artery wall. Macrophages take up oxidized lipids and become foam cells, which die and release their contents, including inflammatory cytokines, leading to further inflammation and recruitment of more immune cells.
The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture or ulcerate, leading to the formation of a thrombus that can occlude the blood vessel, causing ischemia or infarction of downstream tissues. This can lead to various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral artery disease.
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and obesity. It is diagnosed by imaging techniques such as angiography, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans.
Treatment options for atherosclerosis include lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, dietary changes, and exercise, as well as medications such as statins, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In severe cases, surgical interventions such as bypass surgery or angioplasty may be necessary.
In conclusion, atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial disease that affects the arteries and can lead to various cardiovascular diseases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or slow down its progression, reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
The exact cause of Takayasu arteritis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the body. The disease primarily affects women of childbearing age, although it can occur at any age.
The symptoms of Takayasu arteritis can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation. Common symptoms include:
* Joint pain
* Muscle wasting
* Decreased vision
If the disease affects the aorta, it can cause:
* Aortic regurgitation
* Aortic stenosis
* Aortic aneurysm
Diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
* Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
* C-reactive protein (CRP)
* Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)
* Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA)
Imaging studies may include:
* Ultrasonography (US)
* Computed tomography (CT)
* Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
* Positron emission tomography (PET)
Treatment for Takayasu arteritis typically involves a combination of medications and surgery. Medications may include:
* Immunosuppressive drugs
Surgical interventions may include:
* Aortic root replacement
* Aortic grafting
* Bypass surgery
The prognosis for Takayasu arteritis is generally good if the disease is diagnosed and treated early, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 80%. However, if left untreated, the disease can progress to severe complications such as aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, or stroke, which can be fatal.
Prevention of Takayasu arteritis is not possible, as the exact cause of the disease is not fully understood. However, early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Current research is focused on identifying specific biomarkers that can aid in the diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis, as well as developing new treatments that can more effectively target the underlying immune mechanisms of the disease.
There are several types of carotid artery injuries, including:
1. Carotid artery dissection: This is a tear in the inner lining of the artery that can lead to bleeding and inflammation.
2. Carotid artery thrombosis: This is the formation of a blood clot within the artery that can block blood flow to the brain.
3. Carotid artery occlusion: This is the complete blockage of the artery, which can cause a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Carotid artery injury due to trauma: This type of injury can occur as a result of a blow to the neck or head.
5. Carotid artery injury due to surgery: This type of injury can occur during surgical procedures that involve the carotid arteries, such as endarterectomy or stenting.
The symptoms of carotid artery injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage. Some common symptoms include:
* Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Sudden confusion or trouble speaking
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Sudden difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Sudden severe headache
The diagnosis of carotid artery injuries is typically made using imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for carotid artery injuries depend on the severity and location of the injury, and may include medications, endovascular procedures, or surgery.
Prevention of carotid artery injuries is key to reducing the risk of complications. This can be achieved through:
* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced diet
* Avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes
* Properly managing medications that may increase the risk of bleeding or injury
* Using appropriate precautions during surgical procedures, such as using sterile equipment and monitoring for signs of bleeding or injury.
In conclusion, carotid artery injuries can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for these injuries in order to provide appropriate care and prevent complications. Proper precautions during surgical procedures and a healthy lifestyle can also help reduce the risk of carotid artery injuries.
There are several types of ischemia, including:
1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.
Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.
Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.
The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back
Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Preventative measures for coronary disease include:
* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.
Example sentences for 'Aneurysm, False'
The patient was diagnosed with a false aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe pain in his leg following a fall.
The surgeon treated the false aneurysm by inserting a catheter into the affected blood vessel and using it to deliver a special coil that would seal off the dilated area.
Dissecting aneurysms are often caused by trauma, such as a car accident or fall, but they can also be caused by other factors such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) or inherited conditions. They can occur in any blood vessel, but are most common in the aorta, which is the main artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Symptoms of dissecting aneurysms can include sudden and severe pain, numbness or weakness, and difficulty speaking or understanding speech. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, or death.
Treatment for dissecting aneurysms typically involves surgery to repair the damaged blood vessel. In some cases, endovascular procedures such as stenting or coiling may be used to treat the aneurysm. The goal of treatment is to prevent further bleeding and damage to the blood vessel, and to restore normal blood flow to the affected area.
Preventive measures for dissecting aneurysms are not always possible, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding trauma, and managing underlying conditions such as hypertension or atherosclerosis can help reduce the risk of developing an aneurysm. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes for patients with dissecting aneurysms.
The term "infarction" is derived from the Latin words "in" meaning "into" and "farcire" meaning "to stuff", which refers to the idea that the tissue becomes "stuffed" with blood, leading to cell death and necrosis.
Infarction can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the blood vessels), embolism (a blood clot or other foreign material that blocks the flow of blood), and vasospasm (constriction of the blood vessels).
The symptoms of infarction vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage, but can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, numbness or weakness in the affected limbs, and confusion or difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
Diagnosis of infarction typically involves imaging tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, or computerized tomography (CT) scans to confirm the presence of a blockage and assess the extent of the damage. Treatment options for infarction include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to restore blood flow, and other interventions to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Prevention of infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and obesity, as well as maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine. Early detection and treatment of blockages can help reduce the risk of infarction and minimize the damage to affected tissues.
Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:
1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.
Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.
Infarction Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the middle cerebral artery. This artery supplies blood to the temporal lobe of the brain, which controls many important functions such as memory, language, and spatial reasoning. When this artery becomes blocked or ruptured, it can cause a lack of blood supply to the affected areas resulting in tissue death (infarction).
The symptoms of an MCA infarction can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. Some common symptoms include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. Patients may also experience sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and fever.
The diagnosis of MCA infarction is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. Imaging studies can help to identify the location and severity of the blockage, while laboratory tests may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
Treatment for MCA infarction depends on the underlying cause of the blockage or rupture. In some cases, medications such as thrombolytics may be given to dissolve blood clots and restore blood flow to the affected areas. Surgery may also be required to remove any blockages or repair damaged blood vessels. Other interventions such as endovascular procedures or brain bypass surgery may also be used to restore blood flow.
In summary, middle cerebral artery infarction is a type of stroke that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue. It can cause a range of symptoms including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. The diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options include medications, surgery, endovascular procedures, or brain bypass surgery.
If you are experiencing flank pain, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and receive proper treatment. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as blood work, imaging studies, or a CT scan to determine the underlying cause of the pain.
Treatment for flank pain depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for infections, pain management medication, or surgical intervention in more severe cases. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's recommendations and seek medical attention if your symptoms worsen or if you experience other concerning symptoms such as fever, nausea, or vomiting.
1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This can lead to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.
2. Hypertension: High blood pressure that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and weakness in the affected limbs.
4. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition that causes blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, leading to discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.
5. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, often caused by immobility or injury.
6. Varicose veins: Enlarged, twisted veins that can cause pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns.
7. Angioplasty: A medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open up narrowed blood vessels, often performed to treat peripheral artery disease or blockages in the legs.
8. Stenting: A medical procedure in which a small mesh tube is placed inside a blood vessel to keep it open and improve blood flow.
9. Carotid endarterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove plaque from the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, to reduce the risk of stroke.
10. Bypass surgery: A surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel, often performed to treat coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.
Overall, vascular diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can increase the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and amputation. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
There are two main types of retinal artery occlusion: central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). Central retinal artery occlusion occurs when the central retinal artery, which supplies blood to the macula, becomes blocked. This can cause sudden vision loss in one eye, often with a painless, blinding effect. Branch retinal artery occlusion, on the other hand, occurs when one of the smaller retinal arteries that branch off from the central retinal artery becomes blocked. This can cause vision loss in a specific part of the visual field, often with some preserved peripheral vision.
Retinal artery occlusion is often caused by a blood clot or other debris that blocks the flow of blood through the retinal arteries. It can also be caused by other conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries).
Retinal artery occlusion is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment. Treatment options may include intravenous injection of medications to dissolve the clot or other debris, laser surgery to repair damaged retinal tissue, and/or vitrectomy (surgical removal of the vitreous gel) to remove any blood or debris that has accumulated in the eye.
In summary, retinal artery occlusion is a serious condition that can cause sudden vision loss and potentially lead to permanent blindness. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any symptoms of retinal artery occlusion, such as sudden vision loss or blurred vision in one eye, flashes of light, floaters, or pain in the eye.
The symptoms of an aortic aneurysm can vary depending on its size and location. Small aneurysms may not cause any symptoms at all, while larger ones may cause:
* Pain in the abdomen or back
* Pulsatile abdominal mass that can be felt through the skin
* Numbness or weakness in the legs
* Difficulty speaking or swallowing (if the aneurysm is pressing on the vocal cords)
* Sudden, severe pain if the aneurysm ruptures.
If you suspect that you or someone else may have an aortic aneurysm, it is important to seek medical attention right away. Aortic aneurysms can be diagnosed with imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and treated with surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta.
In this article, we will discuss the causes and risk factors for aortic aneurysms, the symptoms and diagnosis of this condition, and the treatment options available. We will also cover the prognosis and outlook for patients with aortic aneurysms, as well as any lifestyle changes that may help reduce the risk of developing this condition.
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS:
Aortic aneurysms are caused by weaknesses in the wall of the aorta, which can be due to genetic or acquired factors. Some of the known risk factors for developing an aortic aneurysm include:
* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Gender (men are more likely to develop an aortic aneurysm than women)
* Family history of aneurysms
* High blood pressure
* Atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries)
* Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Previous heart surgery or radiation therapy to the chest
In many cases, aortic aneurysms do not cause any symptoms in the early stages. However, as the aneurysm grows and puts pressure on nearby blood vessels or organs, patients may experience some of the following symptoms:
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Back pain
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Confusion or weakness
Aortic aneurysms are typically diagnosed using imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. These tests can provide detailed images of the aorta and help doctors identify any abnormalities or dilations. Other diagnostic tests may include echocardiography, ultrasound, or angiography.
The treatment for an aortic aneurysm will depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Some options may include:
* Monitoring: Small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms may not require immediate treatment. Instead, doctors may recommend regular check-ups to monitor the aneurysm's size and progression.
* Surgery: If the aneurysm is large or growing rapidly, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta. This may involve replacing the aneurysm with a synthetic tube or sewing a patch over the aneurysm to reinforce the aortic wall.
* Endovascular repair: In some cases, doctors may use a minimally invasive procedure called endovascular repair to treat the aneurysm. This involves inserting a small tube (called a stent) into the affected area through a small incision in the groin. The stent is then expanded to reinforce the aortic wall and prevent further growth of the aneurysm.
The prognosis for aortic aneurysms is generally good if they are detected and treated early. However, if left untreated, aortic aneurysms can lead to serious complications, such as:
* Aneurysm rupture: This is the most severe complication of aortic aneurysms and can be life-threatening. If the aneurysm ruptures, it can cause massive internal bleeding and potentially lead to death.
* Blood clots: Aortic aneurysms can increase the risk of blood clots forming in the affected area. These clots can break loose and travel to other parts of the body, causing further complications.
* Heart problems: Large aortic aneurysms can put pressure on the heart and surrounding vessels, leading to heart problems such as heart failure or coronary artery disease.
There is no guaranteed way to prevent aortic aneurysms, but there are several factors that may reduce the risk of developing one. These include:
* Family history: If you have a family history of aortic aneurysms, your doctor may recommend more frequent monitoring and check-ups to detect any potential problems early.
* High blood pressure: High blood pressure is a major risk factor for aortic aneurysms, so managing your blood pressure through lifestyle changes and medication can help reduce the risk.
* Smoking: Smoking is also a major risk factor for aortic aneurysms, so quitting smoking can help reduce the risk.
* Healthy diet: Eating a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat can help reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure and other conditions that may increase the risk of aortic aneurysms.
Aortic aneurysms are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests. These may include:
* Physical examination: Your doctor may check for any signs of an aneurysm by feeling your pulse and listening to your heart with a stethoscope. They may also check for any swelling or tenderness in your abdomen.
* Medical history: Your doctor will ask about your medical history, including any previous heart conditions or surgeries.
* Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI can be used to confirm the diagnosis and measure the size of the aneurysm.
The treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on the size of the aneurysm and how quickly it is growing. For small aneurysms that are not growing, doctors may recommend regular monitoring with imaging tests to check the size of the aneurysm. For larger aneurysms that are growing rapidly, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the aorta.
There are several surgical options for repairing an aortic aneurysm, including:
* Open surgery: This is the traditional method of repairing an aortic aneurysm, where the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access the aorta and repair the aneurysm.
* Endovascular repair: This is a minimally invasive procedure where the surgeon uses a catheter to insert a stent or graft into the aorta to repair the aneurysm.
After surgery, you will be monitored in the intensive care unit for several days to ensure that there are no complications. You may have a drainage tube inserted into your chest to remove any fluid that accumulates during and after surgery. You will also have various monitors to check your heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen levels.
The recovery time for aortic aneurysm repair can vary depending on the size of the aneurysm and the type of surgery performed. In general, patients who undergo endovascular repair have a faster recovery time than those who undergo open surgery. You may need to take medications to prevent blood clots and manage pain after surgery. You will also need to follow up with your doctor regularly to check on the healing of the aneurysm and the functioning of the heart.
The long-term outlook for patients who undergo aortic aneurysm repair is generally good, especially if the surgery is successful and there are no complications. However, patients with large aneurysms or those who have had complications during surgery may be at higher risk for long-term health problems. Some potential long-term complications include:
* Infection of the incision site or graft
* Inflammation of the aorta (aortitis)
* Blood clots forming in the graft or legs
* Narrowing or blockage of the aorta
* Heart problems, such as heart failure or arrhythmias.
It is important to follow up with your doctor regularly to monitor your condition and address any potential complications early on.
After undergoing aortic aneurysm repair, you may need to make some lifestyle changes to help manage the condition and reduce the risk of complications. These may include:
* Avoiding heavy lifting or bending
* Taking regular exercise to improve cardiovascular health
* Eating a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat
* Quitting smoking, if you are a smoker
* Managing high blood pressure and other underlying medical conditions.
It is important to discuss any specific lifestyle changes with your doctor before making any significant changes to your daily routine. They can provide personalized guidance based on your individual needs and condition.
Undergoing aortic aneurysm repair can be a stressful and emotional experience, both for the patient and their loved ones. It is important to seek emotional support during this time to help cope with the challenges of the procedure and recovery. This may include:
* Talking to family and friends about your feelings and concerns
* Joining a support group for patients with aortic aneurysms or other cardiovascular conditions
* Seeking counseling or therapy to manage stress and anxiety
* Connecting with online resources and forums to learn more about the condition and share experiences with others.
Remember, it is important to prioritize your mental health and well-being during this time, as well as your physical health. Seeking emotional support can be an important part of the recovery process and can help you feel more supported and empowered throughout the journey.
Here are some examples of how 'Aneurysm, Ruptured' is used in different contexts:
1. Medical literature: "The patient was rushed to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe headaches and vomiting."
2. Doctor-patient communication: "You have a ruptured aneurysm, which means that your blood vessel has burst and is causing bleeding inside your body."
3. Medical research: "The study found that patients with a history of smoking are at increased risk of developing a ruptured aneurysm."
4. Emergency medical services: "The patient was transported to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm and was in critical condition upon arrival."
5. Patient education: "To prevent a ruptured aneurysm, it is important to manage high blood pressure and avoid smoking."
1. Aneurysms: A bulge or ballooning in the wall of the aorta that can lead to rupture and life-threatening bleeding.
2. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of plaque in the inner lining of the aorta, which can narrow the artery and restrict blood flow.
3. Dissections: A tear in the inner layer of the aortic wall that can cause bleeding and lead to an aneurysm.
4. Thoracic aortic disease: Conditions that affect the thoracic portion of the aorta, such as atherosclerosis or dissections.
5. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: Enlargement of the abdominal aorta that can lead to rupture and life-threatening bleeding.
6. Aortic stenosis: Narrowing of the aortic valve, which can impede blood flow from the heart into the aorta.
7. Aortic regurgitation: Backflow of blood from the aorta into the heart due to a faulty aortic valve.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, including the aorta.
9. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A group of genetic disorders that affect the body's connective tissue, including the aorta.
10. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females and can cause aortic diseases.
Aortic diseases can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and may include medication, surgery, or endovascular procedures.
Carotid artery thrombosis is often caused by atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the arteries that can lead to the formation of blood clots. Other risk factors for carotid artery thrombosis include high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity.
Diagnosis of carotid artery thrombosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT or MRI scans, and Doppler studies to visualize the blood flow in the neck and brain. Treatment options for carotid artery thrombosis include anticoagulation medications to prevent further clotting, medications to dissolve the clot, and surgery to remove the clot or repair the affected artery.
In severe cases, carotid artery thrombosis can lead to stroke or brain damage if not treated promptly. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.
There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.
Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
There are two main types of carotid stenosis:
1. Internal carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, becomes narrowed or blocked.
2. Common carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the common carotid artery, which supplies blood to the head and neck, becomes narrowed or blocked.
The symptoms of carotid stenosis can vary depending on the severity of the blockage and the extent of the affected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Vertigo (a feeling of spinning)
* Blurred vision or double vision
* Memory loss or confusion
* Slurred speech
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
If left untreated, carotid stenosis can lead to a stroke or other serious complications. Treatment options for carotid stenosis include medications to lower cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as surgical procedures such as endarterectomy (removing plaque from the artery) or stenting (placing a small mesh tube in the artery to keep it open).
In conclusion, carotid stenosis is a serious medical condition that can lead to stroke and other complications if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Anuria is often associated with other conditions such as chronic kidney disease, sepsis, or bladder outlet obstruction. The symptoms of anuria may include decreased urine output, swelling in the legs and abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and electrolyte imbalances.
Treatment of anuria depends on the underlying cause, and may involve medications to relieve symptoms, drainage of obstructions, or other interventions such as hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In severe cases, anuria can lead to uremia, a buildup of waste products in the blood that can be life-threatening. Therefore, prompt medical attention is essential for effective management and prevention of complications.
There are two main types of Renal Insufficiency:
1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): This is a sudden and reversible decrease in kidney function, often caused by injury, sepsis, or medication toxicity. AKI can resolve with appropriate treatment and supportive care.
2. Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRI): This is a long-standing and irreversible decline in kidney function, often caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, or chronic kidney disease. CRI can lead to ESRD if left untreated.
Signs and symptoms of Renal Insufficiency may include:
* Decreased urine output
* Swelling in the legs and ankles (edema)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Pain in the back, flank, or abdomen
Diagnosis of Renal Insufficiency is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, and a 24-hour urine protein collection. Imaging studies, such as ultrasound or CT scans, may be used to evaluate the kidneys and rule out other possible causes of the patient's symptoms.
Treatment of Renal Insufficiency depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Treatment may include medications to control blood pressure, manage fluid balance, and reduce proteinuria (excess protein in the urine). In some cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of Renal Insufficiency includes managing underlying conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, avoiding nephrotoxic medications and substances, and maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle. Early detection and treatment of acute kidney injury can also help prevent the development of chronic renal insufficiency.
In conclusion, Renal Insufficiency is a common condition that can have significant consequences if left untreated. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of Renal Insufficiency, as well as the treatment and prevention strategies available. With appropriate management, many patients with Renal Insufficiency can recover and maintain their kidney function over time.
There are several types of vascular malformations, including:
1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can cause bleeding, seizures, and other neurological symptoms.
2. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are abnormalities in the tiny blood vessels that can cause redness, swelling, and other skin changes.
3. Venous malformations (VMs): These are abnormalities in the veins that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.
4. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the lymphatic system that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.
Vascular malformations can be diagnosed using a variety of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation, and may include surgery, embolization, or sclerotherapy.
In summary, vascular malformations are abnormalities in the blood vessels that can cause a range of symptoms and can be diagnosed using imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation.
There are several types of thrombosis, including:
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.
The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:
1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic
Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
Types of Kidney Diseases:
1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.
Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:
1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss
Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:
1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)
Treatment of Kidney Diseases:
1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)
Prevention of Kidney Diseases:
1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings
Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.
Aortic coarctation can be caused by a variety of genetic mutations or can be acquired through other conditions such as infections or autoimmune disorders. It is often diagnosed in infancy or early childhood, and symptoms can include:
* High blood pressure in the arms and low blood pressure in the legs
* Pulse narrowing or absence of a pulse in one or both arms
* Bluish skin color (cyanosis)
* Shortness of breath or fatigue during exercise
If left untreated, aortic coarctation can lead to complications such as heart failure, aneurysms, or cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment options for aortic coarctation include:
* Balloon dilation: A procedure in which a balloon is inserted through a catheter into the narrowed section of the aorta and inflated to widen the passage.
* Surgical repair: An open-heart surgery that involves cutting out the narrowed section of the aorta and sewing it back together with a patch or graft.
It is important for individuals with aortic coarctation to receive regular monitoring and treatment from a cardiologist or cardiac surgeon to prevent complications and manage symptoms. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with aortic coarctation can lead active and healthy lives.
Symptoms of CAID may include sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking, dizziness, and loss of vision in one eye. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and Doppler ultrasound.
Treatment for CAID usually involves medications to dissolve blood clots and prevent further complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged artery. Preventive measures include avoiding trauma to the neck and head, controlling high blood pressure, and managing underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of CAID.
The carotid arteries are located on either side of the neck and supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain, making them a critical part of the vascular system. Internal dissection of the carotid artery can lead to serious complications if left untreated, so prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for preventing long-term damage.
There are several different types of calcinosis, each with its own unique causes and symptoms. Some common forms of calcinosis include:
1. Dystrophic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs in people with muscular dystrophy, a group of genetic disorders that affect muscle strength and function. Dystrophic calcinosis can cause calcium deposits to form in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
2. Metastatic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body and cause calcium deposits to form. Metastatic calcinosis can occur in people with a variety of different types of cancer, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer.
3. Idiopathic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs for no apparent reason, and the exact cause is not known. Idiopathic calcinosis can affect people of all ages and can cause calcium deposits to form in a variety of different tissues.
4. Secondary calcinosis: This type of calcidosis occurs as a result of an underlying medical condition or injury. For example, secondary calcinosis can occur in people with kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone), or traumatic injuries.
Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve managing the underlying disease or condition that is causing the calcium deposits to form. Other treatments may include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy to improve mobility and strength, and surgery to remove the calcium deposits.
Reperfusion injury can cause inflammation, cell death, and impaired function in the affected tissue or organ. The severity of reperfusion injury can vary depending on the duration and severity of the initial ischemic event, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment to restore blood flow.
Reperfusion injury can be a complicating factor in various medical conditions, including:
1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle after a heart attack, leading to inflammation and cell death.
2. Stroke: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the brain after an ischemic stroke, leading to inflammation and damage to brain tissue.
3. Organ transplantation: Reperfusion injury can occur when a transplanted organ is subjected to ischemia during harvesting or preservation, and then reperfused with blood.
4. Peripheral arterial disease: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to a previously occluded peripheral artery, leading to inflammation and damage to the affected tissue.
Treatment of reperfusion injury often involves medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In some cases, experimental therapies such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy may be used to promote tissue repair and regeneration.
The severity of coronary stenosis can range from mild to severe, with blockages ranging from 15% to over 90%. In mild cases, lifestyle changes and medication may be enough to manage symptoms. However, more severe cases typically require interventional procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:
1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.
Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.
Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.
Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.
In some cases, vertebral artery dissection can be caused by a tear in the inner lining of the artery, which can lead to bleeding and formation of a blood clot. This can put pressure on the surrounding brain tissue and cause further damage.
The symptoms of vertebral artery dissection can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:
* Headaches, which can be severe and persistent
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Blurred vision or double vision
* Numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
* Sudden severe headache with vomiting, sensitivity to light, and confusion (this is a more serious symptom and requires immediate medical attention)
Vertebral artery dissection is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for the condition depends on the severity of the symptoms and may include medications to control blood pressure and prevent further bleeding, as well as surgery to repair the damaged artery.
In some cases, vertebral artery dissection can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries) or aneurysms. It is important for individuals experiencing symptoms to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
Graft occlusion can occur due to a variety of factors, including:
1. Blood clots forming within the graft
2. Inflammation or infection within the graft
3. Narrowing or stenosis of the graft
4. Disruption of the graft material
5. Poor blood flow through the graft
The signs and symptoms of vascular graft occlusion can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. They may include:
1. Pain or tenderness in the affected limb
2. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Difficulty walking or moving the affected limb
5. Coolness or discoloration of the skin in the affected limb
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can diagnose vascular graft occlusion using imaging tests such as ultrasound, angiography, or MRI. Treatment options for vascular graft occlusion may include:
1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or reduce inflammation
2. Surgical intervention to repair or replace the graft
3. Balloon angioplasty or stenting to open up the blocked graft
4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve blood flow and promote healing.
Preventive measures to reduce the risk of vascular graft occlusion include:
1. Proper wound care and infection prevention after surgery
2. Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider
3. Avoiding smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors
4. Taking medications as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent blood clots and inflammation.
It is important to note that vascular graft occlusion can be a serious complication after surgery, but with prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment, the outcome can be improved.
There are several types of embolism, including:
1. Pulmonary embolism: A blood clot that forms in the lungs and blocks the flow of blood to the heart.
2. Cerebral embolism: A blood clot or other foreign substance that blocks the flow of blood to the brain.
3. Coronary embolism: A blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle, causing a heart attack.
4. Intestinal embolism: A blood clot or other foreign substance that blocks the flow of blood to the intestines.
5. Fat embolism: A condition where fat enters the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel, blocking the flow of blood.
The symptoms of embolism can vary depending on the location of the blockage, but may include:
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Swelling or redness in the affected limb
* Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
* Chest pain or pressure
* Lightheadedness or fainting
* Rapid heart rate or palpitations
Treatment for embolism depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the blockage. In some cases, medication may be used to dissolve blood clots or break up the blockage. In other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the foreign substance or repair the affected blood vessel.
Prevention is key in avoiding embolism, and this can include:
* Managing underlying conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease
* Avoiding long periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Taking blood-thinning medication to prevent blood clots from forming
* Maintaining a healthy weight and diet to reduce the risk of fat embolism.
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Shortness of breath
* Coughing up blood
* Pain in the back or shoulders
* Dizziness or fainting
Diagnosis is typically made with imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment may involve monitoring the aneurysm with regular imaging tests to check for growth, or surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta.
This term is used in the medical field to identify a specific type of aneurysm and differentiate it from other types of aneurysms that occur in different locations.
There are many different causes of pathological dilatation, including:
1. Infection: Infections like tuberculosis or abscesses can cause inflammation and swelling in affected tissues, leading to dilatation.
2. Inflammation: Inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease can cause dilatation of blood vessels and organs.
3. Heart disease: Conditions like heart failure or coronary artery disease can lead to dilatation of the heart chambers or vessels.
4. Liver or spleen disease: Dilatation of the liver or spleen can occur due to conditions like cirrhosis or splenomegaly.
5. Neoplasms: Tumors can cause dilatation of affected structures, such as blood vessels or organs.
Pathological dilatation can lead to a range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the condition. These may include:
1. Swelling or distension of the affected structure
2. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
3. Difficulty breathing or swallowing (in the case of dilatation in the throat or airways)
4. Fatigue or weakness
5. Pale or clammy skin
6. Rapid heart rate or palpitations
7. Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
Diagnosis of pathological dilatation typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the underlying cause and relieve symptoms.
Renal artery stenosis
Ureteral branches of renal artery
Ex vivo reconstruction
Arcuate arteries of the kidney
Intravoxel incoherent motion
Dipen J Parekh
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy
Thomas G. Pickering
Glossary of medicine
Captopril challenge test
Inferior suprarenal artery
List of ICD-9 codes 390-459: diseases of the circulatory system
CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 5
List of diseases (C)
Acute tubular necrosis
Local blood flow regulation
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency controversy
Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect
DNA damage theory of aging
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging perfusion
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
Computed tomography angiography
Series and parallel circuits
Renal Artery Stenosis Differential Diagnoses
Renal Artery Stenosis Differential Diagnoses
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- Plouin PF, Bax L. Diagnosis and treatment of renal artery stenosis. (medscape.com)
- Primus C, Auer J. Bilateral renal artery stenosis in a young man. (medscape.com)
- Derakhshesh MI, Joye E, Yager N. Unilateral renal artery stenosis causing hypertensive flash pulmonary oedema. (medscape.com)
- When and How Should We Revascularize Patients With Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis? (medscape.com)
- Association of renal artery stenosis with aortic jet velocity in hypertensive patients with aortic valve sclerosis. (medscape.com)
- Assessment of renal artery stenosis severity by pressure gradient measurements. (medscape.com)
- Is race a risk factor for the development of renal artery stenosis? (medscape.com)
- Progression of renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. (medscape.com)
- Assessment and Management of Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis. (medscape.com)
- Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis: Underrecognized, Not So Rare, but Curable Complication. (medscape.com)
- Use of Doppler ultrasonography to predict the outcome of therapy for renal-artery stenosis. (medscape.com)
- Renal artery stenting for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis identified in patients with coronary artery disease: Does captopril renal scintigraphy predict outcomes? (medscape.com)
- Minimally invasive diagnosis of renal artery stenosis by spiral computed tomography angiography. (medscape.com)
- Comparison of gadodiamide-enhanced MR angiography to intraarterial digital subtraction angiography for evaluation of renal artery stenosis: results of a phase III multicenter trial. (medscape.com)
- Textor, SC 1998, ' Is there a role for medical therapy in management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis ', Journal of Invasive Cardiology , vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 194-197. (elsevier.com)
- Renal artery stenosis ( RAS ) is the narrowing of one or both of the renal arteries , most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia . (wikimili.com)
- Possible complications of renal artery stenosis are chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease . (wikimili.com)
- Most cases of renal artery stenosis are asymptomatic, and the main problem is high blood pressure that cannot be controlled with medication. (wikimili.com)
-  Decreased kidney function may develop if both kidneys do not receive adequate blood flow, furthermore some people with renal artery stenosis present with episodes of flash pulmonary edema . (wikimili.com)
- Renal artery stenosis is most often caused by atherosclerosis which causes the renal arteries to harden and narrow due to the build-up of plaque . (wikimili.com)
- The pathophysiology of renal artery stenosis leads to changes in the structure of the kidney that are most noticeable in the tubular tissue . (wikimili.com)
- Assessment of Kidneys with Renal Artery Stenosis taken by Magnetic Resonance Angiography. (wikimili.com)
- The diagnosis of renal artery stenosis can use many techniques to determine if the condition is present, a clinical prediction rule is available to guide diagnosis. (wikimili.com)
- The specific criteria for renal artery stenosis on Doppler are an acceleration time of greater than 70 milliseconds, an acceleration index of less than 300 cm/sec² and a velocity ratio of the renal artery to aorta of greater than 3.5. (wikimili.com)
-  When high-grade renal artery stenosis is documented and blood pressure cannot be controlled with medication, or if renal function deteriorates, surgery may be resorted to. (wikimili.com)
- Which patients with hypertension and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis benefit from immediate intervention? (eur.nl)
- Renal Arterial Disease and Hypertension. (medscape.com)
- Patients on an intensive antihypertensive regimen can safely undergo concomitant renal artery and aortic reconstruction for the empiric management of hypertension. (duke.edu)
- This narrowing of the renal artery can impede blood flow to the target kidney , resulting in renovascular hypertension - a secondary type of high blood pressure . (wikimili.com)
- This guidance replaces NICE interventional procedures guidance on percutaneous transluminal radiofrequency sympathetic denervation of the renal artery for resistant hypertension (IPG418). (bvsalud.org)
Impaired renal function1
- The purpose of this study was to compare the renal function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in off-pump and on-pump having pre-operative impaired renal function. (banglajol.info)
- This study attempts to identify the factors responsible for atherosclerosis in CRF patients using carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. (heartviews.org)
-  Carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) is increasingly used as a surrogate marker of early atherosclerosis and it was shown that CAIMT is a strong predictor of future myocardial infarction and stroke. (heartviews.org)
- The prevalence of carotid artery calcification on the panoramic radiographs of patients with renal disease. (bvsalud.org)
- A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. (medlineplus.gov)
- Renal vein renin sampling, including sampling after furosemide administration, correlated well with the location of identified vascular lesions and helped direct selective angiography when lesions were not found initially. (johnshopkins.edu)
- An emulgent vessel, as a renal artery or vein. (everything2.com)
- Concomitant aortic and renal artery reconstruction in patients on an intensive antihypertensive medical regimen: long-term outcome. (duke.edu)
- The outcome of patients on multiple preoperative antihypertensive agents who underwent combined aortic and renal artery reconstruction was reviewed. (duke.edu)
- The study population comprised 43 patients who underwent concomitant renal artery and aortic reconstruction for atherosclerotic disease between 1983 and 1995 and who were taking two or more antihypertensive medications and had a serum creatinine of less than or equal to 1.7 mg/dL. (duke.edu)
- Operative management included an aortic reconstruction with either unilateral (n = 22) or bilateral (n = 19) aortorenal bypass or renal endarterectomy (n = 2). (duke.edu)
- The Food and Drug Administration has approved gadobutrol ( Gadavist ) injections, for use in conjunction with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), to evaluate known or suspected supra-aortic or renal artery disease in adult and pediatric patients. (mdedge.com)
- Until now, no contrast agents were FDA approved for use with MRA of the supra-aortic arteries. (mdedge.com)
- With FDA's action, radiologists now have an approved MRA contrast agent to help visualize supra-aortic arteries in patients with known or suspected supra-aortic arterial disease, including conditions such as prior stroke or transient ischemic attack," Elias Melhem, MD, chair of the department of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, said in the press release. (mdedge.com)
- The prevalence of uncontrolled diabetes is a real concern as it increases the risk of severe health complications such as heart diseases, renal impairment, eyes problems and damaged arteries. (who.int)
- Reliability and agreement of human renal and segmental artery hemodynamics measured using Doppler ultrasound. (cdc.gov)
- Adrenal and testicular arteries well demonstrated in a patient with a congenitally absent L kidney. (uct.ac.za)
- Hypertensive crises occurred in 28 (18%) patients, and were significantly more common in children with HPT secondary to renovascular causes than renal causes (p=0.001). (who.int)
- Captopril test dose effect on the differential renal function as measured by MAG3 scan . (wikimili.com)
- Therefore, renal arteries with higher bifurcating angles to the abdominal aorta were observed to be more prone to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. (manipal.edu)
- Renal failure can be divided into acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. (bvsalud.org)
- as, emulgent arteries and veins. (everything2.com)
- This involves inserting a device through the skin (percutaneous) into an artery in the thigh and then into the renal arteries (transluminal). (bvsalud.org)
- Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with premature atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD), predialysis (PD) patients and also in patients who have undergone renal transplantation or who are on medical conservative treatment. (heartviews.org)
- Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). (heartviews.org)
- Renal function was better preserved in patients undergoing off-pump in comparison to on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. (banglajol.info)
- The purpose of the study was to determine the period prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF) after coronary bypass surgery (CABG) at the University Hospital of the West Iindies and to identify risk factors. (uwi.edu)
- The natural history of atherosclerotic and fibrous renal artery disease. (medscape.com)
- Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. (medscape.com)
- Kidney disease accounted for 82% of cases, 46 (30%) having steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, 22 (14%) HIV-associated nephropathy, 19 (13%) glomerulonephritis, 21 (14%) congenital urinary tract abnormalities and 17 (11%) other renal causes. (who.int)
- A beneficial effect in blood pressure control is presumed for patients on an intensive preoperative antihypertensive regimen who undergo empiric renal revascularization. (duke.edu)
- Embolization resulted in complete cure (ie, elimination of all antihypertensive medicines) in all three patients and caused only minimal loss of renal parenchyma. (johnshopkins.edu)
- We present the unusual case of a 66-year-old male with HCC in Segment I of the liver with aberrant blood supply from the right renal artery in the absence of any risk factors for extrahepatic circulation. (nih.gov)
- The recent developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be useful in observing the detailed haemodynamics in renal artery bifurcation for clinical evaluation and treatment. (manipal.edu)
-  This narrowing of renal arteries due to plaque build-up leads to higher blood pressure within the artery and decreased blood flow to the kidney. (wikimili.com)
- Renal diseases were the most common cause of severe HPT in children. (who.int)
- Podocyte -expressed ADAM10 is not required for the development of the renal filter, but plays a major role in podocyte injury. (lww.com)
- A renal artery had ruptured and despite surgery Jacqueline died on the operating table. (bmj.com)
- The test is a useful aid in diagnosing any narrowing of the arteries, blood clots, tumors, or aneurysms. (medlineplus.gov)