A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Excision of kidney.
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The act of constricting.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.
Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (URETER) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.
Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.
Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).
Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.

The evolution of early fibromuscular lesions hemodynamically induced in the dog renal artery. I. Light and transmission electron microscopy. (1/1299)

In view of the important roles of arterial intimal fibromuscular lesions as precursors of atherosclerotic plaque and occlusive lesions in arterial reconstructions, a model has been developed for the rapid hemodynamic induction of these lesions by anastomosis of the dog right renal artery to the inferior vena cava. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations were made on the arterial shunt after periods of rapid flow ranging form 10 minutes to 2 hours to identify initial factor(s) and evolutionary mechanisms in the etiology of the lesions. The sequence of events included aberrations in ruthenium red staining of the endothelial luminal membrane at 10 minutes, multilayered thickening of the subendothelial basement membrane (BM) at 15 minutes, and initial reorientation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMC) into the intima along with the appearance of areas of degeneration of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) at 30 minutes. The endothelial cells were still intact in some areas overlying the SMC migration and IEL degeneration, but they were separating from the surface in other such areas. As subendothelium became exposed, some platelet adherence was noted. By 2 hours, the entire wall reaction was fully developed. Initial observations indicate that in the evolution of this hemodynamically induced lesion visible alteration in the endothelial cells is not prerequisite to degeneration of the underlying IEL and reorientation and migration of medial SMC.  (+info)

Prevalence of angiographic atherosclerotic renal artery disease and its relationship to the anatomical extent of peripheral vascular atherosclerosis. (2/1299)

BACKGROUND: Recognition of the possible presence of atherosclerotic renal artery disease (ARAD) is important because of its progressive nature, and because of the potential for precipitating an acute deterioration in renal function by administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of ARAD in patients undergoing peripheral angiography and its relationship to the extent of their peripheral vascular disease (PVD). METHODS: The reports of the 218 patients who underwent peripheral angiography to investigate PVD in one centre in a calendar year, and in whom it was possible to image the renal arteries, were analysed retrospectively. The presence of atherosclerotic disease in the renal, aortic, iliac, femoral and distal areas was recorded for each patient. RESULTS: The prevalence of ARAD was 79/218 (36.2%). The greater the number of atherosclerotic areas of the arterial tree, the higher the prevalence of ARAD. Patients with aortic disease and bilateral iliac, femoral and distal vessel disease had the highest incidence of ARAD 19/38 (50%). The incidence of ARAD in those with femoral artery atherosclerosis was significantly higher than in those without femoral artery atherosclerosis (42.1% compared with 9.7%, P=0.001 chi2). There was no significant difference in those groups with or without iliac and distal disease. None of the 11 patients with normal femoral and iliac arteries had ARAD. CONCLUSIONS: Renal artery atherosclerosis is a common occurrence in patients with PVD. If extensive PVD is recognized during aortography, a high flush should be considered to examine the renal arteries, if they are not included in the main study.  (+info)

NH2-terminal fragments of the 130 kDa subunit of myosin phosphatase increase the Ca2+ sensitivity of porcine renal artery. (3/1299)

1. The effects of the NH2-terminal fragments of M130, a 130 kDa regulatory subunit of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase, on contraction and myosin light chain phosphorylation were investigated in Triton X-100-permeabilized porcine renal artery. 2. Incubation of the permeabilized fibres with M1301-633 (a fragment containing amino acid residues 1-633) or M13044-633 enhanced the Ca2+-induced contraction and shifted the [Ca2+]i-force relationship to the left (EC50 of Ca2+: 330 nM, control, without fragment; 145 nM, M1301-633; 163 nM, M13044-633). Pre-incubation for 1-3 h was needed for these long constructs. 3. M1301-374, M130304-511 and M130297-374, i.e. relatively short constructs compared with M1301-633 and M13044-633, also induced leftward shifts of the [Ca2+]i-force relationship (EC50 of Ca2+: 65 nM, 72 nM and 180 nM, respectively). However, these required no pre-incubation. 4. Deletion of residues 304-374 from the most potent construct, M1301-374, abolished the Ca2+-sensitizing effect. 5. Wortmannin inhibited the enhancement of contraction induced by M130 fragments when added before contraction was initiated and partially inhibited the effects when added after steady-state contraction. 6. M1301-374 slowed the rate of relaxation in Ca2+-free medium. The time for 50 % relaxation with this fragment was 510 +/- 51 s, compared with 274 +/- 14 s for control. 7. The levels of myosin light chain phosphorylation (22.4 %) and force (34. 5 %) obtained with 300 nM Ca2+ were increased by 3 microM M1301-374 to 35.7 and 92.2 %, respectively. However, M1301-374 had no effect on the phosphorylation-force relationship. 8. In conclusion, the NH2-terminal M130 fragments containing residues 304-374 inhibited myosin phosphatase, increased myosin light chain phosphorylation and increased the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in permeabilized porcine renal artery.  (+info)

Altered renal hemodynamics and impaired myogenic responses in the fawn-hooded rat. (4/1299)

The present study examined whether an abnormality in the myogenic response of renal arterioles that impairs autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) contributes to the development of renal damage in fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats. Autoregulation of whole kidney, cortical, and medullary blood flow and PGC were compared in young (12 wk old) FHH and fawn-hooded low blood pressure (FHL) rats in volume-replete and volume-expanded conditions. Baseline RBF, cortical and medullary blood flow, and PGC were significantly greater in FHH than in FHL rats. Autoregulation of renal and cortical blood flow was significantly impaired in FHH rats compared with results obtained in FHL rats. Myogenically mediated autoregulation of PGC was significantly greater in FHL than in FHH rats. PGC rose from 46 +/- 1 to 71 +/- 2 mmHg in response to an increase in renal perfusion pressure from 100 to 150 mmHg in FHH rats, whereas it only increased from 39 +/- 2 to 53 +/- 1 mmHg in FHL rats. Isolated perfused renal interlobular arteries from FHL rats constricted by 10% in response to elevations in transmural pressure from 70 to 120 mmHg. In contrast, the diameter of vessels from FHH rats increased by 15%. These results indicate that the myogenic response of small renal arteries is altered in FHH rats, and this contributes to an impaired autoregulation of renal blood flow and elevations in PGC in this strain.  (+info)

Cyclosporine-induced renal artery smooth muscle contraction is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of specific contractile regulatory proteins. (5/1299)

Cyclosporine A (CSA) is a type 2B phosphatase inhibitor which can induce contraction of renal artery smooth muscle. In this investigation, we examined the phosphorylation events associated with CSA-induced contraction of bovine renal artery smooth muscle. Contractile responses were determined in a muscle bath and the corresponding phosphorylation events were determined with whole cell phosphorylation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. CSA-induced contractions were associated with increases in the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chains (MLC20) and different isoforms of the small heat shock protein, HSP27. Cyclic nucleotide-dependent relaxation of CSA-induced contractions was associated with increases in the phosphorylation of another small heat shock protein, HSP20, and decreases in the phosphorylation of the MLC20, and some isoforms of HSP27. These data suggest that CSA-induced contraction and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of specific contractile regulatory proteins.  (+info)

Hypotensive response to captopril: a potential pitfall of scintigraphic assessment for renal artery stenosis. (6/1299)

A characteristic pattern seen on captopril renography is described that is due to systemic hypotensive response. Most patients with these findings on captopril renography do not receive renal artery angiograms in our clinic because it is usually recognized. However, this pattern has received little attention in the medical literature and may be misinterpreted as being due to physiologically significant renal artery hypertension. METHODS: Over the last 3 y, renal artery angiograms were performed on three patients with systemic hypotensive response pattern on captopril renography. This allowed a unique opportunity to correlate the results of the captopril renogram with the renal artery angiograms in this patient population. Captopril renography was performed with a glomerular filtration agent, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), and a tubular agent, o-iodohipurate (OIH). RESULTS: Renal artery angiograms showed no evidence of renal artery stenosis in three patients with systemic hypotensive response pattern on captopril renography. Systemic hypotension on captopril renograms results in preserved uptake of both DTPA and OIH and hyperconcentration in the cortex and collecting system. CONCLUSION: The systemic hypotensive response pattern seen on captopril renography is a distinctive pattern that does not represent physiologically significant renal artery stenosis.  (+info)

The effects of crossing porcine renal artery ostia with various endovascular stents. (7/1299)

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of crossing renal artery ostia with various stents. METHODS: The renal artery ostia of 24 large white pigs were covered with a Wallstent (nine ostia), a Palmaz stent (nine ostia) and a Memotherm stent (13 ostia). After an interval of 6-15 weeks, aortography, renal pressure and blood samples were performed and the pigs then sacrificed for histological examination. RESULTS: Histological examination revealed an organised collagen matrix with endothelial cells covering the struts in contact with the aorta. This occurred with all stents but was most organised with the Wallstent. This matrix did not involve the renal artery ostia crossed by Wallstents, but in one Palmaz stent and in 12/13 Memotherm stents, a disorganised acellular matrix caused partial ostial occlusion. There was no mean fall in renal artery pressure but traces were damped in 8/13 cases of partial occlusion. There was a rise in serum creatinine in two cases using the Palmaz stent. CONCLUSIONS: Covering renal arteries with the Wallstent appears to be safe in the short-term. Placement of stents with larger struts across renal arteries will require imaging methods, such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to ensure that the ostia are not obstructed.  (+info)

Inhibition of prostaglandin and nitric oxide synthesis prevents cortisol-induced renal vasodilatation in sheep. (8/1299)

Glucocorticoids increase renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate in many species, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We investigated whether cortisol-induced renal vasodilatation in conscious sheep depends on interactions with prostaglandins or angiotensin II. Intravenous infusion of cortisol (5 mg/h) for 5 h increased renal conductance (RC) by 1.06 +/- 0.24 ml. min-1. mmHg-1 more than vehicle. During intrarenal infusion of indomethacin (0.25 mg. kg-1. h-1), the cortisol-induced increase in RC (0.28 +/- 0.21 ml. min-1. mmHg-1) was significantly reduced. The cortisol-induced rise in RBF (103 +/- 17 ml/min) was not significantly reduced by indomethacin treatment (76 +/- 9 ml/min). Combined intrarenal infusion of indomethacin (0.25 mg. kg-1. h-1) with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (2.0 mg. kg-1. h-1), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, abolished the cortisol-induced increases in both RC and RBF. Inhibition of angiotensin II synthesis with intravenous captopril (40 mg/h) blocked the renal vasoconstrictor action of angiotensin I but did not inhibit the cortisol-induced increases in RBF and RC. This study provides evidence that nitric oxide and prostaglandins play a role in cortisol-induced renal vasodilatation but indicates that this response is independent of an interaction with angiotensin.  (+info)

Renal artery obstruction can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries): This is the most common cause of renal artery obstruction and occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages.
2. Stenosis (narrowing of the arteries): This can be caused by inflammation or scarring of the arteries, which can lead to a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys.
3. Fibromuscular dysplasia: This is a rare condition that causes abnormal growth of muscle tissue in the renal arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages.
4. Embolism (blood clot): A blood clot can break loose and travel to the kidneys, causing a blockage in the renal artery.
5. Renal vein thrombosis: This is a blockage of the veins that drain blood from the kidneys, which can lead to decreased blood flow and oxygenation of the kidneys.

Symptoms of renal artery obstruction may include:

1. High blood pressure
2. Decreased kidney function
3. Swelling in the legs or feet
4. Pain in the flank or back
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Weight loss

Diagnosis of renal artery obstruction is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

1. Ultrasound: This can help identify any blockages or narrowing in the renal arteries.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: This can provide detailed images of the renal arteries and any blockages or narrowing.
3. Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA): This is a non-invasive test that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the renal arteries.
4. Angiography: This is a minimally invasive test that involves inserting a catheter into the renal artery to visualize any blockages or narrowing.

Treatment for renal artery obstruction depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some possible treatment options include:

1. Medications: Drugs such as blood thinners, blood pressure medication, and anticoagulants may be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Endovascular therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the renal artery to open up any blockages or narrowing.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any blockages or repair any damage to the renal arteries.
4. Dialysis: This is a procedure in which waste products are removed from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Kidney transplantation: In severe cases of renal artery obstruction, a kidney transplant may be necessary.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of renal artery obstruction can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients.

Symptoms of renovascular hypertension may include:

* High blood pressure that is resistant to treatment
* Flank pain or back pain
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Decreased kidney function

Diagnosis of renovascular hypertension typically involves imaging tests such as angiography, CT or MRI angiography, or ultrasound to evaluate the renal arteries and identify any blockages or narrowing. Other tests such as arenography, captopril test, or adrenomedullin testing may also be used to support the diagnosis.

Treatment of renovascular hypertension typically involves medications to lower blood pressure, such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, or calcium channel blockers. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the kidneys. For example, atherosclerosis can be treated with angioplasty or bypass surgery.

It is important to note that renovascular hypertension is a relatively rare cause of hypertension and only accounts for about 5-10% of all cases of hypertension. However, it is an important differential diagnosis for hypertension that is resistant to treatment or has a sudden onset.

There are several types of aneurysms, including:

1. Thoracic aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the chest cavity and is usually caused by atherosclerosis or other conditions that affect the aorta.
2. Abdominal aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the abdomen and is usually caused by high blood pressure or atherosclerosis.
3. Cerebral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the brain and can cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and stroke.
4. Peripheral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the peripheral arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood to the arms and legs.

Symptoms of an aneurysm can include:

1. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
2. Swelling or bulging of the affected area
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain (in the case of a thoracic aneurysm)
5. Headaches, seizures, or stroke (in the case of a cerebral aneurysm)

If an aneurysm is not treated, it can lead to serious complications such as:

1. Rupture: This is the most serious complication of an aneurysm and occurs when the aneurysm sac bursts, leading to severe bleeding and potentially life-threatening consequences.
2. Stroke or brain damage: If a cerebral aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a stroke or brain damage.
3. Infection: An aneurysm can become infected, which can lead to serious health problems.
4. Blood clots: An aneurysm can form blood clots, which can break loose and travel to other parts of the body, causing blockages or further complications.
5. Kidney failure: If an aneurysm is not treated, it can cause kidney failure due to the pressure on the renal arteries.
6. Heart problems: An aneurysm in the aorta can lead to heart problems such as heart failure or cardiac arrest.
7. Sepsis: If an aneurysm becomes infected, it can lead to sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause organ failure and death.

Treatment options for an aneurysm include:

1. Observation: Small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups to see if they are growing or changing.
2. Surgery: Open surgery or endovascular repair are two common methods for treating aneurysms. In open surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm. In endovascular repair, a small tube is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it is expanded to fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
3. Embolization: This is a minimally invasive procedure where a small catheter is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it releases tiny particles or coils that fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
4. Medications: Certain medications such as antibiotics and blood thinners may be prescribed to treat related complications such as infection or blood clots.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of an aneurysm, such as sudden severe headache, vision changes, difficulty speaking, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

A type of hypertension that is caused by a problem with the kidneys. It can be acute or chronic and may be associated with other conditions such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or polycystic kidney disease. Symptoms include proteinuria, hematuria, and elevated blood pressure. Treatment options include diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers.

Note: Renal hypertension is also known as renal artery hypertension.

The most common carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the inner lining of the arteries. This buildup can lead to a narrowing or blockage of the arteries, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other conditions that can affect the carotid arteries include:

1. Carotid artery stenosis: A narrowing of the carotid arteries caused by atherosclerosis or other factors.
2. Carotid artery dissection: A tear in the inner lining of the arteries that can cause bleeding and blockage.
3. Carotid artery aneurysm: A bulge in the wall of the arteries that can lead to rupture and stroke.
4. Temporal bone fracture: A break in the bones of the skull that can cause damage to the carotid arteries and result in stroke or other complications.

Carotid artery diseases are typically diagnosed using imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Treatment options for carotid artery diseases depend on the underlying condition and its severity, but may include lifestyle changes, medications, surgery, or endovascular procedures.

Prevention of carotid artery diseases is key to reducing the risk of stroke and other complications. This includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes, as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle and getting regular check-ups with your doctor.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, back pain, and difficulty breathing if it ruptures. It can also be diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for an abdominal aortic aneurysm include watchful waiting (monitoring the aneurysm for signs of growth or rupture), endovascular repair (using a catheter to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel), or surgical repair (open surgery to repair the aneurysm).

Word Origin and History

The word 'aneurysm' comes from the Greek words 'aneurysma', meaning 'dilation' and 'sma', meaning 'a vessel'. The term 'abdominal aortic aneurysm' was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe this specific type of aneurysm.


Prevalence and Incidence

Abdominal aortic aneurysms are relatively common, especially among older adults. According to the Society for Vascular Surgery, approximately 2% of people over the age of 65 have an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms increases with age, and men are more likely to be affected than women.


Risk Factors

Several risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm, including:

* High blood pressure
* Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
* Smoking
* Family history of aneurysms
* Previous heart attack or stroke
* Marfan syndrome or other connective tissue disorders.


Symptoms and Diagnosis

Abdominal aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, some people may experience symptoms such as:

* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Back pain
* Weakness or fatigue
* Palpitations
* Shortness of breath

If an abdominal aortic aneurysm is suspected, several diagnostic tests may be ordered, including:

* Ultrasound
* Computed tomography (CT) scan
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
* Angiography

Treatment and Management

The treatment of choice for an abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on several factors, including the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:

* Watchful waiting (for small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms)
* Endovascular repair (using a stent or other device to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel)
* Open surgical repair (where the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm)

In some cases, emergency surgery may be necessary if the aneurysm ruptures or shows signs of impending rupture.

Complications and Risks

Abdominal aortic aneurysms can lead to several complications and risks, including:

* Rupture (which can be life-threatening)
* Infection
* Blood clots or blockages in the blood vessels
* Kidney damage
* Heart problems

Prevention

There is no guaranteed way to prevent an abdominal aortic aneurysm, but several factors may reduce the risk of developing one. These include:

* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle (including a balanced diet and regular exercise)
* Not smoking
* Managing high blood pressure and other medical conditions
* Getting regular check-ups with your healthcare provider

Prognosis and Life Expectancy

The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysms depends on several factors, including the size of the aneurysm, its location, and whether it has ruptured. In general, the larger the aneurysm, the poorer the prognosis. If treated before rupture, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy. However, if the aneurysm ruptures, the survival rate is much lower.

In conclusion, abdominal aortic aneurysms are a serious medical condition that can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of an aneurysm, and to seek medical attention immediately if any are present. With proper treatment, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arteries of the heart, brain, and legs. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often associated with aging and other factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking.

There are several types of arteriosclerosis, including:

1. Atherosclerosis: This is the most common type of arteriosclerosis and occurs when plaque builds up inside the arteries.
2. Arteriolosclerosis: This type affects the small arteries in the body and can cause decreased blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and brain.
3. Medial sclerosis: This type affects the middle layer of the artery wall and can cause stiffness and narrowing of the arteries.
4. Intimal sclerosis: This type occurs when plaque builds up inside the innermost layer of the artery wall, causing it to become thick and less flexible.

Symptoms of arteriosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain or cramping during exercise, and numbness or weakness in the limbs. Treatment for arteriosclerosis may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to open up or bypass blocked arteries.

Types of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a condition where plaque builds up inside the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages that can restrict blood flow to certain areas of the body.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): PAD is a condition where the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain or cramping in the affected limbs.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CAD is a condition where the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Carotid artery disease is a condition where the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked, leading to stroke or mini-stroke.
5. Renal Artery Stenosis: Renal artery stenosis is a condition where the blood vessels that supply the kidneys become narrowed or blocked, leading to high blood pressure and decreased kidney function.

Symptoms of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Pain or cramping in the affected limbs
2. Weakness or fatigue
3. Difficulty walking or standing
4. Chest pain or discomfort
5. Shortness of breath
6. Dizziness or lightheadedness
7. Stroke or mini-stroke

Treatment for Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Medications: Medications such as blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications may be prescribed to treat arterial occlusive diseases.
2. Lifestyle Changes: Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
3. Endovascular Procedures: Endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and stenting may be performed to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat arterial occlusive diseases, such as bypass surgery or carotid endarterectomy.

Prevention of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Quit smoking and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke
3. Exercise regularly
4. Manage high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
5. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
6. Get regular check-ups with your healthcare provider

Early detection and treatment of arterial occlusive diseases can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and prevent complications such as heart attack or stroke.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

The disease begins with endothelial dysfunction, which allows lipid accumulation in the artery wall. Macrophages take up oxidized lipids and become foam cells, which die and release their contents, including inflammatory cytokines, leading to further inflammation and recruitment of more immune cells.

The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture or ulcerate, leading to the formation of a thrombus that can occlude the blood vessel, causing ischemia or infarction of downstream tissues. This can lead to various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and obesity. It is diagnosed by imaging techniques such as angiography, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Treatment options for atherosclerosis include lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, dietary changes, and exercise, as well as medications such as statins, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In severe cases, surgical interventions such as bypass surgery or angioplasty may be necessary.

In conclusion, atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial disease that affects the arteries and can lead to various cardiovascular diseases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or slow down its progression, reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

The exact cause of Takayasu arteritis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the body. The disease primarily affects women of childbearing age, although it can occur at any age.

The symptoms of Takayasu arteritis can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation. Common symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Joint pain
* Fever
* Headaches
* Muscle wasting
* Decreased vision

If the disease affects the aorta, it can cause:

* Aortic regurgitation
* Aortic stenosis
* Aortic aneurysm

Diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

* Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
* C-reactive protein (CRP)
* Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)
* Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA)

Imaging studies may include:

* Ultrasonography (US)
* Computed tomography (CT)
* Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
* Positron emission tomography (PET)

Treatment for Takayasu arteritis typically involves a combination of medications and surgery. Medications may include:

* Glucocorticoids
* Immunosuppressive drugs
* Antibiotics

Surgical interventions may include:

* Aortic root replacement
* Aortic grafting
* Bypass surgery

The prognosis for Takayasu arteritis is generally good if the disease is diagnosed and treated early, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 80%. However, if left untreated, the disease can progress to severe complications such as aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, or stroke, which can be fatal.

Prevention of Takayasu arteritis is not possible, as the exact cause of the disease is not fully understood. However, early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Current research is focused on identifying specific biomarkers that can aid in the diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis, as well as developing new treatments that can more effectively target the underlying immune mechanisms of the disease.

There are several types of carotid artery injuries, including:

1. Carotid artery dissection: This is a tear in the inner lining of the artery that can lead to bleeding and inflammation.
2. Carotid artery thrombosis: This is the formation of a blood clot within the artery that can block blood flow to the brain.
3. Carotid artery occlusion: This is the complete blockage of the artery, which can cause a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Carotid artery injury due to trauma: This type of injury can occur as a result of a blow to the neck or head.
5. Carotid artery injury due to surgery: This type of injury can occur during surgical procedures that involve the carotid arteries, such as endarterectomy or stenting.

The symptoms of carotid artery injuries can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the location of the damage. Some common symptoms include:

* Sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Sudden confusion or trouble speaking
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Sudden difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Sudden severe headache

The diagnosis of carotid artery injuries is typically made using imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for carotid artery injuries depend on the severity and location of the injury, and may include medications, endovascular procedures, or surgery.

Prevention of carotid artery injuries is key to reducing the risk of complications. This can be achieved through:

* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced diet
* Avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes
* Properly managing medications that may increase the risk of bleeding or injury
* Using appropriate precautions during surgical procedures, such as using sterile equipment and monitoring for signs of bleeding or injury.

In conclusion, carotid artery injuries can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for these injuries in order to provide appropriate care and prevent complications. Proper precautions during surgical procedures and a healthy lifestyle can also help reduce the risk of carotid artery injuries.

There are several types of ischemia, including:

1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.

Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.

Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.

The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back

Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Preventative measures for coronary disease include:

* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.

Example sentences for 'Aneurysm, False'

The patient was diagnosed with a false aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe pain in his leg following a fall.
The surgeon treated the false aneurysm by inserting a catheter into the affected blood vessel and using it to deliver a special coil that would seal off the dilated area.

Dissecting aneurysms are often caused by trauma, such as a car accident or fall, but they can also be caused by other factors such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) or inherited conditions. They can occur in any blood vessel, but are most common in the aorta, which is the main artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Symptoms of dissecting aneurysms can include sudden and severe pain, numbness or weakness, and difficulty speaking or understanding speech. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, or death.

Treatment for dissecting aneurysms typically involves surgery to repair the damaged blood vessel. In some cases, endovascular procedures such as stenting or coiling may be used to treat the aneurysm. The goal of treatment is to prevent further bleeding and damage to the blood vessel, and to restore normal blood flow to the affected area.

Preventive measures for dissecting aneurysms are not always possible, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding trauma, and managing underlying conditions such as hypertension or atherosclerosis can help reduce the risk of developing an aneurysm. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes for patients with dissecting aneurysms.

The term "infarction" is derived from the Latin words "in" meaning "into" and "farcire" meaning "to stuff", which refers to the idea that the tissue becomes "stuffed" with blood, leading to cell death and necrosis.

Infarction can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the blood vessels), embolism (a blood clot or other foreign material that blocks the flow of blood), and vasospasm (constriction of the blood vessels).

The symptoms of infarction vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage, but can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, numbness or weakness in the affected limbs, and confusion or difficulty speaking or understanding speech.

Diagnosis of infarction typically involves imaging tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, or computerized tomography (CT) scans to confirm the presence of a blockage and assess the extent of the damage. Treatment options for infarction include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to restore blood flow, and other interventions to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention of infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and obesity, as well as maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine. Early detection and treatment of blockages can help reduce the risk of infarction and minimize the damage to affected tissues.

Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:

1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.

Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.

Infarction Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the middle cerebral artery. This artery supplies blood to the temporal lobe of the brain, which controls many important functions such as memory, language, and spatial reasoning. When this artery becomes blocked or ruptured, it can cause a lack of blood supply to the affected areas resulting in tissue death (infarction).

The symptoms of an MCA infarction can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. Some common symptoms include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. Patients may also experience sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and fever.

The diagnosis of MCA infarction is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. Imaging studies can help to identify the location and severity of the blockage, while laboratory tests may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.

Treatment for MCA infarction depends on the underlying cause of the blockage or rupture. In some cases, medications such as thrombolytics may be given to dissolve blood clots and restore blood flow to the affected areas. Surgery may also be required to remove any blockages or repair damaged blood vessels. Other interventions such as endovascular procedures or brain bypass surgery may also be used to restore blood flow.

In summary, middle cerebral artery infarction is a type of stroke that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue. It can cause a range of symptoms including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. The diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options include medications, surgery, endovascular procedures, or brain bypass surgery.

If you are experiencing flank pain, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and receive proper treatment. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as blood work, imaging studies, or a CT scan to determine the underlying cause of the pain.

Treatment for flank pain depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for infections, pain management medication, or surgical intervention in more severe cases. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's recommendations and seek medical attention if your symptoms worsen or if you experience other concerning symptoms such as fever, nausea, or vomiting.

1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This can lead to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.
2. Hypertension: High blood pressure that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and weakness in the affected limbs.
4. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition that causes blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, leading to discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.
5. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, often caused by immobility or injury.
6. Varicose veins: Enlarged, twisted veins that can cause pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns.
7. Angioplasty: A medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open up narrowed blood vessels, often performed to treat peripheral artery disease or blockages in the legs.
8. Stenting: A medical procedure in which a small mesh tube is placed inside a blood vessel to keep it open and improve blood flow.
9. Carotid endarterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove plaque from the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, to reduce the risk of stroke.
10. Bypass surgery: A surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel, often performed to treat coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.

Overall, vascular diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can increase the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and amputation. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

There are two main types of retinal artery occlusion: central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). Central retinal artery occlusion occurs when the central retinal artery, which supplies blood to the macula, becomes blocked. This can cause sudden vision loss in one eye, often with a painless, blinding effect. Branch retinal artery occlusion, on the other hand, occurs when one of the smaller retinal arteries that branch off from the central retinal artery becomes blocked. This can cause vision loss in a specific part of the visual field, often with some preserved peripheral vision.

Retinal artery occlusion is often caused by a blood clot or other debris that blocks the flow of blood through the retinal arteries. It can also be caused by other conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries).

Retinal artery occlusion is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment. Treatment options may include intravenous injection of medications to dissolve the clot or other debris, laser surgery to repair damaged retinal tissue, and/or vitrectomy (surgical removal of the vitreous gel) to remove any blood or debris that has accumulated in the eye.

In summary, retinal artery occlusion is a serious condition that can cause sudden vision loss and potentially lead to permanent blindness. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any symptoms of retinal artery occlusion, such as sudden vision loss or blurred vision in one eye, flashes of light, floaters, or pain in the eye.

The symptoms of an aortic aneurysm can vary depending on its size and location. Small aneurysms may not cause any symptoms at all, while larger ones may cause:

* Pain in the abdomen or back
* Pulsatile abdominal mass that can be felt through the skin
* Numbness or weakness in the legs
* Difficulty speaking or swallowing (if the aneurysm is pressing on the vocal cords)
* Sudden, severe pain if the aneurysm ruptures.

If you suspect that you or someone else may have an aortic aneurysm, it is important to seek medical attention right away. Aortic aneurysms can be diagnosed with imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and treated with surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta.

In this article, we will discuss the causes and risk factors for aortic aneurysms, the symptoms and diagnosis of this condition, and the treatment options available. We will also cover the prognosis and outlook for patients with aortic aneurysms, as well as any lifestyle changes that may help reduce the risk of developing this condition.

CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS:

Aortic aneurysms are caused by weaknesses in the wall of the aorta, which can be due to genetic or acquired factors. Some of the known risk factors for developing an aortic aneurysm include:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Gender (men are more likely to develop an aortic aneurysm than women)
* Family history of aneurysms
* High blood pressure
* Atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries)
* Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Previous heart surgery or radiation therapy to the chest

SYMPTOMS:

In many cases, aortic aneurysms do not cause any symptoms in the early stages. However, as the aneurysm grows and puts pressure on nearby blood vessels or organs, patients may experience some of the following symptoms:

* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Back pain
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Fatigue
* Confusion or weakness

DIAGNOSIS:

Aortic aneurysms are typically diagnosed using imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. These tests can provide detailed images of the aorta and help doctors identify any abnormalities or dilations. Other diagnostic tests may include echocardiography, ultrasound, or angiography.

TREATMENT:

The treatment for an aortic aneurysm will depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Some options may include:

* Monitoring: Small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms may not require immediate treatment. Instead, doctors may recommend regular check-ups to monitor the aneurysm's size and progression.
* Surgery: If the aneurysm is large or growing rapidly, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta. This may involve replacing the aneurysm with a synthetic tube or sewing a patch over the aneurysm to reinforce the aortic wall.
* Endovascular repair: In some cases, doctors may use a minimally invasive procedure called endovascular repair to treat the aneurysm. This involves inserting a small tube (called a stent) into the affected area through a small incision in the groin. The stent is then expanded to reinforce the aortic wall and prevent further growth of the aneurysm.

PROGNOSIS:

The prognosis for aortic aneurysms is generally good if they are detected and treated early. However, if left untreated, aortic aneurysms can lead to serious complications, such as:

* Aneurysm rupture: This is the most severe complication of aortic aneurysms and can be life-threatening. If the aneurysm ruptures, it can cause massive internal bleeding and potentially lead to death.
* Blood clots: Aortic aneurysms can increase the risk of blood clots forming in the affected area. These clots can break loose and travel to other parts of the body, causing further complications.
* Heart problems: Large aortic aneurysms can put pressure on the heart and surrounding vessels, leading to heart problems such as heart failure or coronary artery disease.

PREVENTION:

There is no guaranteed way to prevent aortic aneurysms, but there are several factors that may reduce the risk of developing one. These include:

* Family history: If you have a family history of aortic aneurysms, your doctor may recommend more frequent monitoring and check-ups to detect any potential problems early.
* High blood pressure: High blood pressure is a major risk factor for aortic aneurysms, so managing your blood pressure through lifestyle changes and medication can help reduce the risk.
* Smoking: Smoking is also a major risk factor for aortic aneurysms, so quitting smoking can help reduce the risk.
* Healthy diet: Eating a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat can help reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure and other conditions that may increase the risk of aortic aneurysms.

DIAGNOSIS:

Aortic aneurysms are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests. These may include:

* Physical examination: Your doctor may check for any signs of an aneurysm by feeling your pulse and listening to your heart with a stethoscope. They may also check for any swelling or tenderness in your abdomen.
* Medical history: Your doctor will ask about your medical history, including any previous heart conditions or surgeries.
* Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI can be used to confirm the diagnosis and measure the size of the aneurysm.

TREATMENT:

The treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on the size of the aneurysm and how quickly it is growing. For small aneurysms that are not growing, doctors may recommend regular monitoring with imaging tests to check the size of the aneurysm. For larger aneurysms that are growing rapidly, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the aorta.

SURGICAL REPAIR:

There are several surgical options for repairing an aortic aneurysm, including:

* Open surgery: This is the traditional method of repairing an aortic aneurysm, where the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access the aorta and repair the aneurysm.
* Endovascular repair: This is a minimally invasive procedure where the surgeon uses a catheter to insert a stent or graft into the aorta to repair the aneurysm.

POST-OPERATIVE CARE:

After surgery, you will be monitored in the intensive care unit for several days to ensure that there are no complications. You may have a drainage tube inserted into your chest to remove any fluid that accumulates during and after surgery. You will also have various monitors to check your heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen levels.

RECOVERY:

The recovery time for aortic aneurysm repair can vary depending on the size of the aneurysm and the type of surgery performed. In general, patients who undergo endovascular repair have a faster recovery time than those who undergo open surgery. You may need to take medications to prevent blood clots and manage pain after surgery. You will also need to follow up with your doctor regularly to check on the healing of the aneurysm and the functioning of the heart.

LONG-TERM OUTLOOK:

The long-term outlook for patients who undergo aortic aneurysm repair is generally good, especially if the surgery is successful and there are no complications. However, patients with large aneurysms or those who have had complications during surgery may be at higher risk for long-term health problems. Some potential long-term complications include:

* Infection of the incision site or graft
* Inflammation of the aorta (aortitis)
* Blood clots forming in the graft or legs
* Narrowing or blockage of the aorta
* Heart problems, such as heart failure or arrhythmias.

It is important to follow up with your doctor regularly to monitor your condition and address any potential complications early on.

LIFESTYLE CHANGES:

After undergoing aortic aneurysm repair, you may need to make some lifestyle changes to help manage the condition and reduce the risk of complications. These may include:

* Avoiding heavy lifting or bending
* Taking regular exercise to improve cardiovascular health
* Eating a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat
* Quitting smoking, if you are a smoker
* Managing high blood pressure and other underlying medical conditions.

It is important to discuss any specific lifestyle changes with your doctor before making any significant changes to your daily routine. They can provide personalized guidance based on your individual needs and condition.

EMOTIONAL SUPPORT:

Undergoing aortic aneurysm repair can be a stressful and emotional experience, both for the patient and their loved ones. It is important to seek emotional support during this time to help cope with the challenges of the procedure and recovery. This may include:

* Talking to family and friends about your feelings and concerns
* Joining a support group for patients with aortic aneurysms or other cardiovascular conditions
* Seeking counseling or therapy to manage stress and anxiety
* Connecting with online resources and forums to learn more about the condition and share experiences with others.

Remember, it is important to prioritize your mental health and well-being during this time, as well as your physical health. Seeking emotional support can be an important part of the recovery process and can help you feel more supported and empowered throughout the journey.

Here are some examples of how 'Aneurysm, Ruptured' is used in different contexts:

1. Medical literature: "The patient was rushed to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe headaches and vomiting."
2. Doctor-patient communication: "You have a ruptured aneurysm, which means that your blood vessel has burst and is causing bleeding inside your body."
3. Medical research: "The study found that patients with a history of smoking are at increased risk of developing a ruptured aneurysm."
4. Emergency medical services: "The patient was transported to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm and was in critical condition upon arrival."
5. Patient education: "To prevent a ruptured aneurysm, it is important to manage high blood pressure and avoid smoking."

1. Aneurysms: A bulge or ballooning in the wall of the aorta that can lead to rupture and life-threatening bleeding.
2. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of plaque in the inner lining of the aorta, which can narrow the artery and restrict blood flow.
3. Dissections: A tear in the inner layer of the aortic wall that can cause bleeding and lead to an aneurysm.
4. Thoracic aortic disease: Conditions that affect the thoracic portion of the aorta, such as atherosclerosis or dissections.
5. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: Enlargement of the abdominal aorta that can lead to rupture and life-threatening bleeding.
6. Aortic stenosis: Narrowing of the aortic valve, which can impede blood flow from the heart into the aorta.
7. Aortic regurgitation: Backflow of blood from the aorta into the heart due to a faulty aortic valve.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, including the aorta.
9. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A group of genetic disorders that affect the body's connective tissue, including the aorta.
10. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females and can cause aortic diseases.

Aortic diseases can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and may include medication, surgery, or endovascular procedures.

Carotid artery thrombosis is often caused by atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the arteries that can lead to the formation of blood clots. Other risk factors for carotid artery thrombosis include high blood pressure, smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity.

Diagnosis of carotid artery thrombosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT or MRI scans, and Doppler studies to visualize the blood flow in the neck and brain. Treatment options for carotid artery thrombosis include anticoagulation medications to prevent further clotting, medications to dissolve the clot, and surgery to remove the clot or repair the affected artery.

In severe cases, carotid artery thrombosis can lead to stroke or brain damage if not treated promptly. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.

There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.

Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are two main types of carotid stenosis:

1. Internal carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, becomes narrowed or blocked.
2. Common carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the common carotid artery, which supplies blood to the head and neck, becomes narrowed or blocked.

The symptoms of carotid stenosis can vary depending on the severity of the blockage and the extent of the affected area. Some common symptoms include:

* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Vertigo (a feeling of spinning)
* Blurred vision or double vision
* Memory loss or confusion
* Slurred speech
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body

If left untreated, carotid stenosis can lead to a stroke or other serious complications. Treatment options for carotid stenosis include medications to lower cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as surgical procedures such as endarterectomy (removing plaque from the artery) or stenting (placing a small mesh tube in the artery to keep it open).

In conclusion, carotid stenosis is a serious medical condition that can lead to stroke and other complications if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Anuria is often associated with other conditions such as chronic kidney disease, sepsis, or bladder outlet obstruction. The symptoms of anuria may include decreased urine output, swelling in the legs and abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and electrolyte imbalances.

Treatment of anuria depends on the underlying cause, and may involve medications to relieve symptoms, drainage of obstructions, or other interventions such as hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In severe cases, anuria can lead to uremia, a buildup of waste products in the blood that can be life-threatening. Therefore, prompt medical attention is essential for effective management and prevention of complications.

There are two main types of Renal Insufficiency:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): This is a sudden and reversible decrease in kidney function, often caused by injury, sepsis, or medication toxicity. AKI can resolve with appropriate treatment and supportive care.
2. Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRI): This is a long-standing and irreversible decline in kidney function, often caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, or chronic kidney disease. CRI can lead to ESRD if left untreated.

Signs and symptoms of Renal Insufficiency may include:

* Decreased urine output
* Swelling in the legs and ankles (edema)
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Pain in the back, flank, or abdomen

Diagnosis of Renal Insufficiency is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include urinalysis, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, and a 24-hour urine protein collection. Imaging studies, such as ultrasound or CT scans, may be used to evaluate the kidneys and rule out other possible causes of the patient's symptoms.

Treatment of Renal Insufficiency depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Treatment may include medications to control blood pressure, manage fluid balance, and reduce proteinuria (excess protein in the urine). In some cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.

Prevention of Renal Insufficiency includes managing underlying conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, avoiding nephrotoxic medications and substances, and maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle. Early detection and treatment of acute kidney injury can also help prevent the development of chronic renal insufficiency.

In conclusion, Renal Insufficiency is a common condition that can have significant consequences if left untreated. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of Renal Insufficiency, as well as the treatment and prevention strategies available. With appropriate management, many patients with Renal Insufficiency can recover and maintain their kidney function over time.

There are several types of vascular malformations, including:

1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can cause bleeding, seizures, and other neurological symptoms.
2. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are abnormalities in the tiny blood vessels that can cause redness, swelling, and other skin changes.
3. Venous malformations (VMs): These are abnormalities in the veins that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.
4. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the lymphatic system that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.

Vascular malformations can be diagnosed using a variety of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation, and may include surgery, embolization, or sclerotherapy.

In summary, vascular malformations are abnormalities in the blood vessels that can cause a range of symptoms and can be diagnosed using imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation.

There are several types of thrombosis, including:

1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.

The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:

1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic

Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

Types of Kidney Diseases:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:

1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:

1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)

Treatment of Kidney Diseases:

1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)

Prevention of Kidney Diseases:

1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings

Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.

Aortic coarctation can be caused by a variety of genetic mutations or can be acquired through other conditions such as infections or autoimmune disorders. It is often diagnosed in infancy or early childhood, and symptoms can include:

* High blood pressure in the arms and low blood pressure in the legs
* Pulse narrowing or absence of a pulse in one or both arms
* Bluish skin color (cyanosis)
* Shortness of breath or fatigue during exercise

If left untreated, aortic coarctation can lead to complications such as heart failure, aneurysms, or cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment options for aortic coarctation include:

* Balloon dilation: A procedure in which a balloon is inserted through a catheter into the narrowed section of the aorta and inflated to widen the passage.
* Surgical repair: An open-heart surgery that involves cutting out the narrowed section of the aorta and sewing it back together with a patch or graft.

It is important for individuals with aortic coarctation to receive regular monitoring and treatment from a cardiologist or cardiac surgeon to prevent complications and manage symptoms. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with aortic coarctation can lead active and healthy lives.

Symptoms of CAID may include sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking, dizziness, and loss of vision in one eye. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and Doppler ultrasound.

Treatment for CAID usually involves medications to dissolve blood clots and prevent further complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged artery. Preventive measures include avoiding trauma to the neck and head, controlling high blood pressure, and managing underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of CAID.

The carotid arteries are located on either side of the neck and supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain, making them a critical part of the vascular system. Internal dissection of the carotid artery can lead to serious complications if left untreated, so prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for preventing long-term damage.

There are several different types of calcinosis, each with its own unique causes and symptoms. Some common forms of calcinosis include:

1. Dystrophic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs in people with muscular dystrophy, a group of genetic disorders that affect muscle strength and function. Dystrophic calcinosis can cause calcium deposits to form in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
2. Metastatic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body and cause calcium deposits to form. Metastatic calcinosis can occur in people with a variety of different types of cancer, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer.
3. Idiopathic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs for no apparent reason, and the exact cause is not known. Idiopathic calcinosis can affect people of all ages and can cause calcium deposits to form in a variety of different tissues.
4. Secondary calcinosis: This type of calcidosis occurs as a result of an underlying medical condition or injury. For example, secondary calcinosis can occur in people with kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone), or traumatic injuries.

Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve managing the underlying disease or condition that is causing the calcium deposits to form. Other treatments may include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy to improve mobility and strength, and surgery to remove the calcium deposits.

Reperfusion injury can cause inflammation, cell death, and impaired function in the affected tissue or organ. The severity of reperfusion injury can vary depending on the duration and severity of the initial ischemic event, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment to restore blood flow.

Reperfusion injury can be a complicating factor in various medical conditions, including:

1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle after a heart attack, leading to inflammation and cell death.
2. Stroke: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the brain after an ischemic stroke, leading to inflammation and damage to brain tissue.
3. Organ transplantation: Reperfusion injury can occur when a transplanted organ is subjected to ischemia during harvesting or preservation, and then reperfused with blood.
4. Peripheral arterial disease: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to a previously occluded peripheral artery, leading to inflammation and damage to the affected tissue.

Treatment of reperfusion injury often involves medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In some cases, experimental therapies such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy may be used to promote tissue repair and regeneration.

The severity of coronary stenosis can range from mild to severe, with blockages ranging from 15% to over 90%. In mild cases, lifestyle changes and medication may be enough to manage symptoms. However, more severe cases typically require interventional procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:

1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.

Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.

Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.

In some cases, vertebral artery dissection can be caused by a tear in the inner lining of the artery, which can lead to bleeding and formation of a blood clot. This can put pressure on the surrounding brain tissue and cause further damage.

The symptoms of vertebral artery dissection can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:

* Headaches, which can be severe and persistent
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Blurred vision or double vision
* Numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
* Sudden severe headache with vomiting, sensitivity to light, and confusion (this is a more serious symptom and requires immediate medical attention)

Vertebral artery dissection is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for the condition depends on the severity of the symptoms and may include medications to control blood pressure and prevent further bleeding, as well as surgery to repair the damaged artery.

In some cases, vertebral artery dissection can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries) or aneurysms. It is important for individuals experiencing symptoms to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Graft occlusion can occur due to a variety of factors, including:

1. Blood clots forming within the graft
2. Inflammation or infection within the graft
3. Narrowing or stenosis of the graft
4. Disruption of the graft material
5. Poor blood flow through the graft

The signs and symptoms of vascular graft occlusion can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. They may include:

1. Pain or tenderness in the affected limb
2. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Difficulty walking or moving the affected limb
5. Coolness or discoloration of the skin in the affected limb

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can diagnose vascular graft occlusion using imaging tests such as ultrasound, angiography, or MRI. Treatment options for vascular graft occlusion may include:

1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or reduce inflammation
2. Surgical intervention to repair or replace the graft
3. Balloon angioplasty or stenting to open up the blocked graft
4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve blood flow and promote healing.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of vascular graft occlusion include:

1. Proper wound care and infection prevention after surgery
2. Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider
3. Avoiding smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors
4. Taking medications as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent blood clots and inflammation.

It is important to note that vascular graft occlusion can be a serious complication after surgery, but with prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment, the outcome can be improved.

There are several types of embolism, including:

1. Pulmonary embolism: A blood clot that forms in the lungs and blocks the flow of blood to the heart.
2. Cerebral embolism: A blood clot or other foreign substance that blocks the flow of blood to the brain.
3. Coronary embolism: A blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle, causing a heart attack.
4. Intestinal embolism: A blood clot or other foreign substance that blocks the flow of blood to the intestines.
5. Fat embolism: A condition where fat enters the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel, blocking the flow of blood.

The symptoms of embolism can vary depending on the location of the blockage, but may include:

* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Swelling or redness in the affected limb
* Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
* Chest pain or pressure
* Lightheadedness or fainting
* Rapid heart rate or palpitations

Treatment for embolism depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the blockage. In some cases, medication may be used to dissolve blood clots or break up the blockage. In other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the foreign substance or repair the affected blood vessel.

Prevention is key in avoiding embolism, and this can include:

* Managing underlying conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease
* Avoiding long periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Taking blood-thinning medication to prevent blood clots from forming
* Maintaining a healthy weight and diet to reduce the risk of fat embolism.

Symptoms:

* Chest pain or discomfort
* Shortness of breath
* Coughing up blood
* Pain in the back or shoulders
* Dizziness or fainting

Diagnosis is typically made with imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment may involve monitoring the aneurysm with regular imaging tests to check for growth, or surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta.

This term is used in the medical field to identify a specific type of aneurysm and differentiate it from other types of aneurysms that occur in different locations.

There are many different causes of pathological dilatation, including:

1. Infection: Infections like tuberculosis or abscesses can cause inflammation and swelling in affected tissues, leading to dilatation.
2. Inflammation: Inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease can cause dilatation of blood vessels and organs.
3. Heart disease: Conditions like heart failure or coronary artery disease can lead to dilatation of the heart chambers or vessels.
4. Liver or spleen disease: Dilatation of the liver or spleen can occur due to conditions like cirrhosis or splenomegaly.
5. Neoplasms: Tumors can cause dilatation of affected structures, such as blood vessels or organs.

Pathological dilatation can lead to a range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the condition. These may include:

1. Swelling or distension of the affected structure
2. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
3. Difficulty breathing or swallowing (in the case of dilatation in the throat or airways)
4. Fatigue or weakness
5. Pale or clammy skin
6. Rapid heart rate or palpitations
7. Shortness of breath (dyspnea)

Diagnosis of pathological dilatation typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the underlying cause and relieve symptoms.

... This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 610 of the ... Renal artery stenosis, or narrowing of one or both renal arteries will lead to hypertension as the affected kidneys release ... Up to a third of total cardiac output can pass through the renal arteries to be filtered by the kidneys. The renal arteries ... It is located above the renal vein. Supernumerary renal arteries (two or more arteries to a single kidney) are the most common ...
... (RAS) is the narrowing of one or both of the renal arteries, most often caused by atherosclerosis or ... Renal artery stenosis is most often caused by atherosclerosis which causes the renal arteries to harden and narrow due to the ... Renal artery arteriogram. The specific criteria for renal artery stenosis on Doppler are an acceleration time of greater than ... Possible complications of renal artery stenosis are chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Most cases of renal ...
The ureteral branches of renal artery are small branches which supply the ureter. Kyung Won, PhD. Chung (2005). Gross Anatomy ( ... ISBN 0-7817-5309-0. v t e (Articles with TA98 identifiers, Arteries of the abdomen, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system ...
Mesenteric artery dissection may limit the blood supply to the intestines. Renal artery dissections can decrease blood flow to ... Renal arterial ischemia can contribute to hypertension, which can be severe and refractory to medical therapy. Coronary artery ... "Renal artery dissection , Radiology Reference Article , Radiopaedia.org". Radiopaedia. "Endovascular treatment of aortic ... Arterial diseases can affect one or multiple layers of the artery wall. The aorta is the largest artery in the body, and the ...
... causing the arteries to narrow or become blocked. Renal artery stenosis - the narrowing of renal arteries that carry blood to ... In treating renal artery disease, a 2014 study indicates that balloon angioplasty can improve diastolic blood pressure and ... "Renal Artery Stenosis". www.niddk.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. "Vascular Diseases: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved ... Peripheral artery disease - occurs when atheromatous plaques build up in the arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs, ...
Specifically, a laparoscopic YV-infundibulo-pyeloplasty with vasculopexy of a posterior segmental renal artery was performed. ... Suarez, Henry (2016-11-21). "Renal Artery Doppler". Sonographic Tendencies. Retrieved 2019-12-13. ePainAssist, Team (2014-07-24 ... usually the renal artery, crosses over the superior infundibulum of the kidney (one or both), fluid begins to build up, causing ... when the renal artery obstructs the proximal collecting system, filling defects can occur anywhere in the calyces, pelvis, or ...
... , short for ex vivo renal artery reconstruction and autotransplantation, is a technique mainly used for ... Belzer, FO; Salvatierra, O; Palubinskas, A; Stoney, RJ (1975). "Ex vivo renal artery reconstruction". Ann. Surg. 182 (4): 456- ...
Arcuate arteries arise from renal interlobar arteries. Lote, Christopher J. (2012). Principles of Renal Physiology, 5th edition ... The arcuate arteries of the kidney, also known as arciform arteries, are vessels of the renal circulation. They are located at ... They are named after the fact that they are shaped in arcs due to the nature of the shape of the renal medulla. ... the border of the renal cortex and renal medulla. ... arcuate artery and vein, transverse" Histology image: 15901lba ...
Sajja LR; Sitaram Reddy B; Sahariah S; Vijay Kumar D. (June 2002). "Giant aneurysm of renal artery: surgical management". Asian ... The first ten renal transplants in the state of Assam are also credited to him, which he did during the period from 1992 to ... He has performed renal transplantations in rural areas, another first credited to him, performed at the rural hospital, ... He is credited with the first cadaver donor renal transplant in Hyderabad, beginning of a career where he would perform eight ...
Tobian L, Binion J (October 1954). "Artery wall electrolytes in renal and DCA hypertension". The Journal of Clinical ... Schacht RG, Lowenstein J, Baldwin DS (October 1971). "Renal mechanism for DOCA escape in man". Bulletin of the New York Academy ... Majima M, Hayashi I, Fujita T, Ito H, Nakajima S, Katori M (October 1999). "Facilitation of renal kallikrein-kinin system ... Pearce JW, Sonnenberg H, Veress AT, Ackermann U (April 1969). "Evidence for a humoral factor modifying the renal response to ...
Powers, TA; Lorenz, CH; Holburn, GE; Price, RR (1991). "Renal artery stenosis: in vivo perfusion MR imaging". Radiology. 178 (2 ... A limitation of BOLD fMRI is its spatial resolution, as flow increase in somewhat large arteries or veins feed or drain large ...
The legs, including the popliteal arteries. The kidney, including renal artery aneurysm and intraparenchymal aneurysms. ... Lumsden AB, Salam TA, Walton KG (1996). "Renal artery an?eurysm: a report of 28 cases". Cardiovasc Surg. 4 (2): 185-189. doi: ... Tham G, Ekelund L, Herrlin K, Lindstedt EL, Olin T, Bergentz SE (March 1983). "Renal artery aneurysms. Natural history and ... 1997). "Kidney salvage in a case of ruptured renal artery aneurysm: case report and literature review". Cardiovasc Surg. 5 (1 ...
... they arise from the renal arteries (inferior polar). Uncommonly they may arise from adrenal, lumbar, or internal iliac arteries ... The ovarian arteries are the corresponding arteries in the female to the testicular artery in the male. They are shorter than ... It arises from the abdominal aorta below the renal artery. It can be found within the suspensory ligament of the ovary, ... The origin and course of the first part of each artery are the same as those of the testicular artery, but on arriving at the ...
Reduction in renal glomerular filtration rate may occur; people with renal artery stenosis may be at higher risk. Hyperkalemia ...
When performing partial nephrectomy, many surgeons clamp the renal artery. Urologic dogma has been that every minute of clamp ...
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... is regarded as a part of the renal capsule. Renal medulla Renal pyramid Renal artery Renal vein Squire L (2013). Fundamental ... renal medulla renal cortex renal capsule adipose capsule of kidney (or perirenal fat, or perinephric fat) renal fascia ... The renal capsule is surrounded by the renal fascia. Overlying the renal fascia and between this and the transverse fascia is a ... The renal capsule is a tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney and covered in a layer of perirenal fat known as the adipose ...
... where bilateral renal artery stenosis causes flash pulmonary edema. Pickering received his Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of ... "Recurrent pulmonary oedema in hypertension due to bilateral renal artery stenosis: treatment by angioplasty or surgical ... "Flash pulmonary oedema and bilateral renal artery stenosis: the Pickering syndrome". European Heart Journal. 32 (18): 2231-5. ... and was on the Food and Drug Administration's Cardio Renal Advisory Board. Pickering served on the editorial boards of a number ...
Its ascension may also be restricted by its own renal artery. Additionally, during normal development, the kidneys undergo a 90 ... Furthermore, approximately 70% of kidneys in normal individuals are supplied by a single renal artery with the remaining 30% ... However, due to the renal fusion, this rotation is impaired resulting in abnormal placement of the ureters. This in turn can ... In patients with this condition, the horseshoe kidney ascent is commonly arrested by the inferior mesenteric artery due to the ...
Each renal artery branches into segmental arteries, dividing further into interlobar arteries, which penetrate the renal ... A recessed area on the concave border is the renal hilum, where the renal artery enters the kidney and the renal vein and ... "kidney artery", other experts have advocated preserving the use of renal as appropriate including in "renal artery". In humans ... At the hilum, the ureter and renal vein exit the kidney and the renal artery enters. Hilar fat and lymphatic tissue with lymph ...
The external iliac artery is usually the artery used to attach the renal artery to the recipient of a kidney transplant. Ilium ... External iliac artery - The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries ... Iliac artery, external - The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries ... They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter ...
Those with atherosclerotic renal artery disease have a high risk of mortality, furthermore, those who also have renal ... renal artery stenosis). As a consequence of this action the renal organs release hormones that indicate to the body to maintain ... ISBN 978-1-4612-5657-1. Dobrek L. An Outline of Renal Artery Stenosis Pathophysiology-A Narrative Review. Life (Basel). 2021;11 ... Fibromuscular dysplasia Hypertensive nephropathy Kidney failure Renal artery stenosis MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Renovascular ...
... which can interfere with renal autoregulation and produce acute kidney failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis ... Additionally, hypertensive encephalopathy may occur in pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, renal artery thrombosis.[citation ... See "Renal effects of ACE inhibitors in hypertension".)[citation needed]ref Several parenteral antihypertensive agents are most ... A change in medication, however, is indicated if the decline in renal function is temporally related to therapy with an ...
"Renal artery embolization for managing uncontrolled hypertension in a kidney transplant candidate". Avicenna Journal of ... The position of the correct artery or vein supplying the pathology in question is located by digital subtraction angiography ( ... Particulate embolic agents - These are only used for precapillary arterioles or small arteries. These are also very good for ...
It is used to assist in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. It is not generally considered a useful test for children, and ... Subtraction angiography is considered a more suitable test for renal artery stenosis in adults. captopril suppression test used ...
Coen, L. D.; Raftery, A. T. (1992). "Anatomical variations of the renal arteries and renal transplantation". Clinical Anatomy. ... the most common arterial reconstruction is for a single renal artery to be anastomosed to the external iliac artery. Ciancio ... "Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma with Tumor Thrombus in the Renal and Inferior Vena Cava: The University of Miami ... including the usage of the inferior epigastric artery to anastomose to a small upper-pole artery. Additionally, Ciancio has ...
The inferior suprarenal artery usually originates at the trunk of the renal artery. This is usually on its superior surface ... Variations in the interior suprarenal artery are common. It usually originates from the renal artery before its final divisions ... The inferior suprarenal artery may also be known as the inferior adrenal artery. Adrenal gland Aorta Superior suprarenal artery ... It usually originates at the trunk of the renal artery before its terminal division, but with many common variations. It ...
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Rarely, the celiac axis, internal mammary, subclavian, or renal artery may be involved. Intrapulmonary sequestration occurs ... or renal arteries.[citation needed] The intralobar variety accounts for 75 percent of all sequestrations. Usually presents in ... Doppler studies are helpful to identify the characteristic aberrant systemic artery that arises from the aorta and to delineate ...
Becker and Miyara published the first case report of a transplant renal artery pseudoaneurysm that due to retroperitoneal ... "Life-Threatening Hematuria as Initial Presentation of a Complicated Transplant Renal Artery Pseudoaneurysm". International ...
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... and/or one of its CMTM5 proteins may promote atherosclerosis-based coronary artery disease and the stenosis of coronary artery ... Cai B, Xiao Y, Li Y, Zheng S (August 2017). "CMTM5 inhibits renal cancer cell growth through inducing cell-cycle arrest and ... Liu TF, Lin T, Ren LH, Li GP, Peng JJ (December 2020). "[Association between CMTM5 gene and coronary artery disease and the ... The same research group similarly studied 124 hospitalized patients who had in place a cornary artery stent. They found that ...
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... renal artery stenosis) or during shock. Hypoperfusion can also be caused by embolism of the renal arteries. Given their ... Acute tubular necrosis is classified as a "renal" (i.e. not pre-renal or post-renal) cause of acute kidney injury. Diagnosis is ... Acute interstitial nephritis Renal cortical necrosis Renal papillary necrosis Desanti De Oliveira, B., Xu, K., Shen, T.H. et al ... Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules ...
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TAF11 was connected to both MS and artery passage, and HLA-DQA2 was suggestive of having an implication for angiogenesis as it ... stent migration into a renal vein, thrombosis and nerve compression syndrome of cranial nerves XI and XII. One death case ...
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... because the length of renal artery attached to the kidney matched the missing length from Eddowes's body, and that the forensic ... The arteries and other vessels contained in the sheath were all cut through. The cut through the tissues on the right side was ... There was no clot in the pulmonary artery, but the right ventricle was full of dark clot. The left was firmly contracted as to ... From this, it was evident that the haemorrhage was caused through the partial severance of the left carotid artery and a small ...
This treatment, called Renal Sympathetic Denervation, is now used clinically in Europe and Australia for severe drug-resistant ... involving silencing these nerves with a radio wave emitting catheter placed in the kidney arteries. ...
"Probable Link Evaluation for heart disease (including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coronary artery disease)" (PDF). ... how important is renal elimination?". Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts. 24 (8): 1152-1164. doi:10.1039/D2EM00047D. ...
CTA is also used in the assessment of native and transplant renal arteries. While CTA is great for imaging of the kidneys, it ... Stenosis (narrowing) of a renal artery is a cause of hypertension (high blood pressure) in some patients and can be corrected. ... Visualization of blood flow in the renal arteries (those supplying the kidneys) in patients with high blood pressure and those ... CTA can be used assess acute stroke patients by identifying clots in the arteries of the brain. It can also be used to identify ...
The examiner also typically listens to the two renal arteries for abnormal blood flow sounds (bruits) by listening in each ...
Ra, Rb, and Rn are the resistances of the renal, hepatic, and other arteries respectively. The total resistance is less than ... Each organ is supplied by a large artery, smaller arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins arranged in series. The total ... Each organ is supplied by an artery that branches off the aorta. The total resistance of this parallel arrangement is expressed ... the resistance of any of the individual arteries. Network analysis (electrical circuits) Topology (electrical circuits) ...
Secondly, renal corpuscles have a smaller diameter, which reduces surface area for filtration. These two major anatomical ... a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other which utilizes countercurrent blood flow to cool blood flowing ...
... of the carotid arteries. These arteries are the large blood vessels in your neck that feed your brain. Transcranial Doppler ( ... Glioblastomas are the most common primary malignancies to hemorrhage while thyroid, renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and lung ...
States portal Medicine portal Science portal Cardiovascular surgery Duplex ultrasonography Medical ultrasonography Renal artery ...
In a recent study, it was shown that SOAT2 activity is upregulated as a result of chronic renal failure. This study was ... primates revealed a positive correlation between liver cholesteryl ester secretion rate and the development of coronal artery ...
Apart from its role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, renal artery stenosis is also being increasingly recognized as ... ... Specialists have known for a long time that renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the major cause of renovascular hypertension and ... Is renal artery stenting the correct treatment of renal artery stenosis? The case for renal artery stenting for treatment of ... Renal artery stenting for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis identified in patients with coronary artery disease: Does ...
Apart from its role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, renal artery stenosis is also being increasingly recognized as ... ... Specialists have known for a long time that renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the major cause of renovascular hypertension and ... Is renal artery stenting the correct treatment of renal artery stenosis? The case for renal artery stenting for treatment of ... Renal artery stenting for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis identified in patients with coronary artery disease: Does ...
... omental and right renal arteries. Thus a comprehensive knowledge of … ... Evidence suggests that this extrahepatic supply most commonly originates from a right intercostal artery (70-83%) followed by ... Hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic blood supply from right renal artery J Surg Case Rep. 2021 Oct 11;2021(10):rjab391. ... omental and right renal arteries. Thus a comprehensive knowledge of variations in standard vascular anatomy and cognisance of ...
The test is performed by threading a catheter through the main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into ... A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. ... up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium is then injected into the renal artery through the catheter ... A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed by threading a catheter ...
Renal function Abstract. The purpose of this study was to compare the renal function in patients undergoing coronary artery ... Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patient of impaired renal function Authors. * Md. Alauddin ... Renal function was better preserved in patients undergoing off-pump in comparison to on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. ... Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patient of impaired renal function. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical ...
Concomitant aortic and renal artery reconstruction in patients on an intensive antihypertensive medical regimen: long-term ... Concomitant aortic and renal artery reconstruction in patients on an intensive antihypertensive medical regimen: long-term ... The outcome of patients on multiple preoperative antihypertensive agents who underwent combined aortic and renal artery ... The study population comprised 43 patients who underwent concomitant renal artery and aortic reconstruction for atherosclerotic ...
Renal artery stenosis after renal sympathetic denervation. / Kaltenbach, Benjamin; Id, Dani; Franke, Jennifer C. et al. In: ... Renal artery stenosis after renal sympathetic denervation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012 Dec 25;60(25): ... Renal artery stenosis after renal sympathetic denervation. In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012 ; Vol. 60, ... Renal artery stenosis after renal sympathetic denervation. Benjamin Kaltenbach, Dani Id, Jennifer C. Franke, Horst Sievert, ...
Is there a role for medical therapy in management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. / Textor, Stephen C. In: Journal of ... Textor, Stephen C. / Is there a role for medical therapy in management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. In: Journal of ... Textor, S. C. (1998). Is there a role for medical therapy in management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Journal of ... Textor, SC 1998, Is there a role for medical therapy in management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, Journal of ...
The approval of gadobutrol allows visualization of supra-aortic arteries to detect conditions such as prior stroke or transient ... to evaluate known or suspected supra-aortic or renal artery disease in adult and pediatric patients. ... "Until now, no contrast agents were FDA approved for use with MRA of the supra-aortic arteries. With FDAs action, radiologists ... now have an approved MRA contrast agent to help visualize supra-aortic arteries in patients with known or suspected supra- ...
Catheter-based renal artery denervation: facts and expectations. Catheter-based renal artery denervation: facts and ... Catheter-based renal artery denervation (RAD) is entering a new era. After the disappointing results of SYMPLICITY-HTN 3 trial ... Atrial fibrillation; Blood pressure; Heart failure; Hypertension; Renal artery denervation; SHAM procedure ...
Renal artery anomalies Creator Division of Urology Subject Description Adrenal and testicular arteries well demonstrated in a ... Adrenal and testicular arteries well demonstrated in a patient with a congenitally absent L kidney. The calculus in the R ...
This narrowing of the renal artery can impede blood flow to the target kidney, resulting in renovascular hypertension - a ... is the narrowing of one or both of the renal arteries, most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia. ... Renal artery arteriogram. [13] [14] The specific criteria for renal artery stenosis on Doppler are an acceleration time of ... Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the narrowing of one or both of the renal arteries, most often caused by atherosclerosis or ...
Segmental Renal Artery Embolization for Treatment of Pediatric Renovascular Hypertension. Corey L. Teigen, Sally E. Mitchell, ... Segmental Renal Artery Embolization for Treatment of Pediatric Renovascular Hypertension. / Teigen, Corey L.; Mitchell, Sally E ... Teigen, C. L., Mitchell, S. E., Venbrux, A. C., Christenson, M. J., & McLean, R. H. (1992). Segmental Renal Artery Embolization ... Segmental Renal Artery Embolization for Treatment of Pediatric Renovascular Hypertension. In: Journal of Vascular and ...
Bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis With a Pheochromocytoma ...
Percutaneous angioplasty for atherosclerotic renal artery disease: effect on renal function in azotemic patients ...
Krijnen P, Jaarsveld BC, Deinum J, Steyerberg E, Habbema D. Which patients with hypertension and atherosclerotic renal artery ... Which patients with hypertension and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis benefit from immediate intervention? 2004. In: ... Which patients with hypertension and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis benefit from immediate intervention? 2004. / Krijnen ... title = "Which patients with hypertension and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis benefit from immediate intervention? 2004", ...
Renal Artery Arteriosclerotic Disease. *Restless Leg Syndrome. *Ringworm. *Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm. *Sciatica (Not Due to Disc ...
A study of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure with special reference to Carotid Artery Intima Media ... A study of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure with special reference to Carotid Artery Intima Media ... A study of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure with special reference to Carotid Artery Intima Media ... Keywords: Atherosclerosis, carotid artery intima media thickness, chronic renal failure, ischemic heart disease, traditional ...
CFD Analysis on Effect of Angulation in A Healthy Abdominal Aorta-Renal Artery Junction. / Hegde, Pranav; Shenoy, B. Gowrava; ... CFD Analysis on Effect of Angulation in A Healthy Abdominal Aorta-Renal Artery Junction. In: Journal of Advanced Research in ... CFD Analysis on Effect of Angulation in A Healthy Abdominal Aorta-Renal Artery Junction. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid ... The present study focuses on haemodynamic behaviour of blood as it flows through the abdominal aorta-renal artery junction in ...
Início Relevance of Targeting the Distal Renal Artery and Branches with Radiofrequency Renal Denervation Approaches-A Secondary ... Relevance of Targeting the Distal Renal Artery and Branches with Radiofrequency Renal Denervation Approaches-A Secondary ... Relevance of Targeting the Distal Renal Artery and Branches with Radiofrequency Renal Denervation Approaches-A Secondary ... Acute effect of renal sympathetic denervation on blood pressure in refractory hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease ...
Renal artery stenosis. *Cardiac complications of neurofibromatosis. *Hearing loss. *Hypertension. *Headache. *Seizures/epilepsy ...
深入研究「Impact of Renal Artery Stent-Graft Placement on Renal Function in Chronic Aortic Dissection」主題。共同形成了獨特的指紋。 ... Impact of Renal Artery Stent-Graft Placement on Renal Function in Chronic Aortic Dissection. ...
Coronary artery disease, liver cirrhosis, end stage renal disease. -. -. -. 2c. IgM ,1:20, IgG ,1:40. Neg. 76-year-old woman ...
Pertaining to the kidneys; renal; as, emulgent arteries and veins.. -- n. An emulgent vessel, as a renal artery or vein. ...
Renal Artery Stenosis. *Thrombolysis and Thrombectomy. *Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts. *Transjugular Liver ...
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) and Stenting of the Renal Arteries. CAG-00085R4. View ... Carotid Artery Stenting. CAG-00085R. View Second reconsideration. Intracranial Stenting and Angioplasty. CAG-00085R2. You are ... Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) of the Carotid Artery Concurrent with Stenting. CAG-00085N. View ... Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) of the Carotid Artery Concurrent with Stenting. CAG-00085R3. View ...
Bilateral renal artery stenosis. *Kidney failure. When Should You Not Take Lisinopril?. If you become pregnant, you need to ...
Acute Renal Failure Post Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting at The University Hospital of The West Indies Issue: Vol 56, Issue 3 ( ... Read more about Acute Renal Failure Post Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting at The University Hospital of The West Indies ... Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine the period prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF) after coronary bypass ...
A renal artery had ruptured and despite surgery Jacqueline died on the operating table. ...
Renal Artery Stenosis (Renovascular Hypertension). 5.6.2.2. Renal Parenchymal disease. 5.6.2.3. Coarctation of Aorta ... Patient with Renal Dse.. 7.1.1. Acute Renal Injury. 7.1.2. rapid, severe decrease in glomerular infiltration rate (rise in ... Monoclonal Immunoglobulins and Renal disease. 11.5. Polycystic kidney disease. 11.6. Renal Tubular Acidosis. 11.6.1. Distal ... Renal Tubular Disease. 11.1. caused by Toxins, neoplasia, immune disorders, vascular disorders, hereditary renal diseases, ...
  • Plouin PF, Bax L. Diagnosis and treatment of renal artery stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Primus C, Auer J. Bilateral renal artery stenosis in a young man. (medscape.com)
  • Derakhshesh MI, Joye E, Yager N. Unilateral renal artery stenosis causing hypertensive flash pulmonary oedema. (medscape.com)
  • When and How Should We Revascularize Patients With Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis? (medscape.com)
  • Association of renal artery stenosis with aortic jet velocity in hypertensive patients with aortic valve sclerosis. (medscape.com)
  • Assessment of renal artery stenosis severity by pressure gradient measurements. (medscape.com)
  • Is race a risk factor for the development of renal artery stenosis? (medscape.com)
  • Progression of renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. (medscape.com)
  • Assessment and Management of Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis: Underrecognized, Not So Rare, but Curable Complication. (medscape.com)
  • Use of Doppler ultrasonography to predict the outcome of therapy for renal-artery stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Renal artery stenting for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis identified in patients with coronary artery disease: Does captopril renal scintigraphy predict outcomes? (medscape.com)
  • Minimally invasive diagnosis of renal artery stenosis by spiral computed tomography angiography. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison of gadodiamide-enhanced MR angiography to intraarterial digital subtraction angiography for evaluation of renal artery stenosis: results of a phase III multicenter trial. (medscape.com)
  • Textor, SC 1998, ' Is there a role for medical therapy in management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis ', Journal of Invasive Cardiology , vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 194-197. (elsevier.com)
  • Renal artery stenosis ( RAS ) is the narrowing of one or both of the renal arteries , most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia . (wikimili.com)
  • Possible complications of renal artery stenosis are chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease . (wikimili.com)
  • Most cases of renal artery stenosis are asymptomatic, and the main problem is high blood pressure that cannot be controlled with medication. (wikimili.com)
  • [4] Decreased kidney function may develop if both kidneys do not receive adequate blood flow, furthermore some people with renal artery stenosis present with episodes of flash pulmonary edema . (wikimili.com)
  • Renal artery stenosis is most often caused by atherosclerosis which causes the renal arteries to harden and narrow due to the build-up of plaque . (wikimili.com)
  • The pathophysiology of renal artery stenosis leads to changes in the structure of the kidney that are most noticeable in the tubular tissue . (wikimili.com)
  • Assessment of Kidneys with Renal Artery Stenosis taken by Magnetic Resonance Angiography. (wikimili.com)
  • The diagnosis of renal artery stenosis can use many techniques to determine if the condition is present, a clinical prediction rule is available to guide diagnosis. (wikimili.com)
  • The specific criteria for renal artery stenosis on Doppler are an acceleration time of greater than 70 milliseconds, an acceleration index of less than 300 cm/sec² and a velocity ratio of the renal artery to aorta of greater than 3.5. (wikimili.com)
  • [8] When high-grade renal artery stenosis is documented and blood pressure cannot be controlled with medication, or if renal function deteriorates, surgery may be resorted to. (wikimili.com)
  • Which patients with hypertension and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis benefit from immediate intervention? (eur.nl)
  • Stenting atherosclerotic renal arteries: time to be less aggressive. (medscape.com)
  • Percutaneous angioplasty for atherosclerotic renal artery disease: eff" by Gary Becker, Judy Brown et al. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Renal Arterial Disease and Hypertension. (medscape.com)
  • Patients on an intensive antihypertensive regimen can safely undergo concomitant renal artery and aortic reconstruction for the empiric management of hypertension. (duke.edu)
  • This narrowing of the renal artery can impede blood flow to the target kidney , resulting in renovascular hypertension - a secondary type of high blood pressure . (wikimili.com)
  • This guidance replaces NICE interventional procedures guidance on percutaneous transluminal radiofrequency sympathetic denervation of the renal artery for resistant hypertension (IPG418). (bvsalud.org)
  • Catheter-based renal artery denervation: facts and expectations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Catheter -based renal artery denervation (RAD) is entering a new era. (bvsalud.org)
  • It sends radio or sound waves to destroy the nerves in the renal arteries (sympathetic denervation). (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the renal function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in off-pump and on-pump having pre-operative impaired renal function. (banglajol.info)
  • This study attempts to identify the factors responsible for atherosclerosis in CRF patients using carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. (heartviews.org)
  • [1] Carotid artery intima media thickness (CAIMT) is increasingly used as a surrogate marker of early atherosclerosis and it was shown that CAIMT is a strong predictor of future myocardial infarction and stroke. (heartviews.org)
  • The prevalence of carotid artery calcification on the panoramic radiographs of patients with renal disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Renal vein renin sampling, including sampling after furosemide administration, correlated well with the location of identified vascular lesions and helped direct selective angiography when lesions were not found initially. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • An emulgent vessel, as a renal artery or vein. (everything2.com)
  • Concomitant aortic and renal artery reconstruction in patients on an intensive antihypertensive medical regimen: long-term outcome. (duke.edu)
  • The outcome of patients on multiple preoperative antihypertensive agents who underwent combined aortic and renal artery reconstruction was reviewed. (duke.edu)
  • The study population comprised 43 patients who underwent concomitant renal artery and aortic reconstruction for atherosclerotic disease between 1983 and 1995 and who were taking two or more antihypertensive medications and had a serum creatinine of less than or equal to 1.7 mg/dL. (duke.edu)
  • Operative management included an aortic reconstruction with either unilateral (n = 22) or bilateral (n = 19) aortorenal bypass or renal endarterectomy (n = 2). (duke.edu)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has approved gadobutrol ( Gadavist ) injections, for use in conjunction with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), to evaluate known or suspected supra-aortic or renal artery disease in adult and pediatric patients. (mdedge.com)
  • Until now, no contrast agents were FDA approved for use with MRA of the supra-aortic arteries. (mdedge.com)
  • With FDA's action, radiologists now have an approved MRA contrast agent to help visualize supra-aortic arteries in patients with known or suspected supra-aortic arterial disease, including conditions such as prior stroke or transient ischemic attack," Elias Melhem, MD, chair of the department of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, said in the press release. (mdedge.com)
  • The test is performed by threading a catheter through the main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Contrast medium is then injected into the renal artery through the catheter, and images of the vessels of the kidney are taken. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prevalence of uncontrolled diabetes is a real concern as it increases the risk of severe health complications such as heart diseases, renal impairment, eyes problems and damaged arteries. (who.int)
  • Reliability and agreement of human renal and segmental artery hemodynamics measured using Doppler ultrasound. (cdc.gov)
  • Adrenal and testicular arteries well demonstrated in a patient with a congenitally absent L kidney. (uct.ac.za)
  • Hypertensive crises occurred in 28 (18%) patients, and were significantly more common in children with HPT secondary to renovascular causes than renal causes (p=0.001). (who.int)
  • Captopril test dose effect on the differential renal function as measured by MAG3 scan . (wikimili.com)
  • Therefore, renal arteries with higher bifurcating angles to the abdominal aorta were observed to be more prone to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. (manipal.edu)
  • Renal failure can be divided into acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • This involves inserting a device through the skin (percutaneous) into an artery in the thigh and then into the renal arteries (transluminal). (bvsalud.org)
  • Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with premature atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD), predialysis (PD) patients and also in patients who have undergone renal transplantation or who are on medical conservative treatment. (heartviews.org)
  • Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). (heartviews.org)
  • Renal function was better preserved in patients undergoing off-pump in comparison to on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. (banglajol.info)
  • The purpose of the study was to determine the period prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF) after coronary bypass surgery (CABG) at the University Hospital of the West Iindies and to identify risk factors. (uwi.edu)
  • The natural history of atherosclerotic and fibrous renal artery disease. (medscape.com)
  • Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. (medscape.com)
  • Kidney disease accounted for 82% of cases, 46 (30%) having steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, 22 (14%) HIV-associated nephropathy, 19 (13%) glomerulonephritis, 21 (14%) congenital urinary tract abnormalities and 17 (11%) other renal causes. (who.int)
  • A beneficial effect in blood pressure control is presumed for patients on an intensive preoperative antihypertensive regimen who undergo empiric renal revascularization. (duke.edu)
  • Embolization resulted in complete cure (ie, elimination of all antihypertensive medicines) in all three patients and caused only minimal loss of renal parenchyma. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • We present the unusual case of a 66-year-old male with HCC in Segment I of the liver with aberrant blood supply from the right renal artery in the absence of any risk factors for extrahepatic circulation. (nih.gov)
  • The recent developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be useful in observing the detailed haemodynamics in renal artery bifurcation for clinical evaluation and treatment. (manipal.edu)
  • [6] This narrowing of renal arteries due to plaque build-up leads to higher blood pressure within the artery and decreased blood flow to the kidney. (wikimili.com)
  • Renal diseases were the most common cause of severe HPT in children. (who.int)
  • Podocyte -expressed ADAM10 is not required for the development of the renal filter, but plays a major role in podocyte injury. (lww.com)
  • A renal artery had ruptured and despite surgery Jacqueline died on the operating table. (bmj.com)
  • The test is a useful aid in diagnosing any narrowing of the arteries, blood clots, tumors, or aneurysms. (medlineplus.gov)