Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Gingival Hemorrhage: The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Periodontal Pocket: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.Streptococcus sanguis: A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Chronic Periodontitis: Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Streptococcus oralis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.Periodontal Attachment Loss: Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Cariogenic Agents: Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Benzoylarginine-2-Naphthylamide: An enzyme substrate which permits the measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g. trypsin and thrombin. The enzymes liberate 2-naphthylamine, which is measured by colorimetric procedures.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Streptococcus gordonii: A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Fusobacterium nucleatum: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Root Planing: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.Aggressive Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction in the presence of little local factors such as DENTAL PLAQUE and DENTAL CALCULUS. This highly destructive form of periodontitis often occurs in young people and was called early-onset periodontitis, but this disease also appears in old people.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.DextranaseIncisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Gingival Crevicular Fluid: A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Streptococcus mitis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Diet, Cariogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesDental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Tooth DiseasesStatistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Tooth, Supernumerary: An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.Gingival DiseasesDental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Capnocytophaga: A gram-negative gliding bacterium isolated from the oral cavity. It is a pathogen often causing PERIODONTITIS.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Piper betle: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that is indigenous in the Indian Malay region and cultivated in Madagascar, and the West Indies. It contains chavibetol, chavicol and cadinene. The leaf is chewed as a stimulant, antiseptic and sialogogue. The common name of betel is also used for ARECA.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Fusobacteria: A phylum of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism. They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Prevotella melaninogenica: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium has been isolated from the mouth, urine, feces, and infections of the mouth, soft tissue, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, and intestinal tract. It is pathogenic, but usually in association with other kinds of organisms.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Spirochaetaceae: A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.Actinomycetaceae: A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Periodontal Abscess: Localized circumscribed purulent area of inflammation in the periodontal tissue. It is a derivative of marginal periodontitis and commonly associated with suprabony and infrabony pockets and interradicular involvements, in contrast to periapical abscess which is attributable to pulp necrosis.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Psidium: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that bears an edible fruit and contains guavin B and quercetin glycosides.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Paullinia: A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Eikenella corrodens: Gram-negative bacteria isolated from infections of the respiratory and intestinal tracts and from the buccal cavity, intestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are probably part of the normal flora of man and animals.Tooth Cervix: The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Treponema: A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Bifidobacteriales Infections: Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Campylobacter rectus: A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.Carnobacteriaceae: A family of gram-positive, lactic acid-producing bacteria in the order Lactobacillales. It includes both high-pressure-loving species (piezophiles) found in the deep ocean, and Antarctic species.Age Determination by Teeth: A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Odontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Tooth Exfoliation: Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tooth Avulsion: Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
  • Xerostomia is not a disease, but it may be a symptom of various medical conditions Saliva possesses many important functions including antimicrobial activity, mechanical cleansing action, control of pH, removal of food debris from the oral cavity, lubrication of the oral cavity, remineralization and maintaining the integrity of the oral mucosa. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The oral cavity is a contaminated area and a dental cleaning is a mildly invasive procedure. (vin.com)
  • Denture plaque causes various diseases in the oral cavity, including denture stomatitis and angular cheilitis [ 1 , 2 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A protective dental film formed by exposing surfaces of the oral cavity to a preparation capable of coacting with saliva to produce one or more tenacious and continuous barrier layers upon tooth and tissue surfaces. (google.com)
  • The disadvantage of the experimental approach was the colour coating of plastic teeth not simulating the adherence of plaque biofilms on natural teeth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although prevention and control of these diseases can be achieved by the daily mechanical removal of biofilms, many people are either unable or unwilling to practice these procedures as regularly or as efficiently as necessary. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tooth brushing is the most widespread mechanical means of personal plaque control technique in the world due to its effectiveness, convenience and cost and is considered to be an important factor in the long term maintenance of periodontal health [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • DearDoctor.com is the home of Dear Doctor - Dentistry & Oral Health , a dental magazine written exclusively by dental health care professionals for the education and well-being of you, the general public. (deardoctor.com)
  • and ὀδούς , odoús - 'tooth', genitive ὀδόντος , odóntos ) is the specialty of dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth , as well as diseases and conditions that affect them. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are missing any of your natural teeth, implant dentistry could provide you with teeth that almost look and feel like your very own. (centuriondentalstudio.co.za)
  • This comes as no surprise, considering a survey conducted by the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry that confirmed the desire for whiter, brighter teeth and belief that a smile is an important social asset. (cdeworld.com)
  • Dr. Mandel was the founding director of the division of preventive dentistry at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine , the first such department in the country. (nytimes.com)
  • Irwin was the person most prominently associated with that shift, the father of preventive dentistry," Dr. Ira B. Lamster, dean of the College of Dental Medicine, said. (nytimes.com)
  • Dr. Lawrence A. Tabak , deputy director of the National Institutes of Health and previously director of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, said Dr. Mandel's research had repercussions far beyond dentistry. (nytimes.com)
  • A presented paper is reviewed for the Special Care Dentistry (SCD) teaching of dental undergraduates from different continents and compared it to the current SCD education scene in Malaysia. (jioh.org)
  • Geriatric dentistry or geriodontics is the delivery of dental care to older adults involving the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of problems associated with normal aging. (thedentalclinicpk.com)
  • In a split-mouth clinical trial, the pocket depth and bleeding index values tended to decrease in the experimental group compared with those in the control group. (hindawi.com)
  • It was, therefore, the aim to demonstrate correlation of tooth cleaning efficiency of a new robot brushing simulation technique with clinical plaque removal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical programme: 27 subjects received dental cleaning prior to 3-day-plaque-regrowth-interval. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differences in plaque removal are statistically significant for the two brushes, reproduced in clinical and robot data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Emphasis on clinical appearance of oral structures, dental terminology, morphology of the permanent and primary dentition, patterns, and the occlusion and malocclusion within and between the dental arches. (cod.edu)
  • Review of dental anomalies and other clinical appearances. (cod.edu)
  • In addition to clinical scoring and photographs, measurements of tooth and gum sensitivity, saliva volume, pH and buffering, variables may be evaluated using tooth samples worn on removable dental retainers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this clinical study was to analyse the bacterial composition of the denture plaque and to evaluate the changes in bacterial composition of the denture plaque before and after 2- methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer coating. (alliedacademies.org)
  • GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19) at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19) and severe chronic periodontitis (SP) (n = 19) patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. (scielo.br)
  • An identification of disease is established by inspecting the soft gum tissues round the teeth with a groundwork (i.e., a clinical examination) and by evaluating the patient's X-ray films (i.e. a picture taking examination), to see the quantity of bone loss round the teeth [1- (scirp.org)
  • The program introduces you to dental science, the foundation of clinical practice and the skills and theory used by dental assistants. (nscc.ca)
  • There were significant correlations between anti- P. gingivalis antibody titers and the gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment level (CAL) ( p = 0.038, 0.004, 0.004 and 0.002, respectively) in RA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These locations are, in descending prevalence order: inter-dental and sub-gingival niches, faulty dental work, food-impaction areas in-between the teeth, abscesses and unclean dentures . (wikidoc.org)
  • Dental implants help preserve the facial bone, whereas conventional dentures or alternatives, usually lead to accelerated bone loss and facial changes associated with ageing. (centuriondentalstudio.co.za)
  • Their dentures were treated with poly (MPC-co-Butyl Methacrylate (BMA) -co- 2-methacryloyloxyethyl-4-azidobenzoate (MPAz)) (PMBPAz), and the composition of denture plaque was evaluated by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) after 1 weeks of denture usage. (alliedacademies.org)
  • More importantly, denture plaque is considered a significant risk factor for opportunistic infections and aspiration pneumonia in elderly individuals who wear dentures, in bedridden patients in nursing homes, and in immunocompromised patients [ 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • An increase in oral care utilization and effective prevention over the whole lifespan are needed to improve the dental health of the Greek adult population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The companies below have made a firm commitment to promoting veterinary dental health and providing high quality dental products. (petsmile.org)
  • Today's anesthetics are dramatically safer than those of even a few years ago, making the dangers and pain of untreated dental problems the bigger risk to health, even with older pets. (icvsasia.com)
  • All dental professionals aim to help members of the public to attain optimal oral health, and one way of doing this is to emphasize the need to take precautionary measures [ 1 ]. (jscholaronline.org)
  • A critical component of any preventive intervention for dental health, whether it targets groups or individuals, is a properly designed plaque control program. (jscholaronline.org)
  • Any efforts to help the public to maintain oral health must include advice regarding the need to maintain oral cleanliness, because this helps to eliminate microbial plaque, thus inhibiting it from building up in the gingivae and teeth [ 2 ]. (jscholaronline.org)
  • The results from this study will help evaluate the effects of the test dentifrice formulation on plaque removal and maintaining gingival health. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Most people who are in good general health are good candidates for dental implants. (centuriondentalstudio.co.za)
  • 1938): Dental health of all teeth will be assessed with respect to decay (D), missing (M) or filling (F). The DMFT-Index will be calculated. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Australasian and American Academy of Paediatric Dentists, along with the American Academy of Pediatrics, recommend an initial oral health check at the time of the eruption of the first tooth and no later than 12 months of age, followed by regular check-ups. (earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au)
  • However, keep in mind not to abuse this method in order to protect your dental health. (homemadebeautyrecipe.com)
  • Further, professionally supervised whitening is recommended by the American Dental Association (ADA) to assure clients are appropriately evaluated and treatment-planned according to dental health, individual needs, and use of effective tooth whitening systems. (cdeworld.com)
  • For this reason, infectious diseases such as pneumonia associated with denture plaque are considered to be important health issues for the elderly and are currently receiving attention. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The United States Department of Health and Human Services supported the use of dental floss specifically, along with toothbrushing and exposure to community water fluoridation, in its 2005 and 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans . (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • In response, the American Dental Association (ADA) questioned the US Department of Health and Human Services, which publishes the guidelines. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services stated, "As neither the 2010 nor 2015 Advisory Committees [for the guidelines] reviewed evidence on brushing and flossing teeth, the authors of the current edition decided not to carry forward the information on brushing and flossing included in past editions of the guidelines. (dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com)
  • Being a good source of calcium, dill also helps with bone and dental health. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In a 2015 survey by the American Dental Association, 20% of low-income adults said their mouths and teeth were in bad condition, and 20% of all adults said their unhealthy mouths caused them anxiety, according to Marko Vujicic, chief economist for the association's Health Policy Institute, who helped conduct the survey. (cnn.com)
  • It could be apt to think of your teeth as the canaries in the coal mine of your overall health, Cram said. (cnn.com)
  • Disease will cause tooth loss or worse, associate with nursing inflated risk of heart failure or stroke and different serious health issues. (scirp.org)
  • Dental assistants work as part of the oral health team, providing assistance to dentists and dental specialists, carrying out direct patient care and instructing patients in the principles and practices of good oral health. (nscc.ca)
  • This research shows that dental health is more than just a nice smile and no toothaches. (ikms.eu)
  • bump on gum above tooth Dental Health Board Index: It was a small red fistula on my upper gum above a molar. (ikms.eu)
  • Gum disease is a common oral health affliction that causes inflammation of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. (top10homeremedies.com)
  • Dental health professionals can fabricate a mouthguard for you or your child which will offer a custom fit. (uiowa.edu)
  • For your long-term oral health, it is best to have your wisdom teeth removed as a young adult. (northviewfamilydental.com)
  • Toothbrushing is an established health behavior aiming to remove dental plaque and thereby to maintain oral health [ 1 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, the tooth brushing and flossing educations, which are given by oral health professionals, play a crucial role to change the self-developed and inadequate cleaning techniques of the individual. (bvsalud.org)
  • With my dog I give him lots of the rawhide bone/chews and they keep his teeth super clean. (essentialbaby.com.au)
  • These procedures involve making a small incision between the tooth and gum in order to obtain access to the diseased root and bone. (dimairaperiodontal.com)
  • When teeth are extracted it is frequently recommended to preserve the socket with bone graft material in order to prevent loss of support for adjacent teeth and the jaw bone in general. (dimairaperiodontal.com)
  • Since the bone in the jaws holds the teeth into the jaws, the loss of bone can cause teeth over the years to become loose and eventually to fall out or need to be extracted because of acute infection. (wikidoc.org)
  • If this condition is present for long period of time it causes bone loss with forming deeper dental pockets and progression of infection that will eventually end with teeth loss. (dentist-asia.com)
  • In some cases placing bone-substitute can compensate the lost bone and delay the tooth loss. (dentist-asia.com)
  • Disease involving progressive loss of the alveolar bone round the teeth, and if left untreated, will cause the loosening and future loss of teeth. (scirp.org)
  • According to the American Dental Association, if gum disease goes untreated, the damage can spread to the bone in your jaw such that small openings may appear between the gum and teeth. (top10homeremedies.com)
  • If you like everything about your teeth except the color, whitening by bleaching may be the solution for you. (deardoctor.com)
  • Each Teeth Whiten Tips™ system comes with a 6-day supply of disposable applicator swabs filled with a liquid formula, and a separate jar of whitening powder. (herbalyzer.com)
  • More than ever, consumers are being bombarded via social media, the Internet, and traditional media outlets regarding quick and inexpensive methods for smile enhancement through tooth whitening. (cdeworld.com)
  • A recent search on YouTube for 'teeth whitening' resulted in over 662,000 videos, with most focused on at-home tooth whitening remedies that included everything from oil pulling to use of activated charcoal. (cdeworld.com)
  • opalescence tooth whitening gel ultradent offers syringe delivered carbamide peroxide gels 10 15 20 35 percent concentrations. (ikms.eu)
  • generic Dent's Maximum Strength Toothache Gum price price of in india price of in germany Dent's Maximum Strength Toothache Gum price increase price usa price of Dent's Maximum Strength Toothache Gum uk Dent's Maximum Strength Toothache Gum price canada price comparison price of tablet All teeth whitening fair lawn nj using coconut benefits oil About Orthodontia. (ikms.eu)
  • 80% of cavities occur in the grooves, or pits and fissures, of the chewing surfaces of the teeth, however, there is no evidence currently showing that normal at-home flossing reduces the risk of cavities in these areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Does Water Fluoridation Affect the Pits and Fissures of the Tooth, the Area Where Most Cavities Occur? (wikipedia.org)
  • The carious process is initiated by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates, leading to the formation of organic acids and a fall in pH, which may result in dissolution of the mineralized surface of the tooth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The face of the instrument is placed flat against the surface of the tooth and inserted gently to the base of the sulcus or pocket. (vin.com)