A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.
Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)
The species Tursiops truncatus, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by a bottle-shaped beak and slightly hooked broad dorsal fin.
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
The genus Delphinus, in the family Delphinidae, consisting of two species of DOLPHINS. They are multicolored, with a characteristic yellow-tan criss-cross hourglass pattern behind the eyes.
A genus comprised of spinner, spotted, and striped DOLPHINS, in the family Delphinidae. Schools of Stenella, that may number in the thousands, often associate with schools of TUNA, and are thus vulnerable to accidental harvesting.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Therapy by various hot or warm baths in natural mineral waters, spas, or "cures". It includes not only bathing in, but also drinking the waters, but it does not include whirlpool baths (HYDROTHERAPY).
A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.
Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Methods of comparing two or more samples on the same two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gel.
The interactions between the professional person and the family.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.

Relaxin is a potent renal vasodilator in conscious rats. (1/449)

The kidneys and other nonreproductive organs vasodilate during early gestation; however, the "pregnancy hormones" responsible for the profound vasodilation of the renal circulation during pregnancy are unknown. We hypothesized that the ovarian hormone relaxin (RLX) contributes. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of RLX elicits renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious adult, intact female rats. After several days of treatment with either purified porcine RLX or recombinant human RLX 2 (rhRLX), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20%-40%. Comparable renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration was also observed in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen and progesterone are unnecessary for the renal response to rhRLX. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester completely abrogated the increase in ERPF and GFR elicited by chronic administration of purified porcine RLX. In contrast, the renal vasoconstrictory response to angiotensin II was attenuated by the RLX treatment. Short-term infusion of purified porcine RLX to conscious rats over several hours failed to increase ERPF and GFR. Plasma osmolality was consistently reduced by the chronic administration of both RLX preparations. In conclusion, the renal and osmoregulatory effects of chronic RLX administration to conscious rats resemble the physiological changes of pregnancy in several respects: (a) marked increases in ERPF and GFR with a mediatory role for nitric oxide; (b) attenuation of the renal circulatory response to angiotensin II; and (c) reduction in plasma osmolality.  (+info)

Canine preprorelaxin: nucleic acid sequence and localization within the canine placenta. (2/449)

Employing uteroplacental tissue at Day 35 of gestation, we determined the nucleic acid sequence of canine preprorelaxin using reverse transcription- and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction. Canine preprorelaxin cDNA consisted of 534 base pairs encoding a protein of 177 amino acids with a signal peptide of 25 amino acids (aa), a B domain of 35 aa, a C domain of 93 aa, and an A domain of 24 aa. The putative receptor binding region in the N'-terminal part of the canine relaxin B domain GRDYVR contained two substitutions from the classical motif (E-->D and L-->Y). Canine preprorelaxin shared highest homology with porcine and equine preprorelaxin. Northern analysis revealed a 1-kilobase transcript present in total RNA of canine uteroplacental tissue but not of kidney tissue. Uteroplacental tissue from two bitches each at Days 30 and 35 of gestation were studied by in situ hybridization to localize relaxin mRNA. Immunohistochemistry for relaxin, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor was performed on uteroplacental tissue at Day 30 of gestation. The basal cell layer at the core of the chorionic villi was devoid of relaxin mRNA and immunoreactive relaxin or vimentin but was immunopositive for cytokeratin and identified as cytotrophoblast cells. The cell layer surrounding the chorionic villi displayed specific hybridization signals for relaxin mRNA and immunoreactivity for relaxin and cytokeratin but not for vimentin, and was identified as syncytiotrophoblast. Those areas of the chorioallantoic tissue with most intense relaxin immunoreactivity were highly vascularized as demonstrated by immunoreactive von Willebrand factor expressed on vascular endothelium. The uterine glands and nonplacental uterine areas of the canine zonary girdle placenta were devoid of relaxin mRNA and relaxin. We conclude that the syncytiotrophoblast is the source of relaxin in the canine placenta.  (+info)

Endocrine biomarkers of early fetal loss in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) following exposure to dioxin. (3/449)

This study examines the endocrine alterations associated with early fetal loss (EFL) induced by an environmental toxin, TCDD (2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), in the cynomolgus macaque, a well-documented reproductive/developmental model for humans. Females were administered single doses of 1, 2, and 4 microgram/kg TCDD (n = 4 per dose group) on gestational day (GD) 12. Urinary estrogen metabolites (estrone conjugates) were monitored to establish the day of ovulation, and serum hormones (estradiol, progesterone, chorionic gonadotropin, relaxin) were measured to assess ovarian and placental endocrine status before and after treatment. EFL occurred between GDs 22 and 32 in 10 of the 12 animals treated with TCDD. The primary endocrine alterations associated with TCDD treatment were significant decreases in serum estradiol and bioactive chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (p < 0.02). Less pronounced decreases in serum progesterone (p = 0.10) and relaxin (p < 0.08) also followed TCDD treatment. In contrast, immunoreactive chorionic gonadotropin concentrations were not reduced by TCDD exposure at any level, indicating that TCDD targets specific components of the chorionic gonadotropin synthesis machinery within the trophoblast to alter the functional capacity of the hormone. These data demonstrate the value of endocrine biomarkers in identifying a toxic exposure to primate pregnancy many days before direct signs of reproductive toxicity were apparent. The increased EFL that occurred after exposure to TCDD might reflect a toxic response initially mediated via endocrine imbalance, leading to placental insufficiency, compromised embryonic circulation, and subsequent EFL.  (+info)

Relaxin secretion by human granulosa cell culture is predictive of in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer success. (4/449)

We have developed a cell culture system for human luteinizing granulosa cells which supports the timely and dynamic secretion of oestrogen, progesterone and relaxin in patterns that mimic serum concentrations of these hormones during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. There was a wide variation in the amount of relaxin secreted by the cultured cells for the 69 patients studied. As relaxin production was generally maximal by day 10 of culture, comparisons were made at this time point. It was observed that most of the conceptions occurred in patients with higher relaxin secretion in vitro. All cycles with relaxin > 800 pg/ml on day 10 had a term pregnancy while only 13% of cycles with relaxin < 200 pg/ml had term pregnancies. A limited number of cycles from donor/recipient cycles did not show similar results. Steroid concentrations were not predictive of conception. These results demonstrated that in-vitro production of relaxin is predictive of implantation success in in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer cycles. This supports the hypothesis that relaxin may be involved in implantation and that lowered relaxin concentrations may be a partial cause of poor pregnancy rates after IVF.  (+info)

Relaxin stimulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in normal human endometrial cells in vitro and is associated with menometrorrhagia in women. (5/449)

Although the role of the reproductive hormone, relaxin, in rodents is well documented, its potential contribution to human reproduction is less well defined. In this study, we examine the effects of relaxin on human endometrial cells in vitro and describe the clinical effects of relaxin on menstrual flow in women. In cultured endometrial cells, relaxin specifically induces the expression of an angiogenic agent, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). cAMP is implicated as a second messenger involved in VEGF stimulation. VEGF expression is temporally regulated in the endometrium, and our results suggest that relaxin, which is secreted by the corpus luteum and is present in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, may be involved in regulating endometrial VEGF expression. Relaxin was recently tested in a clinical trial for efficacy in the treatment of progressive systemic sclerosis, and was administered at levels up to 10 times higher than that measured during pregnancy. The most frequent relaxin-related adverse event reported during the course of the study was the onset of menometrorrhagia, defined in this study as heavier-than-usual or irregular menstrual bleeding. The intensification of menstrual flow observed in these patients is consistent with the hypothesis that relaxin mediates neovascularization of the endometrial lining.  (+info)

Relaxin stimulates glycodelin mRNA and protein concentrations in human endometrial glandular epithelial cells. (6/449)

Human endometrium is the major organ that produces glycodelin A (GdA). The production of endometrial GdA causes a fluctuation of the peripheral glycodelin concentrations in women during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It has recently been reported that the rise of plasma concentrations of glycodelin is correlated with relaxin during the late luteal phase and early pregnancy. In addition, administration of relaxin increases glycodelin plasma concentrations, suggesting that relaxin induces GdA production in endometrium. To investigate whether relaxin regulates the GdA synthesis, human endometrial glandular epithelial cells were isolated and cultured with or without relaxin for up to 4 days. Western blot showed that GdA synthesized and secreted from epithelial glands had a major molecular weight of 28 kDa, i.e. the same as the GdA isolated from amniotic fluid. Cells incubated with relaxin consistently increased in GdA production rate (2-6-fold). The GdA mRNA concentrations increased 2-11-fold in cells incubated with relaxin for 2-4 days, as determined by solution hybridization/ribonuclease protection assay. The increase of the mRNA concentration indicates that relaxin activates GdA transcription.  (+info)

What knockout mice can tell us about parturition. (7/449)

Many molecules, including steroid and peptide hormones, prostaglandins and cytokines, regulate the preparation, initiation and progression of parturition in mammals. Gene targeting studies show that, in the knockout mice of steroid 5alpha-reductase type 1 gene, prostaglandin F2alpha receptor gene and cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene, parturition was severely disturbed, although live offspring were delivered by Caesarean section. Relaxin gene-disrupted mice also showed protracted labour. However, most knockout mice in which the steroid hormone, prostaglandin, cytokine or peptide hormone (for example, oxytocin, corticotrophin releasing hormone and endothelin) endocrine-paracrine systems are disrupted are inadequate for analysis of the mechanism of parturition because they die before reaching reproductive age or are infertile, or because they reproduce normally. A conditional knockout strategy, for example, using the Cre-LoxP system, should be considered for investigating the biochemical background of parturition to overcome these problems.  (+info)

Quantitative autoradiographic studies of relaxin binding in rat atria, uterus and cerebral cortex: characterization and effects of oestrogen treatment. (8/449)

The binding characteristics of the relaxin receptor in rat atria, uterus and cortex were studied using a [33P]-labelled human gene 2 relaxin (B33) and quantitative receptor autoradiography. The binding kinetics of [33P]-human gene 2 relaxin (B33) were investigated in slide-mounted rat atrial sections. The binding achieved equilibrium after 60 min incubation at room temperature (23+/-1 degrees C) and dissociated slowly. The association and dissociation rate constants were 4.31+/-0.34x10(8) M(-1) x min(-1) and 1.55+/-0.38x10(-3) min(-1) respectively. Thus, the kinetic dissociation constant was 3.46+/-0.59 pM. Binding was saturable to a single population of non-interacting sites throughout atria, in uterine myometrium and the 5th layer of cerebral cortex. The binding affinities (pK(D)) of [33P]-human gene 2 relaxin (B33) were 8.92+/-0.09 in atrial myocardium and 8.79+/-0.04 in cerebral cortex of male rats, and 8.79+/-0.10 in uterine myometrium. Receptor densities in the cerebral cortex and atria were higher than in uterine myometrium, indicating that relaxin also has important roles in non-reproductive tissues. In male rats, treatment with 17beta-oestradiol (20 microg in 0.1 ml sesame oil s.c., 18-24 h) significantly decreased the density of relaxin receptors in atria and cerebral cortex. Identical treatment in female rats had no significant effect in atria and cerebral cortex, but it significantly increased the density of relaxin receptors in uterine myometrium. Relaxin binding was competitively displaced by porcine and rat native relaxins. Porcine native relaxin binds to the relaxin receptor in male rat atria (8.90+/-0.02), and cerebral cortex (8.90+/-0.03) and uterine myometrium (8.89+/-0.03) with affinities not significantly different from human gene 2 (B33) relaxin. Nevertheless, rat relaxin binds to the receptors with affinities (8.35+/-0.09 in atria, 8.22+/-0.07 in cerebral cortex and 8.48+/-0.06 in uterine myometrium) significantly less than human gene 2 (B33) and porcine relaxins. Quantitative receptor autoradiography is the method of choice for measurement of affinities and densities of relaxin receptor in atria, uterine myometrium and cerebral cortex. High densities were found in all these tissues. 17beta-oestradiol treatment produced complex effects where it increased the densities of relaxin receptors in uterus but decreased those in atria and cerebral cortex of the male rats, and had no effect on the atria and cerebral cortex of the female rats.  (+info)

Relaxin is a peptide hormone that exerts numerous effects in a variety of tissues across a broad range of species. Although first identified more than 75 years ago interest in relaxin biology has waxed and waned over the years consistent with peaks and troughs of new experimental data on its wide-ranging biological effects and advances in relaxin enabling technologies. Recent insights into species-dependent differences in relaxin biology during pregnancy have once again stimulated a relative surge of interest in the study of relaxins reproductive biology. Identification and pharmacological characterization of orphaned relaxin receptors and exploration of its paracrine effects on pregnancy using genomic and proteomic technologies have succeeded in fueling current interest in relaxin research. Primates and non-primate vertebrates exhibit very disparate profiles of relaxin genomics, proteomics and functional biology. Non-human primates appear to exhibit a very close similarity to humans with respect to
Introduction: The RELAX-AHF (Relaxin in Acute Heart Failure [AHF]) Phase lll study (NCT00520806) examined the effects of serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin-2) in patients with AHF, and demonstrated favorable tolerability with benefits on short- and longer-term outcomes. The present study evaluated the effect of hepatic impairment on serelaxin pharmacokinetics (PK). Secondary study objectives included safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of serelaxin.. Methods: This open-label, parallel-group study (NCT01433458) enrolled patients 18-70 years of age (mean age 52.0; SD 8.8) with mild (n=9), moderate (n=8), or severe (n=8) hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, B, and C, respectively) and matched healthy volunteers (n=24). All subjects received a single 24h IV infusion of serelaxin 30 μg/kg/day. Blood sampling and standard safety assessments were conducted. Noncompartmental PK parameters were estimated based on the serelaxin serum concentration-time profiles. Primary PK parameters [including ...
Porcine relaxin (250 guinea-pig units/mg) infused intravenously into anaesthetized rats at 20 μg/h reversibly abolished spontaneous intra-uterine pressure cycles yet left the myometrium responsive to oxytocin in doses of 4-8 mu. The inhibition was found to be primarily of the frequency, rather than of the amplitude, of pressure cycles. Relaxin (5 or 10 μg) was capable of completely suppressing uterine activity driven by prostaglandin F2α infusion in oestrogen-treated ovariectomized rats. Whereas the β-adrenergic blocker, propranolol, had no effect on relaxin-induced inhibition, phentolamine, an α-blocker, significantly delayed the relaxin effect. It is unlikely, however, that relaxin operates through an α-inhibitory receptor. The results show that relaxin acts primarily as a frequency modulator and is capable of antagonizing an exogenous myometrial stimulant. ...
Human relaxin-2 (relaxin), originally identified as a peptidic hormone of pregnancy, is now known to exert a range of pleiotropic effects including vasodilatory, anti-fibrotic and angiogenic effects in both males and females. It belongs to the so-called relaxin peptide family which includes the insulin-like peptides INSL3 and INSL5, and relaxin-3 (H3) as well as relaxin. INSL3 has clearly defined specialist roles in male and female reproduction, relaxin-3 is primarily a neuropeptide involved in stress and metabolic control, and INSL5 is widely distributed particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. These members of relaxin peptide family exert such effects binding to different kinds of receptors, classified as relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors: RXFP1, RXFP2, RXFP3, and RXFP4. These G protein-coupled receptors predominantly bind relaxin, INSL3, relaxin-3, and INSL-5, respectively. RXFP1 activates a wide spectrum of signaling pathways to generate second messengers that include cAMP and ...
Serum relaxin levels were analysed in 12 healthy women every other day during the menstrual cycle and during a second cycle on oral contraceptives. Relaxin levels in 7 women with posterior pelvic and lumbar pain were also measured. Relaxin was detected during both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in some of the healthy women. Serum levels were further increased during the use of oral contraceptives. Oestradiol levels in the untreated women correlated to the relaxin levels. Women with posterior pelvic and lumbar pain had higher relaxin levels than did healthy women, a finding that needs to be further explored. Our data indicate the existence of sources for relaxin production other than the corpus luteum in the non-pregnant woman. Endogenous and exogenous oestrogens may stimulate the production of relaxin.. PIP:. In Sweden, clinicians took blood samples every other day during one menstrual cycle from 12 healthy women aged 19-42 taking no medication and during a second ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brainstem nucleus incertus controls contextual memory formation. AU - Szőnyi, András. AU - Sos, Katalin E.. AU - Nyilas, Rita. AU - Schlingloff, Dániel. AU - Domonkos, Andor. AU - Takács, Virág T.. AU - Pósfai, Balázs. AU - Hegedüs, Panna. AU - Priestley, James B.. AU - Gundlach, Andrew L.. AU - Gulyás, Attila I.. AU - Varga, V.. AU - Losonczy, Attila. AU - Freund, T.. AU - Nyíri, G.. PY - 2019/5/24. Y1 - 2019/5/24. N2 - Hippocampal pyramidal cells encode memory engrams, which guide adaptive behavior. Selection of engram-forming cells is regulated by somatostatin-positive dendrite-targeting interneurons, which inhibit pyramidal cells that are not required for memory formation. Here, we found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing neurons of the mouse nucleus incertus (NI) selectively inhibit somatostatin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus, both monosynaptically and indirectly through the inhibition of their subcortical excitatory inputs. We demonstrated that ...
The G-protein-coupled relaxin family receptors RXFP1 and RXFP3 are widely expressed in the cortex and are involved in stress responses and memory and emotional processing. However, the identification of these receptors in human cortex and their status in Alzheimers disease (AD), which is characterized by both cognitive impairments and neuropsychiatric behaviours, have not been reported. In this study, we characterized RXFP receptors for immunoblotting and measured RXFP1 and RXFP3 immunoreactivities in the postmortem neocortex of AD patients longitudinally assessed for depressive symptoms. RXFP1 and RXFP3 antibodies were characterized by immunoblotting with lysates from transfected HEK cells and preadsorption with RXFP3 peptides. Also, postmortem neocortical tissues from behaviourally assessed AD and age-matched controls were processed for immunoblotting with RXFP1 and RXFP3 antibodies. Compared to controls, putative RXFP1 immunoreactivity was reduced in parietal cortex of non-depressed AD ...
Effect of relaxin on human sperm functions.: Relaxin is a circulating hormone with functions in pregnancy, parturition, and other aspects of female reproduction
Previous clinical studies have strongly suggested that relaxin is a systemic and renal vasodilator. In nonclinical studies, relaxin administration to monkeys has been associated with increased vessel density in the endometrium, and in previous human trials relaxin administration has been highly correlated with increased menstrual bleeding in women. VEGF has been proposed as a mechanism for these endometrial effects. Together, these data suggest that relaxin may be able to relieve systemic and renal vasoconstriction and improve placental perfusion in women with preeclampsia. As a first step in the development program for relaxin in this indication, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I safety study in women with severe preeclampsia has been launched in the USA ...
Impaired vascular adaptation in the uterus during early pregnancy contributes to increased risk of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, miscarriage and intrauterine growth restriction. The peptide hormone relaxin reaches peak circulating concentrations at the end of the first trimester in pregnant women, and is thought to promote angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of relaxin in uterine vascular adaptations during early pregnancy. We examined the effects of relaxin-deficiency on uterine gene expression in early pregnancy, focusing specifically on angiogenic genes. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure gene expression in uterine tissue prior to implantation (days 1-4) in wild type (Rln+/+) and relaxin-deficient mice (Rln-/-). Gene expression was also quantified in the uteri of Rln-/- mice at day 4 of pregnancy after 3 days of relaxin (0.2μg/μl/hour, Alzet® osmotic minipump) or saline (0.9%) treatment. Genes analyzed included angiogenic factors (vascular ...
Symphyseal width was assessed in 15 non-pregnant females using radiography and ultrasonography. Regression equation: y = 0.98x + 0.30 (mm), r2 = 0.72. The latter technique was used in subsequent studies.. Symphyseal width at onset of labour in 24 women was on average 6.0 mm for those with and 5.5 mm for those without pelvic pain. A second measurement was obtained from 16 of those women when the fetal head was at the ischiadic spines. The average symphyseal distension was 0.2 mm and 1.1 mm, respectively (p=0.02).. In a cohort of 49 women, symphyseal width was assessed at 12 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and at 5 months post partum. Those with disabling pain during pregnancy and none at follow-up (n=6) had wider symphyses as 35 weeks (6.3 mm) than controls (n=33) (4.5 mm) (p,0.001).. A cross-sectional analysis at 35 weeks of pregnancy of the above 49 women and 19 consecutive referral cases with severe pelvic pain, showed a mean symphyseal with of 4.5 mm for controls (n=38), compared to 5.7 mm for ...
These areas all affect your sleep quality, bonding with your baby, sexual function and getting back to normal levels of exercise.. 2 Hormones during pregnancy and breastfeeding may put you at increased risk of injury. The hormone relaxin increases the flexibility of your soft tissues and joints and can remain in the body for up to six months after delivery, making you prone to joint strains or sprains. The hormones produced when breastfeeding can also have an effect on your soft tissues which is why it is important to really build up your muscle strength and core stability before you return to impact exercise.. 3 30% of women have ongoing urinary incontinence post pregnancy and 50% have some form of prolapse after childbirth. This is caused by weakness or tension in the pelvic floor muscles from pregnancy and labour. The good news is - this can be treated!. 4 Around half of postpartum women complain of ongoing back and pelvic pain following pregnancy. While common, this should never be seen as ...
The renin-overproducing transgenic rat (mREN2) has recently been proposed as a model of left ventricular (LV) hypertension and fibrosis. Comparing mREN2 (n=7) to sex- and age-matched Wistar-Han control rats (WHAN, n=11), we have confirmed hypertension (mean blood pressure: 174±9 vs. 107±3 mmHg, P,0.001), hypertrophy (LV weight:body weight: 4.0±0.1 vs. 2.7±0.1 mg/g, P,0.001), and cardiac fibrosis. At the protein level, LV from mREN2 exhibited significantly higher percentage of interstitial collagen per total protein area versus WHAN (5.95±1.01% vs. 1.96±0.06%, P=0.02). At the level of LV function, mREN2 hearts demonstrated significant diastolic dysfunction (increased stiffness coefficient from stress-strain relationship: 198±30 vs. 78±10, P=0.01, and reduced magnitude of dP/dtmin: 1254±125 vs. 2000±110 mmHg/s, P,0.001), and impaired relaxation (increased relaxation time constant: 0.048±0.001 vs. 0.043±0.001 s, P=0.002). The naturally occurring hormone relaxin is known to have ...
Dr. Samuel Yue, M.D., discusses his clinical observations of fibromyalgia in female patients and his subsequent discovery that the hormone relaxin is
A recombinant form of the pregnancy hormone relaxin appears to improve dyspnea and possibly even cut mortality risk in acute heart failure patients, a clinical trial found.
This can lead to hypertonicity and shortening in the upper abdominals, the lower lumbar extensors, the iliopsoas, piriformus, rectus femoris and hamstrings, with weakening in the scapular adductors, the lower abdominal muscles, the pelvic floor and the gluteals. There is a tendency for these tissues to remain in their new, shortened or stretched states after childbirth, potentially leading to permanent pelvic asymmetry and pubic, lumbar or thoracic problems.. In addition, the pregnancy hormone relaxin leads to laxity in the joint capsules and ligaments that support the joints of the lumbar spine, pelvis and hips. For example, a normal joint space in the pubis symphysis is 4 millimeters. With pregnancy, this increases to 9 millimeters by birth, leading to a less stable joint and greater possibility of injury over time. This ligamentous laxity lasts for six to 12 weeks after birth.. In as many as one out of 600 pregnancies, postpartum dysfunction in the pubis symphysis leads to pain performing ...
Remember, you are more apt to tear and strain muscles now because the pregnancy hormone relaxin, which allows the uterus to expand, also acts on all connective calcium supplements after pregnancy. With the infant growing larger every week this will put a strain on your again muscular tissues because it now needs to assist each you and the child. Your due date is normally calculated this manner : Subtract three months from the first day of your final menstrual period (LMP), then add seven days - thats your due date the following year. Think you know how to kind out fertility truth from fiction. Finding a beginning attendant that works outdoors the typical medical mindset and does not employ the damaging interventions IS a real and viable selection, and lowers the chance of problems during start. Its important to note that you can nonetheless prepare your core throughout being pregnant by using calcium supplements after pregnancy routines which might be protected and effective and steering clear ...
Many pregnant women experience hip pain. The pregnancy hormone relaxin, round ligament pain, pelvic girdle pain and sciatica can be a cause.
In summary, this is the first study to determined that relaxin promotes growth of the vagina during pregnancy in any species. Furthermore, this study also determined that the relaxin-induced growth of the cervix is brought about, in part, by promoting the cellular proliferation of cervical epithelial and stromal cells ...
Early pregnancy detection in dogs can be extremely difficult. A blood test can detect pregnancy in dogs by measuring the hormone relaxin; however false negatives can occur if the test is performed too early in the pregnancy, or if the dog is carrying only one or two puppies (see handout: Pregnancy Testing in the Dog). A positive test indicates that the dog is pregnant at the time of the test, but does not mean that the pregnancy will be successful. A veterinarian can perform a trans-abdominal palpation (feeling the abdomen for an enlarged uterus or for individual fetal swellings) at about three to four weeks after mating, but the results are variable. In some cases, results depend more upon the relaxation of the female dog than upon the experience of the veterinarian.. ...
Per me utilizing math. Im 29 and TTC with my husband. Sugar that the kidneys are unable to absorb must be urinated out. Together, you will discover reduction and comfort in your pregnancy. Most circumstances the bleeding final for a few minutes to some days. Also at the moment in your pregnancy, the hormone relaxin helps to loosen your joints. Do what works for you however but at all times verify with a care provider earlier than starting a new exercise routine. These vaccines should be taken off the market till proven protected and efficient, and they never might be. In case your menstrual cycle is regular, then youll usually ovulate cab 14 days earlier than your next interval starts. In week seven, the umbilical twine, which provides the embryo with nutrients and oxygen in zigns course of the being pregnant, is completed forming. About fifty of ladies who expertise recognizing during early being pregnant go on to have a wholesome being pregnant. I have been tracking my cycles and they arent ...
Edema (Foot growth-fluid retention). Edema affects about three quarters of pregnant women around week 22 to week 27. Body fluids increase to nurture both you and your baby, and accumulate in your tissues as a result of increased blood flow and pressure of your growing uterus on the pelvic veins. This results in swollen ankles and feet. In addition to edema, the rest of your ligaments are loosening because of the hormone Relaxin, allowing your bones to spread out. This causes your feet to grow and they may permanently stay up to a full shoe size larger.. Here are some tips to lessen the swelling:. ...
Your body begins to supply the hormone relaxin†which softens the joints and ligaments, allowing the pelvis to be more versatile so your baby can come by way of. For example, a girl at age 30 has a 1 in 1,000 likelihood of delivering a child with Down Syndrome. Some women keep away from remedy, because it could trigger their blood strain to drop, affect the velocity of labor or trigger them to turn into nauseated. Pregnancy is a journey full of joy and pleasureâ€and nausea and nervousness and moments of I can not see my toooeessss! Nevertheless its all part of the expertise, and its a time you will wish to capture to recollect endlesslyâ€enter maternity photographs. For those whore breast-feeding, wait to offer a pacifier till your baby is three to four weeks outdated and you have settled into an efficient nursing routine. ...
Stretching before, during, or after exercise is a touchy subject because your body is flooded with hormones (Relaxin) that help relax your muscles and joints, especially in your pelvic area. This can lead to instability and a higher chance of injuring yourself. If you chose to stretch, do so with caution and awareness that your body is already doing some of the stretching for you due to the hormones and changes you are going through ...
Conrad KP. G-protein coupled receptors as potential drug candidates in preeclampsia: targeting the relaxin-insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 for treatment and prevention. Human Reproduction Update (Invited review). 2016 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print].. Rabaglino MB, Post Uiterweer ED, Jeyabalan A, Hogge WA, and Conrad KP. A bioinformatics approach reveals evidence for impaired endometrial maturation before and during early pregnancy in women who developed preeclampsia. Hypertension 65:421-429, 2015.. Conrad KP, Stillman IE., and Lindheimer MD The Kidney in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia. In: Chesleys Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy: Fourth Edition. Robert N. Taylor, James M. Roberts, F. Gary Cunningham, and Marshall D. Lindheimer (eds.). 4th Edition; Elsevier Academic Press; Chapter 16 pps. 335-377; 2015.. Jelinic M., Leo C.H., Post Uiterweer E.D., Sandow S.L., Gooi J.H., Wlodek M.E., Conrad K.P., Parkington H., Tare M., and Parry L.J. Localization of relaxin receptors in arteries and ...
The actions of relaxin are highly species specific. The role of relaxin in human endometrial function has not been well understood because of the paucity of in vivo studies in women or in suitable primate models. A model of early human pregnancy was
A new member of the insulin gene superfamily (INSL5) was identified by searching EST databases for the presence of the conserved insulin B-chain cysteine motif. Human and murine INSL5 are both polypeptides of 135 amino acids, matching the classical signature of the insulin superfamily. Through the B …
If youve never heard of the nutrient relaxin before, keep reading to learn its role in the body and how some people use it to better their health. You have dozens of nutrients and hormones flowing through your body at any given time. Each has its part to play in keeping you healthy such as relaxin.
Bachem offers H-6784 Relaxin H2 (human) for your research. Find all specific details here. Find product specific information including available pack sizes, CAS, detailed description and references here.
We report the identification, the cDNA cloning, the temporal and spatial expression pattern analysis of the rln gene in the Zebrafish Danio rerio. The deduced Rln B and A domains show different evolutionary conservation. Rln B domain shows higher similarity when compared to zebrafish and human RLN3 B domain than human RLN1 and RLN2 B domain. Differently, the zebrafish Rln A domain shows relatively low amino acid sequence similarity when compared with the same sequences. The rln gene is transcribed both during embryogenesis and in adult organism, where higher transcript level has been particularly evidenced in the brain. Moreover, we provide the first description of rln spatial expression pattern during embryonic development. In particular, we show restricted transcript localization starting at the pharyngula stage in olfactory placode, branchial arch region, and in a cell cluster near to otic vesicle. In larval stage, new transcription territories have been detected in both neural and non-neural ...
BACKGROUND: Serelaxin, recombinant human relaxin-2, is a vasoactive peptide hormone with many biological and haemodynamic effects. In a pilot study, serelaxin was safe and well tolerated with positive clinical outcome signals in patients with acute heart failure. The RELAX-AHF trial tested the hypothesis that serelaxin-treated patients would have greater dyspnoea relief compared with patients treated with standard care and placebo. METHODS: RELAX-AHF was an international, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling patients admitted to hospital for acute heart failure who were randomly assigned (1:1) via a central randomisation scheme blocked by study centre to standard care plus 48-h intravenous infusions of placebo or serelaxin (30 μg/kg per day) within 16 h from presentation ...
kristian69. Many thanks for the encouragement, a gain would be inspirational!. I have a nice routine to get the maximum hours. I usually start around the 8.00am mark, until about 6.30pm, take a break to about 9.00pm, then get in the additional 2 to 3 hours. Of course this is helped by the fact that I work from home! However, it is not easy, but I am determined by my fascination to see if this will work!. It is interesting to note in your examples, that gains seem to come in spurts. Some medical studies, suggest there is a 6 week cycle to develop the integrity of new tissue and visibly notice results. I know a lot of guys in PE favour the micro-tears, stretching of ligaments, CC & CS expansion theories rather than new tissue growth, as the reason behind gains. Although, I believe all mechanisms are at work, I think there are good grounds for tissue growth actually occurring, particularly in endothelial and collagen rich areas. Endothelial cells are known to proliferate under certain conditions, ...
Genes and DNA transfer vectors for the expression of human preprorelaxin; sub-units thereof, including genes and transfer vectors for expression of human prorelaxin and the individual A, B and C pepti
4. More flexible in prenatal yoga? Thank relaxin. Responsible for loosening the joints and ligaments in the pelvis, relaxin can also affect other parts of the body so you might be clumsy or more prone to falls or even experience pain in the lower back and in the wrists. Balleck recommended consuming vitamin e-rich foods or taking a supplement to ease symptoms -- but be sure to speak with your doctor first because too much vitamin e has been linked to stillbirth ...
Despite the great effort of the medical community during the last decades, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death worldwide, increasing their prevalence every year mainly due to our new way of life. In the last years, the study of new hormones implicated in the regulation of energy metabolism and inflammation has raised a great interest among the scientific community regarding their implications in the development of cardiometabolic diseases. In this review, we will summarize the main actions of relaxin, a pleiotropic hormone that was previously suggested to improve acute heart failure and that participates in both metabolism and inflammation regulation at cardiovascular level, and will discuss its potential as future therapeutic target to prevent/reduce cardiovascular diseases ...
Pregnancy hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and others play important roles when youre trying to get pregnant. Learn more about pregnancy hormones here.
Relaxin is a protein hormone of about 6000 Da first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw Synthesis Structure In humans In other animals Receptors Disorders
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. relaxin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Exploring new CGRP family peptides and their receptors in vertebrates. AU - Takei, Yoshio. AU - Ogoshi, Maho. AU - Nobata, Shigenori. PY - 2013/11/29. Y1 - 2013/11/29. N2 - Vertebrates have expanded their habitats from aquatic to terrestrial environments, which has accompanied the evolution of cardiovascular and osmoregulatory hormones. Specifically, mammals have developed mechanisms to maintain high blood pressure and blood volume, while extant fishes have developed hypotensive and Na-extruding mechanisms to adapt to the marine environment where they underwent a vast diversification. The CGRP family is one of the hormone systems that decrease blood pressure and blood volume. Within the CGRP family of teleost fishes, we found that adrenomedullins (AMs) have diversified and five paralogs (AM1-5) form an independent subfamily. Based on this discovery in fishes, we found AM2 and AM5 in mammals. In mammalian species that have AM2 and/or AM5, the peptides assume greater importance in ...
Diabetic mice are characterized by a disrupted expression pattern of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), and impaired vasculogenesis during healing. Experimental evidence suggests that RLX (relaxin) can improve several parameters associated with wound healing. Therefore we investigated the effects of porcine-derived RLX in diabetes-related wound-healing defects in genetically diabetic mice. An incisional wound model was produced on the back of female diabetic C57BL/KsJ-m+/+ Lept db (db + /db + ) mice and their normal littermates (db +/+ m). Animals were treated daily with porcine RLX (25 μg/mouse per day, subcutaneously) or its vehicle. Mice were killed on 3, 6 and 12 days after skin injury for measurements of VEGF mRNA and protein synthesis, SDF-1α (stromal cell-derived factor-1α) mRNA and eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) expression. Furthermore, we evaluated wound-breaking strength, histological changes, angiogenesis and vasculogenesis at day 12. Diabetic animals showed a reduced ...
Novartis phase 3 trial of serelaxin in acute heart failure has missed its primary endpoint. The Swiss pharma saw the 6,600-patient trial as a way to bounce back from FDAs 2014 rejection, but instead the study cast further doubts over the efficacy and future of a drug previously tipped to rack up blockbuster sales.
The US Food and Drug Administration has granted breakthrough therapy designation to Novartis serelaxin as a treatment for patients with acute heart failure. - News - PharmaTimes
Are you seeing myriad physiological changes in your body when pregnant? Pregnancy hormones play a significant part in contributing to the turmoil. Read on
May play a role in neuropeptide signaling processes. Ligand for LGR7, relaxin-3 receptor-1 (GPCR135) and relaxin-3 receptor-2 (GPCR142).
rat RLN3 protein: member of the insulin/relaxin superfamily; the function of relaxin 3 neurons in the brain is influenced by the serotonergic activity; RefSeq NM_170667.2; NP_733767.1
Marked vasodilation in the kidney and other nonreproductive organs is one of the earliest maternal adaptations to occur during pregnancy. Despite the recognition of this extraordinary physiology for over four decades, the gestational hormone responsible has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate a ke …
RecName: Full=Relaxin-3;AltName: Full=Insulin-like peptide INSL7; Short=Insulin-like peptide 7;AltName: Full=Prorelaxin M3;Contains: RecName: Full=Relaxin-3 B chain;Contains: RecName: Full=Relaxin-3 A chain;Flags: Precursor ...
Membrane Target Systems are quality assured frozen membranes from cells that express recombinant or endogenous receptors. We submit every batch of receptor to stringent quality control testing that includes saturation radioligand binding assay to determine receptor concentration (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). Competition binding assays are performed determine affinity (Ki) against known reference agonists and antagonists. GTPgS data is also provided for some of our Gi coupled receptors.. Membranes are carefully prepared and ready for a variety of HTS applications, including radioligand binding (using either proximity methods, such as FlashPlate, or classical filtration methods). Products are packaged as frozen crude membrane preparations. One assay unit is defined as micrograms of protein, defined by competition binding assay (filtration). A complete product description and recommended protocol are included on the Certificate of Analysis.. Some of our receptors may be restricted for sale in specified ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relaxin activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPAR γ)through a pathway involving PPAR γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α). AU - Singh, Sudhir. AU - Simpson, Ronda L.. AU - Bennett, Robert G.. PY - 2015/1/9. Y1 - 2015/1/9. N2 - Relaxin activation of its receptor RXFP1 triggers multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we have shown that relaxin activates &gamma transcriptional activity in a ligand-independent manner, but the mechanism for this effect was unknown. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways of downstream of RXFP1 leading to γ activation. Using cells stably expressing RXFP1, we found that relaxin regulation of &gamma activity requires accumulation of cAMP and subsequent activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The activated PKA subsequently phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133 to activate it directly, as well as indirectly through mitogen activated protein kinase p38 MAPK. Activated CREB was required for ...
of your pelvis in the sacrum joints, which can cause low back and hip pain as well as pain down your legs.. The pain is caused by the hormone relaxin which aims to relax your pelvis for the birth of your baby ...
Relaxins are known endocrine and autocrine/paracrine hormones, belonging to the insulin gene superfamily. In humans there are three non-allelic relaxin genes, RLN1, RLN2 and RLN3, where RLN1 and RLN2 share high sequence homology. The protein encoded by this gene is synthesized as a single-chain polypeptide but the active form consists of an A chain and a B chain linked by disulfide bonds. Relaxin is produced by the ovary, and targets the mammalian reproductive system to ripen the cervix, elongate the pubic symphysis and inhibit uterine contraction. It may have additional roles in enhancing sperm motility, regulating blood pressure, controlling heart rate and releasing oxytocin and vasopressin. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013 ...
Many epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental findings point to sex differences in myofascial pain in view of the fact that adult women tend to have more myofascial problems with respect to men. It is possible that one of the stimuli to sensitization of fascial nociceptors could come from hormonal factors such as estrogen and relaxin, that are involved in extracellular matrix and collagen remodeling and thus contribute to functions of myofascial tissue. Immunohistochemical and molecular investigations (real-time PCR analysis) of relaxin receptor 1 (RXFP1) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) localization were carried out on samples of human fascia collected from 8 volunteers patients during orthopedic surgery (all females, between 42 and 70 yrs, divided into pre- and post-menopausal groups), and in fibroblasts isolated from deep fascia, to examine both protein and RNA expression levels. We can assume that the two sex hormone receptors analyzed are expressed in all the human fascial districts ...
Beiert, T., Knappe, V., Tiyerili, V., Stöckigt, F., Effelsberg, V., Linhart, M., Steinmetz, M., Klein, S., Schierwagen, R., Trebicka, J., Roell, W., Nickenig, G., Schrickel, J. W., Andrié, R. P., (2018). Chronic lower-dose relaxin administration protects from arrhythmia in experimental myocardial infarction due to anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties International Journal of Cardiology 250, 21-28 ...
Walter, T. Chad (2012). Bryocamptus incertus Borutsky, 1932. In: Walter, T.C. & Boxshall, G. (2017). World of Copepods database. Accessed at http://www.marinespecies.org/copepoda/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=349460 on 2017-12- ...
View Notes - From the Ovaries from PT 101 at Texas State. - Relaxin PP Pelvis and cervix Prepares the birth canal and cervix dilation - Inhibin P Anterior pituitary Inhibits release of FSH
EAST HANOVER, N.J., Nov. 6, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- The Phase III RELAX-AHF study has shown that investigational RLX030 (serelaxin) improved symptoms and reduced deaths by one-third at the end of six months in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Most of these deaths were due to cardiovascular causes. RLX030 is the first in a new class of medicines and is believed to act through multiple mechanisms on the heart, kidneys and blood vessels.. To view the multimedia assets associated with this release, please click: http://www.multivu.com/mnr/59014-novartis-phase-iii-relax-ahf-study-rlx030-serelaxin RELAX-AHF demonstrated that RLX030 significantly reduced dyspnea (i.e. shortness of breath), the most common symptom of AHF and the primary endpoint of the study. As one of two co-primary endpoints was met, the study achieved its primary objective based on pre-specified protocol criteria.. Results of the study were presented today at the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions in Los ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Corthera Inc. announced on Sunday that results from a detailed study on the new drug Relaxin shows promising efficacy in the treatment of acute heart failure. The research focused on 234 patients in eight countries. The data showed that when Relaxin was administered with standard-of-care therapy for acute heart failure (AHF) gave quick, substantial and…
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This hormone is only produced during pregnancy - first by the ovaries and later by the placenta. HCG hormone levels found in maternal plasma and urine increase dramatically during the first trimester and may contribute to causing nausea and vomiting often associated with pregnancy ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HGC) can be used as part of a weight loss program but making the necessary lifestyle changes is more important.
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Some days my eating schedule is seriously off-kilter and for whatever reason, be it an unexpected nap, the need to take Olive out for a walk, or just a lack of food in the apartment, I find myself in the midst of a too-long gap where I havent eaten a thing for a few hours. This may seem innocuous to some, but understand that Keats is sucking me dry, despite not even being born yet. The longest I feel full, even after a large meal, is approximately ten to twenty minutes, thirty if I ate phở (all that broth helps).. It was on one such day, at the end of January when our funds had been depleted to literally a few dollars each and then gloriously replenished with Pay Day, that I had gone about an hour and a half without eating. This was no cause for alarm but I knew that in about half an hour I would start to feel Keats barreling around inside me, signaling that food was again necessary. Birch came home from work at about 4:30 in the afternoon and as usual prepared to take Olive out for ...
Women with multiple sclerosis often find that they have fewer problems when they are expecting. That led researchers to develop ...
My inner labia have been irritated, slightly red (more pink than red), and burning for a day or two now. I havent had sex. Havent changed soaps....
MS and RA patient advocate, Lisa Emrich, shares news and information about living with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis while working as a musician in Washington, DC.
Hormones in pregnancy - Initially pregnancy hormones are produced by the ovaries, and then in larger amounts by the placenta. - Oestrogen promotes growth -
Pregnancy can be a very exciting time for mums-to-be however it can also be a time when your pregnancy hormones play havoc with your skin.
Pregnancy hormones are great for growing babies, but not great for your bladder. Find out why this is and what to expect when your reach 11 weeks of pregnancy. - BabyCentre UK
I hear this nearly every day. Mothers-to-be are speaking up in their support groups hoping its not just them: Is anyone else losing their shit on their partner every other minute? Is it normal? No. But is it common? Oh yes. Is it just the pregnancy hormones? Sort of. But…
Your bump is getting bigger, and youre getting heavier. At the moment, however, your babys increasing weight is only a small part of that - your growing uterus, the placenta, your fat reserves and the amniotic fluid are the main causes for the extra weight.. Youre probably wondering how youll cope with the weight youll put on over the next few months until you give birth. Dont worry: the pregnancy hormones are making your joints softer and your tendons more flexible, so your body will be able to handle the weight you gain.. Ravenous appetite You may suddenly feel ravenously hungry due to the hormones affecting your body, including at night. This is your bodys way of getting the nutrients it urgently needs to support your baby as they grow. Eat when you want to, but remember that smaller quantities are better and try to avoid unhealthy food. Needing to pee Youll definitely have noticed that you need to go to the toilet more often. Always go when you need to, as it helps rid your bladder ...
Pregnancy changes everything for women, and studies show new dads too. Babble looks at men and pregnancy and shows the pregnancy hormones and other dad to be facts you may not have known about.
In pregnancy, dyspepsia is caused by pregnancy hormones, as well as the extra pressure on the oesophagus (gullet) from your growing uterus. Find out more.
I lost two jobs in 4 months. First time in my life. And really, it wasnt THAT big of a deal. The first one crushed me. The second one I feel, now looking back, I only cried because of pregnancy hormones. When I left that last day from my job, I called my mom and in the back ground my dad said, Dont worry, Gods got something better out there for ya! To which Im pretty sure I hung up and rolled my eyes. But he was right. God did have something better.. Im a big prayer. BIG. A constant prayer of mine is that what ever I do in life, I live my life in accordance with the Lords will. I dont pray this alone either. My husband and I pray this together. Its something that over the last five years or so we have leaned on tremendously. Its what we know has led us to today.. When I lost my opportunity for employment, I began to pray for a new job or some kind of employment or work. With NO idea what that would LOOK like for someone in my pregnant condition and low expectations, I held on to the ...
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The RLX™ (Room Layout eXpress™) is an automated acoustic treatment mobile app that is specifically designed to give instantaneous recommendations for various room types.
Relaxin hormone[edit]. Relaxin is a hormone produced mainly by the corpus luteum of the ovary and breast, in both pregnant and ... European Research has determined that relaxin levels are not a predictor of PGP during pregnancy.[14][15][16][17] ... The body produces relaxin during menstruation that rises to a peak within approximately 14 days of ovulation and then declines ... During pregnancy relaxin has a diverse range of effects, including the production and remodelling of collagen thus increasing ...
It was released on April 14, 2004 by Relax-In and Megastar Records. This was the follow-up project to 2003's Ya Salam. In 2003 ... Relax-In/Megastar. 7243 576650 2 5. "Nancy Nabil Ajram". Welcome Qatar. "شكوى من فوضى تنظيمية ضاربة في حفل جوائز الموسيقى ...
Relax-in/Megastar. 2003.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) Ah W Noss (inlay cover). Nancy Ajram. Relax-in/ ...
It was released on February 24, 2003 by Relax-In and Megastar. Ajram worked with all new collaborations, including Tarek ... Relax-In/Megastar. 07243 581682 2 8. "Lebanese pop singer Nancy Ajram displays her troph". Getty Images. "جائزة "أصغر فنانة"". ...
"G-Side (2) - Relaxin'". Discogs. Retrieved 2019-06-05. Galil, Leor. "Milwaukee Rapper Juiceboxxx Takes His Brand to the Thunder ... Juiceboxxx founded the Thunder Zone Entertainment label in 2011, releasing a seven-inch vinyl single, Relaxin', by G-Side with ...
... and the Relaxin hormone. Previously known as the Howard Florey Institute of Experimental Physiology and Medicine, in 1997 the ...
"The role of the hormone Relaxin on human reproduction" which is the title of his MD thesis (University of Glasgow, awarded 1985 ... Progress in Relaxin Research. Singapore: Global Publications. ISBN 978-9-813049-02-4. MacLennan AH; Sturdee DW (2008). The ...
Relaxin. *Agonists: Insulin-like factor 3. *Relaxin (1, 2, 3). *Serelaxin. Somatostatin. *See here instead. ...
Relaxin family. Insulin and Insulin-like growth factor. *IGF1. *IGF2. Relaxin family peptide hormones. *INSL3 ...
Relaxin. *Agonists: Insulin-like factor 3. *Relaxin (1, 2, 3). *Serelaxin. Somatostatin. *See here instead. ...
Relaxin. *Agonists: Insulin-like factor 3. *Relaxin (1, 2, 3). *Serelaxin. Somatostatin. *See here instead. ...
Relaxin. *Agonists: Insulin-like factor 3. *Relaxin (1, 2, 3). *Serelaxin. Somatostatin. *See here instead. ...
"POTION 2: Relaxin' with Final Fantasy: Review by Scherzo". Square Enix Music Online. Archived from the original on 2012-02-08. ... "Potion: Relaxin' with Final Fantasy". RPGFan. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2008-04-22. Greening, Chris ... "Potion 2: Relaxin' with Final Fantasy". RPGFan. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2008-04-22. Philip. " ...
Ridley, Ian (31 May 1989). "Mackay's relaxant". The Guardian. p. 18. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021. Retrieved ...
Relaxin family. Insulin and Insulin-like growth factor. *IGF1. *IGF2. Relaxin family peptide hormones. *INSL3 ...
muscle relaxant Vinblastine, vincristine antitumor Vincamine vasodilating, antihypertensive Yohimbine stimulant, aphrodisiac ...
Relaxin binding to endothelial B receptor on endothelial cells also induces vasodilation. Relaxin causes vasodilation by an ... Relaxin also functions as a cardiac stimulant. Studies have demonstrated that relaxin increases calcium sensitivity of cardiac ... Thus relaxin and serelaxin can increase stroke volume, the amount of blood pumped per heart beat, without increasing the energy ... Relaxin can also bind to a secondary receptor, endothelial B receptor,[clarification needed] which is upregulated as a result ...
The FDA informed owners of Relax-A-Cizors that second-hand sale of Relax-A-Cizors was illegal, and recommended that they should ... The Relax-A-Cizor was one brand of device manufactured by the U.S. company Relaxacizor, Inc. From the 1950s, the company ... Relax-A-Cizors had from 1 to 6 channels. Two pads (or electrodes) were connected by wires to each channel. The user applied ... The case went to court, and the United States District Court for the Central District of California held that the Relax-A-Cizor ...
Succinylcholine is a widely used muscle relaxant drug which acts by activating, instead of blocking, the ACh receptor. The ... Thompson MA (1980). "Muscle relaxant drugs". Br J Hosp Med. 23 (2): 153-4, 163-4, 167-8 passim. PMID 6102875. Page 151 in: Rang ...
The Princess relaxes. The next morning, the Prince, in the company of his usual morning companions, Don Ciccio (the parish ...
Al-Mabhouh was injected in his leg with succinylcholine, a quick-acting, depolarizing paralytic muscle relaxant.[54] It causes ...
Tomboc M, Lee PA, Mitwally MF, Schneck FX, Bellinger M, Witchel SF (November 2000). "Insulin-like 3/relaxin-like factor gene ... Büllesbach EE, Rhodes R, Rembiesa B, Schwabe C (April 1999). "The relaxin-like factor is a hormone". Endocrine. 10 (2): 167-9. ... Hombach-Klonisch S, Buchmann J, Sarun S, Fischer B, Klonisch T (December 2000). "Relaxin-like factor (RLF) is differentially ... "A common polymorphism in the human relaxin-like factor (RLF) gene: no relationship with cryptorchidism". Pediatric Research. 47 ...
Specifically, the hormone relaxin has been indicated. A genetic factor is indicated since the trait runs in families and there ... Forst J, Forst C, Forst R, Heller KD (1997). "Pathogenetic relevance of the pregnancy hormone relaxin to inborn hip instability ...
Adam Russell (October 2, 1997). "Administration relaxes Pit rules". The Daily Athenaeum. Thomas Heath (November 27, 2011). "A ...
... uronium, a muscle relaxant. vec, a sentient moravec robot from the Orion's Arm Universe Project (see also Moravec_(robot)) ...
Pes, Javier (April 2010). "Indianapolis Relaxes Climate Controls". The Art Newspaper. Pes, Javier (June 2, 2010). "Climate ...
"Burma Relaxes Banking Regulations". The Irrawaddy. 14 June 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2012. "Commission Regulation (EU) No 411/ ...
It relaxes me extraordinarily." Holbură made her international debut at the 2014 International Gymnix in Montreal where she ...
Relaxin' at Camarillo (1979). *Mirror Mirror (1980). *Joe Henderson: Big Band (1997) ...
relaxant. Gs alpha subunit. stimulates AC & PKA; raises cAMP Thromboxane A2 receptor. TP. TXA=PGH2,,PGD2=PGE2=PGF2α=PGI2[14]. ... relaxant. Gs alpha subunit. activates AC, increases cAMP, raises Ca2+ Prostaglandin DP2 receptor. DP2. PGD2,,PGF2α=PGE2,PGI2= ... relaxant. Gs alpha subunit. stimulates AC, raises cAMP, stimulates beta catenin and Glycogen synthase kinase 3 ... relaxant. Gs alpha subunit. stimulates AC, PKA, PI3K, AKT, ERK, p38 Mpk, & CREB; raises cAMP ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=relaxin&oldid=46377442" ...
"muscle relaxant." mediLexicon. (c) 2007. Retrieved on September 19, 2007. *^ "Muscle relaxants." WebMD. Last Updated: February ... A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone. It may be used to alleviate ... "Skeletal Muscle Relaxant (Oral Route, Parenteral Route)." Mayo Clinic. Last Updated: April 1, 2007. Retrieved on September 19, ... See S, Ginzburg R (2008). "Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant". Am Fam Physician. 78 (3): 365-370. ISSN 0002-838X. PMID ...
Relaxin family peptide hormones Insulin/IGF/Relaxin family Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 Bani D (January 1997 ... Relaxin 1 and relaxin 2 arose from the duplication of a proto-RLN gene between 44.2 and 29.6 million years ago in the last ... Relaxin increases the rate and force of cardiac contraction in rat models. Via upregulation of VEGF, relaxin plays a key role ... Relaxin is a protein hormone of about 6000 Da first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw. The relaxin-like peptide family ...
Relaxin family peptide hormones Insulin/IGF/Relaxin family Relaxin Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 Bathgate, ... Relaxin-3 is a member and ancestral gene of the relaxin family of peptides, which includes the namesake hormone relaxin ( ... The cognate receptor for relaxin-3 is the G-protein coupled receptor RXFP3 (relaxin family peptide 3 receptor), however relaxin ... "Human relaxin gene 3 (H3) and the equivalent mouse relaxin (M3) gene. Novel members of the relaxin peptide family". The Journal ...
R)-methocarbamol (CHEBI:77501) has role muscle relaxant (CHEBI:51371). (S)-glaucine (CHEBI:5373) has role muscle relaxant ( ... azumolene (CHEBI:143225) has role muscle relaxant (CHEBI:51371). baclofen (CHEBI:2972) has role muscle relaxant (CHEBI:51371). ... pridinol (CHEBI:75247) has role muscle relaxant (CHEBI:51371). quinine (CHEBI:15854) has role muscle relaxant (CHEBI:51371). ... alcuronium (CHEBI:55313) has role muscle relaxant (CHEBI:51371). alprazolam (CHEBI:2611) has role muscle relaxant (CHEBI:51371) ...
Occurred on May 26, 2020 / Heron, Montana, USA Info from Licensor: Luna the Doberman Pinscher living her best life enjoying views in a hammock.
Indias federal cabinet has approved foreign-direct investment of up to 26% in local editions of foreign magazines that offer news and current-affairs content, the government said.
Astrocytes that were treated with relaxin-2 and relaxin-3 showed a marked decrease in ROS production when compared to control ... Mitochondrial membrane potential was higher in astrocytes that were treated with relaxin-2 and relaxin-3 compared to untreated ... Cultured astrocytes were pre-treated with either relaxin-2 or relaxin-3 and exposed to OGD for 24 or 48 hours. Following OGD ... Next, to test whether relaxin reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) astrocytes were exposed to the same ...
Relaxin - A hormone produced during pregnancy which relaxes the pelvic ligaments and other joints in the body, is clearly ... Medical Word - Relaxin. Ans : A hormone produced during pregnancy which relaxes the pelvic ligaments and other joints in the ... Relaxin - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on May ...
The first international forum on relaxin was a workshop held in Hawaii in 1980. This was followed by the Kroc Foundation ... Identification of relaxin and relaxin responsive cells in the rat brain Tanya C. D. Burazin, Pamela J. Davern, Michael J. ... Relaxin 2000. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Relaxin & Related Peptides 22-27 October 2000, Broome, ... We were therefore delighted to welcome many colleagues, old and new, at Relaxin 2000, the first international forum on relaxin ...
Learn about Witness Relaxin (Canada) for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and ... Relaxin is first detectable by WITNESS® RELAXIN during the fourth week of pregnancy (from D22 to D28 after ovulation), reaches ... Witness Relaxin (Canada). This page contains information on Witness Relaxin for veterinary use.. The information provided ... Colloidal gold particles sensitized with an anti-Relaxin antibody bind to Relaxin molecules present in the sample. ...
Canadian singer Alanis Morissette is relaxing in the jungles of Brazil together with the dolphins and wild monkeys, according to the Associated Press.
After being battered by Charley and beaten by Frances, Central Florida looks as if it might escape the brunt of Hurricane Ivan. With forecasts suggesting the storm will target the Panhandle, officials and residents here cautiously exhaled Sunday and contemplated a week without falling branches, power outages and canceled classes.
Taiwan relaxed its restrictions on direct trading with China and also lifted an import ban on some 2,000 Chinese farm and industrial products.
Pakistan removed restrictions on the import of 12 goods from India as part of measures to normalise trade between the nuclear-armed rivals.
1. muscle relaxant, relaxant. usage: a drug that reduces muscle contractility by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses or ...
... see Relaxin with the Miles Davis Quintet. Relaxin 1 Identifiers Symbol RLN1 Entrez 6013 HUGO 10026 OMIM 179730 Other data ... In the male, relaxin is produced in the testes. Structure. Structurally, relaxin is a heterodimer of two peptide chains of 24 ... For the Miles Davis album, see Relaxin with the Miles Davis Quintet. Relaxin 1 ... Relaxin interacts with the relaxin receptor LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8 (RXFP2) which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor ...
... discusses his clinical observations of fibromyalgia in female patients and his subsequent discovery that the hormone relaxin is ... There are relaxin receptor sites within the cardiac muscles that relaxes the cardiac muscles. The deficit of relaxin might be ... Relaxin in the Reproductive Cycle Relaxin is well known as an agent for remodeling of the reproductive tract, collagen ... Role of Relaxin Relaxin [the key ingredient in Vitalaxin] has a diverse range of effects, including the production and ...
Hewitt Relaxin is available online with fast delivery from VioVet, the trusted supplier of veterinary medication, foods and ... Relaxin® is a blend of nutrients that help to reduce anxiety and promote calmness, relaxation and concentration. Relaxin® is ... Relaxin® should be fed long term to supplement a balanced diet:. If the horse is already receiving a balanced diet, feed ... In situations such as these Relaxin® is particularly useful in keeping the horse as calm and stress-free as possible. ...
Relaxin adjusts blood supply during pregnancy. It also relaxes pelvic ligaments.[2] It softens the pubic symphysis (the ... In animals, relaxin widens the pubic bone and facilitates labor. It also softens the cervix (cervical ripening), and relaxes ... Thus, for a long time, relaxin was looked at as a pregnancy hormone. However, its significance may reach much further. Relaxin ... Bani D (1997). "Relaxin: a pleiotropic hormone.". General pharmacology 28 (1): 13-22. doi:10.1016/s0306-3623(96)00171-1. PMID ...
muscle relaxant insecticide. muscle relaxant peptides exist, use them to slackercize insect bodies into not eating or ... Botox-like muscle relaxant peptides [link] (they have them in bulk at alibaba.com) could be insecticides, possibly relaxing the ... It might also be possible to block reproduction with muscle relaxant peptides. As peptides these short amino acid sequences ... A nifty possibility is that insect muscle relaxant peptides might be completely different from mammal/human peptides making ...
This volume contains a description of recent advances and future research and clinical possibilities in the field of relaxin ... In these species relaxin also promotes growth and development of the mammary apparatus. Recently, biological effects of relaxin ... In 2002, a second form of relaxin, which is found primarily in the brain, was discovered. Relaxin-like factor (also called ... The recent identification of the receptors for both relaxin and relaxin-like factor has enabled more rigorous studies of the ...
China relaxes curbs on foreign financial stakes China has announced plans to ease limits on foreign ownership of financial ...
South Korea has relaxed a demand for the resumption of aid-for-disarmament talks with the rival North, saying on Friday that an apology for last year
FCC Ignores Public, Relaxes Media Ownership 244 Posted by kdawson on Tuesday December 18, 2007 @05:36PM. from the big-is-not- ...
Rabbit polyclonal Relaxin 1 antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Mouse, Rat. Cited in 1 publication(s). Immunogen ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Relaxin 1 antibody (ab70803) WB Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) IHC-P, WB, ELISA, ... Relaxin is an ovarian hormone that acts with estrogen to produce dilatation of the birth canal in many mammals. May be involved ... Cardoso LC et al. Locally produced relaxin may affect testis and vas deferens function in rats. Reproduction 139:185-96 (2010 ...
... , Methocarbamol, Robaxin, Chlorzoxazone, Parafon Forte, Metaxalone, Skelaxin, Orphenadrine, Norflex, ... Skeletal Muscle Relaxant. Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Aka: Skeletal Muscle Relaxant, Methocarbamol, Robaxin, Chlorzoxazone, ... skeletal muscle relaxant, skeletal muscle relaxants, Skeletal muscle relaxant, Skeletal muscle relaxant (product), Skeletal ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Skeletal Muscle Relaxant." Click on the image (or right ...
BEA caused a significant decrease in creatinine clearance, which was partially prevented by relaxin. In the relaxin-treated BEA ... In rodent models of pulmonary and dermal fibrosis, relaxin reduced interstitial fibrosis. To study relaxins effect in renal ... Relaxin decreases renal interstitial fibrosis and slows progression of renal disease.. Garber SL1, Mirochnik Y, Brecklin CS, ... Relaxin may have a useful application in decreasing interstitial fibrosis and thereby slowing the progression of renal disease. ...
Claims 18 to 24 were directed to H2-relaxin in various forms or to polypeptides having relaxin activity. ... based on the protein sequences of rat or porcine relaxin since the sequence of human relaxin was not known. Thus, there existed ... T 0272/95 (Relaxin/HOWARD FLOREY INSTITUTE) of 23.10.2002. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2002:T027295.20021023. ... for making a fusion protein comprising relaxin, and for synthesizing H2-relaxin, respectively. ...
  • Relaxin-3 is a member and ancestral gene of the relaxin family of peptides, which includes the namesake hormone relaxin (designated 'H2 relaxin' in humans) which mediates peripheral actions during pregnancy and which was found to relax the pelvic ligament in guinea pigs almost a century ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, relaxin and other relaxin family peptides are now associated with numerous non-reproductive physiologies and disease states. (nih.gov)
  • Combined with the discovery of the relaxin family peptide receptors, interest in the role of the relaxin family peptides in the central nervous system has been reignited. (nih.gov)
  • This review explores the relaxin family peptides that are expressed in or act upon the brain, the receptors that mediate their actions, and what is currently known of their functions. (nih.gov)
  • Botox-like muscle relaxant peptides [link] (they have them in bulk at alibaba.com) could be insecticides, possibly relaxing the muscles at insect mouthparts or causing GI tract smooth muscle not to move, killing, starving, or removing motional transport (slackening limbs) at the insect. (halfbakery.com)
  • It might also be possible to block reproduction with muscle relaxant peptides. (halfbakery.com)
  • Also, possible application to silviculture and arborculture as well as agriculture with trees producing muscle relaxant peptides at bark and sap. (halfbakery.com)
  • A nifty possibility is that insect muscle relaxant peptides might be completely different from mammal/human peptides making this even safer. (halfbakery.com)
  • This volume contains a description of recent advances and future research and clinical possibilities in the field of relaxin and related peptides. (wiley.com)
  • Part I: Relaxin and Related Peptides: Structure and Function. (wiley.com)
  • 1. Structure and Activity in the Relaxin Family of Peptides (Geoffrey Tregear et al. (wiley.com)
  • 2. The Chemical Synthesis of Relaxin and Related Peptides: A Historical Perspective (John D. Wade et al. (wiley.com)
  • 3. De Novo Design and Synthesis of Cyclic and Linear Peptides to Mimic the Binding Cassette of Human Relaxin (Mohammed Akhter Hossain et al. (wiley.com)
  • 7. Degradation of Relaxin Family Peptides by Insulin-Degrading Enzyme (Robert Bennett et al. (wiley.com)
  • We offer Relaxin R2/LGR8 Peptides and Relaxin R2/LGR8 Proteins for use in common research applications. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Relaxin R2/LGR8 Peptides and Relaxin R2/LGR8 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Relaxin-like peptides (RLN/INSL) play diverse roles in reproductive and neuroendocrine processes in placental mammals and are functionally associated with two distinct types of receptors (RXFP) for each respective function. (hindawi.com)
  • Synthesis of fluorescent analogs of relaxin family peptides and their preliminary in vitro and in vivo characterization," Frontiers in Chemistry , vol. 1, article 30, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • The cognate receptor for relaxin-3 is the G-protein coupled receptor RXFP3 (relaxin family peptide 3 receptor), however relaxin-3 is pharmacologically able to also cross react with RXFP1 and RXFP3 (although the physiological relevance of such interactions, if they exist endogenously, are currently unknown). (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin interacts with the relaxin receptor LGR7 ( RXFP1 ) and LGR8 ( RXFP2 ) which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily . (bionity.com)
  • Ligand for LGR7, relaxin-3 receptor-1 and relaxin-3 receptor-2 (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • There is a relaxin receptor binding motif (shown in red and green). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 6. Probing the Functional Domains of Relaxin-3 and the Creation of a Selective Antagonist for RXFP3/GPCR135 over Relaxin Receptor RXFP1/LGR7 (Changlu Liu et al. (wiley.com)
  • 9. Structural Basis of Allosteric Ligand-Receptor Interactions in the Insulin/Relaxin Peptide Family: Implications for other receptor Tyrosine Kinases and G Protein-Coupled Receptors (Pierre De Meyts et al. (wiley.com)
  • Relaxin also significantly inhibits endometrial levels of estrogen receptor alpha and significantly inhibits levels of progesterone isoforms B and A. The findings that relaxin stimulates new blood vessel formation while maintaining endometrial connective tissue integrity are consistent with a significant role of relaxin in the establishment and/or maintenance of early pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Oxytocin and estrogen receptor expression in the myometrium of pregnant relaxin-deficient (Rlx-/-) m. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effects of the sucking stimulus on relaxin receptor (LGR7) expression in the mammary apparatus of th. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Immunolocalization indicates that relaxin-receptor complexes may have important roles in boar reproduction and that spermatozoa are already exposed to relaxin upon their production. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 3 , also known as RXFP3 , is a human G-protein coupled receptor . (wikidoc.org)
  • Improved chemical synthesis and demonstration of the relaxin receptor binding affinity and biological activity of mouse relaxin," Biochemistry , vol. 46, no. 18, pp. 5374-5381, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Site-specific conjugation of a lanthanide chelator and its effects on the chemical synthesis and receptor binding affinity of human relaxin-2 hormone," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 420, no. 2, pp. 253-256, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Relaxin Receptor 2 is a member of the Relaxin Receptor subfamily. (genetex.com)
  • Relaxin Receptor 2 has been shown to be important for testis descent. (genetex.com)
  • The activity of this relaxin receptor is mediated by G proteins leading to stimulation of adenylate cyclase and an increase of cAMP and may also be a receptor for Leydig insulin-like peptide. (genetex.com)
  • Relaxin receptors have been found in the heart , smooth muscle, the connective tissue , and central and autonomous nervous system . (bionity.com)
  • The recent identification of the receptors for both relaxin and relaxin-like factor has enabled more rigorous studies of the target tissues and mechanisms of action of these hormones. (wiley.com)
  • Part II: Relaxin Family Receptors. (wiley.com)
  • 10. Dimerization and Negative Cooperativity in the Relaxin Family Peptide (RXFP) Receptors (Angel Svendsen et al. (wiley.com)
  • Relaxin-2 confers its activity by binding to leucine-rich guanine nucleotide-binding (G-protein) coupled receptors, LGR7 and LGR8. (rndsystems.com)
  • Here, we assessed the longitudinal distribution of relaxin and its receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 in the reproductive tract, sex accessory glands, and spermatozoa of adult boars. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The entire sperm length was immunopositive to both relaxin and receptors, with relaxin signal being robust in the acrosome area and RXFP2, homogeneously distributed than RXFP1 on the head of ejaculated spermatozoa. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Pilot clinical data suggest that recombinant human relaxin may be effective in treating patients with decompensated CHF. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants receive recombinant human relaxin (rhRlx) via continuous IV infusion for 48 hours at a rate of 100 µg/kg/day (corresponding to a dose of 4.2 µg/kg/hr). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Recombinant human relaxin (rhRlx) diluted for continuous IV infusion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Human relaxin gene 3 (H3) and the equivalent mouse relaxin (M3) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, the ancestral relaxin gene RLN3 was identified from genome databases. (nih.gov)
  • I. European patent No. 0 112 149 with the title 'Molecular cloning and characterization of a further gene sequence coding for human relaxin' was maintained by the opposition division on the basis of the granted claims. (epo.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the relaxin family. (abcam.com)
  • Relaxin 1 and Relaxin 2 arose from the duplication of a proto-RLN gene between 44.2 and 29.6 million years ago in the last common ancestor of catarrhine primates. (wikidoc.org)
  • Although insulin and H2 relaxin are similar, there is no report that the insulin gene possess an intron. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • It is assumed that the members of the relaxin-gene family are predominantly functional mutations of an original relaxin gene (RLN3) located on chromosome 19 at 19p13.3 and translocated at some stage predominantly to chromosome 9. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The gene that encodes the human Relaxin 1 protein maps to chromosome 9. (scbt.com)
  • Relaxin R1/LGR7 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Relaxin R1/LGR7 in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. (fishersci.com)
  • In the human there are three non allelic relaxin genes, RLN1, RLN2 and RLN3. (abcam.com)
  • Colloidal gold particles sensitized with an anti-Relaxin antibody bind to Relaxin molecules present in the sample. (drugs.com)
  • The role of relaxin in human endometrial function has not been well understood because of the paucity of in vivo studies in women or in suitable primate models. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Relaxin levels rise to a peak within approximately 14 days of ovulation, and then decline in the absence of pregnancy, resulting in menstruation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the first trimester of pregnancy, levels rise and additional relaxin is produced by the decidua. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin mediates the hemodynamic changes that occur during pregnancy, such as increased cardiac output, increased renal blood flow, and increased arterial compliance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Via upregulation of VEGF, relaxin plays a key role in blood vessel formation (angiogenesis) during pregnancy, tumour development or ischaemic wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Thus, for a long time, relaxin was looked at as a pregnancy hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In horses (Equus caballus), relaxin is also an important hormone involved in pregnancy, however, before pregnancy occurs, relaxin is expressed by ovarian structures during the oestrous cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • During early pregnancy, the preimplantation conceptus will express relaxin, which will promote angiogenesis in the endometrium by up-regulating VEGF. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hormone produced during pregnancy which relaxes the pelvic ligaments and other joints in the body. (medindia.net)
  • Is relaxin the "elusive" vasodilator of pregnancy? (springer.com)
  • WITNESS ® RELAXIN is intended to determine pregnancy in the bitch and queen, as well as to distinguish between pseudopregnancy and real gestation in the bitch. (drugs.com)
  • Relaxin is first detectable by WITNESS ® RELAXIN during the fourth week of pregnancy (from D22 to D28 after ovulation), reaches its highest level in the 6th-8th weeks, and then declines prior to parturition. (drugs.com)
  • It was through this search that I came to a little known pregnancy hormone called relaxin which is produced ten times higher during pregnancy in most mammals. (prohealth.com)
  • Relaxin [the key ingredient in Vitalaxin] has a diverse range of effects, including the production and remodeling of collagen, increase in elasticity and relaxation of muscles, tendons and ligaments during pregnancy, particularly in the pelvis. (prohealth.com)
  • Since its discovery in the 1920s, relaxin has enjoyed a reputation as a peptide hormone of pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • During the first three months of pregnancy, levels rise and more relaxin is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin adjusts blood supply during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin is a protein hormone, produced and secreted during pregnancy in mammalian species, having superficial structural features resembling those of insulin. (wiley.com)
  • Our results indicate that relaxin mediates the renal vasodilatory responses to pregnancy and thus may be important for maternal and fetal health. (nih.gov)
  • They also raise the likelihood of a role for relaxin in other cardiovascular changes of pregnancy, and they suggest that, like estrogen, relaxin should be considered a regulator of cardiovascular function. (nih.gov)
  • Relaxin 1 (also referred to as Relaxin or RLXH1) is a peptide hormone produced by the corpora lutea of the ovary during pregnancy in many mammalian species, including human. (scbt.com)
  • Relaxin 2, a related protein, is selectively expressed in the ovary during pregnancy. (scbt.com)
  • The Witness Relaxin test kit is intended to determine pregnancy in canine and feline patients, as well as to distinguish between pseudo pregnancy and gestation. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • Feline: Pregnancy Detection in the Cat: Serum/plasma relaxin concentrations increase from days 20 to 31 after mating and remain elevated throughout pregnancy and for the first few days after queening. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • In 2002, a second form of relaxin, which is found primarily in the brain, was discovered. (wiley.com)
  • Relaxin is a protein hormone of about 6000 Da first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw. (wikipedia.org)
  • Claims 15 to 17 related to processes for making a DNA transfer vector comprising relaxin DNA, for making a fusion protein comprising relaxin, and for synthesizing H2-relaxin, respectively. (epo.org)
  • Each Relaxin R2/LGR8 Peptide and Relaxin R2/LGR8 Protein is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • In addition, relaxin negatively regulates expression of endometrial matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), causing decreased endometrial levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 proteins and increased protein levels of their endogenous inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Relaxin 1 Antikörper (90) und Relaxin 1 Proteine (5) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cite this: Long-term Muscle Relaxant Use Nearly Triples in the US - Medscape - Jun 30, 2020. (medscape.com)
  • 8. The Relationship between Relaxin Family Genes in Humans and Teleosts Revealed Through Bioinformatic Analyses and the Expression of Three RLN Genes in Teleosts Verified (Sergey Yegorov et al. (wiley.com)
  • This antifibrotic effect of relaxin did not appear to be mediated by systemic hemodynamic changes since the mean arterial pressure was not significantly different among the groups. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of relaxin on experimentally-induced myocardial infarction. (springer.com)
  • Recently, biological effects of relaxin in the heart, kidney, liver, and brain have been identified, and these discoveries have triggered additional interest in possible clinical applications for relaxin. (wiley.com)
  • The negative effects of relaxin on MMP expression in the endometrium are in distinct contrast to the positive regulation of MMPs previously shown in fibroblasts from other tissues including the cervix. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The actions of relaxin are highly species specific. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The findings suggest autocrine and/or paracrine actions of relaxin on spermatozoa, either before or after ejaculation, which have possible roles on the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The function of relaxin in humans is not clear, although it has several functions in animals. (bionity.com)
  • citation needed] In males, relaxin enhances motility of sperm in semen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In males, relaxin also has a function: it enhances motility of sperm in semen . (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] It also relaxes other pelvic ligaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • it also softens the cervix (cervical ripening), and relaxes the uterine musculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals relaxin widens the pubic bone and facilitates labor, it also softens the cervix (cervical ripening), and relaxes the uterine musculature. (bionity.com)
  • Relaxin is produced by the ovary, and targets the mammalian reproductive system to ripen the cervix, elongate the pubic symphysis and inhibit uterine contraction. (abcam.com)
  • In pigs, rats, and mice, relaxin promotes growth and softening of the cervix, enabling rapid and safe delivery of the fetuses. (wiley.com)
  • Relaxin is best known as a hormone of parturition that promotes growth and softening of the cervix, development of the mammary gland, and has a marked impact on the uterus. (rndsystems.com)
  • WITNESS ® RELAXIN is a simple test based on Rapid Immuno Migration (RIM™) technology that uses the combination of two anti-Relaxin antibodies to quickly identify this hormone in biological samples (serum or plasma) from the bitch and queen. (drugs.com)
  • Using a gravid rodent model, we employ two approaches to eliminate relaxin or its biological activity from the circulation: ovariectomy and administration of neutralizing antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Solid phase synthesis and structural analysis of novel A-chain dicarba analogs of human relaxin-3 (INSL7) that exhibit full biological activity," Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry , vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1547-1553, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • This page contains information on Witness Relaxin for veterinary use . (drugs.com)
  • The WITNESS ® RELAXIN test provides an early, inexpensive and reliable way to determine success or failure of a planned mating or unwanted exposure. (drugs.com)
  • Witness Relaxin Test Kit 5ct. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • Canine: The WITNESS Relaxin tests offers an early, inexpensive and reliable means of determining the success or failure of a planned mating or unwanted exposure. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • However, besides steroids, the ovary also produces the peptide hormone relaxin (RLX), which provides potent vasoactive effects which render it the most likely candidate as the elusive physiological shield against CVD in fertile women. (dovepress.com)
  • All samples were subjected to immunofluorescence and/or western immunoblotting for relaxin, RXFP1, and RXFP2 detection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa were immunopositive to relaxin, RXFP1, and RXFP2, and epididymal corpus-derived spermatozoa had the highest immunoreactivities across epididymal sections. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Relaxin exerts dramatic uterine effects in this model, including a pronounced increase in uterine weight and stimulation of endometrial angiogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • By inhibiting uterine contractions, Relaxin 1 may influence the timing of parturition. (scbt.com)
  • Relaxin-3 is a neuropeptide that was discovered in 2001, and which is highly conserved in species ranging from flies, fish, rodents and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relaxin-3 peptide is highly expressed in a small region of the brain and in species from teleost to primates and has both conserved sequence and sites of expression. (nih.gov)
  • Generally 30-60% sequence homology is observed between relaxin 2 among species. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In these species relaxin also promotes growth and development of the mammary apparatus. (wiley.com)
  • In the cardiovascular system, relaxin works mainly by activating the nitric oxide pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin has been shown to relax vascular smooth muscle cells and increase nitric oxide production in rat endothelial cells, thus playing a role in regulation of cardiovascular function by dilating systemic resistance arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention concerns the use of relaxin in the cardiovascular therapy, and specifically in the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. (google.com)
  • More particularly, this invention concerns the use of relaxin in cardiovascular therapy, and specifically in the treatment of heart failure. (google.com)
  • Relaxin is an ovarian hormone that acts with estrogen to produce dilatation of the birth canal in many mammals. (abcam.com)
  • The test measures Relaxin levels in plasma and serum samples. (drugs.com)
  • In the relaxin-treated BEA rats, serum creatinine was normal, and albumin excretion was slightly decreased. (nih.gov)
  • In a population of acute HF patients, admission relaxin (zeige 0 ELISA Kits ) serum levels were associated with clinical and echocardiographic markers of pulmonary hypertension, RV dysfunction, and overload, suggesting a role for circulating relaxin (zeige 0 ELISA Kits ) as a biomarker in this setting. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Although serum relaxin (zeige 0 ELISA Kits ) level is not a causative factor for benign hypermobility syndrome, the significant increases in patients with hyperkyphosis and pes planus suggest the hypothesis that relaxin (zeige 0 ELISA Kits ) has a limited and indefinite role in patients with BJHS. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Serum concentrations of relaxin (zeige 0 ELISA Kits ) showed a positive association to duration of gestation among women with miscarriage but no association to duration of gestation among women with spontaneous onset of labour. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The kit measures relaxin produced by the developing placenta(s) in plasma and serum samples. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • A sudden decrease of serum relaxin level may indicate that abortion has occurred. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • From these centres, relaxin-3 innervates a broad range of brain regions which are also rich in RXFP3 mRNA/binding sites, including the extended limbic system and the septohippocampal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The broad distribution of relaxin-3 fibres/RXFP3 within several key neuronal circuits suggests an ability to modulate a broad range of behaviours. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recombinant form of human relaxin-2 has been developed as investigational drug RLX030 ( serelaxin ). (wikidoc.org)
  • Locally produced relaxin may affect testis and vas deferens function in rats. (abcam.com)
  • Rats were injected with BEA one week prior to implantation of an osmotic pump delivering relaxin (2 microg/hour) or vehicle continuously for 28 days. (nih.gov)
  • In horses alone, the embryo in the uterus will express relaxin mRNA at least 8 days after ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Relaxin has been shown to reduce cardiac fibrosis in animal models by inhibiting cardiac fibroblasts secreting collagen and stimulating matrix metalloproteinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin decreases renal interstitial fibrosis and slows progression of renal disease. (nih.gov)
  • In rodent models of pulmonary and dermal fibrosis, relaxin reduced interstitial fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • By morphometric measurement, relaxin administration was associated with a significant decrease in interstitial fibrosis at the corticomedullary junction. (nih.gov)
  • Relaxin may have a useful application in decreasing interstitial fibrosis and thereby slowing the progression of renal disease. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis, conformational studies and biological activity of N α -mono-biotinylated rat relaxin," Journal of Peptide Research , vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 374-382, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • The new millennium bought with it the sequence of the human genome and subsequently new directions for relaxin research. (nih.gov)
  • Prior to ovulation, relaxin will be produced by ovarian stromal cells, which will promote secretion of gelatinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone . (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest known use of muscle relaxant drugs was by natives of the Amazon Basin in South America who used poison -tipped arrows that produced death by skeletal muscle paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • some subcategories of opioids have muscle relaxant properties, and some are marketed in combination drugs with skeletal and/or smooth muscle relaxants such as whole opium products, some ketobemidone , piritramide and fentanyl preparations and Equagesic . (wikipedia.org)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Skeletal Muscle Relaxant. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A synthetic propanediol dicarbamate derivative and an adjunct in the treatment of painful muscle spasms, Carisoprodol is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant that relieves stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by muscle injuries. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Relaxin may affect collagen metabolism, inhibiting collagen synthesis and enhancing its breakdown by increasing matrix metalloproteinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the vascular system, nitric oxide relaxes blood vessels and helps regulate blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In particular, RLX has a specific relaxant effect on peripheral and coronary vasculature, exerted by the stimulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) generation by cells of the vascular wall, and can induce angiogenesis. (dovepress.com)
  • Since its initial isolation from the ovaries of pregnant pigs in 1976, increasing interest in relaxin has led to increased understanding of the chemistry, synthesis, secretion, biological roles, mechanisms of action, and potential clinical applications of relaxin in humans and domestic animals. (wiley.com)
  • Relaxin can be detected in biological samples soon after implantation of the fertilized egg, which occurs about 18 days after LH surge. (drugs.com)
  • Relaxin can be detected in biological samples as early as 20 days after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge has occurred. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • were directed to processes for the production of the fragments according to claims 1 to 7, claims 10, 11 (partly), 12 to 14 were directed to DNA transfer vectors comprising a DNA fragment encoding H2-relaxin. (epo.org)
  • Occasionally, false positive results may occur in non-pregnant queens with elevated Relaxin levels due to cystic ovaries. (drugs.com)
  • Placental trophoblast cells produce relaxin, however, the size of the placenta does not determine the level of relaxin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin may be involved in the vital process of decidualisation, working alongside steroid hormones to allow the endometrium to prepare for implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relaxin family peptide systems and the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Relaxin, a hormone of the insulin-growth factor family, promotes collagen remodeling. (nih.gov)
  • Here we demonstrate a key role for relaxin, a member of the IGF family that is secreted by the corpus luteum in humans and rodents. (nih.gov)