Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Reinforcement, Verbal: Use of word stimulus to strengthen a response during learning.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Nursing Theory: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Self Stimulation: Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Generalization, Stimulus: The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Sheltered Workshops: Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Drive: A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Generalization, Response: The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).BenzoxazolesStatistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Motivation can be defined broadly as the will to perform a given task. People who play or perform for internal reasons, such as ... The Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) Theory is the most common form of mindfulness in sport and was formed in 2001. The ... Smith, R.E. (2006). Positive reinforcement, performance feedback, and performance enhancement. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied ... In A. Sheikh (Ed.) Imagery: Current Theory, Research and Application (pp. 96-130). New York: Wiley. Holmes, P.S. & Collins, D.J ...
Learning and Motivation, 5, 221-250. Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behav. Brain ... This theory predicts six conditions, all of which have been supported by evidence: Reinforcement is a relative property. ... Learning and Motivation, 1, 141-149. Terhune, J., & Premack, D. (1974). Comparison of reinforcement and punishment functions ... Premack's first publication (1959) was a new theory of reinforcement (which became known as Premack's principle). It argued ...
nurture debate to support his research in motivation. His research combined a diverse set of theories and topics, including ... he rejected the typical operant conditioning theory of response-reinforcement. Instead, he argued that learning was produced by ... Motivation: A Systematic Reinterpretation (1959), and A Theory of Intelligent Behaviour (1976). He also served as chair of the ... At McGill, the core of Bindra's research examined the neurophysiology of fear and motivation and the role of the former in the ...
His systematic behavior theory, also known as drive theory, is that of a reinforcement system, which means that in learning, ... and motivation. This theory states that people learn stimulus-response associations when a stimulus and response occur together ... in the end Hull created his own learning theory sometimes referred to as drive theory or systematic behavior theory. He also ... Scriven, Michael (1961). "An overview of stimulus-response reinforcement theory". Psychology. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon. ...
On concurrent VIVIVI reinforcement schedules this process gives rise to matching, whereas on concurrent VRVRVR reinforcement ... In G.H. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 10, pp. 129-54. New York: Academic Press. Vaughan, W., Jr. ( ... Melioration theory is a theory in psychology used as an alternative to the matching law. Melioration theory is used as an ... 1976) suggested that the local rate of matching reinforcement on each reinforcement matching schedule is evaluated, and if ...
Mackintosh NJ (1975). "A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement". Psychological ... However, the motivation power is never simply in the cues themselves or their associations, since cue-triggered motivation can ... Computational theory[edit]. An organism's need to predict future events is central to modern theories of conditioning. Most ... Rescorla RA, Wagner AR (1972). "A theory of Pavlovan conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and ...
Fear as motivation and fear-reduction as reinforcement in the learning of new responses". Journal of Experimental Psychology. ... Miller, Neal E. (September 1951). "Comments on theoretical models: illustrated by the development of a theory of conflict ... Specifically, they focused on the stimulus-response theory. These three men also recognized Sigmund Freud's understanding of ... Ellis, Albert; Abrams, Mike; Abrams, Lidia (2009). "John Dollard and Neal E. Miller". Personality theories: critical ...
ISBN 978-1-4000-7839-4. Weiner, Bernard (1974). Achievement Motivation and Attribution Theory. Morristown, New Jersey: General ... page needed] Lefcourt, Herbert M. (April 1966). "Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A review". Psychological ... at least in the early days of the theory, the theory was never adequately tested. One factor accounting for ambiguity in ... Hopelessness theory also highlights perceived importance and consequences of a negative outcome in addition to causal ...
... but the personal priorities and motivations of the individual cause the glucose to be allocated to other sites. This theory has ... On the other hand, when we have an exceeding amount of a reinforcer, that reinforcement loses its value; if an individual eats ... Self-control is also a key concept in the general theory of crime, a major theory in criminology. The theory was developed by ... but nevertheless the EI theory holds true for more normal motivations and desires. Deprivation is the time in which an ...
Moreover, affect is implicated in a range of concepts relevant to addiction: positive reinforcement, behaviour motivation, ... Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) consists of two motivational systems: the behaviour inhibition system (BIS) and ... the reinforcement sensitivity theory model of impulsiveness and behavioral inhibition, and an impulsivity model of reward ... Personality theories of addiction are psychological models that associate personality traits or modes of thinking (i.e., ...
Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) is based on the idea that there are three brain systems that all differently ... motivation, and punishment. This has led to a few biologically based personality theories such as Eysenck's three factor model ... However, this definition and theory of biological basis is not universally accepted. There are many conflicting theories of ... Grey's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), and Cloninger's model of personality. The Big Five model of personality is not ...
"Motivation Crowding Theory" Journal of Economic Surveys 15(5):589-611 Griffin, E. (2006). A first look at communication theory ... unlike traditional learning theories which require reinforcement or punishment for learning to occur. Positioning theory - ... System justification theory - proposes that people have a motivation to defend and bolster the status quo, in order to continue ... Motivation crowding theory - suggests that extrinsic motivators such as monetary incentives or punishments can undermine (or, ...
... theory asserts that industriousness is developed over time through a history of reinforcement. Learned ... Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American ... Eisenberger's theory claims an essentially dichotomous relationship between effort and reinforcement: the exertion of low ... As predicted by the theory, multiple experimental studies have demonstrated increased effort when paired with reinforcement. ...
Dickinson, A. M. (1989). The Detrimental Effects of Extrinsic Reinforcement on "Intrinsic Motivation." The Behavior Analyst, 12 ... Cognitive evaluation theory (CET) is a theory in psychology that is designed to explain the effects of external consequences on ... internal motivation. Specifically, CET is a sub-theory of self-determination theory that focuses on competence and autonomy ... On the causal effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Sport ...
Rescorla, R.A. & Wagner, A.R. (1972) A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and ... Learning and Motivation. 25: 127-151. ... including many new findings and alternative theories Abbott, ...
... theory Candle problem Cognitive evaluation theory Motivation crowding theory Reinforcement Self-determination theory Self- ... Self-determination theory is a broad theory of motivation in work organizations that maintains the predictions of cognitive ... As a sub-theory of self-determination theory, cognitive evaluation theory explains that both control and competence underlie ... Cognitive evaluation theory also suggests social context as another implication on intrinsic motivation. Social cues can exert ...
Drive-reduction theory assumes that "the reduction of emotional tension operates as a reinforcement of the reassuring ... recommendation" (Janis and Feshbach, 1953, p. 64). That is, once fear is aroused and creates motivation for action (drive), any ... The fear pattern theory proposes that a sequence of fear then relief stimuli will be optimal in causing attitude and/or ... This requires continuous response measurement (CRM). The fear patterning theory suggests that it is not the absolute amount of ...
Empirical generalizations and theories emanating from the cognitive and reinforcement paradigms and models of social influence ... are examined as the basis for analysis and understanding of topics such as motivation, leadership behavior, task performance, ...
Recognition by community members, whether by subordinates, peers or superiors, is also part of motivation theory. The reward of ... and others who are inspired by their deeds and by the positive reinforcement of the community, to continue contributing, or ...
... communication Human ethology Human sexual behavior Masculine psychology Mathematical principles of reinforcement Motivation ... Theory of reasoned action/Theory of planned behavior. University of South Florida. Anholt, Robert R. H.; Mackay, Trudy F. C. ( ...
... a psychological theory of sensitivity to reward, punishment, and motivation Retail sales tax Rhetorical structure theory, a ... a National Safeman's Organization certification Reinforcement sensitivity theory, ... linguistic theory of text organization Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK Rochester International Airport (IATA ...
Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American ... Learned industriousness theory asserts that industriousness is developed over time through a history of reinforcement. ... Eisenberger's theory claims an essentially dichotomous relationship between effort and reinforcement: the exertion of low ... In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and ...
CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Weiner, Bernard (1980). Human Motivation: Metaphors, Theories, and Research. ... Rotter, J.B. (1966). "Generalized expectancies of internal versus external control of reinforcements". Psychological Monographs ... Rotter moved away from theories based on psychoanalysis and behaviourism, and developed a social learning theory. In Social ... This social learning theory suggests that behavior is influenced by social context or environmental factors, and not ...
Learning and Motivation: 386-414. Church, Russell M.; Meck, Warren H. (1984). "The numerical attribute of stimuli.". In H.L. ... and learning theory". The development of numerical competence: Animal and human models: 17. Koehler, Otto (1943). ""Zähl"- ... "Probability relations within response sequences under ratio reinforcement". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 1 ...
Yerkes-Dodson law of performance and arousal Incentive theory of motivation Clark Hull's theories on motivation Dewey, R. (2007 ... Conditioning only occurs if the reinforcement satisfied a need (i.e., the learning must satisfy the learner's wants). Clark ... In learning theory, drive reduction theory is a type of motivational theory. Drive Reduction Theory, developed by Clark Hull in ... was the first theory for motivation. According to such theorists as Clark Hull and Kenneth Spence, drive reduction is a major ...
This motivation can come from external reinforcement, such as the experimenter's promise of reward in some of Bandura's studies ... Bandura, A. (1989). Social Cognitive Theory. In R. Vasta (ED.), Annals of child Development: Vol. 6. Theories of child ... Motivation: The observer must have motivation to recreate the observed behavior.. Bandura clearly distinguishes between ... In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a ...
... was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individuals behaviour is a ... Implications of Reinforcement Theory. Reinforcement theory explains in detail how an individual learns behaviour. Managers who ... Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individual s behaviour is a ... Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of individual, i.e., the inner feelings and drives of ...
Evolving internal reinforcers for an intrinsically motivated reinforcement-learning robot. ... Formal Theory of Creativity, Fun, and Intrinsic Motivation (1990-2010) by Jürgen Schmidhuber ... The simple but general formal theory of fun & intrinsic motivation & creativity (1990-) is based on the concept of maximizing ... The simple but general formal theory of fun & intrinsic motivation & creativity (1990-) is based on the concept of maximizing ...
Motivation is the art of getting people to do things or to do things more efficiently or quickly. Knowing... ... Employee Behavior : The Reinforcement Theory. 1936 Words , 8 Pages Employee Behavior: "The Reinforcement Theory" Introduction ... Motivation : Motivation And Motivation. 1341 Words , 6 Pages Motivation Motivation is, according to the text, "A set of ... More about Motivation and Reinforcement. * Brand Reinforcement. 3640 Words , 15 Pages * Differential Reinforcement. 2753 Words ...
... which is a modification of Maslows theory. Victor Vrooms Expectancy Theory is another approach that holds motivation as a ... Several early attempts to explain motivational theory and organizational behavior included Maslows Need Hierarchy theory and ... Reinforcement Theory. B. F. Skinners reinforcement theory states that the individuals behavior is a function of its ... Alfred Alderfers ERG Theory. Alderfers ERG theory is a modification of Maslows need hierarchy theory, and holds motivation ...
6 Theories of Reinforcement, Drive, and Motivation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Reinforcement.- 3. Cognitive Learning Theories.- 3.1 ... Positive Primary Reinforcement.- 3.2. Positive Secondary Reinforcement.- 3.3. Aversive Control.- 3.4. Discriminative Control by ... Schedules of Reinforcement in Behavioral Pharmacology.- 3.2. How to Express Drug Effects.- 3.3. Effects of Drugs on Responding ... Motivation.- 4. Physiological Interpretation of the Expectancy Model.- 5. Self-Stimulation.- 6. Responses to Aversive Stimuli ...
Premack, D. (1965). Reinforcement theory. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska ... Peterson, R. F., and Peterson, L. R. (1968). The use of positive reinforcement in the control of self-destructive behavior in a ... Lovaas, I., Newsom, C., and Hickman, C. (1987). Self-stimulating behavior and perceptual reinforcement. Journal of Applied ... Woodward, M. (1959). The behavior of idiots interpreted by Piagets theory of sensorimotor development. British Journal of ...
Berlyne, D. E. Arousal and reinforcement. In D. Levine (Ed.),Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: 1967. Lincoln: University of ... Spielberger, C. D. Theory and research on anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.),Anxiety and behavior. New York: Academic Press, ... Lacey, J. I. Somatic response patterning and stress: Some revisions of activation theory. In M. H. Appley, & R. Trumbull (Eds ... Becker, J.Depression: Theory and research. Washington, D.C.: Winston & Sons, 1974.Google Scholar ...
Incentive theory (incentive theory of motivation) is a motivation theory which describes reinforcement through incentive or ... Drawing back to motivation theory, it is clear that rewards are an effective means for motivation. Positive reinforcement in ... Motivation theory[edit , edit source]. It is clear that motivation plays a role in cooperation. This section looks into the ... So it is clear that through the operant conditioning theory, either reinforcement of punishment can facilitate the motivation ...
... commonsenseatheism.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Muehlhauser-A-Crash-Course-in-the-Neuroscience-of-Human-Motivation-08-20-2011 ... Behaviorism and Reinforcement Learning. Reinforcement Learning and Decision Theory. The Turn to the Brain. Hebbian Learning. ... Reinforcement Learning and Decision Theory. You may have noticed a key advantage of reinforcement learning: an agent using it ... The models of human motivation we've surveyed so far are conceptually related to decision theory (beliefs and desires, or ...
The Expectancy theory states that employees motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the ... Hence, what is motivation? According to McShane & Glinow, motivation is defined as "the forces within a person that effect the ... Equity theory have predicted to give right job to right person. Equity theory attempts to explain relational satisfaction in ... recognition and opportunities) affected job satisfaction (XXX). Extrinsic or Intrinsic Motivation Over the years, motivation ...
No integration of theories. - Basic understanding of principles and theories of positive/motivational psychology. - Basic ... 4 Understand the influence of state and performance-related factors such as nutrition, emotion, motivation and effort in goal- ... effort and reinforcement); Resilience and mental toughness (including dealing with set-backs and failures). ... We will hold a two hour lecture will be held each week for eleven weeks in which relevant course content and theory will be ...
Observation of reinforcement. and punishment gives learners. motivation to behave.. When I grow up,. I want to wear a gown. and ... The theory allows for cognitive processes and explains inconsistencies in behaviour without blaming the child. The theory ... Social Learning Theory. Social Learning Theory states that behaviour is learned through observational learning of others (known ... Motivation. If children are subjected to models (e.g. classroom teachers) who demonstrate good behaviour,. then children are ...
Incentive Theory. Maslow Theory of Human Motivation. Incentive Theory. Behavior is motivated by a desire for reinforcement or ... Human Motivation. Drive Theory. Drive - an instinctual Intrinsic need that has the power of pushing behavior of an individual. ... What type of motivation does he have?. Case Study 3. Motivational Concepts. Intrinsic. Extrinsic. Drive Theory. ... Unlike the drive theory, the incentive theory states we are motivated by extrinsic motivators. Positive Incentives: wages, ...
Premack, D., "Reinforcement Theory," in D. Levine (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Lincoln: University of Nebraska ... Clark, R. A., "The Projective Measurement of Experimentally Induced Levels of Sexual Motivation," Journal of Expenmental ...
Deci, Edward L. (1972). "Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic reinforcement, and inequity". Journal of Personality and Social ... Attributional theoriesEdit. The application of self-perception theory to motivation suggests that people sometimes form post- ... Motivation crowding theory is the psychology and microeconomics theory that providing extrinsic incentives for certain kinds of ... Motivation crowding theory is included in the JEL classification codes as JEL: J2. ...
Coaches can improve the teams performance by finding the right motivation for each situation and player. ... When crafting criticism, sandwich the need between positive reinforcement. Doing so motivates athletes to put forth the ... Extrinsic Motivation. Extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from an outside source. Some of it is tangible, such as ... Peak Performance; Sport Motivation; Lee Crust, PhD * Hellenic Journal of Psychology; Self-Determination Theory and Physical ...
In: The psychology of learning and motivation-advances in research and theory, Vol 40 (Medin DL, ed), pp 223-278. San Diego: ... do not discriminate between the influence of sensory-specific features of reinforcement and the general motivation properties ... reinforcement Introduction. AMPA receptors are hetero-oligomeric proteins composed of subunits glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) to ... Like rats with BLA lesions, GluR1-/- mice appear to possess a generalized reinforcement process that is sufficient to support ...
McGuires Psychological Motivations is a classification system that organizes theories of motives into 16 categories. The ... Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) Affective Growth Motives a. Need for Assertion (active, internal) b. Need for ... McGuire first divided the motivation into two main categories using two criteria: Is the mode of motivation cognitive or ... Inoculation theory Hawkins, D, Mothersbaugh, D, & Best, R (2007). Consumer Behaviour: Building Marketing Strategy. New York ...
... is the amount of space devoted to issues of motivation and reinforcement....The Handbooks two most praiseworthy attributes are ... A.R. Wagner, S.E. Brandon, A Componential Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning. J.C. Denniston, H.I. Savastano, R.R. Miller, The ... R.M. Church, K. Kirkpatrick, Theories of Conditioning and Timing. A.G. Baker, R.A. Murphy, F. Vallée-Tourangeau, R. Mehta, ... contemporary theories; * five chapters detailing the research and theories of the nature of Pavlovian Conditioning; * four ...
Two theories of addiction will be examined to answer this. Opponent-process theory of motivation[edit , edit source]. Solomon ... 1. Reinforcement Initially, an individual will engage in a behaviour which leads to the positive reinforcement of this ... Addiction is driven by underlying motivations, as proposed by the opponent-process theory of motivation and the addiction cycle ... propose the opponent-process theory of motivation. This theory suggests that addiction occurs in two processes and it is these ...
Make research projects and school reports about Learning Theory easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about Learning Theory at Encyclopedia.com. ... and reinforcement theory was usually paired with instrumental- ... Other relevant material may be found in Drives; Gestalt theory; Motivation.]. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Amsel, Abram 1962 Frustrative ... The drive-reduction theory of Clark L. Hull and Kenneth W. Spence, which became influential in the 1930s, introduced motivation ...
This is an important exception to reinforcement theory.. An example of cognitive dissonance is smoking. Smoking cigarettes ... The need to maintain a healthy self-esteem is recognized as a central human motivation in the field of social psychology. Self- ... Various schools of thought have argued for a particular model to be used as a guiding theory by which all, or the majority, of ... Cognitive theory contends that solutions to problems take the form of algorithms-rules that are not necessarily understood but ...
... motivation, and reinforcement learning. Reinforcement sensitivity theory is one of the major biological models of individual ... These critiques led to a major revision and renaming of the theory in 2000. The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) ... while Grays theory emphasized Impulsivity, Anxiety, approach motivation, and avoidance motivation. Grays model of personality ... differences in emotion, motivation, and learning. The theory distinguishes between fear and anxiety, and links reinforcement ...
Situational Motivation. Situational motivation is the result of the reinforcement or punishment of behavior. Acknowledging that ... There are dozens of theories and hundreds of books on motivation. Without entering into a debate about different theories, it ... Focusing on only one source motivation (or schedule of reinforcement) is a mistake. It is better to optimize all of the forms ... Motivation is not a zero sum game; it is additive.. It is important to recognize that when both Honda and Toyota built plants ...
Make research projects and school reports about motivation easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... REINFORCEMENT THEORY. Reinforcement theory is based on the relationship between behavior and its consequences. In the workplace ... Contemporary Theories of Motivation. Atkinsons theory gradually declined in the 1980s as motivation researchers turned their ... The study of motivation has its roots in reinforcement theory, which focuses on the ways behaviors can be shaped by their ...
  • It must be noted that more spontaneous is the giving of reward, the greater reinforcement value it has. (managementstudyguide.com)
  • The simple but general formal theory of fun & intrinsic motivation & creativity (1990-) is based on the concept of maximizing intrinsic reward for the active creation or discovery of novel, surprising patterns allowing for improved prediction or data compression. (psu.edu)
  • A neural study in 2002, by James Riling and others, found that social cooperation was associated with consistent brain activation in brain areas that have been linked with reward processes and motivation (Rilling et al. (wikiversity.org)
  • The Expectancy theory states that employee's motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (Expectancy) and the belief that the performance will lead to reward (Instrumentality). (bartleby.com)
  • The theory recognises that through encouragement , praise and reward , children will develop self-efficacy and will strive to be successful. (prezi.com)
  • Representations of a US involve both sensory and motivational properties of reinforcement, and cues may form associations with both of these features of a reward representation (for review, see Balleine, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Second-order conditioning and conditioned reinforcement procedures (Mead and Stephens, 2003) do not discriminate between the influence of sensory-specific features of reinforcement and the general motivation properties of reward on performance (cf. (jneurosci.org)
  • Expectancy Theory Motivation derives from an "Expectancy Chain" -linkages between effort, performance, and rewards: Expectancy (effort-performance linkage) Instrumentality (performance-reward linkage) Valence (reward-goal linkage) attractiveness / importance of the potential organizational outcome/reward Increase motivation by strengthening linkages Most comprehensive, widely accepted motivational theory Why do I say "Expectancy Chain? (slideserve.com)
  • Our results show that performance-based monetary reward indeed undermines intrinsic motivation, as assessed by the number of voluntary engagements in the task. (pnas.org)
  • This predominance of incentive systems may reflect a widespread cultural belief that performance-based reward is a reliable and effective way to enhance motivation in students and workers. (pnas.org)
  • However, classic psychological experiments have repeatedly revealed that performance-based reward can also undermine people's intrinsic motivation ( 1 - 6 ), that is, motivation to voluntarily engage in a task for the inherent pleasure and satisfaction derived from the task itself ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In a typical experiment of this "undermining effect" [also called the "motivation crowding-out effect" ( 7 - 9 ) or "overjustification effect" ( 2 )], participants are randomly divided into a performance-based reward group and a control group, and both groups work on an interesting task. (pnas.org)
  • A number of studies ( 4 - 6 ) found that the performance-based reward group spends significantly less time than the control group engaging in the target activity during the free-choice period, providing evidence that the performance-based reward undermines voluntary engagement in the task (i.e., intrinsic motivation for the task). (pnas.org)
  • RST assumes that variation in sensitivity/reactivity of the reward system is the cause of individual differences in approach motivation (e.g. desire or need for achievement, persistence, and positive emotionality). (srce.hr)
  • Self-reinforcement - this is described by the need for external reward for self-reinforcing responses, such as social surveillance or increased status. (questia.com)
  • Victor Vroom developed the Expectancy Theory that rewards must be attractive and that an individual must see and feel a strong reward-performance link. (edweek.org)
  • Specious reward: a behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control. (springer.com)
  • Reinforcement learning is a computational approach to learning whereby an agent tries to maximize the total amount of reward it receives when interacting with a complex, uncertain environment. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • If a stimulus is associated with the primary reinforcing effects of NIC, the new conditional properties of the stimulus should make it a more valuable reinforcer (i.e., increase the motivation to obtain the stimulus), and this value should be based, in part, on the strength or intensity of the primary reinforcer (i.e. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). (joe.org)
  • According to the theory, when needs at one level are satisfied, they are no longer motivators and the individual "moves up" the hierarchy to satisfy needs at the next level. (washington.edu)
  • Motivation' comes from the Latin word movere, meaning 'to move' (kreitner R., kinicki A., Buelens M., 2002, p: 176) which means as fact, need, emotion and organic state which encourages a person to take an action. (ukessays.com)
  • Premack introduced the concept of Theory of Mind , with Guy Woodruff, in an article published in 1978. (wikipedia.org)
  • John Adam's equity theory of motivation holds that people gauge the fairness of their work outcomes not based on the rewards they get in return for their work, but the extent of their rewards for the work put in relative to what others get. (brighthub.com)
  • 1346 words - 6 pages In the work place there are several types of motivation in which some management staff fails to acknowledge. (avsabonline.org)
  • For most people, motivation (the will to work) comes from within. (scribd.com)
  • To be able to understand motivation and the way it works, we have to understand human nature itself, managers also need to understand the work effort motivation cycle as to not loose there staff to more exciting rewarding and satisfying roles else were. (ukessays.com)
  • Theory X individuals believe that all people are lazy and will not work unless closely supervised, while those who prescribe to Theory Y believe that people are self controlled and motivated, requiring little or no supervision. (edweek.org)
  • There is also William G. Ouchi's Theory Z , which adds another dimension to McGregor's work. (edweek.org)
  • Because B is followed by the US equally often in the blocking and compound-only conditions, the observation of reduced conditioning to B only in the blocking conditioning is hard to reconcile with theories of classical conditioning asserting that contiguity of a CS with a US suffices for the establishment of a CR. (scholarpedia.org)
  • This definition of primary reinforcement is satisfied by the observation that an increase in tobacco use (and thus NIC-intake) typically follows initial exposure to the drug. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • D. Krupić i P.J. Corr, "Moving Forward with the BAS: Towards a Neurobiology of Multidimensional Model of Approach Motivation", Psihologijske teme , vol.26, br. (srce.hr)