Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Reinforcement, Verbal: Use of word stimulus to strengthen a response during learning.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Nursing Theory: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Self Stimulation: Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Generalization, Stimulus: The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Sheltered Workshops: Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Drive: A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood: Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Generalization, Response: The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).BenzoxazolesStatistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Motivation can be defined broadly as the will to perform a given task. People who play or perform for internal reasons, such as ... The Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) Theory is the most common form of mindfulness in sport and was formed in 2001. The ... Smith, R.E. (2006). Positive reinforcement, performance feedback, and performance enhancement. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied ... In A. Sheikh (Ed.) Imagery: Current Theory, Research and Application (pp. 96-130). New York: Wiley. Holmes, P.S. & Collins, D.J ...
Learning and Motivation, 5, 221-250. Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behav. Brain ... This theory predicts six conditions, all of which have been supported by evidence: Reinforcement is a relative property. ... Learning and Motivation, 1, 141-149. Terhune, J., & Premack, D. (1974). Comparison of reinforcement and punishment functions ... Premack's first publication (1959) was a new theory of reinforcement (which became known as Premack's principle). It argued ...
nurture debate to support his research in motivation. His research combined a diverse set of theories and topics, including ... he rejected the typical operant conditioning theory of response-reinforcement. Instead, he argued that learning was produced by ... Motivation: A Systematic Reinterpretation (1959), and A Theory of Intelligent Behaviour (1976). He also served as chair of the ... At McGill, the core of Bindra's research examined the neurophysiology of fear and motivation and the role of the former in the ...
His systematic behavior theory, also known as drive theory, is that of a reinforcement system, which means that in learning, ... and motivation. This theory states that people learn stimulus-response associations when a stimulus and response occur together ... in the end Hull created his own learning theory sometimes referred to as drive theory or systematic behavior theory. He also ... Scriven, Michael (1961). "An overview of stimulus-response reinforcement theory". Psychology. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon. ...
On concurrent VIVIVI reinforcement schedules this process gives rise to matching, whereas on concurrent VRVRVR reinforcement ... In G.H. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 10, pp. 129-54. New York: Academic Press. Vaughan, W., Jr. ( ... Melioration theory is a theory in psychology used as an alternative to the matching law. Melioration theory is used as an ... 1976) suggested that the local rate of matching reinforcement on each reinforcement matching schedule is evaluated, and if ...
Mackintosh NJ (1975). "A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement". Psychological ... However, the motivation power is never simply in the cues themselves or their associations, since cue-triggered motivation can ... Computational theory. An organism's need to predict future events is central to modern theories of conditioning. Most ... Rescorla RA, Wagner AR (1972). "A theory of Pavlovan conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and ...
Fear as motivation and fear-reduction as reinforcement in the learning of new responses". Journal of Experimental Psychology. ... Miller, Neal E. (September 1951). "Comments on theoretical models: illustrated by the development of a theory of conflict ... Specifically, they focused on the stimulus-response theory. These three men also recognized Sigmund Freud's understanding of ... Ellis, Albert; Abrams, Mike; Abrams, Lidia (2009). "John Dollard and Neal E. Miller". Personality theories: critical ...
ISBN 978-1-4000-7839-4. Weiner, Bernard (1974). Achievement Motivation and Attribution Theory. Morristown, New Jersey: General ... page needed] Lefcourt, Herbert M. (April 1966). "Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A review". Psychological ... at least in the early days of the theory, the theory was never adequately tested. One factor accounting for ambiguity in ... Hopelessness theory also highlights perceived importance and consequences of a negative outcome in addition to causal ...
... but the personal priorities and motivations of the individual cause the glucose to be allocated to other sites. This theory has ... On the other hand, when we have an exceeding amount of a reinforcer, that reinforcement loses its value; if an individual eats ... Self-control is also a key concept in the general theory of crime, a major theory in criminology. The theory was developed by ... but nevertheless the EI theory holds true for more normal motivations and desires. Deprivation is the time in which an ...
Moreover, affect is implicated in a range of concepts relevant to addiction: positive reinforcement, behaviour motivation, ... Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) consists of two motivational systems: the behaviour inhibition system (BIS) and ... the reinforcement sensitivity theory model of impulsiveness and behavioral inhibition, and an impulsivity model of reward ... Personality theories of addiction are psychological models that associate personality traits or modes of thinking (i.e., ...
Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) is based on the idea that there are three brain systems that all differently ... motivation, and punishment. This has led to a few biologically based personality theories such as Eysenck's three factor model ... However, this definition and theory of biological basis is not universally accepted. There are many conflicting theories of ... Grey's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), and Cloninger's model of personality. The Big Five model of personality is not ...
"Motivation Crowding Theory" Journal of Economic Surveys 15(5):589-611 Griffin, E. (2006). A first look at communication theory ... unlike traditional learning theories which require reinforcement or punishment for learning to occur. Positioning theory - ... System justification theory - proposes that people have a motivation to defend and bolster the status quo, in order to continue ... Motivation crowding theory - suggests that extrinsic motivators such as monetary incentives or punishments can undermine (or, ...
... theory asserts that industriousness is developed over time through a history of reinforcement. Learned ... Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American ... Eisenberger's theory claims an essentially dichotomous relationship between effort and reinforcement: the exertion of low ... As predicted by the theory, multiple experimental studies have demonstrated increased effort when paired with reinforcement. ...
Dickinson, A. M. (1989). The Detrimental Effects of Extrinsic Reinforcement on "Intrinsic Motivation." The Behavior Analyst, 12 ... Cognitive evaluation theory (CET) is a theory in psychology that is designed to explain the effects of external consequences on ... internal motivation. Specifically, CET is a sub-theory of self-determination theory that focuses on competence and autonomy ... On the causal effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Sport ...
Rescorla, R.A. & Wagner, A.R. (1972) A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and ... Learning and Motivation. 25: 127-151. ... including many new findings and alternative theories Abbott, ...
... theory Candle problem Cognitive evaluation theory Motivation crowding theory Reinforcement Self-determination theory Self- ... Self-determination theory is a broad theory of motivation in work organizations that maintains the predictions of cognitive ... As a sub-theory of self-determination theory, cognitive evaluation theory explains that both control and competence underlie ... Cognitive evaluation theory also suggests social context as another implication on intrinsic motivation. Social cues can exert ...
Drive-reduction theory assumes that "the reduction of emotional tension operates as a reinforcement of the reassuring ... recommendation" (Janis and Feshbach, 1953, p. 64). That is, once fear is aroused and creates motivation for action (drive), any ... The fear pattern theory proposes that a sequence of fear then relief stimuli will be optimal in causing attitude and/or ... This requires continuous response measurement (CRM). The fear patterning theory suggests that it is not the absolute amount of ...
Empirical generalizations and theories emanating from the cognitive and reinforcement paradigms and models of social influence ... are examined as the basis for analysis and understanding of topics such as motivation, leadership behavior, task performance, ...
Recognition by community members, whether by subordinates, peers or superiors, is also part of motivation theory. The reward of ... and others who are inspired by their deeds and by the positive reinforcement of the community, to continue contributing, or ...
... communication Human ethology Human sexual behavior Masculine psychology Mathematical principles of reinforcement Motivation ... Theory of reasoned action/Theory of planned behavior. University of South Florida. Anholt, Robert R. H.; Mackay, Trudy F. C. ( ...
... a psychological theory of sensitivity to reward, punishment, and motivation Retail sales tax Rhetorical structure theory, a ... a National Safeman's Organization certification Reinforcement sensitivity theory, ... linguistic theory of text organization Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK Rochester International Airport (IATA ...
Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American ... Learned industriousness theory asserts that industriousness is developed over time through a history of reinforcement. ... Eisenberger's theory claims an essentially dichotomous relationship between effort and reinforcement: the exertion of low ... In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and ...
CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Weiner, Bernard (1980). Human Motivation: Metaphors, Theories, and Research. ... Rotter, J.B. (1966). "Generalized expectancies of internal versus external control of reinforcements". Psychological Monographs ... Rotter moved away from theories based on psychoanalysis and behaviourism, and developed a social learning theory. In Social ... This social learning theory suggests that behavior is influenced by social context or environmental factors, and not ...
Learning and Motivation: 386-414. Church, Russell M.; Meck, Warren H. (1984). "The numerical attribute of stimuli.". In H.L. ... and learning theory". The development of numerical competence: Animal and human models: 17. Koehler, Otto (1943). ""Zähl"- ... "Probability relations within response sequences under ratio reinforcement". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 1 ...
Yerkes-Dodson law of performance and arousal Incentive theory of motivation Clark Hull's theories on motivation Dewey, R. (2007 ... Conditioning only occurs if the reinforcement satisfied a need (i.e., the learning must satisfy the learner's wants). Clark ... In learning theory, drive reduction theory is a type of motivational theory. Drive Reduction Theory, developed by Clark Hull in ... was the first theory for motivation. According to such theorists as Clark Hull and Kenneth Spence, drive reduction is a major ...
This motivation can come from external reinforcement, such as the experimenter's promise of reward in some of Bandura's studies ... Bandura, A. (1989). Social Cognitive Theory. In R. Vasta (ED.), Annals of child Development: Vol. 6. Theories of child ... Motivation: The observer must have motivation to recreate the observed behavior.. Bandura clearly distinguishes between ... In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a ...
... was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individuals behaviour is a ... Implications of Reinforcement Theory. Reinforcement theory explains in detail how an individual learns behaviour. Managers who ... Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individual s behaviour is a ... Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of individual, i.e., the inner feelings and drives of ...
Evolving internal reinforcers for an intrinsically motivated reinforcement-learning robot. ... Formal Theory of Creativity, Fun, and Intrinsic Motivation (1990-2010) by Jürgen Schmidhuber ... The simple but general formal theory of fun & intrinsic motivation & creativity (1990-) is based on the concept of maximizing ... The simple but general formal theory of fun & intrinsic motivation & creativity (1990-) is based on the concept of maximizing ...
Motivation is the art of getting people to do things or to do things more efficiently or quickly. Knowing... ... Employee Behavior : The Reinforcement Theory. 1936 Words , 8 Pages Employee Behavior: "The Reinforcement Theory" Introduction ... Motivation : Motivation And Motivation. 1341 Words , 6 Pages Motivation Motivation is, according to the text, "A set of ... More about Motivation and Reinforcement. * Brand Reinforcement. 3640 Words , 15 Pages * Differential Reinforcement. 2753 Words ...
... which is a modification of Maslows theory. Victor Vrooms Expectancy Theory is another approach that holds motivation as a ... Several early attempts to explain motivational theory and organizational behavior included Maslows Need Hierarchy theory and ... Reinforcement Theory. B. F. Skinners reinforcement theory states that the individuals behavior is a function of its ... Alfred Alderfers ERG Theory. Alderfers ERG theory is a modification of Maslows need hierarchy theory, and holds motivation ...
6 Theories of Reinforcement, Drive, and Motivation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Reinforcement.- 3. Cognitive Learning Theories.- 3.1 ... Positive Primary Reinforcement.- 3.2. Positive Secondary Reinforcement.- 3.3. Aversive Control.- 3.4. Discriminative Control by ... Schedules of Reinforcement in Behavioral Pharmacology.- 3.2. How to Express Drug Effects.- 3.3. Effects of Drugs on Responding ... Motivation.- 4. Physiological Interpretation of the Expectancy Model.- 5. Self-Stimulation.- 6. Responses to Aversive Stimuli ...
Premack, D. (1965). Reinforcement theory. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska ... Peterson, R. F., and Peterson, L. R. (1968). The use of positive reinforcement in the control of self-destructive behavior in a ... Lovaas, I., Newsom, C., and Hickman, C. (1987). Self-stimulating behavior and perceptual reinforcement. Journal of Applied ... Woodward, M. (1959). The behavior of idiots interpreted by Piagets theory of sensorimotor development. British Journal of ...
Berlyne, D. E. Arousal and reinforcement. In D. Levine (Ed.),Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: 1967. Lincoln: University of ... Spielberger, C. D. Theory and research on anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.),Anxiety and behavior. New York: Academic Press, ... Lacey, J. I. Somatic response patterning and stress: Some revisions of activation theory. In M. H. Appley, & R. Trumbull (Eds ... Becker, J.Depression: Theory and research. Washington, D.C.: Winston & Sons, 1974.Google Scholar ...
Incentive theory (incentive theory of motivation) is a motivation theory which describes reinforcement through incentive or ... Drawing back to motivation theory, it is clear that rewards are an effective means for motivation. Positive reinforcement in ... Motivation theory[edit , edit source]. It is clear that motivation plays a role in cooperation. This section looks into the ... So it is clear that through the operant conditioning theory, either reinforcement of punishment can facilitate the motivation ...
... commonsenseatheism.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Muehlhauser-A-Crash-Course-in-the-Neuroscience-of-Human-Motivation-08-20-2011 ... Behaviorism and Reinforcement Learning. Reinforcement Learning and Decision Theory. The Turn to the Brain. Hebbian Learning. ... Reinforcement Learning and Decision Theory. You may have noticed a key advantage of reinforcement learning: an agent using it ... The models of human motivation we've surveyed so far are conceptually related to decision theory (beliefs and desires, or ...
The Expectancy theory states that employees motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the ... Hence, what is motivation? According to McShane & Glinow, motivation is defined as "the forces within a person that effect the ... Equity theory have predicted to give right job to right person. Equity theory attempts to explain relational satisfaction in ... recognition and opportunities) affected job satisfaction (XXX). Extrinsic or Intrinsic Motivation Over the years, motivation ...
No integration of theories. - Basic understanding of principles and theories of positive/motivational psychology. - Basic ... 4 Understand the influence of state and performance-related factors such as nutrition, emotion, motivation and effort in goal- ... effort and reinforcement); Resilience and mental toughness (including dealing with set-backs and failures). ... We will hold a two hour lecture will be held each week for eleven weeks in which relevant course content and theory will be ...
Observation of reinforcement. and punishment gives learners. motivation to behave.. When I grow up,. I want to wear a gown. and ... The theory allows for cognitive processes and explains inconsistencies in behaviour without blaming the child. The theory ... Social Learning Theory. Social Learning Theory states that behaviour is learned through observational learning of others (known ... Motivation. If children are subjected to models (e.g. classroom teachers) who demonstrate good behaviour,. then children are ...
Incentive Theory. Maslow Theory of Human Motivation. Incentive Theory. Behavior is motivated by a desire for reinforcement or ... Human Motivation. Drive Theory. Drive - an instinctual Intrinsic need that has the power of pushing behavior of an individual. ... What type of motivation does he have?. Case Study 3. Motivational Concepts. Intrinsic. Extrinsic. Drive Theory. ... Unlike the drive theory, the incentive theory states we are motivated by extrinsic motivators. Positive Incentives: wages, ...
Premack, D., "Reinforcement Theory," in D. Levine (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Lincoln: University of Nebraska ... Clark, R. A., "The Projective Measurement of Experimentally Induced Levels of Sexual Motivation," Journal of Expenmental ...
Deci, Edward L. (1972). "Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic reinforcement, and inequity". Journal of Personality and Social ... Attributional theoriesEdit. The application of self-perception theory to motivation suggests that people sometimes form post- ... Motivation crowding theory is the psychology and microeconomics theory that providing extrinsic incentives for certain kinds of ... Motivation crowding theory is included in the JEL classification codes as JEL: J2. ...
Coaches can improve the teams performance by finding the right motivation for each situation and player. ... When crafting criticism, sandwich the need between positive reinforcement. Doing so motivates athletes to put forth the ... Extrinsic Motivation. Extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from an outside source. Some of it is tangible, such as ... Peak Performance; Sport Motivation; Lee Crust, PhD * Hellenic Journal of Psychology; Self-Determination Theory and Physical ...
In: The psychology of learning and motivation-advances in research and theory, Vol 40 (Medin DL, ed), pp 223-278. San Diego: ... do not discriminate between the influence of sensory-specific features of reinforcement and the general motivation properties ... reinforcement Introduction. AMPA receptors are hetero-oligomeric proteins composed of subunits glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) to ... Like rats with BLA lesions, GluR1-/- mice appear to possess a generalized reinforcement process that is sufficient to support ...
McGuires Psychological Motivations is a classification system that organizes theories of motives into 16 categories. The ... Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) Affective Growth Motives a. Need for Assertion (active, internal) b. Need for ... McGuire first divided the motivation into two main categories using two criteria: Is the mode of motivation cognitive or ... Inoculation theory Hawkins, D, Mothersbaugh, D, & Best, R (2007). Consumer Behaviour: Building Marketing Strategy. New York ...
... is the amount of space devoted to issues of motivation and reinforcement....The Handbooks two most praiseworthy attributes are ... A.R. Wagner, S.E. Brandon, A Componential Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning. J.C. Denniston, H.I. Savastano, R.R. Miller, The ... R.M. Church, K. Kirkpatrick, Theories of Conditioning and Timing. A.G. Baker, R.A. Murphy, F. Vallée-Tourangeau, R. Mehta, ... contemporary theories; * five chapters detailing the research and theories of the nature of Pavlovian Conditioning; * four ...
Two theories of addiction will be examined to answer this. Opponent-process theory of motivation[edit , edit source]. Solomon ... 1. Reinforcement Initially, an individual will engage in a behaviour which leads to the positive reinforcement of this ... Addiction is driven by underlying motivations, as proposed by the opponent-process theory of motivation and the addiction cycle ... propose the opponent-process theory of motivation. This theory suggests that addiction occurs in two processes and it is these ...
Make research projects and school reports about Learning Theory easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about Learning Theory at Encyclopedia.com. ... and reinforcement theory was usually paired with instrumental- ... Other relevant material may be found in Drives; Gestalt theory; Motivation.]. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Amsel, Abram 1962 Frustrative ... The drive-reduction theory of Clark L. Hull and Kenneth W. Spence, which became influential in the 1930s, introduced motivation ...
This is an important exception to reinforcement theory.. An example of cognitive dissonance is smoking. Smoking cigarettes ... The need to maintain a healthy self-esteem is recognized as a central human motivation in the field of social psychology. Self- ... Various schools of thought have argued for a particular model to be used as a guiding theory by which all, or the majority, of ... Cognitive theory contends that solutions to problems take the form of algorithms-rules that are not necessarily understood but ...
... motivation, and reinforcement learning. Reinforcement sensitivity theory is one of the major biological models of individual ... These critiques led to a major revision and renaming of the theory in 2000. The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) ... while Grays theory emphasized Impulsivity, Anxiety, approach motivation, and avoidance motivation. Grays model of personality ... differences in emotion, motivation, and learning. The theory distinguishes between fear and anxiety, and links reinforcement ...
Situational Motivation. Situational motivation is the result of the reinforcement or punishment of behavior. Acknowledging that ... There are dozens of theories and hundreds of books on motivation. Without entering into a debate about different theories, it ... Focusing on only one source motivation (or schedule of reinforcement) is a mistake. It is better to optimize all of the forms ... Motivation is not a zero sum game; it is additive.. It is important to recognize that when both Honda and Toyota built plants ...
Make research projects and school reports about motivation easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... REINFORCEMENT THEORY. Reinforcement theory is based on the relationship between behavior and its consequences. In the workplace ... Contemporary Theories of Motivation. Atkinsons theory gradually declined in the 1980s as motivation researchers turned their ... The study of motivation has its roots in reinforcement theory, which focuses on the ways behaviors can be shaped by their ...
BehaviorExtrinsicOperantArousalPunishmentRewardBehaviourNegativeExpectancy TheoryMotivational theoriesBehavioralMaslow'sReinforcersBehaviorsMotivateHerzberg'sReinforcerPsychologyStimuliPositiveExtinctionOccursSensitivity theoryPersonalityContent TheoriesMotivatesAchievementTheoreticalPracticeVroom'sFocusesEmployeePeople are motivatedMotivatorsPhysiologicalIndividual differencesPavlovianOrganizationalContingencyConsequencesHuman motivationExplainAddictionImportanceDopamineEmotionEmployee'sMotivesPremackIncentiveWorkResearchConceptsExplainsObservationPsychologistsApproach To MotivationNeurobiologySuggestsContemporaryImplicationsPsychological theory
- Differential Reinforcement is defined to occur when behavior is reinforced by being either rewarded or punished while interacting with others (Siegel, 2003). (bartleby.com)
- Employee Behavior: "The Reinforcement Theory" Introduction The research information that will be presented in this report identifies with the topic of Employee Behavior. (bartleby.com)
- The Need Hierarchy theory of Abraham Maslow, first expounded in 1943, ranks amongst the earliest studies linking motivational theory and organizational behavior. (brighthub.com)
- 2) What would equity theory have predicted about Simpson's behavior following Coleman's promotion? (bartleby.com)
- According to McShane & Glinow, motivation is defined as "the forces within a person that effect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior" (McShane & Glinow, 2011). (bartleby.com)
- Motivation crowding theory is the psychology and microeconomics theory that providing extrinsic incentives for certain kinds of behavior-such as promising monetary rewards for accomplishing some task-can sometimes undermine intrinsic motivation for performing that behavior. (wikipedia.org)
- Behaviorism reigned as the dominant model in psychology throughout the first half of the 20th century, largely due to the creation of conditioning theories as scientific models of human behavior, and their successful application in the workplace and in fields such as advertising and military science. (wikibooks.org)
- Although proponents of these two perspectives differ in their view of how learning can be studied, both schools of thought agree that there are three major assumptions of learning theory: (1) behavior is influenced by experience, (2) learning is adaptive for the individual and for the species, and (3) learning is a process governed by natural laws that can be tested and studied. (encyclopedia.com)
- Ultimately all organization performance comes down to human behavior, and there are always two aspects to achieving high performance: One is competence and the other is motivation. (industryweek.com)
- While space does not permit here adequate development of background or supporting documentation, it is probable that motivation became a central variable in behavior theories coincidentally with the change from viewing mind as "structure" to viewing mind as "function. (encyclopedia.com)
- Through many revisions, the concept of instinct as a directive force had achieved general acceptance among naturalists and was at hand for the now familiar uses in behavior theory to which it was put by McDougall and by Freud. (encyclopedia.com)
- In the study of motivation the concept of instinct becomes useful when it is made to represent rather uniform, genotypically shaped behavior patterns operating in the context of self-maintenance or species maintenance. (encyclopedia.com)
- A. C. Moss and I. P. Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Moss and Albery (2009) presented an interesting integration of two influential theories about alcohol's inconsistent effects on behavior: alcohol-expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Theories taking on a spectrum of perspectives began to take shape as psychologists began to publish their own research and conclusions on human behavior, including in the area of giving. (learningtogive.org)
- This branch of social psychology, begun with the work of William McDougall in 1908, studied the effects of societal norms on personality, behavior, motivations and attitudes. (learningtogive.org)
- Extrinsic Motivation comes from consequences of behavior - material/social rewards or avoiding punishment - and not from the behavior itself (e.g., trash collection) Fundamental distinction. (slideserve.com)
- Extinction - Eliminating any reinforcement for undesirable behavior. (slideserve.com)
- These theories basically predict that performance-based rewards increase the likelihood that the behavior will be voluntarily performed again. (pnas.org)
- Predicting hyperactive behavior as a cause of non-compliance with rehabilitation: the reinforcement motivation survey. (thefreelibrary.com)
- All behavior is caused by current environmental stimuli (including states of motivation), past learning, and the genetic/neurophysiological variables. (brainscape.com)
- Reinforcement must be given immediately after a particular behavior has occurred. (brainscape.com)
- Positive reinforcement increases the chance that a behavior will reoccur. (brainscape.com)
- Negative reinforcement can also cause a behavior to reoccur. (brainscape.com)
- In many cases once the pattern of behavior has been established, it may be sustained by partial reinforcement, which is provided only after selected responses. (jrank.org)
- In contrast to classical and operant conditioning, which describe learning in terms of observable behavior, other theories focus on learning derived from motivation, memory , and cognition . (jrank.org)
- Termed vicarious conditioning, this type of learning is present when there is attention to the behavior, retention and the ability to reproduce the behavior, and motivation for the learning to occur. (jrank.org)
- The classical reinforcement theory that focuses on the relationship between a target behavior (such as work performance) and its consequences (such as pay) forms the basis of incentive pay to motivate employees. (brighthub.com)
- The main problem with this theory is that it did not really explain behavior, it just described it. (verywellmind.com)
- By the 1920s, instinct theories were pushed aside in favor of other motivational theories, but contemporary evolutionary psychologists still study the influence of genetics and heredity on human behavior. (verywellmind.com)
- Reinforcement strengthens a behavior while punishment weakens it. (verywellmind.com)
- Motivation theory is thus concerned with the processes that explain why and how human behavior is activated. (avroarrow.org)
- The broad rubric of motivation and motivation theory is one of the most frequently studied and written-about topics in the organizational sciences, and is considered one of the most important areas of study in the field of organizational behavior. (avroarrow.org)
- Content (or need) theories of motivation focus on factors internal to the individual that energize and direct behavior. (avroarrow.org)
- Self-regulated learning could also be defined as an active, constructive process during which learners set goals for their learning and then try to monitor, regulate and control their cognition, motivation and behavior. (questia.com)
- These include cognition, motivation, behavior and the environment. (questia.com)
- Individuals are not able to monitor and control their cognition, motivation, or behavior at all times. (questia.com)
- It is important for talent managers to examine and discuss the underlying motivational and incentive theories connected to human behavior, management, and leadership. (edweek.org)
- Human resource professionals often look at sets of motivational theories in hopes of understanding past behavior as well as predicting future behavior. (edweek.org)
- Yet, what intrinsic motivation may mean computationally, and how it may differ from extrinsic motivation, remains a murky and controversial subject. (psu.edu)
- The results of two computational experiments show that optimal primary reward signals may yield both emergent intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. (psu.edu)
- Finding out which type of motivation intrinsic or extrinsic, is a building block of how a person gets influenced for better motivation. (bartleby.com)
- Extrinsic or Intrinsic Motivation Over the years, motivation has been defined by many people, in many different ways. (bartleby.com)
- Mental states are important to learning as are environmental factors (Intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement). (prezi.com)
- Unlike the drive theory, the incentive theory states we are motivated by extrinsic motivators. (prezi.com)
- These observations led researchers to ask how providing extrinsic rewards for a given activity would influence intrinsic motivation toward that activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from an outside source. (livestrong.com)
- Tangible extrinsic motivation is not necessarily ideal for athletes who become too focused on materialism at the expense of other aspects of sports. (livestrong.com)
- Intangible extrinsic motivation includes praise, recognition and achievement, which can often be enough to motivate athletes. (livestrong.com)
- Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation. (slideserve.com)
- Contrary to the widespread belief that people are positively motivated by reward incentives, some studies have shown that performance-based extrinsic reward can actually undermine a person's intrinsic motivation to engage in a task. (pnas.org)
- Motivation-there are two kinds: intrinsic, which involves doing something because we want to do it, and extrinsic, which is doing something because we have to do it. (facultyfocus.com)
- Extrinsic motivation undermines intrinsic motivation. (facultyfocus.com)
- As a result of this negative relationship, students don't have much intrinsic motivation because it's been beaten out of them by most extrinsic educational experiences. (facultyfocus.com)
- Starting with construct validity, Reiss writes, "The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is invalid … because motives cannot be divided into just two categories. (facultyfocus.com)
- The research that demonstrates an undermining effect (that extrinsic motivation diminishes intrinsic motivation) is almost entirely based on single-trial studies conducted in lab settings. (facultyfocus.com)
- Reiss says that researchers have moved beyond the dualistic study of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. (facultyfocus.com)
- Reprinted from Motivation: Intrinsic, Extrinsic, or More The Teaching Professor, 26.5 (2012): 3-4. (facultyfocus.com)
- Drive theory plays an integral role in motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic. (avroarrow.org)
- The CER is often referred to as conditioned suppression because the learned response is a CS-elicited reduction in the rate of free-operant response rates established by food reward using various schedules of reinforcement. (scholarpedia.org)
- Conditioned suppression occurs when a CS paired with a foot shock US results in a reduction in the baseline operant rate of responding for food reinforcement in the presence of the CS. (scholarpedia.org)
- It also challenges traditional operant learning theory and reinforcement learning theory, which currently constitutes the fundamental theoretical framework for human decision making ( 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
- In operant conditioning , a response is learned because it leads to a particular consequence (reinforcement), and it is strengthened each time it is reinforced. (jrank.org)
- According to drive-reduction theory, the association of stimulus and response in classical and operant conditioning only results in learning if accompanied by drive reduction. (jrank.org)
- This theory shares some similarities with the behaviorist concept of operant conditioning . (verywellmind.com)
- Strengths of the social learning theory include the role of vicarious learning since, unlike operant conditioning, social learning theory can explain aggression in the absence of direct reinforcement since at no point were children directly rewarded for any action in Bandura's Bobo Doll study. (collegeformeandroscoggin.org)
- Berlyne, D. E. Arousal and reinforcement. (springer.com)
- Eysenck's theory predicts that introverts are more likely to develop anxiety disorders because they show higher neuroticism and stronger emotional conditioning responses under high arousal. (wikipedia.org)
- His theory was criticized because introverts often show the opposite pattern, weaker classical conditioning under high arousal, and some supporting data confounded personality traits with time of day. (wikipedia.org)
- We now know that instead of being linked to pleasure, dopamine plays a role in motor control, arousal, motivation, and reinforcement, among other functions. (learning-theories.com)
- The arousal theory of motivation suggests that people take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousal. (verywellmind.com)
- According to this theory, we are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal, although this level can vary based on the individual or the situation. (verywellmind.com)
- Motivation can be broadly defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effort. (avroarrow.org)
- Punishment can be equalized by positive reinforcement from alternative source. (managementstudyguide.com)
- Observation of reinforcement and punishment gives learners motivation to behave. (prezi.com)
- Reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposes three brain-behavioral systems that underlie individual differences in sensitivity to reward, punishment, and motivation. (wikipedia.org)
- Gray's biopsychological theory of personality was informed by his earlier studies with Mowrer on reward, punishment, and motivation and Hans Eysenck's study of the biology of personality traits. (wikipedia.org)
- His theory emphasized the relationship between personality and sensitivity to reinforcement (i.e. reward and punishment). (wikipedia.org)
- Reinforcement objectively refers to any condition-often reward or punishment-that may promote learning. (britannica.com)
- Reinforcement and punishment , traditionally contrasted as opposites, are in fact equivalent except for sign. (wikipedia.org)
- There is also research support for social learning theory, firstly for the role of punishment since it was found that learning takes place regardless of outcome but production is linked only to reinforcement. (collegeformeandroscoggin.org)
- It must be noted that more spontaneous is the giving of reward, the greater reinforcement value it has. (managementstudyguide.com)
- The simple but general formal theory of fun & intrinsic motivation & creativity (1990-) is based on the concept of maximizing intrinsic reward for the active creation or discovery of novel, surprising patterns allowing for improved prediction or data compression. (psu.edu)
- A neural study in 2002, by James Riling and others, found that social cooperation was associated with consistent brain activation in brain areas that have been linked with reward processes and motivation (Rilling et al. (wikiversity.org)
- The Expectancy theory states that employee's motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (Expectancy) and the belief that the performance will lead to reward (Instrumentality). (bartleby.com)
- The theory recognises that through encouragement , praise and reward , children will develop self-efficacy and will strive to be successful. (prezi.com)
- Representations of a US involve both sensory and motivational properties of reinforcement, and cues may form associations with both of these features of a reward representation (for review, see Balleine, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
- Second-order conditioning and conditioned reinforcement procedures (Mead and Stephens, 2003) do not discriminate between the influence of sensory-specific features of reinforcement and the general motivation properties of reward on performance (cf. (jneurosci.org)
- Expectancy Theory Motivation derives from an "Expectancy Chain" -linkages between effort, performance, and rewards: Expectancy (effort-performance linkage) Instrumentality (performance-reward linkage) Valence (reward-goal linkage) attractiveness / importance of the potential organizational outcome/reward Increase motivation by strengthening linkages Most comprehensive, widely accepted motivational theory Why do I say "Expectancy Chain? (slideserve.com)
- Our results show that performance-based monetary reward indeed undermines intrinsic motivation, as assessed by the number of voluntary engagements in the task. (pnas.org)
- This predominance of incentive systems may reflect a widespread cultural belief that performance-based reward is a reliable and effective way to enhance motivation in students and workers. (pnas.org)
- However, classic psychological experiments have repeatedly revealed that performance-based reward can also undermine people's intrinsic motivation ( 1 - 6 ), that is, motivation to voluntarily engage in a task for the inherent pleasure and satisfaction derived from the task itself ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
- In a typical experiment of this "undermining effect" [also called the "motivation crowding-out effect" ( 7 - 9 ) or "overjustification effect" ( 2 )], participants are randomly divided into a performance-based reward group and a control group, and both groups work on an interesting task. (pnas.org)
- A number of studies ( 4 - 6 ) found that the performance-based reward group spends significantly less time than the control group engaging in the target activity during the free-choice period, providing evidence that the performance-based reward undermines voluntary engagement in the task (i.e., intrinsic motivation for the task). (pnas.org)
- RST assumes that variation in sensitivity/reactivity of the reward system is the cause of individual differences in approach motivation (e.g. desire or need for achievement, persistence, and positive emotionality). (srce.hr)
- Self-reinforcement - this is described by the need for external reward for self-reinforcing responses, such as social surveillance or increased status. (questia.com)
- Victor Vroom developed the Expectancy Theory that rewards must be attractive and that an individual must see and feel a strong reward-performance link. (edweek.org)
- Specious reward: a behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control. (springer.com)
- Reinforcement learning is a computational approach to learning whereby an agent tries to maximize the total amount of reward it receives when interacting with a complex, uncertain environment. (e-booksdirectory.com)
- This theory is a strong tool for analyzing controlling mechanism for individual s behaviour. (managementstudyguide.com)
- Positive Reinforcement- This implies giving a positive response when an individual shows positive and required behaviour. (managementstudyguide.com)
- Positive reinforcement stimulates occurrence of a behaviour. (managementstudyguide.com)
- Both positive and negative reinforcement can be used for increasing desirable / required behaviour. (managementstudyguide.com)
- Reinforcement theory explains in detail how an individual learns behaviour. (managementstudyguide.com)
- Social Learning Theory states that behaviour is learned through observational learning of others (known as models). (prezi.com)
- The theory allows for cognitive processes and explains inconsistencies in behaviour without blaming the child. (prezi.com)
- When a behaviour is affected by the strength of the reinforcement, causing self-regulation to be negatively affected, and the behaviour is maladaptive, it is considered an addiction (Webb, Sniehotta, & Michie, 2010). (wikiversity.org)
- 1. Reinforcement Initially, an individual will engage in a behaviour which leads to the positive reinforcement of this behaviour. (wikiversity.org)
- Positive reinforcement occurs when a substance is first introduced, as it elicits a strong positive response that increases the likelihood for the behaviour to occur again. (wikiversity.org)
- Therefore, the individual becomes motivated by negative reinforcement, as they engage in the behaviour in order to avoid the aversive reaction. (wikiversity.org)
- Due to the changes in the neurocognitive bases of motivation, individuals with addictions lose the ability to consciously control their own behaviour. (wikiversity.org)
- Learning theory , any of the proposals put forth to explain changes in behaviour produced by practice, as opposed to other factors, e.g., physiological development. (britannica.com)
- This point of view, called learning theory, is concerned with identifying those mechanisms that can be offered to explain differences in behaviour, motives, and values among children. (britannica.com)
- Associative learning , the ability of an animal to connect a previously irrelevant stimulus with a particular response, occurs mainly through the process of conditioning , in which reinforcement crystallizes new behaviour patterns. (britannica.com)
- POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT - the increase of a desired response by providing a pleasant consequence such as food - so behaviour is repeated. (getrevising.co.uk)
- Why are there multiple theories of motivation in organisational behaviour? (ukessays.com)
- The Process Theories are a understanding of the thought process that influence behaviour. (ukessays.com)
- The second weakness is determinism since social learning theory presents learning to be a passive absorption of behaviour. (collegeformeandroscoggin.org)
- The same conditions can increase prosocial behaviours, for example religious gatherings, but the focus of deindividuation theory has been on antisocial behaviour. (collegeformeandroscoggin.org)
- Motivation is a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour. (vaxity.com)
- The early view that instincts control behaviour was replaced by drive-reduction theory, which maintains that physiological needs create psychological drives that seek to restore internal stability, or homeostasis. (vaxity.com)
- Defining motivation and identifying several theories of motivated behaviour. (vaxity.com)
- A motivation is a need or desire that serves to energize A motivation is a need or desire that serves to energize behaviour and to direct it toward a goal. (vaxity.com)
- The Game Changer : How to Use the Science of Motivation With the Power of Game Design to Shift Behaviour, Shape Culture and Make Clever Happen. (worldcat.org)
- I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/869641159 Title: The Game Changer : How to Use the Science of Motivation With the Power of Game Design to Shift Behaviour, Shape Culture and Make Clever Happen. (worldcat.org)
- Negative Reinforcement- This implies rewarding an employee by removing negative / undesirable consequences. (managementstudyguide.com)
- With this said, the theory was developed as a way of labeling both positive, as well as negative aspects of individual action. (bartleby.com)
- Treatment based on this theory can help you to break out of negative thought and behavioral patterns. (drugrehab.org)
- For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images. (frontiersin.org)
- Positive reinforcement strengthens a response if it is presented afterwards, while negative reinforcement strengthens it by being withheld. (jrank.org)
- Skinner's theory simply states those employees' behaviors that lead to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not be repeated (Skinner, 1953). (joe.org)
- The Expectancy Theory holds motivation as a function of Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence. (brighthub.com)
- 3) In terms of expectancy theory, how would you describe Simpson's valence for a promotion and its instrumentality? (bartleby.com)
- Five major approaches of motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's twofactor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement theory. (scribd.com)
- The expectancy theory of motivation suggests that when we are thinking about the future, we formulate different expectations about what we think will happen. (verywellmind.com)
- The major process theories of motivation include Vroom's expectancy theory, goal-setting theory, and reinforcement theory and Adams' equity theory. (ukessays.com)
- I would like to build on our understanding of motivation theory and look at aspects of Expectancy theory. (hubpages.com)
- Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement theory. (joe.org)
- 2003). Motivational theories of psychology also show us that social factors like acceptance, affiliation, reciprocal friendships and love are all important to humans and highly motivate most individuals (Balliet et al. (wikiversity.org)
- Specific motivational theories exist that apply psychological concepts to sports for increased drive and performance. (livestrong.com)
- This chapter will discuss the characteristics of addiction, the motivational theories of addiction and the effect of mindfulness on addiction. (wikiversity.org)
- Frederick Herzberg (1923 to 2000) and Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 to 1915) were towering figures who presented differing motivational theories in business. (chron.com)
- Taylor's theory was actually the first of many motivational theories in business. (chron.com)
- Firstly I believe that we need to understand what motivation is before we can understand why there are lots of motivational theories. (ukessays.com)
- In behavioral psychology there is the idea of "multiple schedules of reinforcement. (industryweek.com)
- Rather, it is our contention (Rossiter and Percy 1987) that emotional stimuli are inserted, or should be inserted, to serve an underlying purchase (or usage) motivation (a motivation or motive being defined as a behavioral energizing mechanism). (acrwebsite.org)
- 19 echoed the findings of others authors 17 , 20 - 25 and organizations 16 , 26 that many diabetes educational interventions have been poorly described, without clear evidence of underlying psychological, behavioral, or educational theory integrated into the program syllabus and its delivery. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Behavioral learning concepts such as association and reinforcement play an important role in this theory of motivation. (verywellmind.com)
- There are many behavioral theorists and theories. (edweek.org)
- Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. (springer.com)
- Alderfer's ERG theory is a modification of Maslow's need hierarchy theory, and holds motivation dependent on three need dimensions: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. (brighthub.com)
- Abraham Maslow's developed a humanistic theory. (acsedu.co.uk)
- Two of the most popular need hierarchies are Abraham Maslow's hierarchy and Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory of motivation. (washington.edu)
- Maslow's view of motivation provides a logical framework for categorizing needs, but it does not supply a complete picture. (washington.edu)
- Alderfer developed the ERG theory of motivation in response to criticisms of Maslow's hierarchy. (washington.edu)
- This is famously illustrated in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs , which presents different motivations at different levels. (verywellmind.com)
- This essay will illustrate why there are multiple theories of motivation I will be looking at two theories Maslow's hierarchy and Hertzberg's two factor theories to try to determine why there is a need to have so many theories of motivation. (ukessays.com)
- There are two main types of motivation theories content and process theories, the content theories look at the needs that individuals have, it includes 4 component theories: Maslow's hierarchy of needs model, Alderfer's modified need hierarchy model, McClelland's achievement motivation theory and Herzberg's two-factor theories. (ukessays.com)
- Major content theories of motivation are Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Alderfer's ERG theory, Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory, and McClelland's learned needs or three-needs theory. (avroarrow.org)
- The ERG theory is an extension of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (avroarrow.org)
- Cognitive Dissonance Theory , Maslow's Need's Hierarchy , Self-determination Theory , Need-based Theory , Intrinsic Motivation and the 16 Basic Desires Theory , Behaviorism , and Altruism . (edweek.org)
- Can positive reinforcement in some way harm children or adolescents through our use of trying to pull out certain desired behaviors or traits within them? (bartleby.com)
- The job of management is to optimize all of the available sources of motivation to increase those behaviors that contribute to the success of the organization. (industryweek.com)
- The social learning theory explains how social observations alter our attitudes and behaviors in a way which could make us more vulnerable to addiction. (drugrehab.org)
- Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to choose certain behaviors from among the many alternatives open to them. (washington.edu)
- Need-based approaches to motivation focus on what motivates employees to choose certain behaviors as shown on the following diagram. (washington.edu)
- Behaviors that occur in the absence of reinforcement will be extinguished. (brainscape.com)
- Motivation is the force that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. (verywellmind.com)
- This theory is useful in explaining behaviors that have a strong biological component, such as hunger or thirst. (verywellmind.com)
- The problem with the drive theory of motivation is that these behaviors are not always motivated purely by physiological needs. (verywellmind.com)
- There is also the Reinforcement Theory , which says that rewards must be used to 'reinforce' new behaviors. (edweek.org)
- Money thereby alone does not motivate, and the extent of motivation depends on the motive for acquiring wealth, in which psychological needs play an important role. (brighthub.com)
- According to the basics of motivation theory people are motivated by unmet needs so in order to motivate a person or employee one must learn what his or her needs are. (hubpages.com)
- In my opinion it is clear that motivation is the key to good performance but the question is what the best way to motivate someone is. (hubpages.com)
- In general, such theories regard motivation as the product of internal drives that compel an individual to act or move (hence, "motivate") toward the satisfaction of individual needs. (avroarrow.org)
- If a stimulus is associated with the primary reinforcing effects of NIC, the new conditional properties of the stimulus should make it a more valuable reinforcer (i.e., increase the motivation to obtain the stimulus), and this value should be based, in part, on the strength or intensity of the primary reinforcer (i.e. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- It generalizes the traditional field of active learning, and is related to old but less formal ideas in aesthetics theory and developmental psychology. (psu.edu)
- The overarching principle for this module is that seemingly unattainable long-term goals can be achieved with the right understanding and application of theory, namely an integration of positive and motivational psychology. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Basic understanding of principles and theories of positive/motivational psychology. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Deep understanding of principles and theories of positive/motivational psychology and how they apply to running a marathon - Excellent understanding of effective training plans with regard to Psychological principles - In depth understanding of how to deal with set-backs to a personal goal and application of theory to re-evaluation/re-setting goals. (bangor.ac.uk)
- and * a concluding chapter detailing the application of learning theory to abnormal psychology. (routledge.com)
- Although Freud's theories are only of limited interest in modern academic psychology departments, his application of psychology to clinical work has been very influential. (wikibooks.org)
- The theory evolved from Gray's biopsychological theory of personality to incorporate findings from a number of areas in psychology and neuroscience, culminating in a major revision in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
- Learning theories are so central to the discipline of psychology that it is impossible to separate the history of learning theories from the history of psychology. (encyclopedia.com)
- This perspective falls under the broad rubric of cognitive learning theory, and it was first articulated by Wilhem Wundt, the acknowledged "father of psychology," who used introspection as a means of studying thought processes. (encyclopedia.com)
- The concept of motivation has had a comparatively short formal history in experimental psychology, figuring hardly at all in the systematic presentations of such forebears and founders as the English associationists Wundt, James, and Titchener. (encyclopedia.com)
- Another related set of facts and concepts from biology anticipated the psychologist's concern with motivation and gave him the framework of a model that has had long viability, not only within experimental psychology proper but also, as an inspiration for analogous models, within the social sciences generally. (encyclopedia.com)
- Developmental psychology, academic motivation. (reed.edu)
- The contributors were a "psychological theory" group (n = 18), a "health services research" group (n = 13), and a "health psychology" group (n = 30). (bmj.com)
- In 1906, Ivan Pavlov published his research which became one of the central foundations in psychology theory. (learningtogive.org)
- The last attempts to integrate all knowledge of psychology into one grand theory occurred in the 1930s. (britannica.com)
- The thesis will most typically report a small research project, but other alternatives include: (a) a review paper that includes an original theoretical overview of the topic, or (b) a critique of the theory, research, or practice of psychology. (upei.ca)
- The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether NIC-conditioned reinforcement increased motivation to obtain non-NIC stimuli, as reflected by performance on a progressive ratio (PR) reinforcement schedule, and whether this increased motivation was systematically related to NIC dose. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs) play an important role in the reinforcement and motivation of instrumental active avoidance (AA). (frontiersin.org)
- The theory of the 'substitution of stimuli' is based on the close similarity which is frequently observed between the CR and the UR. (psicothema.com)
- Like hunger, sexual motivation depends on the interplaying of internal and external stimuli. (vaxity.com)
- They must tell the employees how they can achieve positive reinforcement. (managementstudyguide.com)
- 2002). Riling and his team further concluded through their research, that activation of this neural network showed positive reinforcement of reciprocal altruism, which motivated and helped individuals resist the temptation to be selfish and accept non-reciprocal favours (Rilling et al. (wikiversity.org)
- In addition to having a happy workplace and a positive environment, a level of motivation is needed to encourage change. (bartleby.com)
- You can use this theory on yourself by noticing your positive contributions to your team, too. (livestrong.com)
- When crafting criticism, sandwich the need between positive reinforcement. (livestrong.com)
- What provides positive reinforcement, other than money? (slideserve.com)
- Generally, positive reinforcement is the most reliable and produces the best results. (jrank.org)
- This theory premises a positive link between incentive pay and employee motivation under the assumption that since wages or salary is what ultimately brings people to work, increased wages as incentive pay would lead to increased motivation. (brighthub.com)
- This opinion, however, remains unsubstantiated, whereas the positive link between incentive pay + employee motivation remains established. (brighthub.com)
- 3: 3 First Language Acquisition Theories Behaviorist: Children imitate the language used in their environment, receive positive reinforcement, and eventually form correct habits of language use. (mixbook.com)
- Amotivation occurs when players lack motivation, which happens for a few reasons. (livestrong.com)
- The evolution of learning theories may be thought of as a progression from broad theories developed to explain the many ways that learning occurs to more specific theories that are limited in the types of learning they are designed to explain. (encyclopedia.com)
- Rule-based processing occurs optionally when capacity and motivation are present (p. 111). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- While not originally defined as a theory of personality, the RST has been used to study and predict anxiety, impulsivity, and extraversion. (wikipedia.org)
- His theory focused more on anxiety as a disorder than a personality trait. (wikipedia.org)
- Gray proposed the Biopsychological Theory of personality in 1970 based on extensive animal research. (wikipedia.org)
- According to Gray, personality traits are associated with individual differences in the strengths of BAS (approach motivation) and BIS (avoidance motivation) systems. (wikipedia.org)
- Of the six areas, participative goal setting and motivation conditions appeared most often as strongest predictors of personality subscores. (ufl.edu)
- c) The science of mind (d) The study of motivation, emotion, personality, adjustment and abnorma-lity. (preservearticles.com)
- A person's performance at work is affected by several individual factors (Personality, attitudes and beliefs, motivation, perception) but in particular, by Motivation. (ukessays.com)
- Content Theories? (coursehero.com)
- Over time, these major theoretical streams of research in motivation were classified into two major schools: the content theories of motivation and the process theories of motivation. (avroarrow.org)
- The content theories of motivation are based in large part on early theories of motivation that traced the paths of action backward to their perceived origin in internal drives. (avroarrow.org)
- The sandwich theory motivates athletes to correct or improve without destroying their sense of enjoyment, pride or inclusion as an equal team member. (livestrong.com)
- Each of us develops a personal view of how motivation works, our own model on what motivates people. (humankinetics.com)
- Douglas McGregor of MIT developed Theory X and Theory Y , which talk to an organization's beliefs of how people behave and what motivates them. (edweek.org)
- The lectures will cover content and introduce theories to guide and govern successful goal setting and achievement. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Other need-based perspectives on motivation focus on acquired needs: the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power. (washington.edu)
- c) Achievement motivation (d) none of the above. (preservearticles.com)
- Achievement motivation does not have any obvious biological basis. (vaxity.com)
- Pure mathematics often gives little or no motivation starting a paper or talk with something like 'Let λ be an inaccessible cardinal…' In economics, even in theoretical papers, considerable time is spent in coming up with stories to justify a given model. (computationalcomplexity.org)
- It also presents a theoretical challenge for economic and reinforcement learning theories, which tend to assume that monetary incentives monotonically increase motivation. (pnas.org)
- The theoretical mechanisms of such reinforcement are controversial. (britannica.com)
- We propose a new unifying attempt based on theoretical points posed by other authors and supplemented by theory and research on associative learning. (springer.com)
- An understanding of brain function is increasingly being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. (wikibooks.org)
- Practice the ABCs of motivation. (refresher.com)
- The original concept of motivation grew from the Greek philosophers' ideas of hedonism , which argues that it is human nature, and good practice, to pursue pleasure and avoid pain. (learningtogive.org)
- Despite the ease of application of this theory to a work setting, this theory has received little research support and therefore is not very useful in practice. (avroarrow.org)
- A theory to practice approach to strength training and aerobic cross training methods will be examined in this course as students learn how to test, design, and implement strength training and aerobic cross training programs for sport and fitness. (cui.edu)
- These features help make the text an invaluable resource for those interested in the theory or practice of stochastic search and optimization. (wiley.com)
- Employee performance is a function of a person's abilities, resources, and motivation. (refresher.com)
- organizations must start focusing on why and/or how motivation is developed rather than what motivated an employee. (mastersthesiswriting.com)
- Employee motivation strategies work, but with limitations. (brighthub.com)
- An alternative school of opinion discounts the role of incentive pay on long-term employee motivation. (brighthub.com)
- The researchers have found from the survey that financial benefits are important for employee motivation but the importance of non financial rewards cannot even be discriminated. (scribd.com)
- The hand-delivered descriptive survey addressed ten motivating factors in the context of employee motivation theory. (joe.org)
- Findings suggest interesting work and good pay are key to higher employee motivation. (joe.org)
- This section looks into the psychological motivation theory that shows the underlying behavioural reasons of why people are motivated to cooperate. (wikiversity.org)
- Without entering into a debate about different theories, it is best to recognize that people are motivated by different things, at different times, and in different circumstances. (industryweek.com)
- According to instinct theories, people are motivated to behave in certain ways because they are evolutionarily programmed to do so. (verywellmind.com)
- The incentive theory suggests that people are motivated to do things because of external rewards. (verywellmind.com)
- The greater the perceived rewards, the more strongly people are motivated to pursue those reinforcements. (verywellmind.com)
- According to the drive theory of motivation, people are motivated to take certain actions in order to reduce the internal tension that is caused by unmet needs. (verywellmind.com)
- Now according to basics of motivation theory people are motivated by unmet needs, however there is a hierarchy of needs. (hubpages.com)
- Also, the idea that people are motivated, positively or negatively, due to their personal beliefs about their ability to perform and complete goals is called Self-Efficacy Theory . (edweek.org)
- He is most noted for his introduction of homeostasis , a theory taken from a purely physiological viewpoint. (learningtogive.org)
- Based on the tendency of an organism to maintain balance by adjusting physiological responses, the drive-reduction theory postulated that motivation is an intervening factor in times of imbalance. (jrank.org)
- So, what are the individual differences which can underlie leadership motivation? (acsedu.co.uk)
- Individuals show reliable individual differences in how they prioritize these 16 reinforcements. (facultyfocus.com)
- The second strength is that social learning theory can explain individual differences and context-dependent learning. (collegeformeandroscoggin.org)
- Their first two-volume set included chapters authored by many of the leading researchers in the field of animal learning and focused primarily on Pavlovian theory and instrumental conditioning. (routledge.com)
- A.R. Wagner, S.E. Brandon, A Componential Theory of Pavlovian Conditioning. (routledge.com)
- This analysis identified medial amygdala (MeA) as a potentially important region for Pavlovian motivation of instrumental actions. (frontiersin.org)
- Taken together, these results suggest that MeA plays a selective role in the motivation of instrumental avoidance by general or uncertain Pavlovian threats. (frontiersin.org)
- External forces, such as competition, and internal forces, such as profit and loss statements, are often a source of motivation for organizational change (Kelman, 2006). (bartleby.com)
- Motivation: the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need. (slideserve.com)
- For this paper, motivation is operationally defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals. (joe.org)
- Therefore, addictions instigate a loss of control over the motivation for general well-being and reduction in future consequences. (wikiversity.org)
- We have found a more accurate portrayal of dopamine, in which it plays a central role in regulating our motivations for pursuing rewards or avoiding consequences. (learning-theories.com)
- So if you're not up for a 20-page tutorial on human motivation, this post isn't for you, but I hope you're glad I bothered to write it for the sake of others. (lesswrong.com)
- If you are in the mood for a 20-page tutorial on human motivation, please proceed. (lesswrong.com)
- We know a lot more about the neuroscience of human motivation than you might think. (lesswrong.com)
- Now we can peer directly into the black box of human motivation, and begin (dimly) to read our own source code. (lesswrong.com)
- The neuroscience of human motivation has implications for philosophy of mind and action, for scientific self-help , and for metaethics and Friendly AI . (lesswrong.com)
- So, I wrote a crash course in the neuroscience of human motivation. (lesswrong.com)
- Instead, I merely want to summarize the current mainstream scientific picture on the neuroscience of human motivation, explain some of the concepts it uses, and tell a few stories about how our current picture of human motivation developed. (lesswrong.com)
- 1261 words - 6 pages Grade A Motivation Concepts Analysis Human Motivation PSY/320 Motivational Concepts Motivational concepts assist humans to achieve goals throughout life. (avroarrow.org)
- Equity theory attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships. (bartleby.com)
- However, when giving talks to a wider CS audience, it is best to be honest about the motivation and explain the context and related problems. (computationalcomplexity.org)
- Explain how to initiate motivation with an individual or group for a situation not previously confronted. (acsedu.co.uk)
- Many theories have been formulated by psychologists to explain the process of learning. (jrank.org)
- There are fundamentally two theories which have attempted to explain the nature of this response. (psicothema.com)
- Researchers have developed a number of theories to explain motivation. (verywellmind.com)
- Throughout the years many theorists have tried to explain what motivation is by designing theories describing how managers should stimulate their staff. (ukessays.com)
- Participants will learn how to explain the DBT biosocial theory and competently structure DBT sessions. (oshawapsychotherapytraining.com)
- Also, social learning theory has the strength of application since it can explain other antisocial behaviours. (collegeformeandroscoggin.org)
- This book chapter aims to help you to understand the underlying motivations of addiction and how mindfulness can be used as a therapeutic approach. (wikiversity.org)
- What are the underlying motivations of addiction? (wikiversity.org)
- The social learning theory (SLT) suggests that addiction is rooted in the way we observe and learn from our peers and role models. (drugrehab.org)
- In the end we reduce the amount of motivation in the paper often to a single sentence of the introduction and a theory audience only rarely questions the importance of a model during a talk. (computationalcomplexity.org)
- Often these variations are motivated solely by the importance of the original model, even if the variations have little relevance with the original motivation of the model. (computationalcomplexity.org)
- Perceptual learning theories postulate that an or ganism's readiness to learn is of primary importance to its survival, and this readiness depends largely on its perceptual skills. (jrank.org)
- Many psychologists discount any universal applicability of association theory, saying that other considerations are of greater importance to learning. (britannica.com)
- These mechanisms are gaining importance, especially in relation to new media, and the model is a first step in taking into account intrinsic motivations behind opinion expressions. (innovations-report.com)
- PBL Project: Create and present a plan with specific strategies for improving the employee's motivation in the workplace, based on a clear understanding of the person's needs, values and situation. (acsedu.co.uk)
- An employee's performance typically is influenced by motivation, ability, and the work environment. (washington.edu)
- McGuire's Psychological Motivations is a classification system that organizes theories of motives into 16 categories. (wikipedia.org)
- Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) Affective Growth Motives a. (wikipedia.org)
- In the first section of this paper, we describe more fully (with some updating) our 1987 theory of emotions and motives in advertising. (acrwebsite.org)
- Managers can cultivates intrinsic motivation by using rewards to boost workers' sense of competence rather than their style in response to workers' motives, set specific, challenging goals, and combine oriented social leadership. (vaxity.com)
- In this review, we identity four distinctive aspects of the BAS: wanting, incentive motivation, striving and liking. (srce.hr)
- While incentive theory is similar, it instead proposes that people intentionally pursue certain courses of action in order to gain rewards. (verywellmind.com)
- This list doesn't even scratch the surface when it comes to motivational and incentive theory. (edweek.org)
- John Adam's equity theory of motivation holds that people gauge the fairness of their work outcomes not based on the rewards they get in return for their work, but the extent of their rewards for the work put in relative to what others get. (brighthub.com)
- 1346 words - 6 pages ï»¿In the work place there are several types of motivation in which some management staff fails to acknowledge. (avsabonline.org)
- For most people, motivation (the will to work) comes from within. (scribd.com)
- To be able to understand motivation and the way it works, we have to understand human nature itself, managers also need to understand the work effort motivation cycle as to not loose there staff to more exciting rewarding and satisfying roles else were. (ukessays.com)
- Theory X individuals believe that all people are lazy and will not work unless closely supervised, while those who prescribe to Theory Y believe that people are self controlled and motivated, requiring little or no supervision. (edweek.org)
- There is also William G. Ouchi's Theory Z , which adds another dimension to McGregor's work. (edweek.org)
- Becker, J. Depression: Theory and research . (springer.com)
- In his research he identified 16 distinct universal reinforcements that he developed into an assessment tool called the Reiss Motivation Profile. (facultyfocus.com)
- For the purpose of this article, we will focus on some more broad theories that have been used across many areas of research in social and cultural evolution. (universalclass.com)
- Theory and research on self regulated academic learning emerged in the mid-1980s, aiming to give an answer to the question how students become masters of their own learning processes. (questia.com)
- The principles of "association," as contributions to theories of learning and memory, have had a long philosophical history, of course, but they never gave rise to concepts that could be called "motivational. (encyclopedia.com)
- The approach of reinforcement learning is, in my opinion, particularly suitable because on the one hand it is psychologically sound and sociologically compatible and on the other hand it allows a connection to game theory concepts and thus allows for mathematical analysis. (innovations-report.com)
- Concepts from linear system theory were adapted to represent some aspects of neural dynamics, including solutions of simultaneous linear equations \(Y = AX\) using matrix theory, and concepts about cross-correlation. (scholarpedia.org)
- It has been argued that the theory explains many essential aspects of intelligence including autonomous development, science, art, music, humor. (psu.edu)
- It's more complicated than we tend to think, but this new understanding of motivation better explains how it works and can be harnessed in the interest of learning. (facultyfocus.com)
- Because B is followed by the US equally often in the blocking and compound-only conditions, the observation of reduced conditioning to B only in the blocking conditioning is hard to reconcile with theories of classical conditioning asserting that contiguity of a CS with a US suffices for the establishment of a CR. (scholarpedia.org)
- This definition of primary reinforcement is satisfied by the observation that an increase in tobacco use (and thus NIC-intake) typically follows initial exposure to the drug. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- ERG theory has a frustration-regression element that suggests that if needs remain unsatisfied at some high level, the individual will become frustrated, regress to a lower level, and begin to pursue lower-level needs again. (washington.edu)
- This suggests that reinforcement is an absolute property. (wikipedia.org)
- Mowrer and Klein have long been making contributions to the field of contemporary learning theories. (routledge.com)
- R.R. Mowrer, S.B. Klein, The Transitive Nature of Contemporary Learning Theory. (routledge.com)
- Handbook of contemporary learning theories (pp. 155-209). (indiana.edu)
- Many contemporary authors have also defined the concept of motivation. (joe.org)
- The module is based on core psychological theory which is then applied in a very real way to running training and performance. (bangor.ac.uk)
- This course will cover topics from psychological theory and application that are relevant for marathon preparation. (bangor.ac.uk)
- OUTLINE AND EVALUATE TWO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOICAL THEORIES OF AGGRESSION The first psychological theory of aggression is the social learning theory. (collegeformeandroscoggin.org)
- The second psychological theory of aggression is deindividuation. (collegeformeandroscoggin.org)