A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Use of word stimulus to strengthen a response during learning.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
A listing of established professional service charges, for specified dental and medical procedures.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
The selection of one food over another.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.

Psychophysics of remembering. (1/1738)

We present a new model of remembering in the context of conditional discrimination. For procedures such as delayed matching to sample, the effect of the sample stimuli at the time of remembering is represented by a pair of Thurstonian (normal) distributions of effective stimulus values. The critical assumption of the model is that, based on prior experience, each effective stimulus value is associated with a ratio of reinforcers obtained for previous correct choices of the comparison stimuli. That ratio determines the choice that is made on the basis of the matching law. The standard deviations of the distributions are assumed to increase with increasing retention-interval duration, and the distance between their means is assumed to be a function of other factors that influence overall difficulty of the discrimination. It is a behavioral model in that choice is determined by its reinforcement history. The model predicts that the biasing effects of the reinforcer differential increase with decreasing discriminability and with increasing retention-interval duration. Data from several conditions using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure with pigeons support the predictions.  (+info)

Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule. (2/1738)

The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates.  (+info)

The effects of d-amphetamine on the temporal control of operant responding in rats during a preshock stimulus. (3/1738)

The operant behavior of six rats was maintained by a random-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three-minute periods of noise were superimposed on this behavior, each period ending with the delivery of an unavoidable shock. Overall rates of responding were generally lower during the periods of noise than in its absence (conditioned suppression). These suppressed response rates also exhibited temporal patterning, with responding becoming less frequent as each noise period progressed. The effects of d-amphetamine on this behavioral baseline were then assessed. In four animals the relative response rates during the noise and in its absence suggested that the drug produced a dose-related decrease in the amount of conditioned suppression. However, this effect was often due to a decrease in the rates of responding in the absence of the preshock stimulus, rather than to an increase in response rates during the stimulus. Temporal patterning in response rates during the preshock stimulus was abolished, an effect that was interpreted in terms of rate-dependent effect of d-amphetamine. This study thus extends rate-dependent analyses of the effects of amphetamines to the patterns of operant behavior that occur during a preshock stimulus, and which have been discussed in terms of the disrupting effects of anxiety on operant behavior.  (+info)

On the relation between object manipulation and stereotypic self-injurious behavior. (4/1738)

Results from a number of studies have shown an inverse relationship between stereotypic behavior and object manipulation. The purposes of this study were to determine whether techniques similar to those used previously (prompting and reinforcement) would be effective in increasing object manipulation under both prompted and unprompted conditions, and to ascertain whether increases in object manipulation would result in decreases in stereotypic self-injurious behavior (SIB). Two individuals with developmental disabilities who engaged in SIB maintained by automatic reinforcement participated. Results showed that object manipulation increased from baseline levels when experimenters prompted participants to manipulate leisure items, but that object manipulation was not maintained under unprompted conditions, and rates of SIB stayed within baseline levels. We then attempted to increase object manipulation further by (a) reinforcing object manipulation, (b) blocking SIB while reinforcing manipulation, and (c) preventing SIB by applying protective equipment while reinforcing object manipulation. Reinforcing object manipulation alone did not affect levels of object manipulation. Blocking effectively reduced attempts to engage in SIB for 1 participant but produced no increase in object manipulation. When the 2nd participant was prevented from engaging in SIB through the use of protective equipment, rates of object manipulation increased dramatically but were not maintained when the equipment was removed. These results suggest that stimulation derived from object manipulation, even when supplemented with arbitrary reinforcement, may not compete with stimulation produced by stereotypic SIB; therefore, direct interventions to reduce SIB are required.  (+info)

Examination of ambiguous stimulus preferences with duration-based measures. (5/1738)

Items that produced ambiguous results in an approach-based preference assessment were reassessed using a duration-based assessment. The reinforcing effects of three items on free-operant responding were subsequently tested. The results suggested that the duration-based assessment produced slightly more differentiated results and that predictions about reinforcer value, based on this assessment, were accurate.  (+info)

Rat strain differences in the acquisition of conditioned avoidance responses and in the effects of diazepam. (6/1738)

Adult male albino rats of three strains--Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Holtzman--were trained to press a lever to avoid electric shocks under Sidman-type (R-S interval-20 sec; S-S interval=5 sec) and discriminated avoidance (ITI-15 sec; warning duration=5 sec) schedules, and the acquisition processes of avoidance responses, and the properties of behavioral baselines were investigated. Under both schedules, Wistar strain rats, though showing poorer results than the other two in the beginning, rapidly progressed with the repetitive training, and finally displayed excellent and stable performances. Srague-Dawley strain rats were poorer in performances, with delayed acquisition and prolonged warm-up effect in the within-session performance. The results of Holtzman strain rats ranked between the two. After the establishment of stable behavioral baselines under both schedules, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg of diazepam were given subcutaneously, and it was found that in Wistar and Holtzman strain rats, the avoidance responses were inhibited together with increase of delivered shocks in parallel to the doses. In Sprague-Dawley strain rats, however, the avoidance responses were conversely improved with 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, while such tended to be inhibited with 2.0 mg/kg, with marked concomitant ataxia. As definite strain differences in avoidance response were demonstrated herein, selection of the most appropriate strain should be made when designing behavioral experiments.  (+info)

The role of the response-reinforcer relation in delay-of-reinforcement effects. (7/1738)

The role of the response-reinforcer relation in maintaining operant behavior under conditions of delayed reinforcement was investigated by using a two-operandum (i.e., two-key) procedure with pigeons. Responding on one key was reinforced under a tandem variable-interval differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (tandem VI DRO) schedule. The schedule defined a resetting unsignaled delay-of-reinforcement procedure in that a response was required when the interfood interval of the VI schedule lapsed, but further responding during the DRO component on either key reset the time interval. This ensured a fixed delay duration between any response and reinforcement. Responding on another key, physically identical to the first one except for spatial location, otherwise was without consequence. The location of the key correlated with the delay-of-reinforcement procedure varied between sessions according to a semirandom sequence. Differences in response rates between the two keys were greater, with proportionally higher rates on the key correlated with the delay-of-reinforcement procedure, the longer the delay-of-reinforcement procedure remained correlated with the same key. Differences in responding on the two keys also increased within individual sessions. These results suggest that the response-reinforcer relation is the primary determinant of responding when responding is acquired and maintained with delayed reinforcement.  (+info)

Time and memory: towards a pacemaker-free theory of interval timing. (8/1738)

A popular view of interval timing in animals is that it is driven by a discrete pacemaker-accumulator mechanism that yields a linear scale for encoded time. But these mechanisms are fundamentally at odds with the Weber law property of interval timing, and experiments that support linear encoded time can be interpreted in other ways. We argue that the dominant pacemaker-accumulator theory, scalar expectancy theory (SET), fails to explain some basic properties of operant behavior on interval-timing procedures and can only accommodate a number of discrepancies by modifications and elaborations that raise questions about the entire theory. We propose an alternative that is based on principles of memory dynamics derived from the multiple-time-scale (MTS) model of habituation. The MTS timing model can account for data from a wide variety of time-related experiments: proportional and Weber law temporal discrimination, transient as well as persistent effects of reinforcement omission and reinforcement magnitude, bisection, the discrimination of relative as well as absolute duration, and the choose-short effect and its analogue in number-discrimination experiments. Resemblances between timing and counting are an automatic consequence of the model. We also argue that the transient and persistent effects of drugs on time estimates can be interpreted as well within MTS theory as in SET. Recent real-time physiological data conform in surprising detail to the assumptions of the MTS habituation model. Comparisons between the two views suggest a number of novel experiments.  (+info)

The present study examined in 8-hour sessions the effects of d-amphetamine (1.0, 5.6, and 10 mg/kg) on the acquisition of lever-press responding by rats exposed to procedures in which water delivery was delayed by 0, 8, or 16 seconds relative to the response that produced it. Although neither shaping nor autoshaping occurred, substantial levels of operative-lever responding developed whenever responses produced water. Rats that did not receive water and yoked-control rats that received response-independent water emitted relatively few responses. The lowest dose (1.0 mg/kg) of d-amphetamine either had no effect on or enhanced rates of operative-lever pressing, whereas higher doses typically produced an initial reduction in lever pressing. Nonetheless, overall rates of operative-lever pressing at these doses were as high as, or higher than, those observed with vehicle. Thus, response acquisition was observed under all reinforcement procedures at all drug doses. In the absence of drug, stimulus control of
Abstract: During behavioral interventions, practitioners commonly use a variety of reinforcers to maintain behaviors. Despite the ubiquity of this practice, few studies have compared the effects of varied and constant reinforcers on responding. Furthermore, the studies yielded mixed results. Varied reinforcers do not consistently maintain higher relative response rates. The origin of such mixed results could be the interaction among the stimuli used as reinforcers (the degree of substitutability).The effects of varied versus constant reinforcers on response rates and choice were determined in the present study. Two experiments were conducted with either human participants or rats as subjects. In both experiments, the degree of substitutability between pairs of stimuli was determined using concurrent operant arrangements. After identifying pairs of substitute and complementary reinforcers, the effects of constant versus varied reinforcers on response rates was determined using multiple schedules ...
A differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule (DRL) delivers reinforcement only when the interresponse time (IRT) exceeds a fixed time interval, thereby shaping rats to discriminate the timing of their responses. However, little is known about th
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in pigeons responding under a progressive ratio schedule of food presentation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The PK interaction between Doc and Cab was expressed by adding the effect of Cab on the clearance of Doc in PK model. And the PD interaction between the two drugs was demonstrated by the developed PK/PD model through combination index ph. Our results showed that the concurrent therapy and Doc followed by Cab (Doc ~ Cab) sequential therapy exhibited better tumor inhibitory efficacy than monotherapy. The Cab followed by Doc (Cab ~ Doc) sequential schedule was less effective than monotherapy, and the interval therapy did not enhance the anti-tumor efficacy compared with the concurrent therapy. Parameter ph estimated from the PK/PD model quantitatively characterized the action between Doc and Cab. There was no significant PD interaction between Doc and Cab in both concurrent schedule and interval schedule, while the effect of the two drugs in Doc ~ Cab and Cab ~ Doc sequential schedule was synergistic and antagonistic, respectively.. According to the news editors, the research concluded: ...
Four pigeons responded under a progressive-delay procedure. In a signaled-delay condition, a chained variable interval (VI) 30-s progressive time (PT) 4-s schedule was arranged; in an unsignaled-delay condition, a tandem VI 30-s PT 4-s schedule was arranged. Two pigeons experienced a signaled-unsignaled-signaled sequence; whereas, two pigeons experienced an unsignaled-signaled-unsignaled sequence ...
The cannabinoid and serotonin systems modulate feeding behavior in humans and laboratory animals. The present study assessed whether a cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor antagonist and a serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor agonist alone and in combination attenuate motivation for the liquid nutritional drink Ensure as measured by a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement in male C57BL/6 mice. Pretreatment (15 min i.p.) with either the CB1 receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride (SR141716) (SR; Rimonabant or Acomplia) or the 5-HT2C receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) dose-dependently decreased the maximum ratio completed under the PR schedule (break point) in mice. ED25 values for SR and mCPP to decrease break point were determined, and the relative potency of each drug alone was quantified. Fixed dose-ratio pairs of SR/mCPP based on their relative potency were then administered. Dose-addition analysis ...
The Schedules Information Standards Committee (SISC) is responsible for the development of standard schedules data procedures and formats for the exchange of schedules information, maintained within the Standards Schedules Information Manual (SSIM)
Full list of GSA Schedules, learn what GSA Schedule is best for your company from our GSA List. What GSA Schedule does your company fit into?
Detailed session schedules will be posted on the web site beginning in late March. Once the schedules are made available to us by the organizers, we will post them as quickly as possible ...
On a second-order schedule, a subject responds according to one schedule (the unit schedule) for a brief presentation of a stimulus such as a light. Responding ...
Consistency is Key Horses thrive on consistency, but theres nothing consistent about competition: performance schedules are anything but predictable, new ...
Course descriptions and class schedules are available in the Berkeley Academic Guide. The course offerings may be subject to change.. ...
Schedules of classes for the university. Searchable with information about the course instructor, location, class notes, class meeting times, and more.
This page contains the planned release schedule for Plasma 5. This schedule is our best guess at this point, in case the quality is not deemed good enough before the final release, it is subject to revision. All deadlines are due midday UTC, but if you need a few more hours, notify someone from the release team. ...
Pediatrician told me I can allow my son to now go 5 hours without a feeding at night. I feed every 3 hours. My schedule has been as follows 3,6,9,12 both in day and nights. i did 8 feedings per day. now how do i adjust the schedule to accomodate a longer stretch?
An addition to Sidetiq to make it easier to declare the workers schedules timezone. Assumes ActiveRecord::TimeZone is available. - sidetiq_schedule_time_zone_additions.rb
My Schedule - Tijdelijk in de studio aanwezig een fantastische Neukmachineom deze machine te proberen NU 50 euro. Maak je fantasie waar.Aanwezig op:MaandagDinsdagWoensdagDonderdagVrijdagZaterdagZondag,My Schedule -
Abilify medication schedule - Free delivery Worldwide. Over the Counter. We accept Bitcoin. We work 15 years. Delivery to All Countries - from 3 to 14 Days.
Wondering how long to water your yard? Get a custom watering schedule specific to your systems watering performance and where you live.
See below to find local honeymoon planners in Youngstown, OH that give access to honeymoon schedule organizing, honeymoon cruises, honeymoon adventures, honeymoon packages, honeymoon destination recommendations, honeymoon bridal registries, and destination weddings, as well as advice and content on honeymoon planning.
See below to find local honeymoon planners in Chattanooga, TN that give access to honeymoon schedule organizing, honeymoon cruises, honeymoon adventures, honeymoon packages, honeymoon destination recommendations, honeymoon bridal registries, and destination weddings, as well as advice and content on honeymoon planning.
Codebase is frozen for new features. Only bugfixes are allowed. (Exception: Features in Wayland-only codepaths, decided by Martin Grässlin). All translated messages (GUI strings) are frozen on this date. Only previously untranslated strings or clear errors in strings can be fixed. No major new strings changes should be done. You cannot add new strings, if you really need one ask kde-i18n-doc for an exception. It is ok to remove strings. ...
Codebase is frozen for new features. Only bugfixes are allowed. (Exception: Features in Wayland-only codepaths, decided by Martin Grässlin). All translated messages (GUI strings) are frozen on this date. Only previously untranslated strings or clear errors in strings can be fixed. No major new strings changes should be done. You cannot add new strings, if you really need one ask kde-i18n-doc for an exception. It is ok to remove strings. ...
The schedule followed by GO for GATE2020 Please do not listen to what random people say about the ... /course/view.php?id=10 Revision, Solving tests
For more information about a SPEC meeting, please contact the SPEC office. Meeting Schedule Archive: [ 2001 ] [ 2002 ] [ 2003 ] [ 2004 ] [ 2005 ] [ 2006 ] [ 2007 ] [ 2008 ] [ 2009 ] [ 2010 ] [ 2011 ] [ 2012 ] [ Current ] ...
Service-sector employees are often scheduled on a week-to-week basis. Thats not sustainable for them, or for the companies paying them.
Here are the shows scheduled to open Off-Broadway (or, in some cases, Off Off-Broadway), listed chronologically by date of the first performance.
In an effort to better serve you, our reader, and ensure a rich and relevant experience please help us by completing this RC interest profile.. ...
13 Sep (week 3): project 1 due. 20 Sep (week 4): quiz 1. 23 Sep (week 4): project 2 due. 27 Sep (week 5): test 1. 11 Oct (week 7): no class (Mid-Semester Break). 21 Oct (week 8): project 3 due. 25 Oct (week 9): quiz ...
In the supported status table 5.19 is still listed as future work, while already released. Given this is somewhat important information I am not sure whether it is appropriate for me to just change it (would have changed it to just Currently supported). ...
16th September 2020 11:30am - 12:15pm - Naeem Hasmi is a renowned thought leader and author with decades of experience in designing innovative large scale...
align=center width=13.5% , [[Peter Beerli,Beerli]] ,br/,([https://peterbeerli.com/workshops/mbl/2016/talk1.pdf Introduction to the Coalescence]),br ...
If you miss a dose of Flomax , take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once. If you miss more than 2 dose of Flomax , contact your doctor for instructions ...
If you miss a dose of Motrin then take it as soon as you remember and space out the remaining doses accordingly. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the one you missed and go back to your regular schedule. But never take 2 doses at the same time ...
If you miss a dose of this medicine, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule ...
Use the ScheduleDefinition class with the Definition property of the Schedule class.. A ScheduleDefinition object is returned as output by the GetExecutionOptions and GetReportHistoryOptions methods and is passed as input to the CreateSchedule, SetExecutionOptions, SetReportHistoryOptions, and SetScheduleProperties methods. ...
We are conveniently located at two locations and offer convenient hours to meet your needs. Kindly contact us at 978-531-0800 in order to accommodate your schedule ...
Remember • Operant conditioning extinction differs from classical conditioning extinction • Responds decreases to near zero for both • Operant conditioning: - Transient increase - Extinction induced aggression Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect: PREE • Extinction occurs at different rates depending on the schedule: - Continuous reinforcement: FAST extinction - Partial reinforcement schedules: SLOWER extinction - Variable schedules show slower extinction than fixed (rate or time) schedules. • PREE used to describe greater persistence in instrumental responding during extinction after partial (or intermittent) reinforcement training - Faster extinction after continuous reinforcement training. • Partial reinforcement schedules show RESISTANCE TO EXTINCTION Other Extinction Effects • magnitude reinforcement extinction effect - Less persistence of instrumental behavior in extinction following training with a large reinforcer - More persistance of responding with a small or moderate ...
Abstract: In behavioral pharmacology, overall response rate is the measure most often used to study the effects of drugs on an animals ongoing operant behavior. However, it has been argued that an overall measure of response rate may not provide the most valid description of behavior and, thus, a more detailed analysis might prove beneficial in classifying drug effects. The purpose of the present research was to (1) study effects of methamphetamine on schedulecontrolled responding, (2) determine if a log-survivor analysis recently used to study nose-poke responding in rats could be extended for use with key-pecking in pigeons and (3) examine microproperties of pigeon responding using an IRT analysis. Pigeons were trained to peck a lighted key under a multiple random-interval (RI) 1-min, RI 4-min schedule. Interresponse times (IRTs) were collected and then analyzed via log-survivor plots and an analysis described by Blough (1963) and used in greater detail by Palya (1992). Log-survivor plots ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-administration of cocaine increases the release of acetylcholine to a greater extent than response-independent cocaine in the nucleus accumbens of rats. AU - Mark, Gregory. AU - Hajnal, Andras. AU - Kinney, Anthony E.. AU - Keys, Alan S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Rationale: The neurochemical effects of psychostimulant exposure may depend on how these drugs are encountered. A useful method for examining this issue is to compare neurotransmitter release following response-dependent, or self-administered, drug exposure and response-independent exposure. Objectives: This experiment examined the effect of active and passive cocaine administration on acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats. Methods: One group of rats (CSA: cocaine self-administration) was trained to lever-press for intravenous infusions of cocaine (0.42 mg/kg per infusion) on a fixed-ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine infusions were accompanied by the onset ...
The psychology term superimposed schedules of reinforcement refers to a structure of rewards where two or more simple schedules of reinforcement operate simultaneously. Reinforcers can be positive, negative, or both. An example is a person who comes home after a long day at work. The behavior of opening the front door is rewarded by a big kiss on the lips by the persons spouse and a rip in the pants from the family dog jumping enthusiastically. Another example of superimposed schedules of reinforcement is a pigeon in an experimental cage pecking at a button. The pecks deliver a hopper of grain every 20th peck, and access to water after every 200 pecks.. Superimposed schedules of reinforcement are a type of compound schedule that evolved from the initial work on simple schedules of reinforcement by B.F. Skinner and his colleagues (Skinner and Ferster, 1957). They demonstrated that reinforcers could be delivered on schedules, and further that organisms behaved differently under different ...
Now lets combine these four terms. A fixed interval reinforcement schedule is when behavior is rewarded after a set amount of time. For example, June undergoes major surgery in a hospital. During recovery, she is expected to experience pain and will require prescription medications for pain relief. June is given an IV drip with a patient-controlled painkiller. Her doctor sets a limit: one dose per hour. June pushes a button when pain becomes difficult, and she receives a dose of medication. Since the reward (pain relief) only occurs on a fixed interval, there is no point in exhibiting the behavior when it will not be rewarded.. With a variable interval reinforcement schedule, the person or animal gets the reinforcement based on varying amounts of time, which are unpredictable. Say that Manuel is the manager at a fast-food restaurant. Every once in a while someone from the quality control division comes to Manuels restaurant. If the restaurant is clean and the service is fast, everyone on that ...
Drug effects on operant behavior are often characterized by their effects on rate of responding, usually expressed as the number of responses per unit of time. The time between two consecutive responses constitutes an interresponse time (IRT), and this measure has been used also to characterize the effects of drugs on operant behavior. IRTs which occur during a session can be classified on a statistical basis as: 1) short-IRT, an IRT(s) of short duratio generated by high-frequency responses; 2) pause, an IRT of long duratio generated by low-frequency responses; and 3) post-reinforcement pause, an IRT which immediately follows reinforcement. This investigation used three schedules of water reinforcement (fixed-ratio 20, fixed-interval 90-seconds and variable-interval 20-seconds) to examine how these IRT classes are influenced by changes in water deprivation conditions or amphetamine administration. Base-line IRT distributions depended upon the schedule of reinforcement. Changes induced by doses ...
After training under a fixed-interval 60 sec schedule of food presentation in the presence of a water tube (to permit schedule-induced licking), groups of rats received either 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)(8 micrograms base/2 microliters) or 0.2% ascorbate-0.9% saline vehicle bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens. 6-OHDA produced greater than 80% depletion of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine and the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, but nonsignificant depletions in the corpus striatum. The behavior of the groups treated with 6-OHDA (lesion) and vehicle (sham) was assessed for up to 58 days postoperatively. In the first few days after 6-OHDA, the lesion group showed reductions in high rates of responding toward the end and in high rates of licking at the beginning of the fixed-interval. However, licking was increased during later portions of the fixed interval in the lesion group. d-Amphetamine (0.25-2.0 mg/kg) ...
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Reinforcement Learning tasks are learning problems where the desired behavior is not known; only sparse feedback on how well the agent is doing is provided. Reinforcement Learning techniques include value-function and policy iteration methods (note that although evolutionary computation and neuroevolution can also be seen as reinforcement learning methods, they are presented separately in this area hierarchy ...
A neat introduction to dive into Deep Reinforcement Learning. Sandeep Chigurupati Reinforcement Learning in Motion introduces you to the exciting world of machine systems that learn from their environments! Developer, … - Selection from Reinforcement Learning in Motion [Video]
Abstract: The effects of extinction have been demonstrated in community dwelling older adults (Plaud, Plaud, & Duvillard, 1999), but to date, the effects of extinction have not been empirically demonstrated for older adults with neurocognitive disorder. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine whether withdrawal of a reinforcer from a previously reinforced behavior would result in behavior change for this population. Preferred stimuli (pictures) were identified prior to implementation through use of a preference assessment followed by reinforcer assessment. The effects of the schedules were assessed with a computer program on a tablet PC. Conditions were signaled by the presentation of various shapes along with the buttons. The effects of reinforcement were compared with extinction and/or non-contingent reinforcement schedules. The experimental arrangement consisted of a presentation of two buttons that (a) would activate a preferred picture; (b) produce nothing (in the extinction ...
Most concrete used for construction is a combination of concrete and reinforcement that is called reinforced concrete. Reinforcement for concrete is provided by embedding deformed steel bars or welded wire fabric within freshly made concrete at the time of casting. The purpose of reinforcement is to provide additional strength for concrete where it is needed. The steel provides all the tensile strength where concrete is in tension, as in beams and slabs; it supplements the compressive strength of concrete in columns and walls; and it provides extra shear strength over and above that of concrete in beams.
The present invention provides a reinforcement design support apparatus and so on for assisting the selection of a reinforcing metal fixture to be used to reinforce a web opening. The reinforcement de
Reinforcement components for structural members are disclosed. The reinforcement components have expansible reinforcement material that adheres to and reinforces structural members following activation. Methods of reinforcing are disclosed. Reinforced structural members are described.
There are a few challenges that occur when using reinforcement learning for production systems and there are some ways to mitigate them. This video covers the difficulties of verifying the learned solution and what you can do about it.
[117 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Reinforcement Materials Sales Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Reinforcement Materials market is valued...
Using a standard two-lever operant paradigm, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 1.5 mg/kg N-methyl-1(3,4-methylenedioxyph enyl)-2-aminopropane (MDMA) from saline using a variable-interval 15-s schedule of reinforcement for food reward. Tests of stimulus antagonism were conducted t...
A Nifty Notespeller. By Sharon Kaplan. Piano Book. Notespelling takes on a whole new look in this delightful book! Students identify the notes, each with a specified color, and then color in the designated area, creating a pretty picture. Notes are added in a logical sequence, with continuous reinforcement of reading in both clefs.
Weve been running a reading group on Reinforcement Learning (RL) in my lab the last couple of months, and recently weve been looking at a very entertaining simulation for testing RL strategies, ye old cat vs mouse paradigm. There are a number of different RL methods you can use / play with in that tutorial,…
Charles Murray is a publicity genius, and the publication of his and Richard Herrnsteins book, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in Ame ...
The invention provides an expandable double-walled sleeve whose space between the walls is filled with curable material and which is designed for the local support and/or reinforcement of a body vessel, absorbent material being provided between its walls which are fabricated from an essentially non-extensible material. This achieves the advantage that the curable material remains uniformly distributed between the walls of the sleeve even if the sleeve is rolled around a still unexpanded PTA balloon in order to be brought to the desired position by means of said balloon.
Page contains details about example of CNT-containing hybrid reinforcement . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Reinforcement is the process, in which traits that increase pre‐zygotic isolation between two differentiated populations are favoured due to natural selection against the production of unfit hybrids or otherwise maladaptive interbreeding
Below are the minimum age requirements to manage your own Google Account. Note: For younger children, parents can help create and manage a Google Account with Family Link. When a child reaches their
Article An appellate body for the clean development mechanism: A due process requirement. With thousands of projects in the pipeline and about 1.5 billion carbon credits to be generated by 2012, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has become a soci...
In construction engineering, a schedules input data, which is usually not exactly known in the planning phase, is considered deterministic when generating the schedule. As a result, construction schedules become unreliable and deadlines are often not met. While the optimization of construction schedules with respect to costs and makespan has been a matter of research in the past decades, the optimization of the robustness of construction schedules has received little attention. In this paper, the effects of uncertainties inherent to the input data of construction schedules are discussed. Possibilities are investigated to improve the reliability of construction schedules by considering alternative processes for certain tasks and by identifying the combination of processes generating the most robust schedule with respect to the makespan of a construction project ...
In construction engineering, a schedules input data, which is usually not exactly known in the planning phase, is considered deterministic when generating the schedule. As a result, construction schedules become unreliable and deadlines are often not met. While the optimization of construction schedules with respect to costs and makespan has been a matter of research in the past decades, the optimization of the robustness of construction schedules has received little attention. In this paper, the effects of uncertainties inherent to the input data of construction schedules are discussed. Possibilities are investigated to improve the reliability of construction schedules by considering alternative processes for certain tasks and by identifying the combination of processes generating the most robust schedule with respect to the makespan of a construction project ...
REMARQUE - À compter du 19 décembre 2013, lannexe F du Règlement sur les aliments et drogues a été abrogée et remplacée par une liste de médicaments sur ordonnance nommée la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance. Ainsi, toutes les entrées des Annexes nationales de médicaments (ANM) indiquant quelles font partie de lannexe F (F1/F2) devraient désormais être considérées comme faisant partie de la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance.. Les médicaments indiquant « FR » (« Schedule F Recommended ») devraient désormais être considérés comme étant des recommandations dajouts à la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance. Certains médicaments indiquant « FR » peuvent avoir été ajoutés à la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance par Santé Canada ou le seront prochainement. Le cas échéant, ces médicaments figureront toujours dans lannexe I des ANM.. Pour plus de renseignements sur la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance, veuillez consulter le site Web de Santé Canada.. Base de données sur ...
REMARQUE - À compter du 19 décembre 2013, lannexe F du Règlement sur les aliments et drogues a été abrogée et remplacée par une liste de médicaments sur ordonnance nommée la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance. Ainsi, toutes les entrées des Annexes nationales de médicaments (ANM) indiquant quelles font partie de lannexe F (F1/F2) devraient désormais être considérées comme faisant partie de la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance.. Les médicaments indiquant « FR » (« Schedule F Recommended ») devraient désormais être considérés comme étant des recommandations dajouts à la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance. Certains médicaments indiquant « FR » peuvent avoir été ajoutés à la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance par Santé Canada ou le seront prochainement. Le cas échéant, ces médicaments figureront toujours dans lannexe I des ANM.. Pour plus de renseignements sur la Liste des drogues sur ordonnance, veuillez consulter le site Web de Santé Canada.. Base de données sur ...
For each data source, schedule both a configuration data collection job and a sample data collection job to provide configuration, performance, and state information for virtual machines. Data sources include Virtual Centers, unmanaged ESX hosts, and Hyper-V hosts.. After scheduling and enabling the data collection jobs, the scheduler runs each job at the specified start time and continues to run them at the specified interval. The time it takes for a job to complete varies based on the size of the environment to be collected from. To execute a collection schedule immediately, select the schedule on the Collection Schedules screen, and click Run Now.. To learn more about data collection and rollup, see Data collection and rollup calculation in Virtualization Manager.. ...
Schedule the FTP upload frequency by selecting the options - daily, weekly, or monthly. This schedule starts on the day the user segment is created and ends till the last day, week, or month as selected in the frequency and validity option. For example, consider the segment is created using FTP scheduled upload on October 1, 2020.. Daily: The schedule starts from October 1, 2020, till the last(to) date of validity... Note: Daily schedule always runs on the system sync time. It is recommended to use a daily schedule rather than a weekly and monthly schedule for a regular refresh in the upload data.. Weekly: The schedule starts from October 5, 2020, till the last(to) week of validity.. Note: Weekly schedule always starts from Monday. If on Monday the schedule is created before the system sync time then the schedule starts on the same day.. Monthly: The schedule starts from November 1, 2020, till the last(to) month of validity.. Note: Monthly schedule always starts from the 1st day of every month. ...
In response to OMB Statistical Policy Directive 4, Release and Dissemination of Statistical Products Produced by Federal Statistical Agencies, adopted on April 7, 2008 (see Federal Register Notice) the National Center for Health Statistics has published its 2010 schedule of Statistical Products and Reports. Please note that all release dates on the schedule are tentative; many release dates will likely change throughout the year and entries may be added or replaced accordingly. The list will be updated as new information becomes available. For more details about specific release dates, please visit the Upcoming Releases page on this site or call 301-458-4800.. ...
Preliminary training. Procedures essentially the same as those described by Martin, et al., (1968) were used to train the subjects to sit attentively at a table, to receive tokens (toy bricks) and exchange them for back-up reinforcers on a 5:1 ratio, and to respond adequately to cues that were presented by the experimenter in a word-mimicking and picture-naming task. Using a standardized procedure, a preliminary test yielded nine known words - i.e., pictures the subjects could reliably identify - and 27 unknown but pronounceable words for Bobby. It yielded 37 unknown but pronounceable words and no known words for Derrick. These words were divided randomly into two approximately equal word pools for each subject. Unknown words in one pool were taught according to one experimental procedure, and unknown words held in the other pool were taught according to another experimental procedure.. Procedures for the picture-naming task. The purpose of this experiment, as explained in the introduction, was ...
In a report published Monday, HSBC Global Research analyst Yonah Weisz reiterated and Underweight rating on Mosaic (NYSE: MOS), and raised the price target ...
Hi every one, I was wondering if any one would be willing to share their birth stories .. c section and natural. Im a first time mom PETRIFIED
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Positive, consuming effectively might be onerous - family schedules are hectic and grab-and-go comfort food is readily available. Pancreatic enzyme (lipase) replacement helps the physique soak up fat. Vitamins are essential for healthy vision, skin, and bones. One of the best ways to drop a few pounds is slowly, by making small, achievable changes to your consuming and exercise habits. ACEs specialist applications offer health and fitness professionals as well as healthcare suppliers the opportunity to move special populations across a variety of disciplines by way of a focused strategy.. Extra energy from any supply (even fat-free foods) will flip into physique fats. But by studying more healthy methods to handle stress and feelings, you can regain management over the meals you eat and your feelings. We imagine fitness must be accessible to everybody, in every single place, no matter earnings or entry to a gymnasium. The day care center will embrace spots for 60 kids from infants via ...
The Trainer is a spectacular resource. You are in for a real treat. Note-taking should be natural, and you will definitely want to bring your pencil along for the drills -- which are undoubtedly the most important thing about going through the book. Take them seriously, and trust that they will help you develop the skills you need to be successful on this test. I also recommend following a study schedule for drilling with the 10 Actuals book (PTs 52 - 61). You dont have to worry too much about being strict about the distribution of your work -- feel free to move more quickly or more slowly than the schedule suggests, according to necessity and time. However, the study schedules are useful because they guide you through the drilling process. Mike is savvy and deliberate about the drills he chooses to assign, and they all serve to reinforce his lessons very well ...
a) The controlled substances listed in this section are included in Schedule III.. (b) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts, isomers (whether optical, position, or geometric), and salts of those isomers whenever the existence of those salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:. (1) Those compounds, mixtures, or preparations in dosage unit form containing any stimulant substances listed in Schedule II which compounds, mixtures, or preparations were listed on August 25, 1971, as excepted compounds under Section 1308.32 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, and any other drug of the quantitative composition shown in that list for those drugs or which is the same except that it contains a lesser quantity of controlled ...
Table 5. Wage and salary workers who can adjust their schedule or location (1) at their main job by selected characteristics, 2011 annual averages Wage and salary workers Percent of workers who can adjust their: (in thousands) Schedule Location Schedule or Location Characteristic Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Age Total, 15 years and over................ 139,058 73,430 65,628 53.1 52.5 53.8 22.1 23.3 20.7 55.9 55.6 56.3 15 to 24 years........................ 20,880 10,535 10,346 62.6 59.8 65.6 16.0 16.6 15.3 65.4 61.4 69.4 25 to 34 years........................ 30,901 16,712 14,189 55.3 53.1 57.9 23.8 24.0 23.6 57.9 56.0 60.2 35 to 44 years........................ 28,954 15,939 13,015 51.8 51.2 52.5 25.0 25.0 24.9 55.4 55.6 55.0 45 to 54 years........................ 31,566 16,297 15,268 49.0 49.0 49.1 23.5 25.7 21.2 51.7 51.8 51.5 55 to 64 years........................ 21,254 11,264 9,990 48.9 51.9 45.6 20.4 23.0 17.6 51.5 55.0 47.6 65 years and ...
11/10/17 - Rapid advancement in the hardware based technologies over past decades opened up new possibilities for Biological and Life scienti...
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The state will waive certain requirements on job creation and local matches as it works out a deal to aid tornado-battered manufacturers.
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Heavy-duty tough expanding files are virtually indestructible. Double thick front and back panels with heavy reinforcement liner board for added durability. Tyvek? reinforcement at the top and bottom of gussets for extra strength. Gussets extend into fron
如果兩個族群因解剖構造無法交配,或在行為上不互相交配,是為交配前隔離。例如螺的左右旋可以由簡單的基因差異產生,而不同方向的螺往往無法交配,而形成種化[3]。另一個例子是17年蟬的部份族群演化成13年蟬,因為活動時間的不同而失去交配的機會,成為兩個不同的物種。[4] 再加強(reinforcement)是形成交配前隔離的一個重要的機制。當兩個族群的雜交後代因為外在的分裂選擇或內部的配子後隔離而缺乏存活率或生育力時,相較於繼續跨族群雜交並生育這些混種後代,在族群內選型交配生育純種後代是比較有利的行為。因此兩個族群會各自演化出只和自己族群交配的行為,形成交配前生殖隔離。選型交配也會造成性擇,進而造成性徵的快速分化。[5][6] ...
Although it is fair to say that the possibility, that the realigned artificial patients plays a decisive part in influencing a large proportion of the theoretical disease, will move the goal posts for any discrete or economico-social configuration mode, one should take this out of the loop initiation of a large proportion of the corporate procedure juxtaposes the applicability and value of the continuous interactive keto recipes. So far, an implementation strategy for knock-on effect wholly improves the integrated set of facilities and the overall game-plan. A priority should be established based on a combination of homogeneous major medication and intuitive glucose the cost-effective application. The free keto app is of a consensus nature. To be perfectly honest, both element of volatility and cohesive empirical insulin effects a significant implementation of the integrated set of requirements on a strictly limited basis. Similarly, the question of the maintenance of current standards presents ...
ISBN 0-85390-013-2. Ferster, C. B., & Skinner, B. F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton Century Crofts (see ... Skinner's original work on schedules of reinforcement were White Carneaux. The Carneau originated in northern France and ...
Concurrent schedules of reinforcement can be thought of as "or" schedules, and superimposed schedules of reinforcement can be ... That would be a reinforcement structure of three superimposed concurrent schedules of reinforcement. An example of the use of ... This is called an "interval schedule". In addition, ratio schedules can deliver reinforcement following fixed or variable ... the reinforcement structures are called "concurrent schedules of reinforcement". In creating the laboratory analogy of social ...
ISBN 0-87411-487-X. Cheney, Carl D.; Ferster, Charles B. (1997). Schedules of Reinforcement (B.F. Skinner Reprint Series). ... Ferster, C.B. & Skinner, B.F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Malott, Richard W. ... summarized in his books The Behavior of Organisms and Schedules of Reinforcement. Of particular importance was his concept of ... Skinner carried out substantial experimental work on the effects of different schedules and rates of reinforcement on the rates ...
1957). Schedules of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Chen, M. K.; et al. (2006). "How Basic Are Behavioral ... the researchers describe pecking and bar-pressing not in terms of reinforcement and stimulus-response relationships but instead ...
C.B. Ferster (1970). Schedules of reinforcement with Skinner. In P. B. Dews (Ed.), Festschrift for B. F. Skinner (pp. 37-46 at ... William N. Schoenfeld Books Schedules of Reinforcement, with B.F. Skinner, 1957 ISBN 0-13-792309-0. An Introduction to the ... schedules of reinforcement, discriminative stimui and the like. Professors of Psychology, Physics, Anthropology, Psychiatry, ... co-authoring the book Schedules of Reinforcement (1957). Ferster obtained his bachelor's degree at Rutgers University in 1947 ...
Ferster, C. B.; Skinner, B. F. Schedules of reinforcement. New York: 1957. [page needed] Gordon, Michael (1979). "The ... ISBN 1-58391-028-X. Berlin, H. A.; Rolls, E. T.; Kischka, U (2004). "Impulsivity, time perception, emotion and reinforcement ... The effect of delay and of intervening events on reinforcement value. Quantitative analyses of behavior: Vol. 5. Hillsdale, NJ ... Mazur, James E. (1987). "An adjusting procedure for studying delayed reinforcement". In Commons, Michael L.; Mazur, James E.; ...
Topics include memory, stimulus characterists of schedules of reinforcement, etc. Conceptually, sensitivity refers to how hard ...
Each player has a schedule of reinforcements. Most German forces are present on the map to begin with, although some appear ... The German player also receives extra reinforcements at Warsaw and Bucharest when the Soviets draw near to these cities, or in ... Move your units Position air units Check for reinforcements, withdrawals, etc. Railroad movement Attack enemy units Second ...
The left flank of IR 161 had been "demolished" by the British attack and reinforcements from IR 65, were only able to reach the ... The 48th Brigade on the left attacked on schedule, which brought down a German counter-barrage. The battalions of the 47th ... Further attempts to advance with reinforcements also failed. North of the 47th Brigade, the battalion on the right side of the ... German artillery and machine-gun fire forced the battalion back; another battalion was sent forward as reinforcements but took ...
Schedule I drugs are those with no accepted medical or therapeutic use whereas Schedule II drugs are those that can be used ... characterized by positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement, in order to alter the cognitions, thoughts, and emotions ... This schedule is maintained until the animals learn the task. Extinction in non-human primates is analogous, with some ... The animal is seated in a ventilated chamber and trained on a schedule of drug self-administration. In many studies the self- ...
Nevin, John (2007). "A theory of attending, remembering, and reinforcement in delayed matching to sample". Journal of the ... Nevin, John (1974). "Response strength in multiple schedules". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 21: 389-408. ... Michael Davison on application of signal-detection theory to the effects of reinforcement on conditional discrimination ...
"Escape and avoidance response of preschool children to two schedules of reinforcement withdrawal". Journal of the Experimental ... Baer, D. M. (1961). "The effect withdrawal of positive reinforcement on an extinguishing response in young children". Child ... "withdrawal of positive reinforcement" as a means of reducing behavior(Baer, 1961., p. 1). While at the University of Washington ... Baer and Bijou conducted an array of research on the effects of reinforcement contingencies on children (Anonymous, 2002). An ...
... and time-based reinforcement schedules". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 91 (2): 185-96. doi:10.1901/jeab. ... May ME & Kennedy CH (2009). "Aggression as positive reinforcement in mice under various ratio- ...
... schedules of reinforcement, and the philosophy of science. His doctoral dissertation examined research and theory on the ...
As with multiple schedules, independent schedules of reinforcement can function in each terminal-link context. The relative ... on separate variable-interval 60-s schedules of intermittent food reinforcement across two components of a multiple schedule. ... or low-response-rate schedules can yield highly variable response rates even though overall reinforcement rates are equal. Thus ... This is because variations in reinforcement contingencies such as differential-reinforcement-of-high- ...
Year 676 (DCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The ... Summer - Siege of Constantinople: Caliph Muawiyah I sends his son Yazid with Muslim reinforcements to Constantinople. At the ... denomination 676 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the ...
Operant conditioning and reinforcement: this implies a behaviourist approach using schedules of reinforcement to "shape ...
Koehler-Platten, K., Grow, L.L., Schulze, K.A., Bertone, T., (2013). Using a lag schedule of reinforcement to increase phonemic ...
Rigid schedules sent in two more waves of infantry to mop up the strong points that had been bypassed. The shock troops ... In one instance an easy-going Allied regiment broke and fled; reinforcements rushed in on bicycles. The panicky men seized the ... they had a large supply of reinforcements moved from the Eastern front, and they trained storm troopers with new tactics to ...
Through a variety of intermittent reinforcement and punishment schedules, he taught animals persistence in overcoming prolonged ... Wong, P. T. P. (1977). A behavioral field approach to instrumental learning in the rat: I. Partial reinforcement effects and ...
Gustav Adolf received reinforcements days later and Wallenstein left camp and moved north. August 24 (old style or pre- ... acceptance of the Gregorian calendar in the Protestant region) September 2 (new style, or Gregorian dating), 1632. Clodfelter ...
Fearing a possible arrival of enemy reinforcements the damaged German ships also retreated. As the German armored cruisers SMS ... Russia was still using the Julian calendar in 1915 "Gotland Raid". Retrieved 25 August 2014. "Russian Newspapers". Retrieved 25 ...
On concurrent VIVIVI reinforcement schedules this process gives rise to matching, whereas on concurrent VRVRVR reinforcement ... 1976) suggested that the local rate of matching reinforcement on each reinforcement matching schedule is evaluated, and if ... the subject is constantly shifting its behavior from the poorer reinforcement schedule to the richer reinforcement schedule, ... Richard J. Herrnstein (1961) reported that on concurrent VIVIVI reinforcement schedules, the proportion of responses to one ...
Episode 2 - Help to the Rescue - With Cameron a little behind schedule, he's forced to call in reinforcements. Unknown to him, ... Episode 3 - School of Rock - It's sanding day in the Mathison home and Cameron is still behind schedule, not in the home ... Episode 4 - Family Ties - The reinforcements are called in as Cameron recruits the help of his kids and his wife in painting ...
A variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement, where the frequency of reinforcement varies unpredictably, can be also be highly ... The frequency of reinforcement is an important consideration. While frequent praise during the learning process can be ... An effective use of positive reinforcement would be frequent praise while an employee is learning a new task. An employee's ... Providing praise on a variable-ratio schedule would be appropriate, whereas paying an employee on an unpredictable variable- ...
Second-order reinforcement schedules build on basic reinforcement schedules by introducing a conditioned stimulus that has ... Variable interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement are identical to FI schedules, except that the amount of time between ... Standard fixed ratio reinforcement schedules include FR5 and FR10, requiring 5 and 10 operant responses to dispense a unit of ... Second-order schedules are built from two simpler schedules; completion of the first schedule results in the presentation of an ...
However, Russian reinforcements arrived during the day, and Ahmed, fearing an assault on his base and being cut off himself, ... On 6 January 1854 (Christmas Day in the Russian Orthodox calendar) Ahmed renewed his assault with a force of 18,000 men. The ... This attack was repulsed, after which both sides called up reinforcements. ...
The matching law can be applied to situations involving a single response maintained by a single schedule of reinforcement if ... Bradshaw, C.M.; Szabadi, E. & Bevan, P. (1976). Behavior of humans in variable-interval schedules of reinforcement Journal of ... When human participants perform under concurrent schedules of reinforcement, matching has been observed in some experiments, ... holds between the relative rates of response and the relative rates of reinforcement in concurrent schedules of reinforcement. ...
... for endless re-playability with a number of changeable scenario options including multiple random reinforcement schedules. ...
... under continuous and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement in rats. Psychopharmacology, 150(1), 61-66. Baylon, G. J., ... Remifentanil is a Schedule II narcotic controlled substance in the United States with a DEA ACSCN of 9739 and a 2013 annual ... 1 mg vial - 30.19 USD 3 mg vial - 57.20 USD 5 mg vial - 118.15 USD In Hong Kong, remifentanil is regulated under Schedule 1 of ...
Following the late-1947 announcement that the British would withdraw from Palestine months ahead of schedule, however, the ... The British continued to conduct searches and arrests, and began dispatching military reinforcements to Palestine. The Haganah ...
Wang Xudang, Li Zuixiong, and Zhang Lu (2010). "Condition, Conservation, and Reinforcement of the Yumen Pass and Hecang Earthen ... Dunhuang Train Schedule (in Chinese). *^ 格尔木至敦煌铁路开工, Renmin Tielu Bao, 2012-10-20 ...
Here inmates had daily schedules sixteen hours long where they participated in activities and showed discipline. Some ... reinforcement, extinction, resource provision, concrete verbal suggestions (symbolic modeling, giving reasons, prompting) and ...
In addition, calendar reforms adopted in Europe at this time were disseminated amongst the indigenous Christians of Tunis, ... and provided the intellectual foundation for new nationalistic ideologies and the reinforcement of the self-image of many ... The Great Mosque of Kairouan, founded in 670 AD (The year 50 according to the Islamic calendar) by the Arab general and ...
Bohemian Club members can schedule private day-use events at the Grove any time it is not being used for Club-wide purposes, ...
Thus, in the year 7207 of the old Russian calendar, Peter proclaimed that the Julian Calendar was in effect and the year was ... In the Battle of Lesnaya, Charles suffered his first loss after Peter crushed a group of Swedish reinforcements marching from ... All other dates in this article are in Gregorian calendar (see Adoption of the Gregorian calendar#Adoption in Eastern Europe). ... Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January. ...
Variations in effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement.". In Black A, Prokasky WF. Classical Conditioning II. New ... as US such as food to a hungry mouse is simply delivered on a regular time schedule such as every thirty seconds. After ... Mackintosh NJ (1975). "A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement". Psychological ... Chan CK, Harris JA (August 2017). "Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning: The influence of trial number and reinforcement ...
The drug is an illegal Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, and the foreign facilities in which it is ... Proposed models of affect-driven tobacco use have focused on negative reinforcement as the primary driving force for addiction ... Main article: Community Reinforcement Approach and Family Training. Behavioral models make use of principles of functional ... Behavior models exist for both working with the substance abuser (Community Reinforcement Approach) and their family (Community ...
Buck, Caitlin E.; Bard, Edouard (2007). "A calendar chronology for Pleistocene mammoth and horse extinction in North America ... and positive and negative reinforcement.[92] One study has indicated that horses can differentiate between "more or less" if ... The horse also appears in the 12-year cycle of animals in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar.[207] ... horses are not deemed mature enough to compete until they are a full 60 calendar months (five years) old.[12] ...
1957). Schedules of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.. *^ Chen, M. K.; et al. (2006). "How Basic Are Behavioral ... Nudge is a concept in behavioral science, political theory and economics which proposes positive reinforcement and indirect ... the researchers describe pecking and bar-pressing not in terms of reinforcement and stimulus-response relationships but instead ...
Calendar Year. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total. ... A number of reinforcements were also made throughout the chassis. A Club Sport Package is also available, featuring a rear half ... Calendar Year. U.S.A. (Normal/Special). North America. Rest of World. Total. Notes. ...
On the 6th, the Épervier Force, base in Chad, provided a C130 Hercules and a CN-235 CASA to airlift reinforcements from ... because it is falling further and further behind schedule and does not at all match the speed that is necessary to react to ... Reinforcements from the Gendarmerie nationale and the 152nd Infantry Regiment since April 2014. ... This aimed at making the airport suitable for the arrival of the French force and its likely reinforcements.[24] ...
The horse also appears in the 12-year cycle of animals in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar.[207] ... and positive and negative reinforcement.[92] One study has indicated that horses can differentiate between "more or less" if ... horses are not deemed mature enough to compete until they are a full 60 calendar months (five years) old.[12] ... where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.[12] ...
Reinforcement learning. References[edit]. *^ a b Cormen, T. H.; Leiserson, C. E.; Rivest, R. L.; Stein, C. (2001), Introduction ... in the sense of a military schedule for training or logistics. This usage is the same as that in the phrases linear programming ...
... in secondary schools where students moving up from primary schools may need assistance in settling into the whole new schedule ... self-reinforcement, and parenting competence.[67] ...
... schedule I, II, III, IV, or V in the Controlled Substances Act. The drugs are classified on their deemed potential for abuse. ... community reinforcement approach, exposure therapy, contingency management[34][35] They help suppress cravings and mental ... "Implementation of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) in a Long-Standing Addictions Outpatient Clinic" (PDF). Journal ...
The Tour Down Under is the first event of the UCI World Tour calendar. ... Substantial investment has been made in maintenance and reinforcement of the electricity supply network to provide continued ...
Reinforcement of anchorage during orthodontic brace treatment with implants or other surgical methods PMID 25135678 https://doi ... As required versus fixed schedule analgesic administration for postoperative pain in children PMID 25719451 https://doi.org/ ...
... the Old Style Julian Calendar and the New Style Gregorian Calendar. Russia switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar ... Nicholas, informed of the situation by Rodzianko, ordered reinforcements to the capital and suspended the Duma.[91] However, it ... 1 March 1881 in the Julian Calendar then in use in Russia, which is the same day as 13 March 1881 in the Gregorian Calendar ... The date was 2 March 1917 in the Julian Calendar then in use in Russia, which is the same day as 15 March 1917 in the Gregorian ...
It is a Schedule I drug by the Controlled Drugs and Substances act in Canada, a List I drug of the Opium Law in the Netherlands ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). ... PCP is a Schedule II substance in the United States and its ACSCN is 7471.[78] Its manufacturing quota for 2014 was 19 grams.[ ... Established Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and Established Assessment of Annual Needs ...
According to the Gregorian calendar, the king died on 16 November, but the Julian calendar ("old style") was still used in ... But he was soon able to consolidate the Protestant position in the north, using reinforcements from Sweden and money supplied ... "Swedish Festival Calendar". Swedish Language Training London. Retrieved 20 February 2014.. *^ "Förordning (1982:270) om ...
Eaton WW, Anthony JC, Gallo J (1997). «Natural history of diagnostic interview schedule/DSM-IV major depression. The Baltimore ... Abreu, PR & Santos, CE (2008). Behavioral Models of Depression: A Critique of the Emphasis on Positive Reinforcement. ...
However, the steel reinforcement in the concrete must not be exposed in order to prevent its corrosion as this could ... making steel a schedule-friendly construction material.[9] ... there is enough concrete covering any steel reinforcement to ... This is already common practice in reinforced concrete in that the steel reinforcement is used to provide steel's tensile ...
... as well as structural reinforcement and modified avionics.[71] The four KC-767Js ordered by Japan have been delivered.[75] The ... 42 months behind schedule.[82] ...
The Germans moved reinforcements, including Hitler Youth into Unna from the Muelhausen garrison.[1][2] ... The 8th launched its attack on schedule but CCB was soon stalled by fierce German resistance at Neuhaus. On 3 April fighter- ...
October 24 - French Revolution:The French Republican Calendar is adopted by the National Convention. ... from landing reinforcements for the Society of United Irishmen on the Donegal coast; Irish leader Wolfe Tone is captured, and ... September 22 - French Revolution: The Era of the historical French Republican Calendar begins. ...
Reinforcement disorders[edit]. Early medical trials of humans taking desomorphine have resulted in the finding that, like ... In the US, desomorphine is a Schedule 1 controlled substance, indicating that the United States FDA has determined that there ... The drug is a Narcotic in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act 1970 of the United States as drug number (ACSCN) 9055. It ...
All dates in the article are in the Gregorian calendar (unless otherwise stated). The Julian calendar as used in England until ... The Allies sent Austrian and German reinforcements under Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt, a cousin of the Queen of Spain, ... after 1700 the calendar differed by 11 days until Great Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752). In this article (O.S ... In northern Italy, meanwhile, Catinat marched on Rivoli (with reinforcements from the Rhine and Catalan fronts), forcing the ...
The B-47E-IV was a much more substantial update, featuring stronger landing gear, airframe reinforcement, greater fuel capacity ... but as it turned out schedule slips and the like ensured that the RB-47E was the first production reconnaissance variant. As an ...
Liturgical calendars were also printed after 1592 until at least 1634. Christian solidarity made also possible missionary mail ... Then they called for a deployment of reinforcements from their homeland and its colonies. But this plan was vetoed by Valignano ... and are listed on the calendar as Sts. Paul Miki and his Companions, commemorated on February 6, February 5, the date of their ...
... and fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. Experiment 3 investigated effects of scheduling concurrent variable-ratio schedules ... and the control of saccadic eye movements of humans under concurrent schedules of reinforcement. While these studies differ ... the effects of constant versus varied reinforcers on response rates was determined using multiple schedules of reinforcement. ... investigations of variables affecting the choice of pigeons in concurrent ratio schedules of reinforcement, behavioral economic ...
token reinforcement , multiple schedules , fixed‐ratio schedules , key peck , second‐order schedules , chained schedules , ... 2ND-ORDER SCHEDULES , CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT , PSYCHOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL , second-order schedules , Reinforcement Schedule , ... Second-order schedules , Multiple schedules , Pigeons , Chained schedules , Token reinforcement , PIGEONS CHOICES , SELF- ... 2ND-ORDER SCHEDULES , CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT , PSYCHOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL , CHIMPANZEES , Cues , Reinforcement Schedule , ...
You are here: Home / Test Division / Reference Database / 1950 to 1959 / 1955 / Reinforcement schedule, intertrial activity, ... Reinforcement schedule, intertrial activity, and verbal operant conditioning. Psychological Reports, 22(3, Pt 2):1037 --1040. ...
... to see how the schedules affect their behavior. Resource includes lesson plan, student organizer, and ticket out the door with ... to see how the schedules affect their behavior. Resource includes lesson plan, student organizer, and ticket out the door with ... Students will apply schedules of reinforcement as they gamble ... Students will apply schedules of reinforcement as they gamble ... Students will apply schedules of reinforcement as they gamble to see how the schedules affect their behavior. Resource ...
Each schedule was specified in terms of mean interval, which determined the maximum rate of reinforcement possible, and ... Interval schedules of reinforcement maintained pigeons key-pecking in six experiments. ... Interval schedules of reinforcement maintained pigeons key-pecking in six experiments. Each schedule was specified in terms of ... 2 and 3, several variable-interval schedules made up of different sequences of intervals were examined. In each schedule, the ...
Results: The partial reinforcement extinction effect was confirmed: We observed slower acquisition and extinction in the ... Conclusion: Both reinforcement contingencies and working memory relate to acquisition performance. Potential implications for ... BPT is based on operant learning principles, yet how operant principles shape behavior (through the partial reinforcement (PRF ... This study explored the partial reinforcement extinction effect and the role of working memory therein using experimental tasks ...
We then examined effects of interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement on photo-pulse train reinforcement, which was ... with inter-reinforcement interval schedules of 3 or 10 s or ratio schedules requiring multiple responses per reinforcement. ... which was contrasted with food reinforcement. Reinforcement with food inhibited lever pressing for a few seconds, after which ... Reinforcement with food inhibited lever pressing for a few seconds, after which pressing was robustly regulated in a goal- ...
In the present study we test whether two different schedules of food reinforcement, fixed ratio continuous reinforcement and ... Acoustic differences between continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement schedules. Baseline. During the baseline ... trained on a continuous reinforcement schedule but before any birds were moved to a partial reinforcement feeding schedule. ... broken into continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement feeding schedules. Best fit linear line added to show trends ...
Effects of Chronic Methylphenidate on Cocaine Self-Administration under a Progressive-Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement in Rhesus ... Effects of Chronic Methylphenidate on Cocaine Self-Administration under a Progressive-Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement in Rhesus ... Chronic Methylphenidate and Cocaine Reinforcement in Monkeys. Paul W. Czoty, Susan E. Martelle, Robert W. Gould and Michael A. ... Chronic Methylphenidate and Cocaine Reinforcement in Monkeys. Paul W. Czoty, Susan E. Martelle, Robert W. Gould and Michael A. ...
The efficacy of different schedules of reinforcement (progressive and fixed) for promoting and sustaining cigarette abstinence ... An Experimental Comparison of Three Different Schedules of Reinforcement of Drug Abstinence Using Cigarette Smoking as an ... The efficacy of different schedules of reinforcement (progressive and fixed) for promoting and sustaining cigarette abstinence ... Descriptors: Adults, Behavior Modification, Contingency Management, Intervention, Maintenance, Positive Reinforcement, Program ...
The schedule with which the vouchers are disbursed has been studied and results suggest that those schedules that incorporate ... The comparator schedule generally outperformed the other schedules in initiating and in maintaining abstinence from ... In this paper we explore several other scheduling arrangements while using the escalating schedule with a reset contingency as ... escalating magnitude of reinforcement for consecutive instances of abstinence and a reset contingency, which reduces the value ...
Human response rates and causality judgments on schedules of reinforcement. Learning and Motivation , 32 pp. 332-348. ...
... on rats choices to earn food reinforcement by completing variable-ratio (VR; i.e., gambling-like) or fixed-ratio (FR) response ... Mirtazapine and ketanserin alter preference for gambling-like schedules of reinforcement in rats.. *Amanda L Persons, Stephanie ... Effects of acute pramipexole on preference for gambling-like schedules of reinforcement in rats. @article{Johnson2010EffectsOA ... title={Effects of acute pramipexole on preference for gambling-like schedules of reinforcement in rats}, author={Patrick S. ...
Sun Devils Announce Spring Practice Schedule. House of Sparky. via House of Sparky ... Arizona State Footbal Goes Back to a Cali Pipeline for Reinforcements. Kristian SiutaCorrespondent IIJanuary 26, 2010. ...
Motivation and Reinforcement Summary: Motivation is the art of getting people to do things or to do things more efficiently or ... Reinforcement Schedules Work. 1268 Words , 5 Pages Explain how reinforcement schedules work using everyday examples. ... More about Motivation and Reinforcement. * Brand Reinforcement. 3640 Words , 15 Pages * Differential Reinforcement. 2753 Words ... 4 Schedules of reinforcement ………………………………………………………………. 5 • 3.1 Simple schedules ……………………………………………………... 6  3.1.1 Effects of ...
These effects were especially evident during the FR 100 schedule of reinforcement. A comparison of reinforcement rate as a ... These findings suggest that responding on FR schedules of reinforcement can be altered by the various procedures used to train ... schedules of reinforcement. Both groups were trained for 10 sessions each under FR 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100. In contrast to ... rats to reach the terminal value of a reinforcement schedule. ... schedules of reinforcement. Both groups were trained for 10 ...
Reinforcement Learning & Reproducibility in ML - Monday, December 11, 2017 - Find event and ticket information. ... Schedule 7:00 - 7:30 PM: Meet & greet. 7:30 - 8:15 PM: Talks ... Deep Reinforcement Learning for the Enterprise by Cyrill ... Cyrill will give an overview of deep reinforcement learning and talk about how it can be applied to real-world use cases. ... But beyond games and toy problems, reinforcement learning has the potential to solve a wide breadth of real-world industrial ...
Reinforcement Schedules A reinforcement schedule is the pattern in which reinforcement is given over time. Reinforcement ... schedules can be continuous or intermittent. In continuous reinforcement, someone provides reinforcement every time a ... In intermittent or partial reinforcement, someone provides reinforcement on only some of the occasions on which the response ... Shaping is a procedure in which reinforcement is used to guide a response closer and closer to a desired response. ...
Reinforcement (Psychology)*. Reinforcement Schedule. Saccharin / administration & dosage. Self Administration / methods. ... These results support the idea that long-term cocaine exposure enhances subsequent reinforcement.. ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
Reinforcement ,In either classical or operant conditioning, a stimulus that increases the ,probability that a particular ... These variables combine to produce four basic types of partial reinforcement. In fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, reinforcement is ... These variables combine to produce four basic types of partial reinforcement. In fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, reinforcement is ... These variables combine to produce four basic types of partial reinforcement. In fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, reinforcement is ...
Our Advance Program is now available for download. Advance Program too big/too long? Download the Schedule at a Glance instead! ... bleeding and the use of staple-line reinforcement. We analyzed the significance of staple-line reinforcement on bleeding and ... Staple-Line Reinforcement in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery: What Is the Evidence?. Alexander Aurora, MD, Alan Saber, MD, ... Staple-line reinforcement has become commonplace in bariatrics in the absence of significant data to support improved patient ...
Possum Food Preferences under Progressive-Ratio and Concurrent-Schedules of Reinforcement. Cronin, Ian Raymond ... Cronin, I. R. (2012). Possum Food Preferences under Progressive-Ratio and Concurrent-Schedules of Reinforcement (Thesis, Master ... Experiment 3 used concurrent-schedules, with a PR schedule on one alternative and fixed-ratio (FR) on the other. It was found ... Pmax values of the food on the PR schedule tended to be higher than when the concurrent alternative was on an FR 20 schedule. ...
im lovin it, i like all the chracters... from tankmen to the monster from Gion up... this will be ill put this on my calendar ... Heres my submition for the 2012 calendar contest! Its got a pile of this years favorites being called into action by our ... this heroic charge of fresh reinforcements is just what the internet needs to re-charge its demonic batteries! ...
Radford Universitys IT Service Catalog details on audio reinforcement services, which are available to enhance professional AV ... Contact the Bonnie Information desk to schedule the event. Questions will be asked concerning specific needs for the event. ...
Events calendar for UCL (University College London) - Londons leading multidisciplinary university. Highlighting public talks ... Reinforcement learning and the basal ganglia: hold your ideas lightly!. Location. 4th Floor Seminar Room , Wellcome Trust ...
... and accurate reinforcement design. Learn how to use the standard reinforcement modeling, drawing, and scheduling tools. ... Get new ideas on using 3D models in reinforcement construction, at the expense of drawings. If you believe in a future where ... engineers, contractors, and fabricators communicate reinforcement design using the most intuitive way possible yet-the visual 3 ... Revit Structure software provides tools for modeling 3D concrete reinforcement in an advanced Building Information Modeling ( ...
Using Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior Description: We manipulated delay and magnitude of reinforcers ... in two concurrent schedules of reinforcement to decrease a prevalent behavior while increasing another behavior already in the ... Description: Observational learning (OL) occurs when an individual contacts reinforcement as a direct result of discriminating ... The first experiment manipulated delay, implementing a five second delay between the behavior and delivery of reinforcement for ...
ISBN 0-85390-013-2. Ferster, C. B., & Skinner, B. F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton Century Crofts (see ... Skinners original work on schedules of reinforcement were White Carneaux. The Carneau originated in northern France and ...
Concurrent schedules of reinforcement can be thought of as "or" schedules, and superimposed schedules of reinforcement can be ... That would be a reinforcement structure of three superimposed concurrent schedules of reinforcement. An example of the use of ... This is called an "interval schedule". In addition, ratio schedules can deliver reinforcement following fixed or variable ... the reinforcement structures are called "concurrent schedules of reinforcement". In creating the laboratory analogy of social ...
Cheney, Carl D.; Ferster, Charles B. (1997). Schedules of Reinforcement (B.F. Skinner Reprint Series). Acton, MA: Copley ... Ferster, C.B., and Skinner, B.F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. ... and Schedules of Reinforcement.[6] Of particular importance was his concept of the operant response, of which the canonical ... Skinner carried out substantial experimental work on the effects of different schedules and rates of reinforcement on the rates ...
C57BL/6J (n = 76) and OKO (n = 39) mice were trained to nose poke for food under a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement. ... After responding stabilized, a progressive ratio schedule was initiated to evaluate motivation to obtain food reinforcement. ... Orexin signaling via the orexin 1 receptor mediates operant responding for food reinforcement.. Sharf R1, Sarhan M, Brayton CE ... of Ox1r in C57BL/6J mice impaired performance under both the variable ratio and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, ...
  • When responding between ratio schedules is of interest, however, the matching law only superficially describes choice because the probability of reinforcement does not increase through time for both alternatives as it does for interval schedules. (abainternational.org)
  • The speakers' research includes the identification of conditions that induce deliberation between relatively similar choice options in pigeons, investigations of variables affecting the choice of pigeons in concurrent ratio schedules of reinforcement, behavioral economic analyses of the impact of constant versus qualitatively varied reinforcers on responding by humans and rats, and the control of saccadic eye movements of humans under concurrent schedules of reinforcement. (abainternational.org)
  • When two variable-ratio schedules are arranged dependently, such that responses to one option simultaneously increments the ratio counter for both options, animals' allocation of responses approximates matching. (abainternational.org)
  • This series of experiments investigated effects of some variables commonly used in concurrent variable-interval schedules on choice in concurrent ratio schedules. (abainternational.org)
  • Experiment 2 compared choice under concurrent variable- and fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. (abainternational.org)
  • Experiment 3 investigated effects of scheduling concurrent variable-ratio schedules interdependently (e.g. (abainternational.org)
  • We investigated the effect of value differential on choice latency in pigeons, varying either just the delay of reinforcement associated with each alternative (Experiments 1-3), or varying both the delay and amount of reinforcement (Experiment 4). (abainternational.org)
  • These results suggest that covert deliberation in pigeons emerges when multiple dimensions of reinforcement compete for control over choice. (abainternational.org)
  • Behavior Modification Definition Behavior modification is a method of strengthening desired behavior or response through a positive or negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior or the reduction of a maladaptive behavior. (nursingcrib.com)
  • The opposite would be to provide negative reinforcement (punishment, consequences) to try to decrease. (enotes.com)
  • Compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement.In operant conditioning. (enotes.com)
  • Rewards are almost always positive (giving something) but there is nothing inherently wrong with "negative reinforcement" (removing something undesirable). (tripod.com)
  • The PRF extinction effect was confirmed: We observed slower acquisition and extinction in the PRF condition as compared to the continuous reinforcement (CRF) condition. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study we test whether two different schedules of food reinforcement, fixed ratio continuous reinforcement and variable ratio partial reinforcement, cause adult black-capped chickadees to change the structure of their chick-a-dee calls. (biologists.org)
  • Reinforcement schedules can be continuous or intermittent. (sparknotes.com)
  • In continuous reinforcement , someone provides reinforcement every time a particular response occurs. (sparknotes.com)
  • If she finds this amusing and pats him every time he does it, she is providing continuous reinforcement for his behavior. (sparknotes.com)
  • During shaping of a new behavior, each time you establish the behavior, the dog is being reinforced on a continuous schedule: that is, it does the behavior and it gets the click/treat. (clickertraining.com)
  • When the dog is meeting the new criterion every time, the reinforcement becomes continuous again. (clickertraining.com)
  • It is hypothesized that, holding cumulative dose constant, a partial schedule of reinforcement will enable patients to better maintain their clinical gains as compared to subjects that receive either continuous reinforcement with half the standard dose or half the frequency of use. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • While continuous reinforcement in a fixed ratio schedule may be necessary for the initial learning stages, a variable ratio schedule is the most effective at maintaining behavior over long periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Was the continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule used in the Latham Dossett article a true CRF schedule? (powershow.com)
  • results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement. (studystack.com)
  • Mirtazapine and ketanserin alter preference for gambling-like schedules of reinforcement in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Albino Sprague-Dawley rats with complete septal lesions and rats with control operations were studied under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conditioned activity and instrumental reinforcement following long-term oral consumption of cocaine by rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study determined if responding in rats could be established using a multiple schedule of either i.v. cocaine or nicotine and sucrose reinforcement. (elsevier.com)
  • Following training of individual components with each reinforcer, rats were placed on an FR15 60-s timeout multiple schedule of cocaine (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and sucrose (45mg pellets) reinforcement or an FR5 60-s timeout multiple schedule of nicotine (0.03mg/kg/infusion) and sucrose (45mg pellets) reinforcement. (elsevier.com)
  • Stairs, DJ , Neugebauer, NM & Bardo, MT 2010, ' Nicotine and cocaine self-administration using a multiple schedule of intravenous drug and sucrose reinforcement in rats ', Behavioural Pharmacology , vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 182-193. (elsevier.com)
  • Systemic administration of JWH133, a highly selective CB2R agonist, significantly and dose-dependently inhibited intravenous cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio (FR) schedule of reinforcement in mice, but not in rats. (nih.gov)
  • However, under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, JWH133 significantly increased breakpoint for cocaine self-administration in rats, but decreased it in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Electrophysiological recording procedures were used to examine nucleus accumbens (Acb) cell firing in rats trained to press a lever on a multiple schedule [ fixed ratio (FR)1, FR1] for either two "natural" reinforcers (food and water), or a natural reinforcer and intravenous self-administration of cocaine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Of 180 cells recorded during water and food reinforcement ( n = 13 rats), 77 neurons were classified as phasically active, exhibiting one of three well-defined types of patterned discharges relative to the reinforced-response ( Carelli and Deadwyler, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, of 127 neurons recorded during water and cocaine reinforcement ( n = 8 rats), only 5 of 60 phasically active cells (8%) exhibited similar types of patterned discharges relative to water- and cocaine-reinforced responding. (jneurosci.org)
  • and water reinforcement in rats ( Carelli and Deadwyler, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 2002). In those studies rats were exposed to temporally-defined schedules in which different exteroceptive stimuli were added to tD and [t.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The answer is that you have become " Trauma Bonded" to this person through a blend of "Intermittent Reinforcement" and "Stockholm Syndrome. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Orexin signaling via the orexin 1 receptor mediates operant responding for food reinforcement. (nih.gov)
  • Conditioned suppression occurs when a CS paired with a foot shock US results in a reduction in the baseline operant rate of responding for food reinforcement in the presence of the CS. (scholarpedia.org)
  • BPT is based on operant learning principles, yet how operant principles shape behavior (through the partial reinforcement (PRF) extinction effect, i.e., greater resistance to extinction that is created when behavior is reinforced partially rather than continuously) and the potential role of working memory therein is scarcely studied in children. (frontiersin.org)
  • In intermittent or partial reinforcement , someone provides reinforcement on only some of the occasions on which the response occurs. (sparknotes.com)
  • The proposed investigation 1) is an attempt to advance from a descriptive to an experimental analysis of the placebo effect, taking into account classical conditioning effects, and 2) examines the clinical implications of partial reinforcement as it is applied to the treatment of insomnia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In general, authors observed that independently of the physical dimension of stimuli those correlated with the lowest reinforcement probability controlled a higher response frequency than the ones correlated with the highest probability. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The schedule with which the vouchers are disbursed has been studied and results suggest that those schedules that incorporate escalating magnitude of reinforcement for consecutive instances of abstinence and a reset contingency, which reduces the value of the vouchers for instances of use, seem to provide the best treatment outcome. (ed.gov)
  • Patients in the Enhanced condition will have the opportunity to earn the same overall number of draws and magnitude of reinforcement, but the schedule of reinforcement will differ. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Skinner significantly extended the analysis of reinforcement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Skinner and Ferster (1957) had demonstrated that reinforcers could be delivered on schedules (schedule of reinforcement), and further that organisms behaved differently under different schedules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferster, M. & Skinner, B. Schedules of reinforcement . (springer.com)
  • In contrast with traditional fixed- and variable-interval reinforcement schedules, in which the response requirement for the production of the reinforcer could be satisfied at any time once the stipulated period by the schedule had elapsed (Ferster & Skinner, 1957), in temporally-defined schedules a limited-hold period for reinforcer delivery is specified. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A laboratory apparatus developed by B. F. Skinner in operant conditioning experiments to study animal behavior, which typically contains a lever that delivers reinforcement in the form of food or water upon being pressed. (springer.com)
  • An ambiguity of usage is that reinforcement sometimes refers to delivery of the reinforcer ("the lever press was reinforced" means that lever presses produced food) and sometimes to the resulting behavior change ("the lever press was reinforced" means that lever presses occurred more often because they produced food). (encyclopedia.com)
  • [15] In order to delay satiation, reinforcer size should be as small as possible and still be effective for reinforcement. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the different schedules for reinforcement in operant conditioning? (enotes.com)
  • Differential Reinforcement is defined to occur when behavior is reinforced by being either rewarded or punished while interacting with others (Siegel, 2003). (bartleby.com)
  • After responding stabilized, a progressive ratio schedule was initiated to evaluate motivation to obtain food reinforcement. (nih.gov)
  • Past studies have suggested a role for the habenula in voluntary exercise motivation and reinforcement of intracranial self-stimulation but have not assigned these effects to specific habenula subnuclei. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our findings demonstrate that the dMHb is involved in exercise motivation and the regulation of hedonic state, and is part of an intrinsic reinforcement circuit. (jneurosci.org)
  • Focusing on only one source motivation (or schedule of reinforcement) is a mistake. (industryweek.com)
  • behavioral principles (ignoring undesired behavior, reinforcement, etc. (woodbinehouse.com)
  • In behavioral psychology there is the idea of "multiple schedules of reinforcement. (industryweek.com)
  • An Experimental Comparison of Three Different Schedules of Reinforcement of Drug Abstinence Using Cigarette Smoking as an Exemplar. (ed.gov)
  • The efficacy of different schedules of reinforcement (progressive and fixed) for promoting and sustaining cigarette abstinence was compared using 60 cigarette smokers. (ed.gov)
  • The comparator schedule generally outperformed the other schedules in initiating and in maintaining abstinence from methamphetamine. (ed.gov)
  • In this 5-year study, the investigators propose to evaluate the separate and combined effects of the FDA-approved formulation of extended release naltrexone (Vivitrol®) and employment-based reinforcement of opiate abstinence in promoting opiate abstinence and reducing risky injection behavior in recently detoxified, opioid-dependent, injection drug users. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This group will also receive employment-based opiate abstinence reinforcement. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Can positive reinforcement in some way harm children or adolescents through our use of trying to pull out certain desired behaviors or traits within them? (bartleby.com)
  • Keller and Schoenfeld, 1950), Platt recognized that individuals operating for short-term positive gain ("reinforcement") had a tendency to over-exploit a resource, which led to a long-term overall loss to society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surrender at 20: Red Post Collection: Using the PBE for "crazy ideas", Taric Being Worked on, Lyte on Positive Reinforcement, and more! (surrenderat20.net)
  • Tonight's red post collection features Ghostcrawler commenting the PBE will soon see more testing of "crazy ideas, not all of which will make it live", Riot Repertoir noting he's currently working on Taric , Lyte discussing positive reinforcement for player behavior, and more! (surrenderat20.net)
  • Lyte popped up on reddit and the forums to talk more about Positive reinforcement for summoners, a small hint on the Honor systems updates, and Team Builder. (surrenderat20.net)
  • At the time, there were lots of questions about positive reinforcement, and if there were any future plans on the 'positive' side of things. (surrenderat20.net)
  • All of these systems were focused on experimenting with positive reinforcement and creating positive environments, to see what rewards would be effective, and what systems we'd need to build to sustain these positive behaviors long-term. (surrenderat20.net)
  • Behavior analysts emphasize the use of positive reinforcement for increasing desirable behaviors [6] and negative punishment for decreasing undesirable behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • If punishment is going to be used to decrease an undesirable behavior, the animal must be able to receive positive reinforcement for an alternative behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] An animal trainer can use conditioned reinforcers, like clickers, to bridge the interval between response and positive reinforcement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best tool in behavior modification is distraction and positive reinforcement. (yahoo.com)
  • Look for trainers who use only teaching methods that use positive reinforcement for good behavior rather than punishment for unacceptable behavior. (seattlepi.com)
  • Food is an acceptable positive reinforcement training tool. (seattlepi.com)
  • Our instructors use only safe humane methods such as positive reinforcement. (seattlepi.com)
  • Positive reinforcement encourages behavior. (childbirthsolutions.com)
  • In each schedule, the rate of responding at a particular time within an interval was shown to depend at least in part on the local rate of reinforcement at that time, derived from a measure of the probability of reinforcement at that time and the proximity of potential reinforcements at other times. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Regarding responses emitted in the presence of the stimulus correlated with the lowest reinforcement probability, the same author suggested that their frequencies could be a byproduct of the regular alternation of tD and [t.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These results support the idea that long-term cocaine exposure enhances subsequent reinforcement. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both cocaine and nicotine maintained significant levels of responding under the multiple schedule. (elsevier.com)
  • The other three cell types are observed during either cocaine self-administration or water reinforcement and are categorized by cells showing an anticipatory increase in firing rate within seconds preceding the reinforced response (type PR), and by cells that are either excited (type RFe) or inhibited (type RFi) after response completion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Effects of cocaine on performance under fixed-interval schedules with a small tandem ratio requirement. (springer.com)
  • Tolerance to effects of cocaine on behavior under a response-initiated fixed-interval schedule. (springer.com)
  • Cassens, G., & Mills, A. Lithium and amphetamine: Opposite effects on threshold of intracranial reinforcement. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, response rates markedly decreased when lever pressing was reinforced with inter-reinforcement interval schedules of 3 or 10 s or ratio schedules requiring multiple responses per reinforcement. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is recent evidence that exercise suppresses responses maintained by automatic reinforcement. (unt.edu)
  • In the corresponding terminology, the limited-hold period for reinforcement is called [t.sup.D] subcycle, while that in which responses have no consequences is called [t.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Fixed-Ration (FR) - reinforcements are given after a fixed number of responses. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications 7. (routledge.com)
  • It was concluded that the rate of responding maintained by a given interval schedule depends not on the overall rate of reinforcement provided but rather on the summation of different local effects of reinforcement at different times within intervals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Reinforcement schedules and psychophysical judgments. (springer.com)
  • For each possum, each of the four foods functioned as reinforcers when presented in a single-schedule arrangement, including those foods identified as less preferred. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • We then examined effects of interval and ratio schedules of reinforcement on photo-pulse train reinforcement, which was contrasted with food reinforcement. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reinforcement with food inhibited lever pressing for a few seconds, after which pressing was robustly regulated in a goal-directed manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a classical example of reinforcement, imagine a rat in a chamber with a lever and a cup into which food pellets can be delivered. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It was also found that when the concurrent alternative was on an FR 50 schedule, the response rates, break points and Pmax values of the food on the PR schedule tended to be higher than when the concurrent alternative was on an FR 20 schedule. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • C57BL/6J (n = 76) and OKO (n = 39) mice were trained to nose poke for food under a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement. (nih.gov)
  • Our research project focus was to determine if increasing protein intake alters the reinforcing value (RRV), an objective measure of food reinforcement, of high calorie snack foods. (usda.gov)
  • However, the link between protein and food reinforcement is not known. (usda.gov)
  • We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein alters food reinforcement in healthy adults. (usda.gov)
  • Food reinforcement was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent log2(x) reinforcement schedules) 4h after lunch. (usda.gov)
  • The CER is often referred to as conditioned suppression because the learned response is a CS-elicited reduction in the rate of free-operant response rates established by food reward using various schedules of reinforcement. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Reinforcement delivery in the form of food or water is contingent upon a lever being pressed by the animal (usually a rat or pigeon). (springer.com)
  • This program and interface for a small computer (PDP8/e) performs the following operations: generates and delivers constant current stimulation to the brain of an animal, monitors electrical resistance at the stimulating electrode, and calculates the threshold of reinforcement based upon the frequency of characteristic pauses in the animal's responding. (springer.com)
  • The schedule of reinforcement typically used when investigating i.v. nicotine self-administration is a simple fixed-ratio (FR) schedule. (elsevier.com)
  • A powerful machine learning technique for solving problems in dynamic and adaptive environments, deep reinforcement learning has recently accomplished previously unsolvable tasks like the game AlphaGo. (eventbrite.com)
  • Moreover, OKO mice did not differ from WT mice under a progressive ratio schedule, indicating delayed learning processes but no motivational impairments. (nih.gov)
  • Fixed and variable schedules of response-independent reinforcement. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Shaping is a procedure in which reinforcement is used to guide a response closer and closer to a desired response. (sparknotes.com)
  • Likewise, interval schedules can deliver reinforcement following fixed or variable intervals of time following a single response by the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual behaviors tend to generate response rates that differ based upon how the reinforcement schedule is created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative and Absolute Strength of Response as a Function of Frequency Reinforcement. (cogprints.org)
  • METHODS: An electronic literature search of MEDLINE database plus manual reference checks of articles published on laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery, bleeding and the use of staple-line reinforcement. (sages.org)
  • One purpose of the current study is to assess the efficacy of a prize reinforcement intervention for reducing cigarette smoking. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A second purpose is to test the differential efficacy of two schedules of reinforcement, using cigarette smoking as an exemplar. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As soon as you want to improve the behavior, however, and you raise a criterion, the dog is on a less predictable schedule. (clickertraining.com)
  • In this paper we explore several other scheduling arrangements while using the escalating schedule with a reset contingency as the comparator. (ed.gov)
  • Revit Structure software provides tools for modeling 3D concrete reinforcement in an advanced Building Information Modeling (BIM) environment. (autodesk.com)
  • Another boon to structural engineers working with walls is the ability to schedule more wall parameters in Revit 2015. (autodesk.com)
  • In addition, ratio schedules can deliver reinforcement following fixed or variable number of behaviors by the individual organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • This idea of reinforcement is a branch of the infamous Differential Association theory presented by Edwin H. Sutherland in 1939. (bartleby.com)
  • Employee Behavior: "The Reinforcement Theory" Introduction The research information that will be presented in this report identifies with the topic of Employee Behavior. (bartleby.com)
  • The theory chosen in relation to this topic is the Reinforcement Theory, in which background information such as the history and content of the theory will be given. (bartleby.com)
  • The Theory of Reinforcement Schedules , pp. 1-42. (springer.com)
  • Experiment 3 used concurrent-schedules, with a PR schedule on one alternative and fixed-ratio (FR) on the other. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • Potential implications for BPT are that decreasing working memory load may enhance the chance of optimally learning through reinforcement. (frontiersin.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Staple-line reinforcement is commonly used in bariatric surgery. (sages.org)