The strengthening of a conditioned response.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.
Use of word stimulus to strengthen a response during learning.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.
The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.
A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The selection of one food over another.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.
The process by which an emotional or behavioral response that is appropriate for one situation appears in another situation for which it is inappropriate.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.
Mental disorders related to feeding and eating usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The educational process of instructing.
Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.
In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.
Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.
Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.
Cultural contacts between people of different races.
Use for general articles concerning nursing education.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
A genus of QUAIL, in the family Odontophoridae, comprised of at least four different species of bobwhites.
Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)

There are various causes of intellectual disability, including:

1. Genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and Turner syndrome.
2. Congenital conditions, such as microcephaly and hydrocephalus.
3. Brain injuries, such as traumatic brain injury or hypoxic-ischemic injury.
4. Infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis.
5. Nutritional deficiencies, such as iron deficiency or iodine deficiency.

Intellectual disability can result in a range of cognitive and functional impairments, including:

1. Delayed language development and difficulty with communication.
2. Difficulty with social interactions and adapting to new situations.
3. Limited problem-solving skills and difficulty with abstract thinking.
4. Slow learning and memory difficulties.
5. Difficulty with fine motor skills and coordination.

There is no cure for intellectual disability, but early identification and intervention can significantly improve outcomes. Treatment options may include:

1. Special education programs tailored to the individual's needs.
2. Behavioral therapies, such as applied behavior analysis (ABA) and positive behavior support (PBS).
3. Speech and language therapy.
4. Occupational therapy to improve daily living skills.
5. Medications to manage associated behaviors or symptoms.

It is essential to recognize that intellectual disability is a lifelong condition, but with appropriate support and resources, individuals with ID can lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

1. Cocaine dependence: This is a condition in which an individual becomes psychologically and physiologically dependent on cocaine, and experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop using the drug.
2. Cocaine intoxication: This is a state of altered consciousness that can occur when an individual takes too much cocaine, and can cause symptoms such as agitation, confusion, and hallucinations.
3. Cocaine-induced psychosis: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a break from reality, characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking.
4. Cocaine-associated cardiovascular problems: Cocaine use can increase heart rate and blood pressure, and can cause damage to the heart and blood vessels.
5. Cocaine-associated respiratory problems: Cocaine use can constrict the airways and make breathing more difficult, which can lead to respiratory failure.
6. Cocaine-associated neurological problems: Cocaine use can cause nerve damage and seizures, particularly in individuals who use the drug frequently or in large quantities.
7. Cocaine withdrawal syndrome: This is a set of symptoms that can occur when an individual stops using cocaine, including depression, anxiety, and fatigue.
8. Cocaine-related anxiety disorders: Cocaine use can exacerbate anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
9. Cocaine-related mood disorders: Cocaine use can also exacerbate mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder.
10. Cocaine-related cognitive impairment: Chronic cocaine use can impair cognitive function, particularly in areas such as attention, memory, and decision-making.

It is important to note that the effects of cocaine can vary depending on the individual, the dose and frequency of use, and other factors such as the method of administration and any underlying medical conditions. If you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine addiction, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines Autistic Disorder as a pervasive developmental disorder that meets the following criteria:

A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:

1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity (e.g., abnormal or absent eye contact, impaired understanding of facial expressions, delayed or lack of response to social overtures).
2. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships (e.g., difficulty initiating or sustaining conversations, impairment in understanding social norms, rules, and expectations).
3. Deficits in using nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction (e.g., difficulty with eye contact, facial expressions, body language, gestures).

B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:

1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., hand flapping, head banging, repeating words or phrases).
2. Insistence on sameness, inflexibility, and adherence to routines or rituals.
3. Preoccupation with specific interests or activities that are repeated in a rigid and restricted manner (e.g., preoccupation with a particular topic, excessive focus on a specific activity).

C. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period and significantly impact social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

D. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during a medical or neurological condition (e.g., intellectual disability, hearing loss).

It is important to note that Autistic Disorder is a spectrum disorder and individuals with this diagnosis may have varying degrees of severity in their symptoms. Additionally, there are several other Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) that have similar diagnostic criteria but may differ in severity and presentation. These include:

A. Asperger's Disorder: Characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, but without the presence of significant delay or retardation in language development.

B. Rett Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that is characterized by difficulties with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.

C. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder: Characterized by a loss of language and social skills that occurs after a period of normal development.

It is important to consult with a qualified professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A disorder marked by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder (CD): A disorder characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the child violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
4. Anxiety Disorders: A group of disorders that cause excessive fear, worry, or anxiety that interferes with daily life.
5. Mood Disorders: A group of disorders that affect a child's mood, causing them to feel sad, hopeless, or angry for extended periods of time.
6. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
7. Tourette Syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, often involving involuntary sounds or words.
8. Selective Mutism: A disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of speaking in certain situations, such as school or social events.
9. Separation Anxiety Disorder: A disorder characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety related to separation from home or loved ones.
10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A group of disorders that include ODD, CD, and conduct disorder, which are characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.

These disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but early identification and intervention can make a significant difference in a child's outcome. It is important for parents and caregivers to seek professional help if they notice any signs of these disorders in their child.

Self-mutilation is not the same as suicide, although it can be a risk factor for suicidal behavior. People who engage in self-mutilation may do so as a way to try to regulate their emotions, express feelings that they cannot put into words, or cope with traumatic events. It is important to note that self-mutilation is not a healthy or effective way to manage emotions or cope with stress, and it can lead to physical and emotional scars, infections, and worsening mental health.

Self-mutilation can be difficult to recognize, as it often occurs in secret and can be hidden by clothing or makeup. However, some common signs that someone may be engaging in self-mutilation include:

* Unexplained cuts, scars, or bruises
* Frequent injuries or wounds that do not heal properly
* Difficulty concentrating or memory problems
* Mood swings or emotional instability
* Withdrawal from social activities or relationships
* Substance abuse or addiction

If you suspect that someone you know is engaging in self-mutilation, it is important to approach the situation with sensitivity and compassion. Encourage them to seek professional help from a mental health provider, such as a therapist or counselor. A mental health professional can work with the individual to identify the underlying causes of their behavior and develop healthy coping strategies.

Treatment for self-mutilation typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Therapy can help individuals understand the underlying causes of their behavior, develop healthy coping strategies, and learn how to manage negative emotions in a more productive way. Medications such as antidepressants or mood stabilizers may be prescribed to help regulate mood and reduce impulsivity.

In summary, self-mutilation is a behavior where an individual intentionally causes harm to their own body, often as a coping mechanism for emotional pain or distress. It can take many forms, including cutting, burning, or hitting oneself. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication, and it is important to approach the situation with sensitivity and compassion. If you suspect that someone you know is engaging in self-mutilation, encourage them to seek professional help from a mental health provider.

1. Failure to thrive (FTT): This is a condition in which a child does not gain weight or grow at the expected rate due to inadequate intake of food or difficulty with digestion.
2. Pica: This is a condition in which a child eats non-food items, such as dirt, paper, or chalk.
3. Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID): This is a condition in which a child avoids certain types of food or has a limited range of foods that they will eat.
4. Rumination disorder: This is a condition in which a child regurgitates food after eating it, often due to anxiety or stress.
5. Gastric motility disorders: These are conditions that affect the muscles and nerves of the digestive system, leading to difficulty with swallowing, vomiting, or bowel movements.
6. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.
7. Food allergies: These are conditions in which the body's immune system mistakenly identifies certain foods as harmful, leading to an allergic reaction.
8. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs): These are conditions that cause inflammation and irritation in the digestive system, often due to an allergic response.

Feeding and eating disorders of childhood can have a significant impact on a child's physical health, emotional well-being, and quality of life. Treatment may involve a combination of medical interventions, therapy, and changes to the child's diet and feeding habits.

Developmental disabilities can include a wide range of diagnoses, such as:

1. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurological disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
2. Intellectual Disability (ID): A condition in which an individual's cognitive abilities are below average, affecting their ability to learn, reason, and communicate.
3. Down Syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, characterized by intellectual disability, delayed speech and language development, and a distinctive physical appearance.
4. Cerebral Palsy (CP): A group of disorders that affect movement, balance, and posture, often resulting from brain injury or abnormal development during fetal development or early childhood.
5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
6. Learning Disabilities: Conditions that affect an individual's ability to learn and process information, such as dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.
7. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): An injury to the brain caused by a blow or jolt to the head, often resulting in cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments.
8. Severe Hearing or Vision Loss: A condition in which an individual experiences significant loss of hearing or vision, affecting their ability to communicate and interact with their environment.
9. Multiple Disabilities: A condition in which an individual experiences two or more developmental disabilities simultaneously, such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.
10. Undiagnosed Developmental Delay (UDD): A condition in which an individual experiences delays in one or more areas of development, but does not meet the diagnostic criteria for a specific developmental disability.

These conditions can have a profound impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to provide appropriate support and accommodations to help them reach their full potential.

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. It is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The most common symptoms of ADHD include difficulty paying attention, forgetfulness, fidgeting, interrupting others, and acting impulsively.

ODD is a disorder that is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures. Symptoms of ODD may include arguing with adults, refusing to comply with rules, deliberately annoying others, and blaming others for one's own mistakes.

CD is a disorder that is characterized by a pattern of aggressive and destructive behavior towards others. Symptoms of CD may include physical fights, property damage, and cruelty to animals.

The causes of AD/DBD are not yet fully understood, but research suggests that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development. These disorders often run in families, and individuals with AD/DBD are more likely to have a family history of these conditions. Additionally, certain environmental stressors, such as trauma or exposure to toxins, may increase the risk of developing AD/DBD.

There is no cure for AD/DBD, but they can be effectively managed with a combination of medication and behavioral therapy. Medications such as stimulants and non-stimulants are commonly used to treat ADHD, while behavioral therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) can help individuals with AD/DBD learn skills to manage their symptoms and behaviors.

In conclusion, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are neurodevelopmental disorders that affect both children and adults. While they share some similarities, they also have distinct differences in terms of their symptoms and underlying causes. Effective management of these conditions requires a comprehensive approach that includes medication, behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD and DBD can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

Tobacco use disorder refers to a condition where an individual engages in the excessive and compulsive consumption of tobacco products, despite the negative consequences it may have on their health and well-being. Tobacco use disorder is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, and it is characterized by a pattern of continued tobacco use despite harmful effects, as well as an increased tolerance to tobacco and withdrawal symptoms when trying to stop.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) defines tobacco use disorder as a chronic condition that can manifest in different forms, including nicotine dependence and tobacco abuse. The criteria for diagnosing tobacco use disorder include:

1. Tolerance: A need to use more tobacco to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, or depression when trying to stop using tobacco.
3. Loss of control: Consuming more tobacco than intended or for longer periods than intended.
4. Negative consequences: Continuing to use tobacco despite social, physical, or psychological problems caused by its use.
5. Increased time and effort spent on using tobacco.
6. Craving or a strong desire to use tobacco.
7. Failure to control or reduce tobacco use.

Tobacco use disorder can have severe consequences, including lung cancer, heart disease, respiratory problems, and other health issues. It can also lead to social and economic problems, such as lost productivity and strained relationships with family and friends. Treatment for tobacco use disorder includes behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups, and it is important for individuals struggling with this condition to seek professional help to quit using tobacco and improve their overall health and well-being.

* Anxiety
* Depression
* Fatigue
* Insomnia
* Muscle and bone pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Seizures (in severe cases)
* Sweating
* Tremors

The specific symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance being withdrawn from, but some common symptoms include:

* Alcohol: tremors, anxiety, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, headaches, and seizures
* Opioids: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, muscle aches, sweating, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and depression
* Benzodiazepines: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, insomnia, tremors, and seizures

The diagnosis of substance withdrawal syndrome is typically made based on the patient's history of substance use and the presence of withdrawal symptoms. A healthcare provider may also order laboratory tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome usually involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and pain management, as well as medication to manage withdrawal symptoms. In some cases, medical professionals may also recommend a gradual tapering of the substance over a period of time to minimize withdrawal symptoms.

It is important for individuals who are experiencing withdrawal symptoms to seek medical attention as soon as possible, as untreated withdrawal can lead to serious complications, such as seizures and dehydration. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with substance withdrawal syndrome can recover fully and successfully overcome their addiction.

There are several types of learning disorders, including:

1. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing letters, sounds, or word patterns.
2. Dyscalculia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. Individuals with dyscalculia may have difficulty with numbers, quantities, or mathematical concepts.
3. Dysgraphia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to write and spell words. Individuals with dysgraphia may have difficulty with hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, or language processing.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to focus, pay attention, and regulate their behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have difficulty with organization, time management, or following instructions.
5. Auditory Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand auditory information. Individuals with auditory processing disorder may have difficulty with listening, comprehension, or speech skills.
6. Visual Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand visual information. Individuals with visual processing disorder may have difficulty with reading, writing, or other tasks that require visual processing.
7. Executive Function Deficits: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan, organize, and execute tasks. Individuals with executive function deficits may have difficulty with time management, organization, or self-regulation.

Learning disorders can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist, neuropsychologist, or learning specialist, through a comprehensive assessment that includes cognitive and academic testing, as well as a review of the individual's medical and educational history. The specific tests and assessments used will depend on the suspected type of learning disorder and the individual's age and background.

There are several approaches to treating learning disorders, including:

1. Accommodations: Providing individuals with accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the option to take a test orally, can help level the playing field and enable them to succeed academically.
2. Modifications: Making modifications to the curriculum or instructional methods can help individuals with learning disorders access the material and learn in a way that is tailored to their needs.
3. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of therapy can help individuals with learning disorders develop strategies for managing their challenges and improving their academic performance.
4. Assistive technology: Assistive technology, such as text-to-speech software or speech-to-text software, can help individuals with learning disorders access information and communicate more effectively.
5. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms associated with learning disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
6. Multi-sensory instruction: Using multiple senses (such as sight, sound, and touch) to learn new information can be helpful for individuals with learning disorders.
7. Self-accommodations: Teaching individuals with learning disorders how to identify and use their own strengths and preferences to accommodate their challenges can be effective in helping them succeed academically.
8. Parental involvement: Encouraging parents to be involved in their child's education and providing them with information and resources can help them support their child's learning and development.
9. Collaboration: Collaborating with other educators, professionals, and family members to develop a comprehensive treatment plan can help ensure that the individual receives the support they need to succeed academically.

It is important to note that each individual with a learning disorder is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A comprehensive assessment and ongoing monitoring by a qualified professional is necessary to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual.

Gambling can also be considered a behavioral addiction, as some individuals may become so consumed by the activity that they neglect other aspects of their lives, experience financial problems, and exhibit other signs of addiction. In this context, gambling is often classified as an impulse control disorder or a substance use disorder.

In the medical field, gambling can have various effects on an individual's physical and mental health, such as:

1. Financial problems: Gambling can lead to significant financial losses, which can cause stress, anxiety, and depression.
2. Sleep disturbances: Engaging in gambling activities at night or experiencing the excitement of winning can disrupt sleep patterns and lead to insomnia or other sleep disorders.
3. Substance abuse: Gambling can sometimes be accompanied by substance abuse, as individuals may turn to drugs or alcohol to cope with their gambling problems or to enhance their gambling experience.
4. Mood disorders: Gambling can contribute to the development of mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.
5. Suicidal ideation: In extreme cases, individuals struggling with gambling addiction may experience suicidal thoughts or attempts.
6. Social problems: Gambling can strain relationships with family and friends, leading to social isolation and loneliness.
7. Physical health problems: Chronic stress and anxiety associated with gambling can contribute to various physical health problems, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal problems.
8. Cognitive impairment: Compulsive gambling can affect cognitive functioning, including attention, memory, and decision-making abilities.
9. Family dynamics: Gambling can have a significant impact on family dynamics, leading to conflicts, divorce, and financial hardship.
10. Financial consequences: Gambling can lead to significant financial problems, including debt, bankruptcy, and even criminal activity.

It's important to note that not all individuals who experience these problems will develop a gambling disorder, and that other factors such as genetics, family history, and environmental factors can contribute to the development of gambling addiction.

Heroin dependence can be diagnosed based on a combination of the following criteria:

1. Taking heroin in larger quantities or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of heroin use.
4. Craving or strong desire to use heroin.
5. Intermittent or persistent heroin use despite negative consequences (such as relationship problems, financial issues, legal problems, or health problems).
6. Developing tolerance, which means that more heroin is needed to achieve the same effects.
7. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when heroin use stops or decreases.

Withdrawal symptoms can include:

1. Anxiety and restlessness.
2. Muscle and bone pain.
3. Teary eyes and runny nose.
4. Yawning and sweating.
5. Chills and tremors.
6. Nausea and vomiting.
7. Diarrhea and stomach cramps.
8. Severe heroin cravings.

Heroin dependence can lead to a range of social, economic, legal, and health problems, including overdose and death. Treatment for heroin dependence usually involves a combination of medication and behavioral therapy, such as methadone maintenance or buprenorphine treatment, along with counseling and support groups.

There are many different types of back injuries that can occur, including:

1. Strains and sprains: These are common injuries that occur when the muscles or ligaments in the back are stretched or torn.
2. Herniated discs: When the gel-like center of a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, it can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
3. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the spinal discs wear down over time and lose their cushioning ability, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra in the spine slips out of place, which can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain.
5. Fractures: These are breaks in one or more of the bones in the back, which can be caused by trauma or overuse.
6. Spinal cord injuries: These are injuries that affect the spinal cord, either from trauma (e.g., car accidents) or from degenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
7. Radiculopathy: This is a condition where a compressed nerve root in the back can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the arms or legs.

Treatment for back injuries depends on the specific type and severity of the injury, but may include rest, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated back injuries can lead to chronic pain and decreased mobility.

People with pica may eat these items in secret and experience a sense of relief or satisfaction after consuming them. The condition is more common in children and adolescents, but it can also affect adults. Pica can lead to nutritional deficiencies, gastrointestinal problems, and other health issues if the eaten items are not digestible or contain harmful substances.

Treatment for pica usually involves addressing any underlying mental health issues and providing education on nutrition and healthy eating habits. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of pica, as early intervention can help prevent complications and improve overall health.

Types of Substance-Related Disorders:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.


1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.


1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.


1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.

It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.

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Biological basis of personality Extraversion and introversion Personality psychology Reinforcement Trait theory Corr, Phillip ( ... and reinforcement learning. Reinforcement sensitivity theory is one of the major biological models of individual differences in ... Reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposes three brain-behavioral systems that underlie individual differences in ... Larsen, R. J., & Buss, D. M. (2009). Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill ...
Psychology portal Adaptive behaviors Operant conditioning Perceptual learning Reinforcement Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Barry, ... Comparative Cognitive Psychology , UCLA Psychology Department. "High intensity exercise as a dishabituating stimulus restores ... Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 25 (3): 369-393. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2004.04.006. ISSN 0193-3973. This article ...
"An overview of stimulus-response reinforcement theory". Psychology. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon. pp. 321-329. Beach, F. A. ( ... In 1929 he was called to the Institute of Psychology at Yale University as a research professor of psychology where he worked ... In 1930, he came to several conclusions about psychology: the first was that he believed that psychology is a true natural ... Reinforcement of a response to a behavior supplies an effect that satisfies a need. In other words, this satisfaction of needs ...
... substitution of media for companionship Personal Identity or Individual Psychology: Value reinforcement or reassurance; self- ... Using this sociologically-based theory has little to no link to the benefit of psychology due to its weakness in operational ... Vorderer, P; Steen, F. and Chan, E. (2006). Bryant, J.; Vorderer, P. (eds.). Psychology of Entertainment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence ... In media studies, mass communication, media psychology, communication theory, and sociology, media influence and media effects ...
In psychology, shaping (psychology), is the reinforcement of successive approximations to train a type of behavior. In ...
Behaviorism Radical behaviorism Operant conditioning Reinforcement Carlson NR (2009). Psychology-the science of behavior. U.S: ... It explains why reinforcement can be used so effectively in the learning process, and how schedules of reinforcement can affect ... Gray P (2007). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers. pp. 108-109. "Edward Thorndike - Law of Effect , Simply Psychology". www ... Psychology (3rd ed.). Macmillan. pp. 278-80. ISBN 978-1-4641-5528-4. Kazdin A (2000). Encyclopedia of Psychology, Vol. 5. ...
The psychology term superimposed schedules of reinforcement refers to a structure of rewards where two or more simple schedules ... Socially-mediated reinforcement (direct reinforcement) involves the delivery of reinforcement that requires the behavior of ... There are four types of reinforcement: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment. Positive ... "reinforcement". In his 1967 paper, Arbitrary and Natural Reinforcement, Charles Ferster proposed classifying reinforcement into ...
Reinforcement learning, a term stemming from behavioral psychology, is a method of problem solving by learning things through ... Reinforcement learning can be applied to biological data, in the field of omics, by using RL to predict bacterial genomes. ... Ralha, C. G.; Schneider, H. W.; Walter, M. E. M. T.; Bazzan, A. L. (October 2010). "Reinforcement Learning Method for BioAgents ... Deep Learning (DL) and reinforcement learning (RL) have been used in the field of omics research (which includes genomics, ...
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"Classroom behavior of retarded pupils with token reinforcement". Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2 (2): 219-235. doi: ... The goal of such systems is to gradually thin out and to help the person begin to access the natural community of reinforcement ... Petry, N.M. (2001) Contingent reinforcement for compliance with goal-related activities in HIV-positive substance abusers. The ... 2006). A meta-analysis of voucher-based reinforcement therapy for substance use disorders. Addiction, 101, 192-203. Prendergast ...
Psychology portal Analytical psychology Alternative five model of personality Personality Reinforcement sensitivity theory ... This model is based on the reinforcement sensitivity theory by Jeffrey Alan Gray, which states that people with stronger ... One consequence of this is that extraverts can more easily learn the contingencies for positive reinforcement, since the reward ... Larsen, Randy J. (2014). Personality psychology : domains of knowledge about human nature. David M. Buss. New York, NY: McGraw ...
It's going to a corporation that's doing this for profit," Wallace said.[9] Clay Routledge, a doctoral student in psychology, ... commented that monetary reinforcements for summer school would decrease intrinsic motivation for learning.[10] Busing problems ...
... or a reward that serves as a positive reinforcement of the lesson to be learned. In psychology, punishment is the reduction of ... Along with reinforcement it belongs under the operant conditioning category. Operant conditioning refers to learning with ... G.T, Gwinn (1949). "The effects of punishment on acts motivated by fear". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 39 (2): 260-69. ... ISBN 978-0-495-59862-6. W, J.C, Furman, Masters (1980). "Affective consequences of social reinforcement, punishment, and ...
In C. Murchison (Eds.) Psychologies reinforcement and resistance to extinction in young children ,journal=Child Development , ... They focus on Reinforcement sensitivity theory, which states that some individuals are more or less sensitive to reinforcement ... In addition to loss of reinforcement, the loss of contingency between behavior and reinforcement can also lead to depression ... In addition, use of positive reinforcement has been shown to improve symptoms of depression in children. Reinforcement has also ...
Pubols, Benjamin (1962). "Constant versus variable delay of reinforcement". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology ...
For instance, B.F. Skinner had published expansively on the psychology of positive reinforcement and "operant conditioning," ... Stinson introduced positive rewards, but also introduced, demerits that may have bordered between negative reinforcement and ...
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15(3), 285-294. Schwartz, B. (1982). Reinforcement-induced behavioral stereotypy: ... the exertion of high effort on a difficult task paired with low levels of reinforcement (intermittent reinforcement) will ... Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(1), 180-185. Brandon, T. H., Herzog, T. A., Juliano, L. M., Irvin, J. E., Lazev, A. B., & ... Negative reinforcement is the removal of an aversive stimulus after a behavior that increases the frequency of that behavior. ...
Within cognitive psychology, among the most prominent researchers is Diana Deutsch, who has engaged in a wide variety of work ... Gold, B. P.; Frank, M. J.; Bogert, B.; Brattico, E. (2013). "Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the ... 2013). The Psychology of Music, 3rd Edition. San Diego, California: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0123814609. Deutsch, D. (2019). ... Recording engineer turned music psychologist Daniel Levitin talks about the psychology of music in an up tempo, informal, and ...
Niv, Y. (2009). Reinforcement learning in the brain. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53(3), 139-154. Niv, Y., Daw, N. D., ... Yael Niv is a neuroscientist who studies human and animal reinforcement learning and decision making. She is Professor of ... Her Master's thesis, was supervised by Daphna Joel and Eytan Ruppin and titled Evolution of Reinforcement Learning in Uncertain ... Niv, Y., Edlund, J. A., Dayan, P., & O'Doherty, J. P. (2012). Neural prediction errors reveal a risk-sensitive reinforcement- ...
ISBN 978-0-470-06824-3. Smith, R.E. (2006). Positive reinforcement, performance feedback, and performance enhancement. In J.M. ... Exercise psychology is a sub-discipline within the field of psychology and is typically grouped with sport psychology. For ... Sport psychology as a branch of Psychology and in 1993 British Psychology Society formed a sport and exercise psychology ... Sport psychology started in 1890 when Norman Triplett performed the first experiment in sport psychology and the social ...
Behaviorism viewed the human being as an animal subject to reinforcements, and suggested placing psychology as an experimental ... Branden, N. (1969). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Bantam. Branden, N. (2001). The psychology of self-esteem: a ... Smith, E. R.; Mackie, D. M. (2007). Social Psychology (Third ed.). Hove: Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1841694085. Marsh, H.W. ( ... Barbara Krahe, The Social Psychology of Aggression (Psychology Press, 2013), 75. Sedikieds, C.; Rudich, E. A.; Gregg, A. P.; ...
Deci EL (1972). "Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic reinforcement, and inequity". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 22 ... Purposive psychology, also known as hormic psychology, emphasizes that actions by people are done for a purpose or with ... negative reinforcement). The strength of reinforcement or punishment is dependent on schedule and timing. A reinforcer or ... Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behaviour of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs, such as ...
Lepper, Mark R. (1973). "Dissonance, self-perception, and honesty in children". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. ... Cameron, Judy; Pierce, W. David (1994). "Reinforcement, Reward, and Intrinsic Motivation: A Meta-Analysis". Review of ... Tang, Shu-Hua; Hall, Vernon C. (1995). "The overjustification effect: A meta-analysis". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 9 (5): ... Motivation crowding theory is the theory from psychology and microeconomics suggesting that providing extrinsic incentives for ...
... effect is controversial because it challenges previous findings in psychology on the general effectiveness of reinforcement on ... Aronson, E.; Akert, R. D.; Wilson, T. D. (2006). Social psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. ... ISBN 978-0-399-14047-1. Flora, S. R.; Flora, D. B. (1999). "Effects of extrinsic reinforcement for reading during childhood on ... Cameron, Judy; W. David Pierce (Fall 1994). "Reinforcement, reward, and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis". Review of ...
"Self-reinforcement and external reinforcement in visual-motor learning". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 74 (1): 93-8. doi: ... Applications of kinesiology to human health include biomechanics and orthopedics; strength and conditioning; sport psychology; ... psychology, and physiology. In 1965, the University of Massachusetts Amherst created the United States' first Department of ... International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 7 (4): 488-502. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2009.9671921. S2CID 143999808. Yoo ...
". "Professor Donald J. Woodward Visiting the Institute of Psychology". "Behavioral Neuroscience of Addiction and Reinforcement ... She earned master's and doctoral degrees in Psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, the latter under Joe L. ... Janak began training in biological science and behavioral science as an undergraduate double major in Biology and Psychology at ... At Johns Hopkins, Janak is teaching graduate psychology and neuroscience courses and an undergraduate course on learning and ...
While similar to reinforcement, punishment's goal is to decrease behaviors while reinforcement's goal is to increase behaviors ... Negative reinforcement: may involve removing one from a negative situation Intermittent or partial reinforcement: Partial or ... "Side Effects and Problems with Punishment" (PDF). Psychology 390: Psychology of Learning. University of Idaho. Archived from ... distinct from reinforcement. Others see it as a category of negative reinforcement, creating a situation in which any ...
The last stage in this phase is Reinforcement. The therapist will encourage all efforts made by the client to promote change. ... Individual Psychology (1929). A. Adler, 'Individual Psychology', in G. B. Levitas ed., The World of Psychology (1963) Ansbacher ... Primer of Adlerian Psychology: The Analytic - Behavioral - Cognitive Psychology of Alfred Alder, Brunner-Routledge, 1999. Paul ... Classical Adlerian psychology Classical Adlerian psychotherapy North American Society of Adlerian Psychology Adlerian Neo- ...
"A Comparison of Differential Reinforcement and Noncontingent Reinforcement to Treat Food Selectivity in a Child With Autism". ... This is the opposite of a discriminative stimulus which is a signal that reinforcement will occur. For instance, in an operant ... It (extinction) is the result of challenging behavior(s) no longer occurring without the need for reinforcement. If there is a ... Schedules can be both fixed and variable and also the number of reinforcements given during each interval can vary. A positive ...
His father abuses him physically when he acts outside of his assigned male role and he receives verbal reinforcement of ... Asian American Journal of Psychology. 4 (3): 167. Linmark, R. Zamora (1995). Rolling the R's. NY: Kaya Press. pp. 40. ISBN 978- ... Asian American Journal of Psychology. 4 (3): 172. Kiang, Lisa and David T. Takeuchi (2009). "Phenotypic Bias and Ethnic ...
The role of vicarious reinforcement is shown through the Bobo Doll Experiment, which demonstrates how the behavior of adults ... Wortman, Camille B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Weaver, Charles A. (1998). Psychology (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.[page ... An analysis of the study shows that reinforcement and punishment do not influence learned aggressive behavior, only the outward ... This is known as vicarious reinforcement. If a model receives validation for exhibiting certain behaviors, someone who looks up ...
Journal of Psychology, 89, 175-7. Franzwa, H.H. (1969). Psychological factors influencing use of "evaluative-dynamic" language ... Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, ... Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 25, 7-24. Bradac, J.J.; Bowers, J.W. & Courtright, J.A. (1979). Three language ... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 20, 240-53. Carmichael, C.W. & Cronkhite, G.L. (1965). Frustration and language ...
Norman, P. D.; C. Antaki (1988). "Real events attributional style questionnaire". Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 7 ... "Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A review". Psychological Bulletin. 65 (4): 206-20. doi:10.1037/h0023116. ... Peterson, C.; P. Villanova (1988). "An expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 97 (1): 87- ... British Journal of Psychology. 88: 53-69. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1997.tb02620.x. Burns, Melanie O.; M. E. P. Seligman (March ...
Journal of Mathematical Psychology. 30 (1): 73-80. doi:10.1016/0022-2496(86)90043-X. ISSN 0022-2496. Sivanandam, S. N. (2007). ... Unsupervised learning Supervised learning Reinforcement learning A lot of the learning methods in machine learning work similar ...
She graduated from Bowdoin in 1992 with a degree in Psychology. After graduating from Bowdoin, she received her master's degree ... Safe Passage Official website "News , Bowdoin College".[ ...
Tariq's commander, Musa, quickly crossed with Arab reinforcements, and by 718 the Muslims were in control of nearly the whole ... with the psychology of a reward in the next world. Palmer and Colton argue: the generations of crusading against infidels, even ... and Musa bin Nusayr is said to have sent an additional 5,000 reinforcements after the conquest. Crossing the Strait of ...
By November 1846, American control was secured with the arrival of reinforcements from the USS Congress. The Americans met the ... ISBN 978-1-351-51819-2. Kevin L. Nadal (23 March 2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and ... D. (2010). Filipino American Psychology: A Collection of Personal Narratives. AuthorHouse. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4520-0189-0. Golden ...
A 2010 study from the Journal of Applied School Psychology looked at four 4th grade boys who took part in different activities ... Contingency management - Focuses on modifying behavior through a combination of reinforcement and punishment. Ex. Using a token ... Additionally, different fields of psychology will change aspects of the above three-step process, which is primarily based in ... The researchers of the mentalization program educated children through group therapy in positive psychology and tried to do ...
Developmental Psychology 28, 231-241. Dodge, K.A., & Coie, J.D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and ... and it is suggested that both behavioral traits and unpopularity are as stable as they are due to various reinforcement ... Developmental Psychology 28, 163-172. Dishion, T.J., Patterson, G.R., Stoolmiller, M., & Skinner, M.L. (1991). Family, school, ... Developmental Psychology 22, 521-530. Sullivan, H.S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton. Larson, ...
... for which half of the textbook was written by psychology experts from Johns Hopkins University and the other half by Holloway ... who warned that a deployment order was imminent but that commitments in East Asia precluded any reinforcements from the Seventh ...
In the global mental health sector, there is concern that Western psychology is crowding out traditional understandings and ... exert peer pressure and operant learning principles to shape behavior through reinforcement, resulting in members of peer ... Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel (2015-03-23), "Prosocial Development", Handbook of Child Psychology and ... KATZ, PHYLLIS A. (1986), "Gender Identity: Development and Consequences", The Social Psychology of Female-Male Relations, ...
After rotation of the eyes, the animal showed a reinforcement of the optokinetic response in the same direction as the moving ... Frontiers in Psychology. 1: 166. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00166. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 3158430. PMID 21897822. FENS (2016-07-20), ... Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 43 (6): 482-489. CiteSeerX doi:10.1037/h0055479. PMID ...
Third, when the child is behaving according to the limits that are set, positive reinforcement and praise are used. Children ... Indulgent parents do not create proper boundaries for their children and provide them with positive reinforcement even though ... Evolutionary approaches to postpartum depression Gilding, Michael, "Paternity uncertainty and evolutionary psychology: How a ... ", "Developmental Psychology", pages 791-805 Fisher, Helen, "Lust, Attraction, Attachment", "Journal of Sex Education and ...
Sawyer understood the psychology of interpersonal dynamics and the need for all people to receive acknowledgment and validation ... Sawyer often talked about "catching a manager doing something right" and providing recognition and positive reinforcement. ...
Psychology Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-415-15618-9. Chae-ŏn Kang; Jae-eun Kang (2006). The Land of Scholars: Two Thousand Years ... Beiyang Fleet under the command of Admiral Ding was initially ordered to stay close to the Chinese coast while reinforcements ... Psychology Press. ISBN 1-87341-061-1. Sondhaus, Lawrence (2001). Naval Warfare, 1815-1914. Routledge. ISBN 0-41521-477-7. ...
The forgotten psychological method in sport psychology.", Exploring sport and exercise psychology (2nd ed.)., American ... In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a ... New York, Ny: Psychology Press. "Most Human Behavior is learned Through Modeling". Fleer, M. (2003). "Early Childhood Education ... Since this form of learning does not need reinforcement, it is more likely to occur regularly. As age increases, age-related ...
New York: Psychology Press. ISBN 9781135164805.[page needed] Lhermitte, F (1983). 'Utilization behaviour' and its relation to ... of voluntary will to control the actions of the hand in a functional context and the associated experiential reinforcement ... Munevar, Gonzalo (2012). "The Myth of Dual Consciousness in the Split Brain: Contrary Evidence from Psychology and Neuroscience ...
Bringing up robots or-the psychology of socially intelligent robots: from theory to implementation. In Proceedings of the third ... Hebbian reinforcement learning, and hormone feedback into their neural networks to again provide adaptability and flexibility ...
Science, 233 Rotter, J. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology (Prentice-Hall psychology series). New York: Prentice- ... In 1966, Julian Rotter published "Generalized Expectancies for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement", in which the ... In psychology, an individual's perceived control (PC) is the degree to which they believe that they have control over ... Health Psychology, 3 Beckjord, E. B.; Glinder, J.; Langrock, A.; Compas, B. E. (September 2009). "Post-conference workshops (In ...
Time-out is one behavior control method based on removing positive reinforcement for a brief time. Less elaborate methods from ... The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology have issued statements ... This class of methods are more effective if the child gets a significant amount positive reinforcement (praise, attention) for ... For this, and other ethical reasons, behavior analysts exhaust all options for using differential reinforcement and/or ...
Wong's integration of existential psychology with positive psychology resulted in Existential Positive Psychology, which ... Wong, P. T. P. (1977). A behavioral field approach to instrumental learning in the rat: I. Partial reinforcement effects and ... In 1970, he earned his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Toronto. Wong's career straddles two domains: psychology and ... Wong, P. T. P. (2011). Positive psychology 2.0: Towards a balanced interactive model of the good life. Canadian Psychology, 52( ...
3. Psychology Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7146-4692-3. Levine 1992, p. 39. Longmate 1983, p.133 Copp 1996. "Issues : Singleton - ... centres and thus delay an orderly Polish strategic concentration of forces and to deny mobility for Polish reinforcements ...
Disposition-relevant information is the main focus due to the fact that it feeds the reinforcement of negative information. ... The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior. New York:Guilford, 1996 Miller, D.T., & Ross, M., [" ...
Journal of General Psychology, 16, 272-279. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts ... absence of reinforcement). In discrimination learning, an error is a response to the S−, and according to Terrace errors are ... In G.H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 5). New York: Academic Press. (All articles with bare URLs ... However, errorless learning attracted the interest of researchers in applied psychology, and studies have been conducted with ...
1, Psychology Press, p. 70, ISBN 9780700705122 Hou, Renzhi (1998). The Works of Hou Renzhi. Beijing: Peking University Press. ... After three days of street fighting, Liao reinforcements reached the city ahead of the main Song Army, and managed to expel Guo ... After continued clashes and failed cease-fire talks, Japanese reinforcements with air support launched a full-scale offensive ...
... (born 7 May 1981) is an expert in equine behavior and psychology. She specializes in the positive reinforcement ...
In both territories the threat to German rule was quickly defeated once large-scale reinforcements from Germany arrived, with ... A plethora of colonialist propaganda pamphlets, ideas, and imagery played on the colonial powers' psychology of popular ...
Reinforcement is therefore a relative property. Reinforcement is a reversible property. When drinking is more probable than ... The departments of Psychology and Philosophy were closely allied. Herbert Feigl, Wilfred Sellars, and Paul Meehl led the ... subject to reinforcement. Reinforcement and punishment, traditionally contrasted as opposites, are in fact equivalent except ... This suggests that reinforcement is an absolute property. However, B corrects this view. B will reinforce C, but not A. B is ...
In M. Schaller, J. A. Simpson, & D. T. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolution and Social Psychology (pp. 237-261). New York: Psychology ... equilibrium Non-zero-sum Prisoner's dilemma Rationality Social trap Strategic games Superimposed Schedules of Reinforcement ... In social psychology, the literature refers to this phenomenon as social loafing. Whereas free-riding is generally used to ... Social dilemmas can take many forms and are studied across disciplines such as psychology, economics, and political science. ...
Positive reinforcement was the selected method of treatment. Martin and Pear (2019) defined a positive reinforcer as a reward ( ... The participant informed their peers and colleagues about the experiment and agreed on the positive reinforcement in the form ... "Active Listening: Positive Reinforcement." PsychologyWriting, 6 Apr. 2023, ... 2023, April 6). Active Listening: Positive Reinforcement. ...
Human Choice and Reinforcement Learning (2). Apr 7, 2017 9 min read Reinforcement Learning ... I chose to study psychology, and I continue to exploit this choice (i.e. I am not exploring other education). How do I know ... Human Choice and Reinforcement Learning (1). *Automating Computational Reproducibility in R using renv, Docker, and GitHub ... In the same way, this compromise exists in simple reinforcement learning paradigms such as choosing the best slot machine. ...
1 Department of Psychology (Biopsychology) and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MIichigan 48109-1109, ...
Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques have received considerable attention for their stress reduction potential in ... Reinforcement, Psychology* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Positive reinforcement training affects hematologic and serum chemistry values in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Susan P ... Positive reinforcement training affects hematologic and serum chemistry values in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Susan P ...
Reinforcement, Psychology* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Reinforcement Learning in Spiking Neural Networks with Stochastic and Deterministic Synapses. Yuan M, Wu X, Yan R, Tang H. Yuan ... Pruning recurrent neural networks replicates adolescent changes in working memory and reinforcement learning Bruno B Averbeck. ... Pruning recurrent neural networks replicates adolescent changes in working memory and reinforcement learning Bruno B Averbeck 1 ...
Reinforcement, Psychology*; Reward*; Smoking/psychology*; Vaping; Young Adult ...
Categories: Reinforcement (Psychology) Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Negative reinforcement vs. punishment. Punishment is relatively clear to every parent and child, teacher and student, or even ... 52 Psychology Terms You Keep Using Wrong Lauren CahnUpdated: Nov. 24, 2022 ... "Having taught undergraduate psychology at the University of Arizona for 22 years, I have seen thousands of students struggle to ... Negative reinforcement is completely different-a classic example is remembering the time you got sunburned at the beach, and ...
Member of BPS Division of Health Psychology. Member of British Society for the Psychology of Individual Differences (BSPID) ... Bennett C & Bacon AM (2019) At long last, a Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Explanation of Procrastination Journal of ... Bacon AM, McDaid C, Williams N & Corr PJ (2019) What motivates academic dishonesty in students? A Reinforcement Sensitivity ... Satchell, L.P., Bacon AM, Firth JL & Corr PJ (2018) Risk as reward: Reinforcement sensitivity theory and psychopathic ...
There is a phenomenon in behavioral psychology known as "secondary reinforcement". If a neutral stimulus is regularly ... If the above is not pernicious enough, it is further amplified by a second behavioral principle: "intermittent reinforcement". ...
Psychology Reinforcement Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Eye Movements Medicine & Life Sciences 96% ... Using reinforcement learning to understand the emergence of "intelligent" eye-movement behavior during reading. / Reichle, Erik ... Using reinforcement learning to understand the emergence of "intelligent" eye-movement behavior during reading. Psychological ... Reichle, Erik D. ; Laurent, Patryk A. / Using reinforcement learning to understand the emergence of "intelligent" eye-movement ...
Clearly, youre not falling for reverse psychology. Lets try negative reinforcement. Enjoy the Brussels sprouts! ...
I also like to use psychology and positive reinforcement to help athletes enjoy the process. ... She works on all aspects of her fitness including the psychology, which has helped her greatly -not only to improve her fitness ...
noun psychology A method. of positive. reinforcement. of behaviour. patterns. in operant conditioning. . ...
Behavioral Psychology By Michael Schreiner. WHETHER facing a toddler temper tantrum or an insolent adolescent, every parent ... The Difference Between Positive And Negative Reinforcement In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is the introduction of a ... Article 3: Positive Reinforcement in Psychology (Definition + 5 Examples) If you read our earlier piece on positive punishment ... Difference Between Negative Reinforcement And Punishment - Evolution Counseling Behavioral Psychology By Michael Schreiner , ...
... reinforcement, psychology; young adult. ...
Punishment insensitivity and impaired reinforcement learning in preschoolers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(2 ... Frontiers in Psychology, 6. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00764. *Tseng, W. L., Bones, B. L., Kayser, R. R., Olsavsky, A. K., Fromm, S ... Biological Psychology, 122, 121-129. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.10.004. *Stoddard, J., Tseng, W. L., Kim, P., Chen, G., Yi, J ... Biological Psychology, 145, 198-210. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.03.019. *Lau, J. Y. F., Sprecher, E., Haas, S., Lisk, S., ...
Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Psychological Reinforcement Reinforcement (Psychology) Public MeSH Note. 2020; ... was REINFORCEMENT (PSYCHOLOGY) 1965-2019; was REINFORCEMENT LEARNING 1963-1964. History Note. 2020 (1965); was REINFORCEMENT ( ... Positive Reinforcement Narrower Concept UI. M0018738. Terms. Positive Reinforcement Preferred Term Term UI T035879. Date03/17/ ... Negative Reinforcement Narrower Concept UI. M0018737. Terms. Negative Reinforcement Preferred Term Term UI T035878. Date03/17/ ...
THE SECRET PSYCHOLOGY OF ONLINE PERSUASION THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych All material © THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST LTD. 2014. No ... REWARD THEM [ Positive reinforcement - thank your customers! "You made a good decision for signing up" ] (to an email, webinar ... user experience social psychology cognitive psychology cross-cultural psychology behavioural economics persuasive technology ... WEB PSYCHOLOGY [ I coined the term Web Psychology ] in 2011 and defined it as… THE WEB PSYCHOLOGIST @TheWebPsych All material ...
Includes using and monitoring reinforcement systems; ethics and informed consent; training direct care workers; maintaining ... Psychology as a Behavioral Science. Current topics in psychology that are not covered in other courses. (May include lab hours ... Introduction to the Psychology Major. Preparation for success as a psychology student: explores the nature of the science and ... Prerequisite: Psychology major or minor - Psych 10, 42, and 144 complete with a grade of C or higher; Non-Psychology Major ...
The role of reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 30(2), 83-95. ... Department of Psychology. PO Box 56. Dunedin 9054. New Zealand. Tel 64 3 479 7644. Fax 64 3 479 8335. Email ... He edited the New Zealand Journal of Psychology and has been Associate Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of ... Emeritus Professor White was Head of the Psychology Department at Otago University for 10 years from 1987, and for 5 years from ...
Emotions clearly exist as reinforcement, not as opposition. Emotion Regulation 5 Min Read ... Get the help you need from a therapist near you-a FREE service from Psychology Today. ... Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348-362 DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348 ...
Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your positive and negative reinforcement essay. ... View and download positive and negative reinforcement essays examples. ... One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to ... Positive And Negative Reinforcement Essays. Positive And Negative Reinforcement Essays (Examples) 360 results for "Positive And ...
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Collier, G. & Willis, F. N. (1961). Deprivation and reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 377-384. Tente links ...
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  • Negative reinforcement is completely different-a classic example is remembering the time you got sunburned at the beach, and using that memory to help you remember to apply sunscreen whenever you head outdoors. (
  • Negative reinforcement, the researchers note, "increases the likelihood of a previous behavior," while punishment "decreases the likelihood of a previous behavior. (
  • That said, negative reinforcement doesn't necessarily shape behavior intentionally. (
  • For example, if you have a headache (negative stimulus) and you take an aspirin, you learn by way of negative reinforcement to take aspirin to relieve headache pain. (
  • Let's try negative reinforcement. (
  • March 20, 2015 A question that always pops up in behavioral psychology is what the difference is between negative reinforcement and punishment. (
  • The Difference Between Positive/Negative Reinforcement and Positive/Negative Punishment [with Examples] Reinforcement and punishment are often used as parenting tools to modify children's behavior. (
  • Let's review the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement, and the difference in outcomes between them. (
  • The Difference Between Positive And Negative Reinforcement In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is the introduction of a favorable condition that will make the desired behavior more likely to happen, continue or strengthen in the future​1​. (
  • However, to condition one's own behavior through negative reinforcement requires a great deal of zeal for such self-punishment. (
  • The most serious experience I ever had, however, with the difficulties of using negative reinforcement occurred during one of my most difficult trials as a soldier. (
  • The mother would be more successful with both children if she identified methods of using negative reinforcement on the child who is not responsive to positive reinforcement. (
  • With the current focus in psychology, and more specifically child psychology, many researchers, educators, child-care providers and parents have gained a new understanding of the intricacies of positive and negative reinforcement and the impact both have upon children. (
  • Social learning theory asserts that learning or knowledge acquisition and behavior do not occur in a vacuum and that one of the most intrinsic influence upon them is social interaction (Shuell, 1993) Contrary to the implications of the terms and therefore their assumed meaning, positive vs. negative, not all positive reinforcement is effective and not all negative reinforcement is ineffective. (
  • In an attempt to reduce confusion on such a topic many researchers have adopted the use of the term reinforcement contingencies, rather than demarcating the loaded labels of positive and negative reinforcement. (
  • Kelley M.E., Piazza, C.C., Fisher W.W., & Oberdorff A.J. (Spring2003) Acquisition of Cup Drinking Using Previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement. (
  • This FOA issued by National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, solicits Research Project Grant (R01) applications from institutions/ organizations that propose to investigate brain processes in humans underlying how aversive events control behavior in order to stimulate a program of clinical neuroscience research on negative reinforcement / avoidance learning. (
  • On the basis of pre-clinical studies, negative reinforcement has re-emerged as a contributing factor in the basic processes of substance abuse. (
  • For the purpose of this FOA negative reinforcement and avoidance learning are considered synonymous and refer to behaviors and cognitive strategies that are learned and maintained in order to minimize or eliminate the occurrence of aversive events. (
  • Applications for this FOA are expected to propose hypotheses-testing studies regarding the brain regions or processes in humans that underlie avoidance learning including behaviors and cognitive strategies maintained by negative reinforcement. (
  • Reichle, ED & Laurent, PA 2006, ' Using reinforcement learning to understand the emergence of "intelligent" eye-movement behavior during reading ', Psychological Review , vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 390-408. (
  • Article 1: Operant Conditioning in Psychology (With Examples) Operant conditioning, also known as instrumental conditioning, is a learning process in which behavior is modified using rewards or punishments. (
  • He edited the New Zealand Journal of Psychology and has been Associate Editor of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior . (
  • In applied research "[t]he goal is to predict a specific behavior in a very specific setting, " says Keith Stanovich, cognitive scientist and author of How To Think Straight About Psychology (2007, p.106). (
  • They show that reinforcement learning can explain not only behavioral choice in a complex environment, but also the evolution toward optimal behavior over a long time. (
  • P4P may be new to population health, but the concept of appealing to self-interest in exchange for behavior is quite old and is the basis of large parts of 2 core disciplines: economics (2) and psychology (3). (
  • Public health issues such as tobacco, drug, and alcohol abuse have long built upon a base of behavior change and positive reinforcement (4,5), but the introduction of P4P into population health has been recent (6). (
  • noun psychology A method of positive reinforcement of behaviour patterns in operant conditioning . (
  • Because the favorable condition acts as a reward, reinforcement is a reward-based operant conditioning. (
  • She is using operant conditioning, and positive reinforcement methods in particular. (
  • Various schedules of reinforcement have long been used in experimental psychology to establish and maintain operant behaviors. (
  • METHODS: Male rats were used in evaluating the effects of CB1 receptor antagonist and agonist (SR141716A and WIN55,212-2, respectively) systemically administered individually and combined with d-amphetamine on a differential reinforcement of low-rate response (DRL) task, an operant behavioral test of timing and behavioral inhibition characterized as a type of timing impulsive action. (
  • Automat tricks 2020 the first thing you should always do before you even sign up to any betting site to claim a no deposit free bet is make sure you do not already have an account at that site, in order to maintain building, slot machine psychology variable interval. (
  • Article 3: Positive Reinforcement in Psychology (Definition + 5 Examples) If you read our earlier piece on positive punishment, you know that there are different methods of teaching and instilling good habits and behaviors. (
  • Psychology of Addictive Behaviors , 31 (7), 818-827. (
  • which examines whether basic principles of reinforcement learning, coupled with a complex environment and a large memory, might account for more complex behaviors. (
  • Therefore, this FOA encourage s applications to study 1) cognitive, motivational or emotional mechanisms and/or 2) brain neuroendocrine and reinforcement systems that related to HIV-risk behaviors or treatment non-compliance. (
  • These reinforcement contingencies have also been widely applied in preclinical psycho- and neurobiology research. (
  • 2017). Analyzing components of Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT). (
  • Reinforcement and reinforcement schedules. (
  • An example of fixed ratio would be giving a rat a. "the rewards are what psychologists refer to as variable reinforcement schedules and is the key to social. (
  • However, the differential reinforcement of low-rate response (DRL) schedule has received less attention than other schedules based on response ratios or different types of intervals. (
  • Psychology professors from several major universities across the United States-and one from Australia- published a study consisting of 50 pairings of psychological terms that are commonly confused not only in popular writing and media but also in academic writing. (
  • Choose a second mentor in the clinical psychology program. (
  • Positive reinforcement was the selected method of treatment. (
  • The participant informed their peers and colleagues about the experiment and agreed on the positive reinforcement in the form of verbal acknowledgment of active listening and praise. (
  • Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques have received considerable attention for their stress reduction potential in the behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates. (
  • One of the most powerful and effective methods is one that you're probably at least somewhat familiar with: positive reinforcement. (
  • Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free. (
  • These science-based exercises will explore fundamental aspects of positive psychology including strengths, values and self-compassion and will give you the tools to enhance the wellbeing of your clients, students or employees. (
  • However, there are many methods of reinforcement and positive reinforcement is only one. (
  • The positive reinforcement method the mother has chosen involves rewarding the children with praise based on how many peas they have eaten. (
  • One such paradigm, the differential reinforcement of low-rate responding (DRL), has been used to assess response inhibition, but its underlying mechanism has still been debated. (
  • 1 Department of Psychology (Biopsychology) and Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MIichigan 48109-1109, USA. (
  • The term reinforcement refers to the strengthening of a desired behavioral outcome (Heffner, n.d. (
  • A fixed ratio schedule refers to applying the reinforcement after a Please note: It is still a risk to do any electrical work yourself so proceed at your own risk, play free penny slots machines no download Damon said he had high hopes that his former manager Joe Girardi could find success in his first year with the Philadelphia Phillies, slot machine psychology variable interval. (
  • UToledo's experimental psychology Ph.D. students successfully launch careers in academic settings and in industrial, governmental and medical institutions. (
  • This is one of the most marketable and practical aspects of UToledo's experimental psychology program. (
  • UToledo experimental psychology students complete a master's thesis and earn an M.A. degree while working on their doctorates. (
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology , 62, 377-384. (
  • The Value theory has been an important Sample patients completed the questionnaire in issue in cross-cultural psychology since Our sample included 75 individuals about 30-45 min. (
  • Introductory research methods and statistics in psychology. (
  • Emeritus Professor White was Head of the Psychology Department at Otago University for 10 years from 1987, and for 5 years from 2004 was the University's Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research). (
  • What is basic research in Psychology? (
  • Telephone interview with Dr. James E. Birren, former Section on Aging and Chief of the Laboratory of Psychology of the NIMH Intramural Research Program. (
  • In Baltimore I had two colleagues working with me doing research on the psychology of aging, Jack Botwinick and Charlotte Fox. (
  • Pre-psychology majors in Mathematics Placement Categories III and IV should take Math 3L or the equivalent before enrolling in Psych 42. (
  • We further identify remaining challenges in the field and suggest future work that will be helpful for understanding the neurobehavioral mechanisms of the DRL schedule of reinforcement. (
  • Read about 11 psychology experiments that went horribly wrong . (
  • To examine this hypothesis, reinforcement learning was used to allow an artificial "agent" to learn to move its eyes to read as efficiently as possible. (
  • Having taught undergraduate psychology at the University of Arizona for 22 years, I have seen thousands of students struggle to differentiate many of these terms," says Victor Shamas, PhD, who wasn't involved in this particular study. (
  • He joined the Otago Psychology Department in 1985, having spent 13 years lecturing at the Victoria University of Wellington and in visiting appointments at Colorado College, University of Colorado, Boulder, and University of California, San Diego. (
  • Choose the quantitative psychology minor to further enhance statistical knowledge. (
  • This FOA issued by National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, solicits Research Project Grant (R01) applications from institutions/ organizations that propose to investigate brain processes in humans underlying how aversive events control behavior in order to stimulate a program of clinical neuroscience research on negative reinforcement / avoidance learning. (
  • On the basis of pre-clinical studies, negative reinforcement has re-emerged as a contributing factor in the basic processes of substance abuse. (
  • For the purpose of this FOA negative reinforcement and avoidance learning are considered synonymous and refer to behaviors and cognitive strategies that are learned and maintained in order to minimize or eliminate the occurrence of aversive events. (
  • Applications for this FOA are expected to propose hypotheses-testing studies regarding the brain regions or processes in humans that underlie avoidance learning including behaviors and cognitive strategies maintained by negative reinforcement. (
  • Therefore, this FOA encourage s applications to study 1) cognitive, motivational or emotional mechanisms and/or 2) brain neuroendocrine and reinforcement systems that related to HIV-risk behaviors or treatment non-compliance. (
  • The section on Learning and Decision making studies the neural circuitry and computational mechanisms that underlie reinforcement learning. (
  • CIT): Director's Seminar Series The section on Learning and Decision making studies the neural circuitry and computational mechanisms that underlie reinforcement learning. (
  • Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques have received considerable attention for their stress reduction potential in the behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates. (
  • Reinforcement learning (RL) is the behavioral process of learning what we like and do not like from experience. (
  • Response variability and the partial reinforcement effect. (

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