Iron Regulatory Protein 1: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.Iron Regulatory Protein 2: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein: A LEUCINE and DNA-binding protein that is found primarily in BACTERIA and ARCHAEA. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION involved in METABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS in response to the increased concentration of LEUCINE.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 188.8.131.52.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.PhosphoproteinsImmediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 184.108.40.206.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 220.127.116.11.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Products, rev: Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).AraC Transcription Factor: A transcription factor found in BACTERIA that positively and negatively regulates the expression of proteins required for the uptake and catabolism of L-ARABINOSE.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.FructosephosphatesProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Guanine NucleotidesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Gene Products, rex: Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LONG TERMINAL REPEAT.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 18.104.22.168 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 22.214.171.124 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Helix-Turn-Helix Motifs: The first DNA-binding protein motif to be recognized. Helix-turn-helix motifs were originally identified in bacterial proteins but have since been found in hundreds of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are constructed from two alpha helices connected by a short extended chain of amino acids, which constitute the "turn." The two helices are held at a fixed angle, primarily through interactions between the two helices. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p408-9)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Artificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pyruvate, Orthophosphate Dikinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of ATP, pyruvate, and orthophosphate to form AMP plus phosphoenolpyruvate plus pyrophosphate. EC 126.96.36.199.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Genes, rev: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Phillips DJ, de Kretser DM (1998). "Follistatin: a multifunctional regulatory protein". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 19 (4 ... Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an ... An earlier name for the same protein was FSH-suppressing protein (FSP). At the time of its initial isolation from follicular ... The activin-binding protein follistatin is produced by folliculostellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary. FS cells make ...
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA ... Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. X-ray crystallography of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1A ... Cholesterol Synthesis - has some good regulatory details. *Protein Data Base (PDB), Sterol Regulatory Element Binding 1A ... These proteins work with asymmetric sterol regulatory element (StRE). SREBPs have a structure similar to E-box-binding helix- ...
It is currently not known which other proteins interact through this linker. The regulatory protein is a transmembrane protein ... Flu (first described in ) is a nuclear-encoded, chloroplast-located protein that appears containing only protein-protein ... contains more protein-protein interactions sites, and even undergoes alternative splicing. It appears that the regulatory ... Biosynthesis regulatory protein FLU. In spite of numerous past attempts to find the mutant that overacumulates ...
... s in regulatory proteins. As disulfide bonds can be reversibly reduced and re-oxidized, the redox state of these ... The in vivo oxidation and reduction of protein disulfide bonds by thiol-disulfide exchange is facilitated by a protein called ... The disulfide bond stabilizes the folded form of a protein in several ways: *It holds two portions of the protein together, ... The native form of a protein is usually a single disulfide species, although some proteins may cycle between a few disulfide ...
... via direct binding to F-actin regulatory proteins. PIP2 recruits cytosolic septin monomers/oligomers to membrane surfaces via ... Later studies identified associated proteins necessary during this stage, such as phosphatidylinositol transfer protein , and ... a Multifunctional Actin Regulatory Protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (47): 33179. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.47.33179 ... PtdIns(4,5)P2 is enriched at the plasma membrane where it is a substrate for a number of important signaling proteins. PIP2 is ...
... a multifunctional actin regulatory protein". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (47): 33179-82. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.47.33179. PMID 10559185. ... Comparison of protein sequence with human gelsolin and other actin-severing proteins shows strong homologies and evidence for ... Chauhan VP, Ray I, Chauhan A, Wisniewski HM (May 1999). "Binding of gelsolin, a secretory protein, to amyloid beta-protein". ... Among the lipid-binding actin regulatory proteins, gelsolin (like cofilin) preferentially binds polyphosphoinositide (PPI). The ...
The opsin activates the regulatory protein transducin. This causes transducin to dissociate from its bound GDP, and bind GTP, ... In other words: Guanylate Cyclase Activating Protein (GCAP) is a calcium binding protein, and as the calcium levels in the cell ... This helps in dissociation of G -protein complex. Alpha sub-unit of this complex activates the PLC enzyme (PLC-beta) which ... 11-cis retinal is covalently linked to the opsin receptor via Schiff base forming retinylidene protein. When struck by a photon ...
Haydon DJ, Guest JR (April 1991). "A new family of bacterial regulatory proteins". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 63 (2-3): 291-5. doi: ... The crystal structure of the FadR protein has been determined. In general, these proteins contain a DNA-binding HTH domain at ... Many bacterial transcription regulation proteins bind DNA through a helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif, which can be classified into ...
Ninomiya H, Sims PJ (1992). "The human complement regulatory protein CD59 binds to the alpha-chain of C8 and to the "b"domain ... 1992). "Complement regulatory proteins at the feto-maternal interface during human placental development: distribution of CD59 ... 1994). "Three-dimensional solution structure of the extracellular region of the complement regulatory protein CD59, a new cell- ... 1994). "Differential expression of the complement regulatory proteins in the human eye". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34 (13 ...
Signal-regulatory protein gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRPG gene. SIRPG has also recently been ... "Entrez Gene: SIRPG signal-regulatory protein gamma". Kharitonenkov A, Chen Z, Sures I, et al. (1997). "A family of proteins ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the signal-regulatory protein (SIRP) family, and also belongs to the ... "Human lymphocytes interact directly with CD47 through a novel member of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) family". J. ...
ArsR is a trans-acting regulatory protein. It acts as a repressor on the arsRDABC operon when no arsenic is present in the cell ... which is also conserved in the Spx protein and its homologues. The arsC family also comprises the Spx proteins which are Gram- ... The arsC protein structure has been solved. It belongs to the thioredoxin superfamily fold which is defined by a beta-sheet ... The ArsB protein is distinguished by its overall hydrophobic character, in keeping with its role as a membrane-associated ...
Other regulatory genes code for activator proteins. An activator binds to a site on the DNA molecule and causes an increase in ... The general dogma is that these regulatory elements get activated by the binding of transcription factors, proteins that bind ... Regulatory sequences, which encode regulatory genes, are often 5' to the start site of transcription of the gene they regulate ... In prokaryotes, a well-known activator protein is the catabolite activator protein or CAP, involved in positive control of the ...
Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 27 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the PPP1R27 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Gu JM, Lim SO, Oh SJ, Yoon SM, Seong JK, Jung G (May 2008). "HBx modulates iron regulatory protein 1-mediated iron metabolism ... Wang W, Di X, D'Agostino RB, Torti SV, Torti FM (Aug 2007). "Excess capacity of the iron regulatory protein system". The ... Popovic Z, Templeton DM (Jun 2007). "Inhibition of an iron-responsive element/iron regulatory protein-1 complex by ATP binding ... Hu J, Connor JR (Aug 1996). "Demonstration and characterization of the iron regulatory protein in human brain". Journal of ...
The protein encoded by this gene, along with regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein and regulatory factor-5 ... Regulatory factor X-associated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RFXAP gene. Major histocompatibility (MHC ... "Entrez Gene: RFXAP regulatory factor X-associated protein". Nekrep, N; Geyer M; Jabrane-Ferrat N; Peterlin B M (August 2001). " ... 2004). "A hierarchy of nuclear localization signals governs the import of the regulatory factor X complex subunits and MHC ...
Jacob F; Monod J (June 1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". J Mol Biol. 3 (3): 318-56. doi: ... JACOB F, MONOD J (1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". J. Mol. Biol. 3: 318-56. doi:10.1016/ ... A typical protein-coding gene is first copied into RNA as an intermediate in the manufacture of the final protein product. In ... Regulatory regions can even be on entirely different chromosomes and operate in trans to allow regulatory regions on one ...
Bose, H. S; Whittal, R. M; Baldwin, M. A; Miller, W. L (1999). "The active form of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, ... Characterization of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (45): 28314-22 ... steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), which was first cloned from mice by Dr. Douglas Stocco. Miller's laboratory ... "Role of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis". Science. 267 (5205): 1828-31. Bibcode: ...
Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R3G gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ...
Jacob F, Monod J (Jun 1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 3: 318 ... an RNA-helicase controlled by protein-protein interactions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... Together these three proteins are referred to as eIF4F. For maximal activity; eIF4A also requires eIF4B (80 kDa), which itself ... In addition these proteins are helicases that function to unwind double-stranded RNA. The mechanisms governing the basic ...
Jacob, F.; Monod, J. (1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". J. Mol. Biol. 3: 318-356. doi: ... These mechanisms include control over protein localization or control over whether the protein can bind DNA. An example of this ... "malF - Maltose transport system permease protein MalF - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - malF gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. ... "malG - Maltose transport system permease protein MalG - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - malG gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane protein and is a regulatory part of the complement system. The encoded ... CD46 complement regulatory protein also known as CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) and Membrane Cofactor Protein is a ... "Entrez Gene: CD46 CD46 molecule, complement regulatory protein". Riley-Vargas RC, Gill DB, Kemper C, Liszewski MK, Atkinson JP ... The encoded protein can act as a receptor for the Edmonston strain of measles virus, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and type IV ...
... regulatory gene for lac operon) produces a protein that blocks RNAP from binding to the promoter of the operon. This protein ... Joung J, Ramm E, Pabo C (2000). "A bacterial two-hybrid selection system for studying protein-DNA and protein-protein ... The second gene, crp, encodes a protein called catabolite activator protein (CAP) or cAMP receptor protein (CRP). However the ... The first control mechanism is the regulatory response to lactose, which uses an intracellular regulatory protein called the ...
Jacob F, Monod J (1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 3: 318-56 ... Viruses are capsid-encoding organisms composed of proteins and nucleic acids that can self-assemble after replication in a host ... Crick FH, Barnett L, Brenner S, Watts-Tobin RJ (1961). "General nature of the genetic code for proteins". Nature. 192: 1227-32 ... Hershey AD, Chase M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". Journal of ...
Sox5 is another co-regulatory protein of Tbr1. Sox5 is a marker of layer VI neurons in the neocortex. It aids in the ... The protein product of TES-56 was discovered to be homologous to the Brachyury protein, a T-box transcription factor, which ... "Expression of the NR2B-NMDA receptor subunit and its Tbr-1/CINAP regulatory proteins in postmortem brain suggest altered ... TBR1 is also known as T-box Brain Protein, T-Brain 1, and TES-56. The encoded protein consists of 682 amino acid residues and ...
S100 is a multigenic family of calcium modulated proteins involved in intracellular and extracellular regulatory activities ... Protein DAMPs include intracellular proteins, such as heat-shock proteins or HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1), and proteins ... Examples of non-protein DAMPs include ATP, uric acid, heparin sulfate and DNA. The chromatin-associated protein high-mobility ... Panayi, Gabriel S; Corrigall, Valerie M; Henderson, Brian (2004). "Stress cytokines: Pivotal proteins in immune regulatory ...
... regulatory elements, non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under selection for biological function. ... This proportion is much higher than can be explained by protein-coding sequences alone, implying that the genome contains many ...
tumor protein p53 binding protein 2. ASPP2, 53BP2, PPP1R13A. 1q41. PPP1R13B protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 13B. ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3D. PPP1R6. 20q13.33. PPP1R3E protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3E. FLJ00089. ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 7. sds22. 2q37.3. PPP1R8 protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 8. ard-1, NIPP-1, ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 1A. 12q13.2. PPP1R1B protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 1B. ...
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA ... Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. X-ray crystallography of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1A ... Cholesterol Synthesis - has some good regulatory details. *Protein Data Base (PDB), Sterol Regulatory Element Binding 1A ... These proteins work with asymmetric sterol regulatory element (StRE). SREBPs have a structure similar to E-box-binding helix- ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Iron regulatory protein 1 outcompetes iron regulatory protein 2 in regulating cellular iron homeostasis in response to nitric ... This entry represents iron regulatory protein 2, also known as iron-responsive element-binding protein 2 (IRE-BP2). ...
Protein kinases: evolution of dynamic regulatory proteins.. Taylor SS1, Kornev AP. ... During the course of evolution, protein kinases developed a universal regulatory mechanism associated with a large activation ... Many of these proteins were crystallized in different conformations, bound to different ligands and proteins. A comparison of ... Protein kinases have a characteristic bilobal fold. The N-terminal lobe (N-lobe) contains five β strands (1 through 5; colored ...
Regulatory proteins in yeast.. Guarente L1.. Author information. 1. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Literature: Regulatory associated protein of TOR (IPR004083). References used in this entry. The following publications were ... Raptor protein contains a caspase-like domain.. Ginalski K, Zhang H, Grishin NV.. Trends Biochem. Sci. 29 522-4 2004 PMID: ...
10:40 491.3 On Modulating the Regulatory Role of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Using Small Molecules C. Camacho. Univ. of ... 10:10 Safe Inhibition of Amyloid Proteins Toxicity without Protein Specificity G. Bitan. UCLA. (564.2) ... 10:55 Transient Expression of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Fuels the Emergence of Adaptive Protein-Based Heritable Traits ... 4:40 109.2 The Role of Protein Disorder and Self-Association in the Formation of Cellular Bodies T. Mittag, M.R. Marzahn, J. ...
The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in ... May 2007). "Glucokinase thermolability and hepatic regulatory protein binding are essential factors for predicting the blood ... November 2008). "Common missense variant in the glucokinase regulatory protein gene is associated with increased plasma ... March 2009). "Interaction effect of genetic polymorphisms in glucokinase (GCK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) on ...
PPDK regulatory protein may refer to: (Pyruvate, phosphate dikinase)-phosphate phosphotransferase, an enzyme (Pyruvate, ...
ferric ion uptake regulatory protein;. DtxR,. diphtheria toxin regulatory protein;. TCA,. tricarboxylic acid;. tro,. transport- ... Two of the best characterized metal-dependent regulatory proteins are the ferric ion uptake regulatory protein (Fur) from ... Unlike other metal-dependent regulatory proteins like diphtheria toxin regulatory protein and the ferric ion uptake regulator, ... a putative metal-dependent regulatory protein, TroR, which has homology with the diphtheria toxin regulatory protein, DtxR, ...
Phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Sy and M Roselle ... In vitro phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase was studied. The cAMP-binding ... regulatory subunit (R subunit) can be multiply phosphorylated. Three distinct phosphorylation sites were inferred from the ...
... have uncovered a remarkable regulatory system involving the lexA gene product as repressor and the recA... ... Howard-Flanders P., Cassuto E., West S.C. (1981) Regulatory and Enzymatic Functions of recA Protein in Recombination and ... Regulatory and Enzymatic Functions of recA Protein in Recombination and Postreplication Repair. ... The recA protein is a highly specific, single stranded DNA dependent protease capable of cleaving lexA protein and also phage ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q9I325 - Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / DSM 22644 / CIP 104116 / ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q14397 - Homo sapiens 18 * Q99522 - Homo sapiens no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Johnston, S. A., J. J. Salmeron and S. S. Dincher, 1987 Interaction of positive and negative regulatory proteins in the ... Mutational Hypersensitivity of a Gene Regulatory Protein: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal80p. *Karsten Melcher 1 ... Nogi, Y., and T. Fukasawa, 1989 Functional domains of a negative regulatory protein, GAL80, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. ... Transcription of the GAL genes depends on an intricate relationship among three regulatory proteins: the transcriptional ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... ProDom; a protein domain database. More...ProDomi. View protein in ProDom or Entries sharing at least one domain. PD012167 Rop_ ... Protein-protein interaction databases. DIPi. DIP-48900N. Protocols and materials databases. Structural Biology Knowledgebase. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ...
Regulatory or protein-coding change? posted by JP @ 10/23/2006 05:29:00 PM Regulatory or protein-coding change? ... protein coding changes argument is inane-- sometimes protein-coding changes are regulatory changes. Ok, maybe RPM made that ... The authors looked for local regulatory variation in a number of genes, and found one instance where the putative regulatory ... Im sure theres an easier way to explain this, but the take-home message is that a protein-coding change in AMN1 leads, ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: protein coding regions. The black lines connecting boxes represent ...
Guanine Nucleotide Regulatory Protein Couples Angiotensin II Receptors to Phospholipase C in Mesangial Cells. ... Pfeilschifter J. (1987) Guanine Nucleotide Regulatory Protein Couples Angiotensin II Receptors to Phospholipase C in Mesangial ... In: Heilmeyer L.M.G. (eds) Signal Transduction and Protein Phosphorylation. NATO ASI Series (Series A: Life Sciences), vol 135 ...
Dynamic interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA are important for triggering controlled expression of genes into RNA ... Biologists Capture Fleeting Interactions Between Regulatory Proteins and Their Genome-wide Targets. ... New York University biologists captured highly transient interactions between transcription factors-proteins that control gene ... revealing that the majority of a plants response to nitrogen is controlled by these short-lived regulatory interactions. ...
... present in multiple copies in the regulatory regions of the viral genome. Activates or represses transcription depending on ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR035975 E2 ...
... a protein that coaxes other proteins into untwisting. The research is published in the July 31 issue of Nature. The team of ... Emory scientists contribute to study of key regulatory protein in neurodegeneration. 31.07.2003 ... A multi-institutional team of scientists has gained important new knowledge about the regulatory role played in Alzheimers ... "It is clear that both proteins play a role in the Alzheimers disease mechanism, but there is some disagreement about which one ...
... bovine whey protein and shrimp peptide all make the cut. ... Regulatory round up: Cranberry extract, bovine protein & shrimp ... Protein bars under fire from consumer group: We simply dont need this extra, highly processed protein ... EC extends whey protein isolate use in supplements and infant formulae * Italys ad regulator bans question posed on cranberry ... Webinar Making a Claim: Regulatory Considerations * Webinar Human challenge models for infection resistance as valuable tools ...
... is a Mammalian Full length protein 1 to 223 aa range, , 90% purity and validated in SDS-PAGE, MS. ... Recombinant E. coli Transcriptional regulatory protein PhoP (Tagged). See all Transcriptional regulatory protein PhoP proteins ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex Assays. By ... Based on the SEQUEST from database of Mammalian Cell host and target protein, the LC-MS/MS Analysis result of ab240864 could ...
The iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) are an example of different proteins regulating the same metabolic process, iron uptake and ... Iron Regulatory Proteins as NO Signal Transducers Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... IRP1 is an iron-sulfur cluster-containing protein that can be converted from a cytosolic aconitase to an RNA binding ...
GenesKinaseIron regulatoPhosphorylationSterolRegulateAbstractSteroidogenic acute rSREBPMoleculesAmino acidsSerineGene expressionUniProtChromosomeTransmembraneModulateMetabolismMammalianPutativeDifferent proteinsTranscriptionalPhosphatase 1 regulatory subunitSignal TransductionBindInteractsRegulationEscherichiaSubunitsCytoplasmicAntibodiesRecombinantTyrosineViralInteractionsSequenceKinasesSynthesisSequencesUptakeMechanismTranscription factorExpression of complementSpecificityReceptorTumor growthInteractGenomicCells and proteinsVitroMembranePathwaysRegulatesSuperFamilyApoptosisCertain proteinsRegulatorFamilyCellularHistoneAdaptorSubunit 14AGenomesInsulin
- Once in the nucleus, SREBP can bind to specific DNA sequences (the sterol regulatory elements or SREs) that are found in the control regions of the genes that encode enzymes needed to make lipids. (wikipedia.org)
- In mammals, iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 posttranscriptionally regulate expression of genes involved in iron metabolism by binding mRNA motifs called iron responsive elements (IREs) [ PMID: 20603012 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Binding of Fe 2+ to the metal-free forms of these proteins permits them to bind to palindromic sequences within the promoter region and repress transcription of the genes they regulate. (pnas.org)
- Decreased intracellular iron concentration as a consequence of host limitation results in the inactivation of the regulatory proteins, leading to a derepression of genes important in virulence (e.g., toxins, adhesins, iron transport systems, etc. (pnas.org)
- The authors looked for local regulatory variation in a number of genes, and found one instance where the putative regulatory variant mapped to a protein-coding SNP inside the gene. (gnxp.com)
- New York University biologists captured highly transient interactions between transcription factors-proteins that control gene expression-and target genes in the genome and showed that these typically missed interactions have important practical implications. (nyu.edu)
- Dynamic interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA are important for triggering controlled expression of genes into RNA in response to a changing cellular or external environment. (nyu.edu)
- E2F1 is a remarkable example of a network hub as this protein interacts with many genes, proteins, and other transcription factors through a variety of regulatory mechanisms. (nature.com)
- The MSL proteins are thought to interact with cis -acting sites that confer dosage compensation to nearby genes, as they are detected at hundreds of discrete sites along the length of the polytene X chromosome in males but not in females. (genetics.org)
- There are thousands of eukaryotic regulatory proteins that bind to specific cis regulatory regions of genes and/or RNA transcripts and coordinate gene expression. (hu-berlin.de)
- Genes and proteins interact with themselves and each other and orchestrate the successful completion of a multitude of important tasks. (hindawi.com)
- This paper first looks at how the genes and proteins interact with themselves and then discusses the inference of an integrative cellular network of genes and proteins combined. (hindawi.com)
- Since the genes may be coding for TFs and/or other proteins, a complex network of genes and proteins is formed. (hindawi.com)
- One of the most encountered representations of gene regulatory networks is in terms of a graph, where the genes are depicted by its nodes and the edges represent the interactions between them. (hindawi.com)
- Expression of the Escherichia coli uhpT gene, encoding the sugar phosphate transport protein, is induced by extracellular glucose-6-phosphate and requires the function of the uhpABC regulatory genes. (asm.org)
- Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. (curehunter.com)
- Ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are essential, tightly regulated, and highly expressed during embryonic development and cell growth. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ribosomes are essential components of all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and the sequences of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are conserved across all eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Because ribosomes are necessary for the expression of all protein-coding genes, they are highly expressed in replicating cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Surprising insights into the activities of a 'transcription factor' protein that controls genes in cells of the immune system could change medical practice and clarify the protein's role in immunity. (medicalxpress.com)
- The regulatory domains of mammalian PKAs exist in several isoforms such as RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ, which are all encoded by separate genes. (mcponline.org)
- Virulence genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens are induced in parallel in the presence of plant phenolic compounds such as acetosyringone and the two regulatory vir genes virA and virG. (unboundmedicine.com)
- VL - 172 IS - 2 N2 - Virulence genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens are induced in parallel in the presence of plant phenolic compounds such as acetosyringone and the two regulatory vir genes virA and virG. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Glutamine stimulates the gene expression and processing of sterol regulatory element binding proteins, thereby increasing the expression of their target genes. (wikipathways.org)
- The genomes of Psy B728a, Pto DC3000 and Pph 1448A were found to contain a large number of genes encoding TCS proteins, and a core of complete TCS proteins were shared between these genomes: 30 putative TCS clusters, 11 orphan HKs, 33 orphan RRs, and 16 hybrid HKs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A close analysis of the distribution of genes encoding TCS proteins revealed important differences in TCS proteins among the three P. syringae pathovars. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- TCS genes are typically located within the same operon encoding two signalling proteins: a transmembrane sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR), which may sometimes be carried by a single polypeptide to form the hybrid HKs [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To identify PAL-1 regulatory target genes, we used microarrays to compare transcript abundance in wild-type embryos with mutant embryos lacking a C blastomere and to mutant embryos with extra C blastomeres. (biologists.org)
- The analysis of the complete genome of Arabidopsis allowed us to characterize four novel genes, AtB′ε , AtB′ζ , AtB′η , and AtB′θ , belonging to the PP2A B′ regulatory subunit family. (plantphysiol.org)
- Comparison of protein coding and computationally predicted noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes between these two polyclonal strains identified 15 nonsynonymous single nucleotide variant (nsSNV) alleles that increased in frequency and 19 that decreased, whereas no changes in allelic frequency were observed among the ncRNA genes. (jcvi.org)
- Of the 56 up-regulated genes, 17 were direct target genes for transcription factors sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1 or SREBP2, which activate genes in the sterol biosynthesis pathway. (aspetjournals.org)
- Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes for both cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. (biomedsearch.com)
- They make firm, but flexible, connections within the molecule, providing a high level of internal dynamics of the protein kinase. (nih.gov)
- EPKs are represented by Protein kinase A (panel B). Structural elements conserved in all kinases are shown as white (N-lobe) and tan (C-lobe) cartoons. (nih.gov)
- In vitro phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of yeast cAMP-dependent protein kinase was studied. (pnas.org)
- In contrast, phosphorylation of GKRP by AMP-activated protein kinase, induced by elevated levels of AMP, reduces its capacity to inactivate GK. (wikipedia.org)
- Unit Definition: One unit is defined as the amount of Protein Kinase A regulatory subunit I alpha, required to incorporate 1nmol of phosphate into the specific substrate peptide kemptide (LRRASlG) in one minute at 30°C. (abcam.com)
- These SH2-PTP mediate activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and are required for RTK signaling ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Protein kinase CK2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in various aspects of cellular regulation. (nih.gov)
- Collectively, these studies confirm the implication of the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 in cell cycle regulation and identify a novel mechanism for the activation of Chk1 protein kinase. (nih.gov)
- We found that if IP4 cannot be made due to lack of ItpkB, important signaling molecules including the protein tyrosine kinase Itk can not be properly recruited to the cell membrane. (science20.com)
- We now demonstrate that the PRKAR1α gene encoding the R1α regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) maps to this chromosome 17q24 locus. (jci.org)
- Using a combination of RNA sequencing and ultrasensitive targeted proteomics, we defined the primary components-16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators-of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells and then quantified their absolute abundance across a panel of normal and breast cancer cell lines as well as fibroblasts. (sciencemag.org)
- The UhpA and UhpB proteins are related to the response-regulator and sensor-kinase proteins of two-component regulatory systems, whereas the UhpC protein is related to UhpT and homologous transport proteins. (asm.org)
- The constitutive mutants in UhpB resulted from insertions in the nonpolar amino-terminal half of the protein, and all insertions in that half of UhpB affected Uhp expression in some manner, which suggests that the transmembrane segments of UhpB might negatively regulate the kinase activity of the carboxyl portion. (asm.org)
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) is a 42 kd serine/threonine protein kinase whose enzymatic activity requires phosphorylation of both tyrosyl and threonyl residues. (nih.gov)
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation via insulin receptor substrate proteins and downstream Akt has been shown to play a critical role in insulin-induced metabolic actions ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- It has been hypothesized on the basis of studies on BC3H-1 myocytes that diacylglycerol generation with activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the stimulation of glucose transport in muscle by insulin. (osti.gov)
- Protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ) recruitment to the immunological synapse is required for full T eff activation. (sciencemag.org)
- The cell cycle control kinase CDK1 might control directly FOXA1 by phosphorylation and other kinases indirectly by means of regulating other proteins. (mdpi.com)
- This specificity is largely achieved by binding of PKA to protein scaffolds, whereby a distinct group of proteins called A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) play a dominant role. (mcponline.org)
- The principal target of cAMP is cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) 1 . (mcponline.org)
- Some of the best described scaffolding proteins are the so-called A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), which all bind specifically to the N-terminal dimerization domain of the PKA regulatory domain. (mcponline.org)
- METHODS: We studied how two structurally distinct forms of type I collagen, monomer versus polymerized fibrils, affect cell proliferation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and expression of G1-phase regulatory proteins in cultured rat mesangial cells (MCs). (biomedsearch.com)
- The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the pregnancy-induced changes in vascular reactivity are associated with changes in the amount and/or activity of vascular protein kinase C (PKC). (physiology.org)
- The role of iron regulatory proteins in mammalian iron homeostasis and disease. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) are an example of different proteins regulating the same metabolic process, iron uptake and metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
- Iron homeostasis of cells is regulated posttranscriptionally by the binding of iron-regulatory proteins (IRP)-1 and -2 with iron-responsive elements (IREs). (hindawi.com)
- Post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA translation and stability in iron metabolism involves the interaction between the trans-acting cytoplasmic iron regulatory proteins (IRP-1 and IRP-2) and cis-acting iron-responsive elements (IREs) in mRNA 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions. (epfl.ch)
- In: Heilmeyer L.M.G. (eds) Signal Transduction and Protein Phosphorylation. (springer.com)
- For the detection of phosphorylation in substrate proteins the phosphotransferase reaction can alternatively be stopped by taking aliquots of the mixture and adding SDS sample buffer. (abcam.com)
- The phosphorylation status of the substrate proteins can subsequently be analysed using SDS PAGE and autoradiography. (abcam.com)
- Protein phosphatase 6 regulatory subunit 3 (PPP6R3) is a regulatory subunit of the PP6 holoenzyme complex involved in the turnover of serine and threonine phosphorylation events during mitosis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- As a step in elucidating the mechanism(s) for activation of this enzyme, we have determined the sites of regulatory phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
- Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is an Ig-superfamily protein that undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and binds the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2. (jneurosci.org)
- SIRPα was also found to regulate the FS stress-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of other neuronal proteins. (jneurosci.org)
- Type 2A serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP2A) are important components in the reversible protein phosphorylation events in plants and other organisms. (plantphysiol.org)
- Reversible protein phosphorylation is widely accepted as a major mechanism for the control of biological processes in eukaryotic cells. (plantphysiol.org)
- This motif includes two potential phosphorylation sites, which are essential for protein activity as their mutation to alanines resulted in a total loss of rib-repressing properties. (biologists.org)
- In addition, this motif might also regulate protein activity by alteration of the protein's DNA-binding affinity through changes in the phosphorylation state of two conserved tyrosine residues within the homeodomain. (biologists.org)
- X-ray crystallography of Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1A with polydeoxyribonucleotide. (wikipedia.org)
- Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins ( SREBPs ) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA sequence TCACNCCAC. (wikipedia.org)
- These activated SREBPs then bind to specific sterol regulatory element DNA sequences, thus upregulating the synthesis of enzymes involved in sterol biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- These proteins work with asymmetric sterol regulatory element (StRE). (wikipedia.org)
- Dendrite formation in these CIVda neurons additionally requires functional sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) , a crucial regulator of fatty acid production. (sdbonline.org)
- By analyzing the cdk8 and cyclin C (cycC) mutant larvae in Drosophila, it was previously reported that the CDK8-CycC complex coordinately regulates lipogenesis by repressing dSREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein)-activated transcription and developmental timing by activating EcR (ecdysone receptor)-dependent gene expression. (sdbonline.org)
- Although degeneration of the axon terminal is dependent on neural activity, activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is both necessary and sufficient to cause synaptic vesicle loss. (sdbonline.org)
- sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2), steroidogenic activator polypeptide (SAP), peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), and StAR. (thefullwiki.org)
- To elucidate the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c contribution to these phenotypic features, myr-Akt adenovirus was injected into SREBP-1 knockout mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Insulin and glucose together have been previously shown to regulate hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are members of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family of transcription factors that regulate fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- SREBP proteins are initially bound to the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form a complex with SREBP-cleavage activating protein, a sterol-sensing molecule ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) are membrane-bound proteins that act as transcription factors. (wikipathways.org)
- Insulin activates human sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) promoter through SRE motifs. (wikipathways.org)
- Insig required for sterol-mediated inhibition of Scap/SREBP binding to COPII proteins in vitro. (wikipathways.org)
- Insulin enhances the biogenesis of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c by posttranscriptional down-regulation of Insig-2A and its dissociation from SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP).SREBP-1c complex. (wikipathways.org)
- The link between fibroblast growth factor 21 and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c during lipogenesis in hepatocytes. (wikipathways.org)
- Polyunsaturated fatty acids selectively suppress sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 through proteolytic processing and autoloop regulatory circuit. (wikipathways.org)
- Lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase are coexpressed with sterol regulatory element binding protein and Ki-67 in fetal tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
- Pin1, part of a class of enzymes called prolyl isomerases, is known to regulate many proteins critical for cell division. (innovations-report.com)
- However, the signals that regulate expression of synaptic proteins in the mature brain are incompletely understood. (sdbonline.org)
- At the DNA level, transcription factors (TFs) modulate the initiation of transcription, while at the RNA level, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) regulate every aspect of RNA metabolism and function. (hu-berlin.de)
- Transcription factors (TFs), which are a class of proteins, play the significant role of binding onto the DNA and thereby regulate their transcription. (hindawi.com)
- The 3-D blood vessel-on-a-chip has allowed Chen and the team to identify specific proteins that regulate vascular barrier function. (bu.edu)
- The ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins are a family of membrane-associated proteins that link membrane proteins with actin filaments in the cell cortex and regulate many cellular processes, including cell shape determination, membrane transport, and signal transduction. (jimmunol.org)
- Plants are constantly exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions such as temperature and light and must therefore regulate protein composition within the chloroplast to ensure optimal functioning of elementary processes such as photosynthesis. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein , commonly referred to as StAR ( STARD1 ), is a transport protein that regulates cholesterol transfer within the mitochondria , which is the rate-limiting step in the production of steroid hormones. (thefullwiki.org)
- We apply this methodology to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene in Y-1 adrenal cells and MA-10 testis cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we describe a dual CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), the prime regulator of cholesterol metabolism, in Y-1 adrenal cells and MA-10 testis cells. (frontiersin.org)
- SREBP precursors are retained in the ER membranes through a tight association with SCAP and a protein of the INSIG family. (wikipedia.org)
- A notable feature of this regulatory feedback machinery was first observed for the SREBP pathway - regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). (wikipedia.org)
- The ~120 kDa SREBP precursor protein is anchored in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope by virtue of two membrane-spanning helices in the middle of the protein . (wikipedia.org)
- Eukayotic protein kinases evolved as a family of highly dynamic molecules with strictly organized internal architecture. (nih.gov)
- If the duplex contains single stranded regions, recA protein binds cooperatively and loads the duplex molecules, covering the duplex as well as the single stranded regions. (springer.com)
- The study also showed that inhibiting production of IP4 can result in reduced protein binding to membranes and reduced activation of key signaling molecules in developing T cells, leading to a block of T cell maturation and to severe immunodeficiency in animal models. (science20.com)
- Proteins that associate with the core dimer include three families of regulatory subunits B (the R2/B/PR55/B55, R3/B''/PR72/PR130/PR59 and R5/B'/B56 families), the 48 kDa variable regulatory subunit, viral proteins, and cell signaling molecules. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Protein replacement therapies for rare monogenic diseases have a higher probability of regulatory approval compared with biologics, small molecules, and grant-funded orphan drugs. (sciencemag.org)
- We identified about 20 regulatory molecules known as cytokines and chemokines that are themselves directly regulated by NFATc2," Yu adds. (medicalxpress.com)
- A crucial step in the production of proteins is the translation of messenger RNA molecules. (elifesciences.org)
- Other RNA molecules called small RNAs are also involved in this process: these small RNAs bind to the messenger RNA molecules to either increase or decrease the production of proteins. (elifesciences.org)
- Many small RNA molecules use a protein called Hfq to help them interact with their target messenger RNAs. (elifesciences.org)
- In some cases this protein protects the small RNA molecules when they are not bound to their targets. (elifesciences.org)
- Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules required for ideal protein function. (edu.au)
- GKRP is a 68 kD protein of 626 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
- cdk8 and cycC mutants are sensitive to the levels of dietary proteins and seven amino acids (arginine, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, threonine, and valine). (sdbonline.org)
- In humans, the gene for StAR is located on chromosome 8p 11.2 and the protein has 285 amino acids. (thefullwiki.org)
- Based on these data, we propose that TroR represents a unique regulatory system for controlling gene expression in T. pallidum in response to Mn 2+ . (pnas.org)
- Gene Expression: Regulatory or protein-coding change? (gnxp.com)
- By combining logic-based network modeling, in vitro experimentation, and gene expression profiles from patient cohorts displaying tumor aggressiveness, we identify and experimentally validate distinctive, tumor type-specific signatures of receptor proteins associated to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bladder and breast cancer. (nature.com)
- Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) are key elements of regulatory networks that modulate gene expression. (elifesciences.org)
- In bacteria, the control of gene expression post-transcription is mediated in part by small RNAs (sRNAs), and their contributions enrich the computational complexity and repertoire of regulatory circuits ( Beisel and Storz, 2011 ). (elifesciences.org)
- Gene expression and regulation in eukaryotes is controlled by orchestrated binding of regulatory proteins, including both activators and repressors, to promoters and other cis -regulatory DNA elements. (plantcell.org)
- We demonstrate that protein binding footprints within a specific genomic region can be revealed using the DH site data sets in combination with known or putative protein binding motifs and gene expression data sets. (plantcell.org)
- The histone H4 acetylated isoform, H4Ac16, colocalizes with the MSL proteins at a majority of sites on the D. melanogaster X chromosome. (genetics.org)
- Using polytene chromosome immunostaining of other species from the genus Drosophila, we found that X chromosome association of MSL proteins and H4Ac16 is conserved despite differences in the sex chromosome karyotype between species. (genetics.org)
- Our results support a model in which cis -acting regulatory sites for dosage compensation evolve on a neo- X chromosome arm in response to the degeneration of its former homologue. (genetics.org)
- A gene on chromosome 15q14 that encodes a protein essential for spindle-assembly checkpoint signalling and for correct chromosome alignment. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Signal-regulatory proteins (SIRP) are transmembrane glycoproteins with three extracellular Ig-like domains, closely related to Ag receptors Ig, TCR, and MHC, and a cytoplasmic domain with two immunoreceptor with tyrosine-based inhibition motifs that can interact with src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatases. (jimmunol.org)
- This study reports that dietary nutrients, particularly proteins and carbohydrates, modulate the developmental timing through the CDK8/CycC/EcR pathway. (sdbonline.org)
- Distinct structural forms of type I collagen modulate cell cycle regulatory proteins in mesangial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- However, whether mimosine may modulate the expression of these cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppress tumor growth in vivo is unknown. (spandidos-publications.com)
- PP2A proteins are oligomeric complexes constituted by a catalytic subunit and several regulatory subunits that modulate the activity of these phosphatases. (plantphysiol.org)
- Based on the SEQUEST from database of Mammalian Cell host and target protein, the LC-MS/MS Analysis result of ab240864 could indicate that this peptide derived from Mammalian Cell-expressed Escherichia coli (strain K12) phoP. (abcam.com)
- Deciphering the mechanisms by which Borrelia burgdorferi controls the synthesis of proteins associated with mammalian infection will be an important step toward understanding the pathogenic properties of Lyme disease -causing bacteria. (prohealth.com)
- Interestingly, a putative metal-dependent regulatory protein, TroR, which has homology with the diphtheria toxin regulatory protein, DtxR, from Corynebacterium diphtheriae was identified from T. pallidum . (pnas.org)
- Despite its limited metal requirement, analysis of the T. pallidum genome revealed a putative metal-dependent regulatory protein, TroR. (pnas.org)
- StarD10, a putative phospholipid binding protein, was detectable along the shaft of stereocilia. (mit.edu)
- Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 33 Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 3B (PPP1R3B) Antikörper von 11 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 3B Proteine (11) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Insgesamt sind aktuell 48 Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 3B Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
- The identification and analysis of the repertoire of TCS proteins in the genomes of P. syringae pathovars constitute a basis for future functional genomic studies of the signal transduction pathways in this important bacterial phytopathogen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The mechanism of signal transduction by TCS proteins is based on phosphotransfer reactions between histidine (H) and aspartate (D) residues in highly conserved signalling domains of the HKs and their cognate RRs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Postreplication gaps or other damage that produced single stranded regions in the bacterial DNA, may cause recA protein to bind to the DNA. (springer.com)
- Recently, GIPC, an regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS)-GAIP binding protein, was found to bind IGF-IR ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- AKAPs are a diverse family of proteins that all bind via a small PKA binding domain to the regulatory subunits of PKA. (mcponline.org)
- which allowed us to unravel which AKAPs bind preferentially to the RI or RII regulatory domains of PKA. (mcponline.org)
- Several other proteins such as cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels ( 1 ), phosphodiesterases (PDE) ( 2 ), and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac) ( 3 ) bind cAMP. (mcponline.org)
- The VirG protein was purified and renatured from E. coli and was shown to bind to a specific sequence in two vir gene promoters. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Thus, information on what proteins bind to cis -regulatory DNA elements and when and where these proteins bind is important to understand the regulation and thus function of each gene. (plantcell.org)
- Furthermore, we performed proteomics experiments from FOXA1 inmunoprecipitated protein complex to identify that FOXA1 interacts with several proteins. (mdpi.com)
- The crystal structure of RydC in complex with E. coli Hfq at a 3.48 Å resolution illuminates how the protein interacts with and presents the sRNA for target recognition. (elifesciences.org)
- The regulation occurs through an interaction of Fe 2+ and a metal-dependent regulatory protein. (pnas.org)
- I'm sure there's an easier way to explain this, but the take-home message is that a protein-coding change in AMN1 leads, indirectly, to it's own regulation. (gnxp.com)
- The regulation of activity by dual phosphorylations at closely spaced threonyl and tyrosyl residues has a functional correlate in p34cdc2, and may be characteristic of a family of protein kinases regulating cell cycle transitions. (nih.gov)
- Here, we described GIPC expression in different human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PCA) cell lines and we examined the role of GIPC in the regulation of IGF-IR protein levels in PCA. (aacrjournals.org)
- Even though their protein sequences are strongly conserved, their mechanism of regulation is not conserved across yeast, Drosophila , and vertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
- The key to understanding these fundamental processes of sRNA-based regulation is to determine how RNAs are bound and presented by Hfq and other effector proteins. (elifesciences.org)
- Bacterial TCSs are common components of complex regulatory networks and cascades, often associated with global regulation as well as with regulation of virulence. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- PPP1R subunits (also known as PP1-interacting proteins, or PIPs) direct the substrate specificity of protein phosphatase 1 catalytic (PPP1C) subunits. (genenames.org)
- PP2A consists of a common heterodimeric core enzyme, composed of PPP2CA a 36 kDa catalytic subunit (subunit C) and PPP2R1A a 65 kDa constant regulatory subunit (PR65 or subunit A), that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Structure of PP2A: C is the catalytic subunit, A is the second regulatory or structural subunit, and B/B'/B/B are the third variable subunits, which are structurally unrelated. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- PP2A is a heterotrimer composed of a scaffold subunit (A), a catalytic subunit (C), and one of many regulatory subunits (B). The dimeric form consisting of the scaffold and catalytic subunit also exists as the core-PP2A enzyme. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Among these subunits, PP2A-A acts as a structural assembly base to escort the catalytic subunit and to facilitate interaction with the regulatory subunit and other substrates, which is essential for the activity of the holoenzyme. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- The binding affinities between PKA and several AKAPs can be different for different isoforms of the regulatory subunits of PKA. (mcponline.org)
- We were able to enrich all four isoforms of the regulatory subunits of PKA and concomitantly identify more than 10 AKAPs. (mcponline.org)
- The genomic organization of this family of PP2A regulatory subunits is reported, as well as its chromosomal location. (plantphysiol.org)
- An extensive survey of the family has been carried out in plants, characterizing B′ subunits in a number of different species, and performing a phylogenetic study that included several B′ regulatory proteins from animals. (plantphysiol.org)
- Our results indicate that the animal and plant proteins have evolved independently, that there is a relationship between the number of B′ isoforms and the complexity of the organism, and that there are at least three main subfamilies of regulatory subunits in plants, which we have named α, η, and κ. (plantphysiol.org)
- In general, the native forms of PP2A proteins exist as oligomeric complexes, constituted by a catalytic subunit (PP2Ac), and one or more regulatory subunits named A and B. Thus, PP2A proteins can be heterodimers, consisting of a PP2Ac catalytic subunit and a type A regulatory subunit, or heterotrimers that contain an additional regulatory subunit of the B type. (plantphysiol.org)
- Br-cAMP stimulation of primary and spliced StAR RNA at the gene loci were removed within 4 h in this dual CRISPR/Cas9 strategy before any effect on cytoplasmic mRNA and protein occurred. (frontiersin.org)
- A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. (umassmed.edu)
- Listed below are anti-Protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B', alpha antibodies from multiple suppliers. (biocompare.com)
- Your search returned 232 protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B', alpha Antibodies across 25 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
- Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
- Antigen-specific immunoprotection can be achieved through several different mechanisms, such as production of protective antibodies, deletion or inactivation (anergy) of pathogenic T-cell clones, or induction of suppressive cellular immunity mediated by the family of regulatory T cells (Treg). (ahajournals.org)
- Chromatin immunoprecipitation ( ChIP ) using antibodies specific to regulatory proteins, such as transcription factors, in combination with sequencing ( ChIP-seq ) or microarrays ( ChIP-chip ) are powerful approaches to map protein binding sites in higher eukaryotes. (plantcell.org)
- E2 also regulates viral transcription through binding to the E2RE response element (5'-ACCNNNNNNGGT-3') present in multiple copies in the regulatory regions of the viral genome. (uniprot.org)
- A large body of work has focused on the activities of the key viral regulatory proteins involved in KSHV latent or lytic states. (frontiersin.org)
- A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. (curehunter.com)
- Mediating Protein Interactions: Is Folding Required? (asbmb.org)
- In a new study published in Nature Communications , the researchers developed a method to capture transient interactions of NLP7, a master transcription factor involved in nitrogen use in plants, revealing that the majority of a plant's response to nitrogen is controlled by these short-lived regulatory interactions. (nyu.edu)
- For protein-DNA interactions, we investigate the binding specificity of paralogous TFs (i.e. members of the same TF family). (hu-berlin.de)
- For protein-RNA interactions, we investigate the role of RNA secondary structure and its impact on binding-site recognition. (hu-berlin.de)
- GCH1 activity can be controlled through allosteric interactions with GCH1 feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Consolidating the protein-RNA complex is a host of distributed interactions mediated by the natively unstructured termini of Hfq. (elifesciences.org)
- Our data indicates that this motif has a significant regulatory function, modulating interactions with more N-terminal parts of the Hox protein, eventually triggering the rib-repressing program. (biologists.org)
- These patterns, termed "spines", do not form sequential motifs coming from different parts of protein kinases sequence. (nih.gov)
- Genome sequence analysis of Treponema pallidum , the causative agent of syphilis, suggests that this bacterium has a limited iron requirement with few, if any, proteins that require iron. (pnas.org)
- Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
- p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
- section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
- The DNA or RNA targets and/or the sequence preferences of hundreds of eukaryotic regulatory proteins have been determined thus far using high-throughput in vivo and in vitro experiments, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) and protein binding microarrays (PBMs) for TFs, or cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) techniques and RNAcompete for RBPs. (hu-berlin.de)
- However, the derived short sequence motifs do not fully explain the highly specific binding of these regulatory proteins. (hu-berlin.de)
- In this study we identified a cis-acting regulatory sequence in the 5'-noncoding region of the virE operon that is essential for this activation. (unboundmedicine.com)
- This demonstrates that the vir box functions as an upstream regulatory sequence. (unboundmedicine.com)
- This indicates that group-specific functions must derive from sequence or structural characteristics intrinsic to the Hox proteins. (biologists.org)
- Protein kinases: evolution of dynamic regulatory proteins. (nih.gov)
- During the course of evolution, protein kinases developed a universal regulatory mechanism associated with a large activation segment that can be dynamically folded and unfolded in the course of cell functioning. (nih.gov)
- Protein kinases thus represent a unique, highly dynamic, and precisely regulated set of switches that control most biological events in eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
- A . Protein kinases have a characteristic bilobal fold. (nih.gov)
- The regulatory beta-subunit of CK2 exerts a central role not only in mediating formation of tetrameric CK2 complexes but also as a docking partner for several protein kinases. (nih.gov)
- The encoded protein is expressed in liver and skeletal muscle tissue and may be involved in regulating glycogen synthesis in these tissues. (antikoerper-online.de)
- We present results of studies indicating that B. burgdorferi senses a wide variety of environmental stimuli, including soluble chemicals, which enables it to independently control synthesis of the Erp and OspC proteins. (prohealth.com)
- We identified the presence of two small sequences flanking the homeodomain that are phylogenetically conserved among Hox10 proteins and that seem to be specific for this group. (biologists.org)
- These results illustrate the value of DH , the signature of open chromatin, in mapping and characterizing regulatory DNA sequences in plants. (plantcell.org)
- SREB proteins are indirectly required for cholesterol biosynthesis and for uptake and fatty acid biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike other metal-dependent regulatory proteins like diphtheria toxin regulatory protein and the ferric ion uptake regulator, Fur, which can be activated by divalent metals such as Fe 2+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Zn 2+ , TroR is activated only by Mn 2+ . (pnas.org)
- Iron Regulatory Protein 1 Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Iron Uptake Proteins Expression and Decreases Iron Levels in HepG2 Cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Transferrin receptor (TfR1) and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) are important proteins for cellular iron uptake, and both are regulated transcriptionally through the binding of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) to hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) under hypoxic conditions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- It is clear that both proteins play a role in the Alzheimer's disease mechanism, but there is some disagreement about which one is more important," says Dr. Li. (innovations-report.com)
- This study changes how we think about the T cell receptor signaling process and a well established general signaling mechanism, protein recruitment to membranes through PH domains," said Karsten Sauer, a Scripps Research scientist who led the study. (science20.com)
- The precursor has a hairpin orientation in the membrane, so that both the amino-terminal transcription factor domain and the COOH-terminal regulatory domain face the cytoplasm . (wikipedia.org)
- IRF2 encodes interferon regulatory factor 2, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. (antibodies-online.com)
- We demonstrate that protein binding footprints resulting from transcription factor binding can be revealed by combining the DH site data sets with known protein binding sites or known cis -regulatory DNA elements. (plantcell.org)
- It is proximal to LRP5 (LDL receptor related protein 5) gene. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- sought to identify the proteins in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling network that serve as the conductors or directors of the EGF signal. (sciencemag.org)
- Regulator of G-protein signaling-GAIP-interacting protein COOH terminus (GIPC) is involved in protein trafficking, endocytosis, and receptor clustering and is associated with insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR), a receptor important for proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. (aacrjournals.org)
- T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent regulatory T cell (T reg ) activity controls effector T cell (T eff ) function and is inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). (sciencemag.org)
- The dendritic cells themselves are stimulated by antigens binding to a protein receptor called dectin-1 that protrudes from the dendritic cell surface. (medicalxpress.com)
- Modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein expression and suppression of tumor growth by mimosine in nude mice. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Chang H, Weng C, Yen M, Chuang L and Hung W: Modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein expression and suppression of tumor growth by mimosine in nude mice. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The complement system (CS) is composed of receptors and regulators bound to the cell membrane and different plasma proteins that interact with cells and mediators of the immune system ( Figure 1 ). (scielo.br)
- In this regard, we observed that one or more DNA-binding proteins interact specifically with erp promoter DNA but not with the ospC promoter. (prohealth.com)
- The large influx of data from high-throughput genomic and proteomic technologies has encouraged the researchers to seek approaches for understanding the structure of gene regulatory networks and proteomic networks. (hindawi.com)
- A common characteristic of all genomic regions associated with regulatory proteins is a pronounced sensitivity to DNase I digestion. (plantcell.org)
- The lack of in vitro culture techniques and genetic systems for Treponema pallidum has made it extremely difficult to identify virulence or regulatory factors involved in the pathogenesis of syphilis. (pnas.org)
- To investigate the role of segments of the membrane-associated UhpB and UhpC regulatory proteins, a series of mutations were constructed in vitro by insertion of a 12- or 24-bp oligonucleotide linker at 44 sites within the uhpABCT locus. (asm.org)
- Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing Shows Selection on Leptospira Regulatory Proteins During in vitro Culture Attenuation. (jcvi.org)
- In findings the authors called "unexpected and striking," researchers found that a new regulating messenger IP4, a small soluble molecule, augments the binding of three different PH domain proteins to one of the most commonly recognized membrane lipids, PIP3. (science20.com)
- Signaling from T cell receptors triggers the generation of PIP3 and IP4, Sauer explained, leading to the recruitment of proteins to the cell membrane from the cytosol, the internal part of the cell. (science20.com)
- Interplay between the membrane-associated UhpB and UhpC regulatory proteins. (asm.org)
- During import, proteins have to overcome the two barriers of the chloroplast envelope, namely the outer envelope membrane (OEM) and the inner envelope membrane (IEM). (uni-muenchen.de)
- Cancer is a disease of subverted regulatory pathways. (nature.com)
- Various genetic mutations associated with cancer are known to alter cell signaling, but it is not clear whether they dysregulate signaling pathways by altering the abundance of pathway proteins. (sciencemag.org)
- Distinct regulatory pathways control expression of Borrelia burgdorferi infection-associated OspC and Erp surface proteins. (prohealth.com)
- We investigated the role of specific protein oxidation in oxidant-induced apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Using redox-proteomics, we found that the actin-binding protein cofilin is a key target of oxidation that mediates induction of apoptosis by taurine chloramine, a physiological oxidant produced by activated neutrophils. (aacrjournals.org)
- Thompson R, Vardinogiannis I, Gilmore T. The sensitivity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines to histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced apoptosis is modulated by BCL-2 family protein activity. (labome.org)
- The aqueous phase between these two membranes cannot be crossed by the lipophilic cholesterol, unless certain proteins assist in this process. (thefullwiki.org)
- When the body sends out a signal that triggers inflammation, certain proteins are released that cause the blood vessel to lose its ability to act as a barrier. (bu.edu)
- The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in hepatocytes (liver cells). (wikipedia.org)
- IRP1 is an iron-sulfur cluster-containing protein that can be converted from a cytosolic aconitase to an RNA binding posttranscriptional regulator in response to nitric oxide (NO). IRP2 lacks aconitase activity and its expression is decreased by NO signaling. (sciencemag.org)
- In this paper, we reconstruct the regulatory network around E2F, a family of transcription factors whose deregulation has been associated to cancer progression, chemoresistance, invasiveness, and metastasis. (nature.com)
- Belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A family. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Most R proteins belong to the NB-LRR protein family as they carry a central NB-ARC domain fused to an LRR domain. (wur.nl)
- Hongbing Yu and colleagues at A*STAR's Singapore Immunology Network investigated NFATc2, a member of the 'nuclear factor of activated T cells' family of proteins. (medicalxpress.com)
- Iron regulatory protein 1 outcompetes iron regulatory protein 2 in regulating cellular iron homeostasis in response to nitric oxide. (ebi.ac.uk)
- The main result of this thesis was determining the sub-cellular localization of three interesting proteins and functionally characterizing one protein. (mit.edu)
- These proteins are also regulated post-transcriptionally through the binding of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) to iron-responsive elements (IREs) located in the mRNA untranslated region (UTR) to control cellular iron homeostasis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- They found that the abundance of most core pathway proteins was very similar between cells and rather that the very low abundance of the adaptor proteins made them rate-limiting for EGFR-MAPK pathway signaling in normal and malignant cells. (sciencemag.org)
- The findings suggest that adaptor proteins serve as the directors of the signaling script. (sciencemag.org)
- Your search returned 30 protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 14A ELISA ELISA Kit across 5 suppliers. (biocompare.com)