The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
A dipolar ionic buffer.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A microfilament protein that interacts with F-ACTIN and regulates cortical actin assembly and organization. It is also an SH3 DOMAIN containing phosphoprotein, and it mediates tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION based SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC).
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
regulation of cancer cell proliferation. (I). Name based on order of discovery ... "Mechanisms of cyclic AMP/protein kinase A- and glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis using S49 lymphoma cells as a model system" ... Embedded in the cell membrane is also the G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel. When a Gβγ or Gα(GTP) ... "Introduction to Essentials of Cell Biology , Learn Science at Scitable". Retrieved 2017-11-08.. ...
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The progression and regulation of mitotic events. In "Cell Cycle and Growth Control: Biomolecular Regulation and Cancer". G. ... J. Cell Biol., 166:517-526. Rieder, C.L. and H. Maiato. 2004. Stuck in division or passing through: what happens when cells ... His research has contributed to the growing understanding of the process of cell division and the pathology of cancer. Rieder ... J. of Cell Biol. 155:1159-1172. Mitosis and Meiosis, Volume 61 (Methods in Cell Biology) [Paperback] Conly L. Rieder (Editor), ...
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"The regulation of INK4/ARF in cancer and aging". Cell. 127 (2): 265-75. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.10.003. PMID 17055429. S2CID ... "Expression of p16INK4a in peripheral blood T-cells is a biomarker of human aging". Aging Cell. 8 (4): 439-448. doi:10.1111/j. ... which promotes the adverse effects of chemotherapy as well as cancer relapse and metastasis. Eliminating the senescent cells in ... Cell. 152 (1-2): 340-351. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.12.010. ISSN 1097-4172. PMC 3718011. PMID 23332765. Sorrentino, J; ...
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"Regulation of apoptosis by a prostate-specific and prostate cancer-associated noncoding gene, PCGEM1". DNA and Cell Biology. 25 ... "Divergent lncRNAs Regulate Gene Expression and Lineage Differentiation in Pluripotent Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 637-652. ... which is explained by higher cell-to-cell variation of expression levels of lncRNA genes in the individual cells, when compared ... "Single-cell RNA-Seq profiling of human preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology ...
"The regulation of INK4/ARF in cancer and aging". Cell. 127 (2): 265-75. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.10.003. PMID 17055429. S2CID ... but not CDK4 activity in activated T cells that suggest p18INK4c may set an inhibitory threshold in resting T cells. Cells ... Sherr CJ (July 2000). "The Pezcoller lecture: cancer cell cycles revisited". Cancer Research. 60 (14): 3689-95. PMID 10919634. ... The loss of p18INK4c in T cells reduced the requirement of CD28 costimulation for efficient T cell proliferation. Other INK4 ...
"Regulation of MYC expression and differential JQ1 sensitivity in cancer cells". PloS One. 9 (1): e87003. PMC 3900694 . PMID ... cell cycle arrest. • positive regulation of response to DNA damage stimulus. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • ... negative regulation of cell division. • fibroblast apoptotic process. • positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation. ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • regulation of telomere maintenance. • positive regulation of epithelial cell ...
"Dicer-regulated microRNAs 222 and 339 promote resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes by down-regulation of ICAM- ... of microRNAs expressed highly in pancreatic islet-like cell clusters differentiated from human embryonic stem cells". Cell ... Okada H, Kohanbash G, Lotze MT (August 2010). "MicroRNAs in immune regulation--opportunities for cancer immunotherapy". The ... a web-tool to validate survival-associated miRNAs utilizing expression data from 2178 breast cancer patients". Breast Cancer ...
Okada H, Kohanbash G, Lotze MT (Aug 2010). "MicroRNAs in immune regulation--opportunities for cancer immunotherapy". The ... Cell. 123 (4): 631-40. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.10.022. PMID 16271387. S2CID 16973870. Sonkoly E, Ståhle M, Pivarcsi A (Apr 2008 ... In addition it was found to be absent from the exosomes of prion infected cells suggesting it could be used as a biomarker for ... "MicroRNAs and immunity: novel players in the regulation of normal immune function and inflammation". Seminars in Cancer Biology ...
"Regulation of cancer aggressive features in melanoma cells by microRNAs". PLOS One. 6 (4): e18936. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... "MiR-107 and MiR-185 can induce cell cycle arrest in human non small cell lung cancer cell lines". PLOS One. 4 (8): e6677. doi: ... "Identifying mRNA targets of microRNA dysregulated in cancer: with application to clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma". BMC Systems ... "Systematic analysis of microRNAs targeting the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells". Cancer Research. 71 (5): 1956-67. ...
"Transcriptional regulation of squalene epoxidase by sterols and inhibitors in HeLa cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... "Identification of genes differentially expressed in human primary lung squamous cell carcinoma". Lung Cancer. 56 (3): 307-17. ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... is upregulated in 8q+ breast cancer and indicates poor clinical outcome in stage I and II disease". British Journal of Cancer. ...
Dong Z, Zhang JT (2006). "Initiation factor eIF3 and regulation of mRNA translation, cell growth, and cancer". Crit. Rev. Oncol ... "A novel form of DAP5 protein accumulates in apoptotic cells as a result of caspase cleavage and internal ribosome entry site- ... cell nucleus. • membrane. • microtubule. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • multi-eIF complex. • eukaryotic translation initiation ... Cell. Biol. 20 (2): 496-506. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.2.496-506.2000. PMC 85113. PMID 10611228.. ...
Mazumdar A, Kumar R (January 2003). "Estrogen regulation of Pak1 and FKHR pathways in breast cancer cells". FEBS Letters. 535 ( ... is found in adult granulosa cell tumors but not in other ovarian cancers nor in juvenile granulosa cell tumors. In addition to ... FOXL2 knockout in mature mouse ovaries appears to cause the ovary's somatic cells to transdifferentiate to the equivalent cell ... "FOXL2 Is an Essential Activator of SF-1-Induced Transcriptional Regulation of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Human Granulosa Cells ...
"PAK1 kinase promotes cell motility and invasiveness through CRK-II serine phosphorylation in non-small cell lung cancer cells ... Mazumdar A, Kumar R (January 2003). "Estrogen regulation of Pak1 and FKHR pathways in breast cancer cells". FEBS Letters. 535 ( ... "Phosphorylation of the ErbB3 binding protein Ebp1 by p21-activated kinase 1 in breast cancer cells". British Journal of Cancer ... Representative PAK1 effector substrates in cancer cells include: Stathmin-S16, Merlin-S518, Vimentin-S25-S38-S50-S65-S72, ...
"Transcriptional regulation of miR-196b by ETS2 in gastric cancer cells". Carcinogenesis. 33 (4): 760-9. doi:10.1093/carcin/ ... Cell. Biochem. 340 (1-2): 97-106. doi:10.1007/s11010-010-0406-9. PMID 20549547. S2CID 12753166. Coskun E, von der Heide EK, ... "Epigenetic regulation of miR-196b expression in gastric cancer". Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 49 (11): 969-80. doi:10.1002/gcc. ... Tay Y, Peter S, Rigoutsos I, Barahona P, Ahmed S, Dröge P (2009). "Insights into the regulation of a common variant of HMGA2 ...
"Regulation of DNA repair gene expression in human cancer cell lines". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 97 (5): 1121-36. doi: ... Hoeijmakers JH (1987). "Characterization of genes and proteins involved in excision repair of human cells". Journal of Cell ... This has been suggested for patients with gastric, ovarian and bladder cancers. In Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), ... September 2006). "DNA repair by ERCC1 in non-small-cell lung cancer and cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy". The New England ...
... "siRNA-mediated down-regulation of survivin inhibits bladder cancer cell growth". International Journal of Oncology. 25 (4): ... cells were found to survive longer when the cells were pretreated with siRNAs that targeted B-catenin in the cancer cells. ... from binding to the cancer cells. Cleaving the fusion protein reduced the amount of transformed hematopoietic cells that spread ... Gene silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene. Gene silencing can ...
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... in the presence of Myc hyperactivation results in mitotic catastrophe and cell death in cancer cells. Hence inhibitors of ... "Regulation of MYC expression and differential JQ1 sensitivity in cancer cells". PLOS ONE. 9 (1): e87003. Bibcode:2014PLoSO... ... and uterine cancers. In the experimental transformation process of normal cells into cancer cells, the MYC gene can cooperate ... Myc genes play a number of normal roles in stem cells including pluripotent stem cells. In neural stem cells, N-Myc promotes a ...
"The circadian gene per1 plays an important role in cell growth and DNA damage control in human cancer cells". Mol. Cell. 22 (3 ... suggests that regulation of PER1 expression may be useful for cancer treatment in the future. The following is a list of some ... Therefore, a cell's circadian clock may play a large role in its likelihood of developing into a cancer cell. PER1 is a gene ... PER1 expression may have significant effects on the cell cycle. Cancer is often a result of unregulated cell growth and ...
... NCBI Yang XJ, Ullah M (August 2007). "MOZ and MORF, two large MYSTic HATs in normal and cancer stem cells". Oncogene. 26 ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... Bristow CA, Shore P (2003). "Transcriptional regulation of the human MIP-1alpha promoter by RUNX1 and MOZ". Nucleic Acids Res. ... Cell. 23 (4): 607-18. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.06.026. PMID 16916647. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in ...
"Role of Ets/Id proteins for telomerase regulation in human cancer cells". Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 75 (3): 238-47 ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Hester KD, Verhelle D, Escoubet-Lozach L, ... Verykokakis M, Papadaki C, Vorgia E, Le Gallic L, Mavrothalassitis G (October 2007). "The RAS-dependent ERF control of cell ... Luna R, Rose DW, Glass CK (July 2007). "Differential repression of c-myc and cdc2 gene expression by ERF and PE-1/METS". Cell ...
... regulation of CDC6 in prostate cancer was observed and associated with phenotypic characteristics of aggressive prostate cancer ... Cdc6, or cell division cycle 6, is a protein in eukaryotic cells. It is mainly studied in the budding yeast Saccharomyces ... Furthermore, it has been observed that Cdc6 is greatly up-regulated in cervical cancer, lung cancer and brain cancer. Cdc6 ... Thus, the regulation of CDC6 is tightly correlated to the activity of Cdk2 and since Cdk2-activity is oscillating once per cell ...
It is not yet clear what advantage this has on the cancer cells, but given FADDs roles in cell cycle regulation and cell ... "FADD phosphorylation is critical for cell cycle regulation in breast cancer cells". British Journal of Cancer. 94 (4): 532-539 ... "Emerging roles for the death adaptor FADD in death receptor avidity and cell cycle regulation". Cell Cycle. 5 (20): 2332-2338. ... "FADD protein release mirrors the development and aggressiveness of human non-small cell lung cancer". British Journal of Cancer ...
... is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer and human placenta and chorionic carcinoma cells. In breast cancer, loss of ... "Hormonal regulation of metastasis-associated protein 3 transcription in breast cancer cells". Molecular Endocrinology. 18 (12 ... MicroRNA-495 inhibits the level of MTA3 mRNA as well as the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells. The β- ... "β-elemene decreases cell invasion by upregulating E-cadherin expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells". Oncology Reports. ...
Expression is typically limited to meiotic cells, but overexpression occurs in some cancer cell lines. PLZF, a transcription ... "Regulation of AURKC expression by CpG island methylation in human cancer cells". Tumour Biology. 36 (10): 8147-58. doi:10.1007/ ... "Transcriptome analysis of the cancer/testis genes, DAZ1, AURKC, and TEX101, in breast tumors and six breast cancer cell lines ... Although all of the Aurora kinases are overexpressed in many cancer cell lines, only Aurora A and C possess oncogenic activity ...
... and certain cancers such as glucagonomas.[44] Individuals with cancer may be at a higher risk of mortality if they also have ... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells.[52] Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... Sun T, Han X (2019). "Death versus dedifferentiation: The molecular bases of beta cell mass reduction in type 2 diabetes". ... and inappropriate regulation of metabolism by the central nervous system.[10] However, not all people with insulin resistance ...
"Knockdown of Sec6 improves cell-cell adhesion by increasing α-E-catenin in oral cancer cells". FEBS Lett. 586 (6): 924-33. doi: ... Mosimann C, Hausmann G, Basler K (April 2009). "β-catenin hits chromatin: regulation of Wnt target gene activation". Nature ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
... results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, COPD ( ... During atrophy, there is a down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways, and an activation of protein degradation. The ... "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of ... critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival. In addition to the ...
"Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 39 (3): 336-9. doi:10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.009. PMC 2387274. PMID 17698380.. ... Cell. Proteomics. 7 (3): 499-508. doi:10.1074/mcp.M700325-MCP200. PMID 18029348.. ... a cancer and leukemia group B study". J. Clin. Oncol. 27 (19): 3198-204. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.20.6110. PMC 2716941. PMID ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • biological process. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ...
... a novel potent inhibitor of signal transduction and growth in vitro and in vivo in small cell lung cancer cells". Cancer ... Substance P has been associated with the regulation of mood disorders, anxiety, stress,[30] reinforcement,[31] neurogenesis,[32 ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ...
positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... ovarian cancer cells, bladder, prostate, and endometrial carcinomas.[9] The mechanism of switching on the genes is unknown. ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • pronephros development. • regulation of metanephric ... Down regulation of the PAX gene expression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. This could be a possible avenue for ...
... melatonin receptor overexpression enhances the growth suppressive effect of melatonin in human breast cancer cells". Mol. Cell ... 2001). „Cyclical regulation of GnRH gene expression in GT1-7 GnRH-secreting neurons by melatonin". Endocrinology. 142 (11): ... 2000). „Melatonin receptor mRNA expression in human granulosa cells". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 156 (1-2): 107-10. PMID 10612428. ... Sugden D, Davidson K, Hough KA, Teh MT (2004). „Melatonin, melatonin receptors and melanophores: a moving story". Pigment Cell ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • response to oxidative stress. • cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of ... "Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.". Nat. Biotechnol. 23 (1): 94-101. PMID 15592455. doi: ... cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • muscle alpha-actinin binding. ... Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development.". Cell. 111 (5): 673-85. PMID 12464179. doi: ...
... which will function to support sperm cell formation. A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by ... "Androgen receptor in human skeletal muscle and cultured muscle satellite cells: up-regulation by androgen treatment". The ... Prostate cancer may be treated by removing the major source of testosterone: testicle removal (orchiectomy); or agents which ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ...
"The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 mediates c-fos up-regulation by 17beta-estradiol and phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells ... In human breast cancer cell lines, quercetin has also been found to act as an agonist of the G protein-coupled estrogen ... American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. ... Murakami A, Ashida H, Terao J (2008). "Multitargeted cancer prevention by quercetin". (review). Cancer Letters. 269 (2): 315-25 ...
cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... "Progesterone receptor variants found in breast cells repress transcription by wild-type receptors". Breast Cancer Research and ... epithelial cell maturation. • mammary gland development. • paracrine signaling. • lung alveolus development. • regulation of ... Progesterone Regulation of Proliferation in the Normal Human Breast and in Breast Cancer: A Tale of Two Scenarios?". Molecular ...
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... An example is the p53 gene, which suppresses cancer but also suppresses stem cells, which replenish worn-out tissue.[13] ... Regulation of gene expression. *Gene regulatory network. *Developmental-genetic toolkit. *Evolutionary developmental biology ... "sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ MD, Kenneth R. Bridges. "How Does Sickle Cell Cause ...
"Regulation of oxidative stress by ATM is required for self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells". Nature. 431 (7011): 997-1002 ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ... This has been implicated in the increasing frequency and severity of diseases such as cancer, chronic inflammatory disorders, ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ...
cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation of core promoter binding. • negative regulation ... Because of the development to the resistance to chemical, MDR cells become a critical factor on the success of cancer ... cell projection. Biological process. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • somitogenesis. • positive regulation ... regulation of protein binding. • T cell receptor signaling pathway. • segmentation. • positive regulation of receptor recycling ...
Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. [24]. Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ... "Genetic unmasking of an epigenetically silenced microRNA in human cancer cells". Cancer Res. 67 (4): 1424-9. doi:10.1158/0008- ... a role for p53/activator protein 2 transcriptional regulation". Mol. Cancer Ther. 6 (5): 1650-60. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06- ... Prostate cancer. Over-expression. 33%. Immunohistochemistry. [21]. Non-small-cell lung cancer. Over-expression. 29%. ...
"Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 beta gene are associated with increased risk of non-small cell lung cancer". International ... "Identification and distinct regulation of yeast TATA box-containing genes". Cell. 116 (5): 699-709. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(04) ... An accumulation of these polyglutamine-TBP cells will occur, as shown by protein aggregates in brain sections of patients, ... Cancer therapy[edit]. Pharmaceutical companies have been designing cancer therapy drugs to target DNA in traditional methods ...
In 2011, Wigler, James Hicks and Nick Navin perform the first genomic profile of single cancer cells from a patient's tumor;[42 ... "Cell. 171 (3): 522-539.e20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.08.032. ISSN 0092-8674.. ... growth control in mammalian cells; transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation. ... It is one of 68 institutions supported by the Cancer Centers Program of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) and has been ...
"At Work: Cell Biology Program Chair Alan Hall". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Archived from the original on 2 April ... In 1982, Hall helped identify transforming sequences in human sarcoma cells lines at the Institute for Cancer Research in ... His work in 2005 on the regulation of adhesion, migration and polarity of the cell cytoskeleton was awarded the Louis Jeantet ... DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ...
The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this kinase in mediating survival signal in T cell development, as well as ... A new mode of regulation of the MAP kinase cascade". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 277 (43): 40703-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... 1997). "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 as a candidate tumor suppressor". Cancer Res. 57 (19): 4177-82. PMID ... activator SEK-1 and is required for tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of SAPK in melanoma cells". J. Biol. Chem. UNITED ...
"The SREBP pathway: regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor". Cell 89: 331 ... Cholesterol is primarily synthesized from acetyl CoA through the HMG-CoA reductase pathway in many cells and tissues. About 20- ... Research into the causes of this state is relatively limited, but some studies suggest a link with depression, cancer and ... Espenshade PJ, Hughes AL (2007). "Regulation of sterol synthesis in eukaryotes". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41: 401-27. doi:10.1146/ ...
regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation. • regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly. • regulation of ... 2004). "Synovial density of frizzled 5-positive cells does not differ between patients with RA and OA and is independent of ... and diffuse-type gastric cancer". Int. J. Oncol. 30 (3): 751-5. doi:10.3892/ijo.30.3.751. PMID 17273778.. ... T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast cell differentiation. • positive regulation of protein targeting to ...
Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from outside.. *Division - By which cells reproduce either by mitosis ( ... it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely ... The growth process of the cell does not refer to the size of the cell, but instead the density of the number of cells present ... Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ...
Nov 2001). "Hypoxia induces apoptosis via two independent pathways in Jurkat cells: differential regulation by glucose". ... Cell Physiology. 281 (5): C1596-603. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.2001.281.5.c1596. PMID 11600423.. ... "Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust. 1999-08-01. Archived from the original on 2003-09-21.. Retrieved on 2007-04-13 from ... Brain cells are very sensitive to reduced oxygen levels. Once deprived of oxygen they will begin to die off within five minutes ...
Regulation[edit]. Glycogen phosphorylase is regulated by both allosteric control and by phosphorylation. ... The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. ... In fact, 70% of dimeric phosphorylase in the cell exists as bound to glycogen granules rather than free floating.[9] ... The brain isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGB) has been proposed as a biomarker for gastric cancer.[21] ...
Decreased expression of MHC class I and up-regulation of MIC-A can happen when cells are infected by a virus or become ... Cancer - either by growth factors secreted by the tumor or invasion of bone marrow by the cancer ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ...
regulation of cell cycle. • positive regulation of protein localization to nucleolus. • chromatin remodeling. • regulation of ... Gjerset RA (2007). «DNA damage, p14ARF, nucleophosmin (NPM/B23), and cancer.». J. Mol. Histol. 37 (5-7): 239-51. PMID 16855788 ... Spatial association of HIV-1 tat protein and the nucleolar transport protein B23 in stably transfected Jurkat T-cells.». Arch. ... regulation of centrosome duplication. • positive regulation of centrosome duplication. • cell growth. • positive regulation of ...
The inflammatory cells involved include neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells. Those who ... Part of this cell response is brought on by inflammatory mediators such as chemotactic factors. Other processes involved with ... A number of developed countries have successfully improved outdoor air quality through regulations. This has resulted in ... lung cancer, anxiety disorder, sexual dysfunction, and depression.[2][39] In those with severe disease, a feeling of always ...
Zimmer, Carl (2019-11-20). "Scientists Are Just Beginning to Understand Mysterious DNA Circles Common in Cancer Cells". The New ... "An LXR Agonist Promotes Glioblastoma Cell Death through Inhibition of an EGFR/AKT/SREBP-1/LDLR-Dependent Pathway". Cancer ... and study its biochemical regulation. They demonstrated widespread extrachromosomal oncogene amplification across many cancer ... After losing his father to cancer, he became committed to a career in cancer research. He attended the University of ...
"Overexpression of the orotate phosphoribosyl-transferase gene enhances the effect of 5-fluorouracil on gastric cancer cell ... UMPS is subject to complex regulation by OMP, the product of its OPRTase and the substrate for the ODCase. OMP is an allosteric ... Lin T, Suttle DP (May 1995). "UMP synthase activity expressed in deficient hamster cells by separate transferase and ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ...
D) Representative light microscopy images of pLKO and MYC HP1 MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells migrating through collagen IV- ... MYC regulation of a "poor-prognosis" metastatic cancer cell state.. Wolfer A1, Wittner BS, Irimia D, Flavin RJ, Lupien M, ... Molecular regulation of 13 poor-outcome human cancer signatures. (A) Thirteen different signatures (designated s1-s13), ... A) Representative light microscopy images of control (pLKO) and MYC knockdown (MYC HP1) MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells ...
The findings suggest a new approach to targeting intestinal cancers. ... Researchers identify signaling molecules in intestinal stem cells that can lead to tumors if left unregulated. ... The results of the study appear online in Cell Reports today.. "Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are ... New study sheds light on cancer stem cell regulation. Sanford-Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute ...
... we clarified the transcriptional regulation of FUT1 in the DLD-1 colon cancer cell line, which has high expression of Lewis B ... Transcriptional Regulation of Fucosyltransferase 1 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cells. Fumiko Taniuchi, Koji Higai, Tomomi ... supported Elk-1-dependent transcriptional regulation of FUT1 gene expression in DLD-1 cells. These results suggest that a ... of FUT1 is critical for FUT1 transcription and that constitutive gene expression of FUT1 is regulated by Elk-1 in DLD-1 cells. ...
Apoptosis Signaling in Normal and Cancer Cells (pages 497-521). Shulin Wang and Wafik S. El-Deiry ... Cell Cycle and Growth Control: Biomolecular Regulation and Cancer, Second Edition provides a solid basis for understanding cell ... Cell Cycle and Growth Control: Biomolecular Regulation and Cancer, Second Edition. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Regulation of Cell Growth, Differentiation, and Death during Metamorphosis (pages 369-395). Hans Laufer and Eric H. Baehrecke ...
... target the genes and pathways important for stem cell maintenance, such as the self-renewal gene BMI1, apoptosis, Wnt signaling ... We have identified a set of miRNAs differentially expressed between human breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-tumorigenic ... cancer cells. In addition, these miRNAs are similarly upregulated or downregulated in normal mammary stem/progenitor cells. In ... Thus, clarifying the miRNA regulation of the metastatic breast CSCs will further advance our understanding of the roles of ...
Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. In this ... Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be ... Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be ... Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. In this ...
T cells in tumors from patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and late-stage ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 61:4766- ... B) Efficient expansion of Th17 cells from memory CD4+ T cells by tumor cells, APCs, or both. The purified CD4+ memory T cells ... A) Differentiation of naïve T cells to Th17 cells after stimulation by tumor cells plus APCs. The purified naïve CD4+ T cells ... Treg cells in ovarian cancer (9), we did not find a high percentage of Treg cells in these ovarian tumor-derived T cell ...
Epigenetic alterations in the genome of tumor cells have attracted considerable attention since the discovery of widespread ... Limited up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase in human colon cancer reflecting increased cell proliferation. P J Lee, L L ... Limited up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase in human colon cancer reflecting increased cell proliferation ... Limited up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase in human colon cancer reflecting increased cell proliferation ...
... by AURKA led to induction of P53 ubiquitination and attenuation of cisplatin-induced activation of P53 in gastric cancer cells ... HDM2 regulation by AURKA promotes cell survival in gastric cancer.. [Vikas Sehdev, Ahmed Katsha, Janet Arras, Dunfa Peng, ... Primary tumors and in vitro gastric cancer cell models with overexpression or knockdown of AURKA were used. The role of AURKA ... Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2013-11-19 ...
... has been thought that the microenvironment of the local host tissue actively participates in the propensity of certain cancers ... Bone metastases are a frequent complication of many cancers that result in severe disease burden and pain. Since the late ... RANK is expressed on cancer cell lines and breast cancer cells in patients. In a mouse model of melanoma metastasis, in vivo ... Regulation of cancer cell migration and bone metastasis by RANKL Nature. 2006 Mar 30;440(7084):692-6. doi: 10.1038/nature04524 ...
... has been recently shown to regulate the cancer metastases in some cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ... RETRACTED ARTICLE: Regulation of activating protein-4-associated metastases of non-small cell lung cancer cells by miR-144. ... Down-regulation of mir-144 promotes thyroid cancer cell invasion by targeting zeb1 and zeb2. Endocrine. 2015;48:566-74.CrossRef ... has been recently shown to regulate the cancer metastases in some cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ...
... and possibly lead to death of the cancer cells. ... Breast Cancer. Colorectal Cancer. Prostate Cancer. Oral Cancer ... Shred Cancer. Digital Fundraising. Research Conference. When you include the American Institute for Cancer Research in your ... Cancer Health Check. The decisions we make every day can help reduce our risk for cancer. Take stock of your choices, and ... Expert Shares the Latest Research on Colorectal Cancer in Younger Adults. The death of actor Chadwick Boseman from colon cancer ...
These examine important topics in molecular biology, genetics, development, virology, neurobiology, immunology and cancer ... protecting cells against genotoxic stress. In recent years, p53 research has begun to move into the clinic in attempts to ... From Cell Regulation to Cancer. Book Series: A Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine Collection. Subject Area(s): Cell ... Transcriptional Regulation by Wild-Type and Cancer-Related Mutant Forms of p53. Neil T. Pfister and Carol Prives. Tumor- ...
... but is highly expressed in cancer cells. This suggests that it plays an important role in carcinogenesis. The enzyme is ... Human telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that is usually absent or rare in normal somatic cells, ... cells in which the distal domain is usually fully methylated. ... Methylation and regulation of cancer cells. Published online 20 ... gene promoter determines retinoid capacity to repress telomerase in maturation-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. ...
Apoptosis Signaling in Normal and Cancer Cells (Shulin Wang and Wafik S. El-Deiry). ... Cell Cycle and Growth Control: Biomolecular Regulation and Cancer, Second Edition provides a solid basis for understanding cell ... Cell Cycle and Growth Control: Biomolecular Regulation and Cancer, 2nd Edition. Gary S. Stein (Editor) , Arthur B. Pardee ( ... Division of Cell Growth and Regulation, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. He is an elected fellow of the American Association for ...
F. Pouthas, P. Girard, V. Lecaudey et al., "In migrating cells, the Golgi complex and the position of the centrosome depend on ... The Golgi in Cell Migration: Regulation by Signal Transduction and Its Implications for Cancer Cell Metastasis. Valentina ... "A cell-based high-content screening assay reveals activators and inhibitors of cancer cell invasion," Science Signaling, vol. 4 ... D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, "Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation," Cell, vol. 144, no. 5, pp. 646-674, 2011. View at ...
... as well as those that impair effector T cell activity. A more insightful knowledge of the HGSOC TME will reveal potential ... This review highlights key immune cells and soluble molecules in the TME of ovarian cancer, which are important in the ... from the viewpoint of the function of pre-existing immune cells, as immunocompetent cells are crucial to mounting robust ... The most common subgroup of this disease is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), which is known for its aggressiveness, ...
Cell cycle dependence of the abundance of Skp2 mRNA in NIH 3T3 cells. A, total RNA was isolated either from cells in ... For cell cycle analysis, single-cell suspensions of NIH 3T3 or T98G cells were fixed in 70% ethanol overnight at −20°C and then ... Cell Culture and Cell Cycle Analysis.. Mouse NIH 3T3 cells were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% calf serum (Life ... Cancer Research Online ISSN: 1538-7445. Cancer Research Print ISSN: 0008-5472. Journal of Cancer Research ISSN: 0099-7013. ...
This project investigates the role played by epigenetic regulator Smchd1 in B-cell lymphoma at a mechanistic level. This study ... reveal molecular pathways that contribute to tumoregenesis in the absence of Smchd1 and provide insight into epigenetic cancer ... Cancer is a disease of the cells, which are the bodys basic building blocks. ... Molecular mechanism of Smchd1-mediated epigenetic regulation in B-cell lymphoma Lead researcher. Ms Kelan Chen ...
We show that, in KM12C colon cancer cells, elevated Src activity causes the components of a … ... Although Src expression and activity are often elevated in colon cancer, the precise consequences of overexpression of the non- ... Src-induced de-regulation of E-cadherin in colon cancer cells requires integrin signalling Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Aug;4(8):632-8. ... Specifically, elevated Src activity blocks proper assembly of cell cell contacts after cells are switched from media containing ...
... ras in an Epithelial Compartment that Includes the Stem Cells Is Sufficient to Promote Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis ... Hormone-dependent Regulation of BRCA1 in Human Breast Cancer Cells. Jean M. Gudas, Hoang Nguyen, Tao Li and Kenneth H. Cowan ... Hormone-dependent Regulation of BRCA1 in Human Breast Cancer Cells Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Cancer Research Online ISSN: 1538-7445. Cancer Research Print ISSN: 0008-5472. Journal of Cancer Research ISSN: 0099-7013. ...
Cell growth. Four milliliters of LVCaP and LNCaP cells were plated at 3.5 × 104 cells/dish in 60 × 15 mm tissue culture dishes ... Regulation of expression of the multidrug resistance protein MRP1 by p53 in human prostate cancer cells. Gregory F. Sullivan,1, ... In the A875/E6 melanoma cell line, p53 is degraded by HPV16E6. In the colon cancer cell line, p53 is inactivated ... Effect of temperature on cell-cycle distribution in LVCaP cells. Two-color cell cycle analysis was performed by measuring ...
... to allow the movement of cells through tissues. The BM breach occurs via highly regulated and localized remodeling of the ... Here, we highlight recent findings regarding the regulation of protein targeting during invadopodia formation and function. ... Here, we highlight recent findings regarding the regulation of protein targeting during invadopodia formation and function. ... is the main cause of mortality in cancer patients. Metastasis is a very complex cellular process that involves many steps, ...
Recent reports showed that SIRT2 was upregulated in several cancers. ... Cancer stem cells (CSCs) contribute to tumorgenesis, invasion and metastasis, and are typically resistant to chemotherapy. ... Role of SIRT2 in Regulation of Stemness of Cancer Stem-Like Cells in Renal Cell Carcinoma October 1, 2018 Cancer stem cells ( ... Recent reports showed that SIRT2 was upregulated in several cancers. However, whether SIRT2 may be a CSC marker in renal cell ...
... at the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg have gained important insights for stem cell research ... This regulation mechanism can also be found in human cancer cells. These discoveries could lead to the development of a new ... Cancer cells evade immunotherapy by hiding telltale marker, suggesting how to stop relapse ... Embryonic stem cells with mutated β-catenin generate more telomerase and have extended telomeres, while cells without β-catenin ...
Altered early endocytic trafficking in cancer cells. Many properties of metastatic cancer cells (e.g., proliferation, ... the pathological state of the evolved cancer cell, in comparison to nontransformed cells, can also be a gold mine to cell ... Reciprocal regulation of signaling and endocytosis: Implications for the evolving cancer cell. View ORCID ProfileSandra L. ... Adaptive CME in cancer cells. Activation and/or up-regulation of Dyn1 enhances the rate of CCP initiation and maturation and ...
CD8+ T cells infiltrated within cancer cell nests as a prognostic factor in human colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1998; 58: 3491 ... Up-regulation of CD40 with juxtacrine activity in human nonsmall lung cancer cells correlates with poor prognosis. Cancer, 113 ... Up-regulation of CD40 with juxtacrine activity in human nonsmall lung cancer cells correlates with poor prognosis. ... CD4+ and CD8+ T cells cooperate to improve prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2003; 63 ...
Stromal cell -dependent interactions represent an attractive target for cancer therapy, because normal cells are genetically ... including inflammatory cells, stem and pro genitor cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and vascular mural cells. Tumor cell ... In addition, tumor cells induce stromal cells to secrete factors that contribute to tumor cell growth and invasion. ... Genome-wide analysis of signaling pathways in regulation of the interactions between tumor and host cells: applications for ...
... *Authors: *D Fan ... Cell density-dependent regulation of mdr-1 gene expression in murine colon cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology, 9, ... Cell density-dependent regulation of mdr-1 gene expression in murine colon cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology 9.5 ... Cell density-dependent regulation of mdr-1 gene expression in murine colon cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology 9, ...
... and MED26 and also other unknown cell specific factors. Our study demonstrates that the regulation of high levels of MYC ... "Regulation of MYC Expression and Differential JQ1 Sensitivity in Cancer Cells." PLoS ONE 9 (1): e87003. doi:10.1371/journal. ... cancer cells is driven by unique regulatory mechanisms and that such exclusive regulatory signatures in each cancer cells could ... Here we show that JQ1 does not inhibit MYC expression to a similar extent in all tumor cells. The BL cells showed a ∼90% ...
  • The findings add to our understanding of how stem cells give rise to tumors and identify specific stem cell molecules that may be targeted to prevent the onset, progression, and recurrence of intestinal cancers. (
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are responsible for cancer initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance," said Jorge Moscat, Ph.D., program director of the Cell Death and Survival Networks Program at Sanford-Burnham. (
  • Since this regulatory system plays a critical role in complex tissue, aberrations or malfunctions often accompany the onset and progression of cancer. (
  • Thus, clarifying the miRNA regulation of the metastatic breast CSCs will further advance our understanding of the roles of human breast CSCs in tumor progression. (
  • Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be discussed. (
  • Next, we will review and critically discuss how dys-regulation of cell volume or given ion transporters can lead to loss of epithelial architecture, altered cell survival, tumor progression, and drug resistance. (
  • Jackstadt R, Hermeking H. AP4 is required for mitogen- and c-myc-induced cell cycle progression. (
  • It is important to understand the ovarian cancer tumor microenvironment (TME) from the viewpoint of the function of pre-existing immune cells, as immunocompetent cells are crucial to mounting robust antitumor responses to prevent visible tumor lesions, disease progression, or recurrence. (
  • These data suggest that the cell cycle-dependent binding of GABP to the Skp2 promoter plays an important role in the regulation of Skp2 expression and cell cycle progression from G 1 to S phase. (
  • These observations suggest that SCF Skp2 is the principal ubiquitin ligase responsible for determination of the abundance of cell cycle regulatory proteins during progression of cells from G 1 to S phase. (
  • Altered transcription could account for the genotypic alterations associated with prostate cancer progression, and it was recently reported that the promoter of MRP 1 is activated in the presence of mutant p53. (
  • Multiple studies suggest that the progression of tumors is dependent on the intrinsic properties of cancer cells, such as their ability to migrate and invade. (
  • However, high levels of MMPs or aberrant MMP expression have often been correlated with pathological conditions like periodontitis, arthritis ( Woessner, 1991 ) and have been implicated in multiple stages of cancer progression including invasion and metastasis ( Egeblad and Werb, 2002 ). (
  • The cross talk between signaling and endocytosis has implications for cancer progression, as alterations in survival, proliferative, and migratory signals are essential for metastasis. (
  • The correlation analysis between PTN expression and clinical characteristics revealed that PTN expression was positively related to cancer progression. (
  • We found that CUL4A was highly expressed in human lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell lines, and this elevated expression positively correlated with disease progression and prognosis. (
  • Furthermore, the efficacy of bevacizumab beyond progression has not yet been demonstrated in ovarian cancer. (
  • A wide range of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, as well as the extracellular matrix can affect the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer ( 4 ). (
  • Recently, it has been suggested that the interaction between cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment serves a pivotal role during tumor progression ( 5 ). (
  • The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of IL-22 in gastric cancer cell progression and explore its underlying molecular mechanism. (
  • Despite the benefits of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment, many patients with receiving tamoxifen therapy eventually relapse and die from their disease progression. (
  • These studies suggest the importance of ZBP1 regulation in cancer progression. (
  • 2006) ERK MAP kinase in G1 cell cycle progression and cancer. (
  • All inducers of cell proliferation employ transcriptional as well as non-transcriptional mechanisms to activate the cascade of cyclindependent kinases, which causes irreversible progression to the G1/S phase transition. (
  • As the subject matter pertaining to MKP-1 encompasses many branches of the biomedical field, we focus on the role of this protein in cancer development and progression, highlighting the potential role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. (
  • Tight junction dysfunction has been presumed as a mechanism for the loss of cell adhesion, and an important step for the progression of cancer to metastasis. (
  • 14 ] found that decreased expression of CLDN6 may increase breast tumor formation suggesting that CLDN6 may act as a cancer suppressor, and its downregulation may contribute to the malignant progression of certain types of breast cancers. (
  • Here, it is demonstrated that ETV4 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues as compared with the normal pancreas, and is associated with enhanced growth and rapid cell-cycle progression of pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Mechanistic studies revealed that ETV4 directly regulates the expression of Cyclin D1 CCND1 , a protein crucial for cell-cycle progression from G 1 - to S-phase. (
  • Altogether, these data provide the first experimental evidence for a functional role of ETV4 in pancreatic cancer growth and cell-cycle progression. (
  • The functional and mechanistic data presented here regarding ETV4 in pancreatic cancer growth and cell-cycle progression suggest that ETV4 could serve as a potential biomarker and novel target for pancreatic cancer therapy. (
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that the EMT play a pivotal role in the initiation and development of metastasis during tumor invasion and progression of bladder cancer in vivo and in vitro [ 11 ]. (
  • Alteration of integrin expression in cancer cells correlates with tumor growth, progression, invasiveness, and metastatic potential. (
  • Using a system in which c-Myc induction drives cell cycle progression independently of estradiol, we demonstrated that Grb14 regulation was specific to estradiol treatment. (
  • Finally, we demonstrated a novel functional role for Grb14 whereby its overexpression inhibited not only insulin- but also estrogen-induced cell cycle progression. (
  • Activated PARP-1 contributes to the displacement of histone H1 and is essential for regulation of the majority of hormoneresponsive genes and for the effect of progestins on cell cycle progression. (
  • In addition to CRLs, a complex called SCF is also part of the cell cycle progression in mammals. (
  • Conditional Akt activation promotes androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. (
  • X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) overexpression has been found to be associated with malignant cancer progression and aggression in individuals with many types of cancers. (
  • The prototypical ETS transcription factor, ETS1 is overexpressed in ~70% of prostate cancers, and this is correlated with higher grade tumours, more rapid progression to castrate-resistant disease and poor patient prognosis. (
  • These results provide new insights into how MMPs act in cancer progression and how loss of cell-cell interactions is a key step in the earliest stages of cancer development. (
  • Our findings support the notion that high leptin and low adiponectin levels may be important in driving obesity-related prostate cancer progression. (
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in virtually all biological processes, including stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and development. (
  • We further show that IL-1β was critically required for the differentiation and expansion of human Th17 cells, whereas IL-6 and IL-23 may also play a role in the expansion of memory Th17 cells, even though IL-23 levels are low or undetectable in ovarian cancer. (
  • Moreover, several recent studies demonstrate that TGF-β and IL-6, but not IL-23, are critical factors for murine Th17 cell differentiation in vitro ( 18 - 20 ). (
  • The combination of TGF-β and IL-6 promotes the differentiation of Th17 cells and inhibits Treg cell differentiation in mice ( 18 - 20 ), whereas TGF-β plus retinoic acid inhibits Th17 cell differentiation and promotes Treg cells ( 21 ). (
  • Despite recent advances in our understanding of the differentiation and function of Th17 cells in humans ( 23 - 26 ), very little is known about their prevalence and regulation in human cancer. (
  • Cytokine profile analysis revealed that tumor cells, tumor-derived fibroblasts, and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) secrete several key cytokines, including IL-1β and IL-6, that may promote or regulate the differentiation and expansion of Th17 cells in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • We found that IL-1β was a potent inducer of Th17 cell differentiation and expansion, whereas IL-6 and IL-23 were capable of expanding memory Th17 cells. (
  • Our data show that local differentiation factors such as RANKL have an important role in cell migration and the tissue-specific metastatic behaviour of cancer cells. (
  • The central theme of Dr. Stein's research has been to discover mechanisms controlling proliferation and differentiation with emphasis on compromised regulation that is linked with disease. (
  • Telomeres in stem cells are long and become shorter during differentiation or with age, but lengthen again in tumour cells. (
  • Retinoids, comprising of natural and synthetic analogs, are a class of chemical compounds that regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. (
  • Notch signaling plays a critical role in maintaining the balance among cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and thereby may contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer. (
  • These observations suggest that dysfunction of intracellular Notch prevents differentiation, ultimately guiding undifferentiated cells toward malignant transformation ( 11 ). (
  • JNK1 has been revealed to be involved in apoptosis, neurodegeneration, cell differentiation and proliferation, as well as inflammatory conditions ( 13-16 ). (
  • It can also regulate several important cellular functions, including cell growth, differentiation, survival and apoptosis ( 17 , 18 ). (
  • Cancer stem cells are a subgroup of cancer cells that possess stem cell-like properties, including self-renewal and differentiation, but have subverted the control apparatus. (
  • Besides, we have found that p21WAF1, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, can orient the cell to either proliferation or differentiation suggesting that at an early stage of BC development it may be possible to reverse the cellular changes associated with malignant transformation. (
  • Tight junctions are located at the extreme apical region of junction-associated complexes in epithelial and endothelial cells, where they play important roles maintaining cell polarity, cell adherence and regulating cell proliferation and differentiation [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Using cultured human breast cancer and mouse mammary epithelial cells, we find that reduced cell density, conditions under which cell contact is reduced, leads to reduced expression of genes associated with mammary epithelial cell differentiation and increased expression of genes associated with breast cancer. (
  • In general, the dynamics of stem cell regeneration can be simplified as a $\mathrm{G_0}$ phase cell cycle model, which lead to a delay differentiation equation. (
  • The proposed model highlights cell heterogeneity and plasticity, and connects the heterogeneity with cell-to-cell variance in cellular behaviors, e.g. proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation/senescence, and can be extended to include gene mutation-induced tumor development. (
  • Pancreatic cancer remains the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States. (
  • To characterize Notch pathway function in pancreatic cancer cells, we explored the consequences of down-regulation of Notch-1 in BxPC-3, HPAC, and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Using multiple cellular and molecular approaches such as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, apoptosis assay, flow cytometry, gene transfection, real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay for measuring DNA binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), we found that down-regulation of Notch-1 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • In addition, Notch-1 down-regulation also induced apoptosis, which could be due to decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-X L protein expression in pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • These findings suggest that Notch-1 down-regulation, especially by genistein, could be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. (
  • Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis among all major cancers and remains the fourth most common cause of cancer related death in the United States and throughout the world ( 1 ). (
  • This could be due to the fact that no effective methods of early diagnosis are currently available as well as the lack of effective therapies, resulting in high mortality of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. (
  • It has been reported that the Notch signaling network is frequently deregulated in human malignancies with up-regulated expression of Notch receptors and their ligands in cervical, lung, colon, head and neck, renal carcinoma, acute myeloid, Hodgkin and large-cell lymphomas, and pancreatic cancer ( 12 - 14 ). (
  • Therefore, our aim in the present study was to find whether genistein regulates specific miR-27a in pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Results: We observed that genistein significantly inhibited the expression of miR-27a in pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Moreover, inhibition of miR-27a suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis as well as inhibited invasion in pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Furthermore, we found a synergy effect between miR-27a and genistein on cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, and invasion, suggesting that targeting miR-27a may represent a potential strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. (
  • Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that genistein plays a tumor suppressor role in part through inhibition of miR-27a in pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • ETV4 expression was silenced through stable expression of a specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in two pancreatic cancer cell lines (ASPC1 and Colo357), while it was ectopically expressed in BXPC3 cells. (
  • These effects on the growth and cell cycle were reversed by the forced expression of Cyclin D1 in ETV4-silenced pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Baicalein, a component of Scutellaria baicalensis, induces apoptosis by Mcl-1 down-regulation in human pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Inhibition of interleukin 8/C‑X-C chemokine receptor 1,/2 signaling reduces malignant features in human pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • La Jolla, Calif., February 5, 2015 - Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) have discovered a precise stem cell signaling process that can lead to intestinal tumors if disrupted. (
  • Therefore, if stem cell activity is increased, as in the case of intestines deficient in PKC-zeta, then the likelihood of developing tumors is much higher, and when the tumor is initiated it becomes more aggressive. (
  • Our results offer new possibilities for the prevention and treatment of intestinal cancers by blocking the pathways that lead to tumors," said Moscat. (
  • Compared to SIRT2- cells, SIRT2+ cells formed more tumor spheres, appeared to be more resistant towards fluorouracil-induced apoptosis, and generated bigger tumors with higher frequency after serial adoptive transplantation. (
  • Secondary liver cancer comprises metastases from distant tumors, commonly from the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • There is increasing evidence that many human tumors display a hierarchical organization in which a subset of tumor cells with stem cell properties drives tumor growth and metastasis ( 1, 2 ). (
  • Stem cell regulatory pathways that are frequently dysregulated in tumors include the Notch, Hedgehog, Wnt, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) NF-κB, and Jak/Stat3 pathways ( 6-10 ). (
  • In addition, we found that LAG3-expressing CD4+CD25- T cells infiltrated the resected tumors and were present at higher frequencies of in metastases than in primary tumors. (
  • As the 7th most common cancer in men worldwide [ 1 ], bladder cancer originates from the urothelial epithelium of bladder mucosa with approximately 70% of bladder tumors classified as nonmuscle invasive tumors [ 2 ]. (
  • Proposed model for regulation of MSMP expression in cancer cells under hypoxic conditions and the proangiogenic role of MSMP in ovarian tumors. (
  • The volume and weight of tumors was measured and analyzing the ability of purified DU145 cells isolated from the tumors to migrate and proliferate. (
  • The volume and weight of tumors were significantly higher in mice transplanted with DU145 and stromal cells from PZ. (
  • The purified DU145 cells isolated from the tumors with DU145 and stromal cells in PZ had increased ability to migrate and proliferate, and had increased expression of C-Kit. (
  • Subsequent progressive genetic changes to the cells in these lesions over time can eventually allow cancerous tumors to form. (
  • Authors: Yao Y, Rao C, Zheng G, Wang S Abstract Luteolin (3,4,5,7‑tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid that has been found to exhibit anticancer properties in certain types of cancers. (
  • Authors: Luo H, Wang X, Ge H, Zheng N, Peng F, Fu Y, Tao L, Wang Q Abstract Although cisplatin is one of the most accepted therapies for ovarian cancer, recurrence and drug resistance remain problematic. (
  • Molecular regulation of 13 poor-outcome human cancer signatures. (
  • Cell Cycle and Growth Control, Second Edition offers both an introduction to important concepts and detailed discussion of regulatory mechanisms at the cellular, biochemical, genetic, and molecular levels. (
  • This book is therefore essential reading for all cancer biologists, cell and molecular biologists, and pharmacologists concerned with the treatment of this disease. (
  • To explore the molecular basis for the cell cycle-dependent oscillation of Skp2 mRNA, we have now characterized the promoter region of Skp2 . (
  • This study may reveal molecular pathways that contribute to tumoregenesis in the absence of Smchd1 and provide insight into epigenetic cancer therapies. (
  • Maru GB, Hudlikar RR, Kumar G, Gandhi K, Mahimkar MB (2016) Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by dietary phytochemicals: from experimental models to clinical trials. (
  • The work has significant exploitation potential, and applications for health in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tumor-host interactions, and in the treat ment of cancer. (
  • At the molecular level, liver cancer is characterized by a disruption of cell cycle regulation through many molecular mechanisms. (
  • Whereas different types of primary liver cancer display dissimilar phenotypes and diverse molecular mechanisms, their development processes implicate a combination of several hallmarks of cancer [ 20 ]. (
  • Professor Prior, NWCR Chair of Molecular Oncology at the University of Liverpool explains: 'Our research focused on getting under the microscope of cancer cell behaviour and understanding the effects that different proteins can have on this behaviour. (
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of IL‑22 on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells (AGS cells) in vitro and explore the associated molecular mechanism. (
  • The interests of the program span from mechanisms of gene expression and epigenetic regulation to the molecular basis of cellular decisions involved in tissue homeostasis and cancer. (
  • Although molecular biological approaches have largely dominated cancer research in recent years, a resurgence of interest in the Warburg phenomenon has once again highlighted the importance of adaptations of intermediary metabolism to overall cancer cell biology ( Ward and Thompson, 2012 ). (
  • In this study, we identified a detailed molecular mechanism of ZBP1 transactivation in breast cancer cells. (
  • In the case of the estrogen-dependent cells, complex interplay between the estrogen receptor (a conditional transcription factor), co-repressors and co-activators offers additional molecular targets for therapy. (
  • Following MALDI-TOF MS analysis of affinity-purified CA215 from shed medium of cultured cancer cells, the molecular identity of CA215 was initially revealed as heavy chains of cancerous immunoglobulins [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • The expression and functions of CLDNs may be highly tissue- and cell-specific, as CLDNs may be useful molecular markers for many different cancers because of their highly specific expression patterns [ 7 , 9 ]. (
  • Thank you for sharing this Molecular Cancer Research article. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Molecular Cancer Research. (
  • The impact of α v β 3 integrin on the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer cells and the molecular mechanism controlling cell survival in response to ionizing radiation (IR) was investigated. (
  • However, the molecular basis of XIAP in the regulation of cancer cell biological behavior remains largely unknown. (
  • Molecular Pharmacology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York, New York. (
  • MYC regulation of a "poor-prognosis" metastatic cancer cell state. (
  • However, as the inhibition of chemokine receptors in vivo only partially blocks metastatic behaviour, other factors must exist that regulate the preferential metastasis of breast cancer cells. (
  • We have shown that, in vivo , SCLC cells are surrounded by an extensive stroma of extracellular matrix (ECM) at both primary and metastatic sites which contains, among other proteins, fibronectin, laminin and collagen IV. (
  • 1991) Combination hormonal therapy with tamoxifen plus fluoxymesterone versus tamoxifen alone in postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. (
  • Two-thirds of patients who present with metastatic prostate cancer (PC) are dead within 5 years of diagnosis. (
  • 1995) Mutation of the androgen-receptor gene in metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. (
  • Rat metastatic MTLn3 cells do not localize β-actin mRNA and lack an intrinsic polarity owing to the repression of ZBP1 expression. (
  • Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, stages IIIB/IV) is one of the most common and rapidly lethal causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. (
  • In addition, functional inactivation of MYC in human breast cancer cells specifically inhibits distant metastasis in vivo and invasive behavior in vitro of these cells. (
  • Jian H, Zhao Y, Liu B, Lu S. Sema4b inhibits growth of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. (
  • In vitro, 2 RCC cell lines were co-transduced with a lentivirus expressing both a green fluorescent protein and a luciferase reporter under a cytomegalovirus promoter, and another lentivirus expressing a nuclear red fluorescent protein reporter under the control of a SIRT2 promoter for differentiating SIRT2+ vs SIRT2- RCC cells by flow cytometry. (
  • The confluence-mediated downmodulation of mdr-1 increased the chemosensitivity of the cells to several anticancer drugs commonly associated with an in vitro MDR phenotype by increasing the intracellular accumulation of the drugs. (
  • Our in vitro assays showed that BHLHE40/41 suppressed tumor cell invasion. (
  • It was demonstrated that luteolin had no effects on CRC cells proliferation while inhibited cells migration and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Growth capacity of lung cancer cells was measured by MTT in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo, respectively. (
  • Outcomes in vivo and in vitro suggested that cell proliferation and tumorigenicity were inhibited while cell apoptosis and autophagy were induced in NSCLC cells treated with up-regulation of miR-384 or silence of COL10A1. (
  • 2002) Testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone inhibit in vitro growth of human breast cancer cell lines. (
  • Eugenol exhibits anti-breast cancer properties both in vitro and in vivo , indicating that it could be used to consolidate the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer through targeting the E2F1/survivin pathway, especially for the less responsive triple-negative subtype of the disease. (
  • In vitro experiments of breast cancer cell lines in three dimensional matrices, which afford control over variables of interest while maintaining physiological relevance, were utilized for this purpose. (
  • Chapter 1 introduces background material on breast cancer development, classification systems, and in vitro methods of research. (
  • There is tremendous potential in this area of drug development as many natural molecules in this class (e.g., caffeic acid) exhibit potent and favorable direct effects on cancer cell signaling in vitro. (
  • Cell proliferation assays to evaluate the effects of the synthetic compounds on the UM-UC14 (malignant bladder), and PC3 (malignant prostate) cancer cells will be employed, along with transepithelial cell monolayer model assays to assess the bioavailability of the synthetic compounds in vitro. (
  • XIAP overexpression promotes bladder cancer invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo via enhancing nucleolin-mediated Rho-GDIβ mRNA stability. (
  • As HS has an important co-receptor function for numerous signal transduction pathways, the phenotypical changes due to HS3ST2 reexpression were investigated in vitro using high and low invasive breast cancer cell lines. (
  • This study provides the first in vitro evidence of the involvement of HS3ST2 in breast cancer cell invasion and chemosensitivity. (
  • It is estimated that in the United States in 2018 there will be 22,240 new cases of ovarian cancer and 14,070 deaths due to this malignancy. (
  • Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignant disease and the second expected cause of cancer-related death among men in the United States in 2018 ( 1 ). (
  • Specifically, AP4 regulates mTor/p21 and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) receptor signaling pathway to increase an epithelial-mesenchymal transition process to augment cell invasiveness. (
  • The Wnt/ β -catenin signalling pathway controls numerous processes in embryonic development, such as the formation of the body axis and of organ primordia, and is particularly active in embryonic and adult stem cells. (
  • Because Notch-1 is known to cross-talk with another major cell growth and apoptotic regulatory pathway (i.e. (
  • We also found that genistein, a prominent isoflavone, could be an active agent for the down-regulation of the Notch pathway. (
  • Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that IL‑22 regulated the viability of gastric cancer cells through the JNK signaling pathway, suggesting a therapeutic approach for gastric cancer via targeting IL‑22. (
  • In addition, pathway dysregulation may result from altered interactions between these cells and the tumor microenvironment ( 11 ). (
  • 1999) From HER2/Neu signal cascade to androgen receptor and its coactivators: a novel pathway by induction of androgen target genes through MAP kinase in prostate cancer cells. (
  • Breast cancer cell lines were treated with eugenol and cytotoxicity was measured using the WST-1 reagent, while propidium iodide/annexinV associated with flow cytometry was utilized in order to determine the induced cell death pathway. (
  • This killing effect was mediated mainly through inducing the internal apoptotic pathway and strong down-regulation of E2F1 and its downstream antiapoptosis target survivin, independently of the status of p53 and ERα. (
  • These findings suggest that Erα reulates CLDN6 expression in breast cancer tissues and that 17β-estradiol induces CLDN6 expression through an ERα pathway in MCF-7 cells. (
  • The highly resistance nature of PDACs to all therapies suggests that the intrinsic tumor cell factors, likely the deregulated apoptosis pathway, are key mechanisms underlying PDAC non-response to these therapies, rather than the therapeutic agents themselves. (
  • Thus, progestin gene regulation involves a novel signaling pathway that connects CDK2-dependent activation of PARP-1 with histone H1 displacement. (
  • Given the multiplicity of PARP targets, this new pathway could be used for the pharmacological management of breast cancer. (
  • Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin or apoptotic pathway induces autophagy and radiosensitizes PTEN null prostate cancer cells. (
  • HS3ST2 expression increased HS-dependent basal and FGF2-specific signaling through the constitutively active p44/42 MAPK pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells. (
  • Oxidativue stress was shown to promote the translocation of Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to cytoplasm and trigger the LKB1-AMPK-tuberin pathway leading to a down-regulation of mTOR and subsequently inducing the programmed cell death II (autophagy). (
  • In SCC cells (with an altered ability to support the ATM-dependent ΔNp63α phosphorylation), the non-phosphorylated ΔNp63α protein failed to form protein complexes with the Rpn13 protein and thereby allowing the latter to bind and target LKB1 into a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway thereby modulating a cisplatin-induced autophagy. (
  • Finally, cisplatin was shown to induce the phospho (p)-ΔNp63α-dependent regulation of the regulatory particle non-ATPase subunit (Rpn)-13 gene transcription thereby contributing to cell death pathway of tumor cells [ 13 ]. (
  • Overexpression of CUL4A in human lung cancer cell lines increased cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and subsequently conferred resistance to chemotherapy. (
  • The α 1,2-fucosyltransferase I (FUT1) enzyme is important for the biosynthesis of H antigens, Lewis B, and Lewis Y. In this study, we clarified the transcriptional regulation of FUT1 in the DLD-1 colon cancer cell line, which has high expression of Lewis B and Lewis Y antigens, expresses the FUT1 gene, and shows α 1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT) activity. (
  • Furthermore, transfection of the dominant negative Elk-1 gene, and the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIp) assay, supported Elk-1-dependent transcriptional regulation of FUT1 gene expression in DLD-1 cells. (
  • Both transcriptional and post-translational regulation are thought to underlie these changes. (
  • The intracellular Notch associates with transcriptional factors, which regulate the expression of target genes, and thus plays important roles in development and cell growth ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • To date, little information is available regarding the underlying mechanism that leads to transcriptional regulation of the ZBP1 gene in cancer cells. (
  • ZBP1 belongs to a highly conserved family of RNA-binding proteins that has been implicated in many aspects of post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs ( Yisraeli, 2005 ). (
  • Gene reporter experiments demonstrated that in MCF-7 cells maximal induction of Bim promoter was dependent on a FoxO binding site, suggesting that FoxO3a is responsible for the transcriptional up-regulation of Bim. (
  • ETS1 overexpression in prostate tumours is not associated with chromosomal rearrangements and mechanisms underlying its elevated expression, including sequence alterations, abnormal turnover or altered transcriptional regulation are unknown. (
  • Findings of this study indicate complex mechanisms of regulation of ETS1 expression including transcriptional control and modification of mRNA and protein turnover which may each contribute to the upregulation of ETS1 levels in human prostate tumours. (
  • We show here that EMT-related processes are linked to a broad and conserved program of transcriptional alterations that are influenced by cell contact and adhesion. (
  • NSCLC includes various types such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma [ 2 ]. (
  • Cisplatin was previously found to induce the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of ΔNp63α in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. (
  • ΔNp63α is the longest and is the most predominant isotype expressed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. (
  • The Continuous Update Project (CUP) is an ongoing program that analyzes global research on how diet, nutrition and physical activity affect cancer risk and survival. (
  • HDM2 regulation by AURKA promotes cell survival in gastric cancer. (
  • Networks consisting of innate and adaptive immune cells, metabolic pathways, intracellular signaling molecules, and a vast array of soluble factors, shape the pathogenic nature of the TME and are useful prognostic indicators of responses to conventional therapy and immunotherapy, and subsequent survival rates. (
  • I speculate that sustained up-regulation and/or acute activation of dynamin-1 in cancer cells contributes to a program of "adaptive" CME that alters signaling to enhance cancer cell survival, migration, and proliferation. (
  • Therefore, rather than defective, I propose the more deliberate term "adaptive endocytosis," whereby evolving cancer cells specifically adopt mechanisms that quantitatively and/or qualitatively alter endocytic trafficking to enhance their survival, proliferative, and migratory properties. (
  • We hypothesized that a factor(s) within the local environment of SCLC cells could provide a survival signal or block a death signal, thereby accounting for the protection of SCLC cells from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. (
  • Survival of tumour cells attached to ECM within this microenvironment could explain the local recurrence of SCLC and other tumours that is often seen clinically after chemotherapy. (
  • Candidate signaling pathways against acquired resistance to tamoxifen are implicated including various signaling networks that control of cell proliferation or survival [ 5 - 7 ]. (
  • Therefore, by regulating mRNA turnover and translation of signaling and transcription factors, ZBP1 expression can affect cell survival and proliferation, contributing to embryonic development and tumor formation. (
  • 2001) Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase is associated with poor response to anti-hormonal therapy and decreased patient survival in clinical breast cancer. (
  • As some of these proteins are also involved in the cell survival mechanisms, they appear to be good targets for therapeutic intervention. (
  • Therefore, the anti-cancer therapy of RP215 Mab may be, in part related to the surface bound antigen receptors and/or toll-like receptors in the innate immunity system, all of which may be involved in the growth and survival of cancer cells. (
  • This study demonstrated that α v β 3 integrin increases survival of α v β 3 -LNCaP cells upon IR while small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of α v β 3 integrin in PC-3 cells sensitizes to radiation. (
  • Overexpression of wild-type survivin in PC-3 cells treated with α v β 3 integrin shRNA increases survival of cells upon IR. (
  • Therefore, the research on the influence of specific tumor signal response to radiation and cell survival is important for advancing the care of patients with prostate cancer ( 4, 5 ). (
  • At the same time, overexpression of the insulin receptor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with an increased risk of metastasis and decreased survival. (
  • Furthermore, survival analysis of lung cancer patients showed that increased HUWE1 expression is significantly associated with worse prognosis. (
  • Cisplatin-induced programmed cell death is associated with expression of specific "cell death" genes and down regulation of "survival" genes [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • ΔNp63α is phosphorylated by the Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent mechanism following cisplatin treatment, functioning as a pro-survival factor in SCC cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • A ) Western blot for MYC protein after stable, lentiviral-mediated knockdown with two different MYC hairpins (HP1 and HP2) compared with pLKO empty vector control after serial passage in MDA-MB-231 cells. (
  • We have shown that protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) normally inhibits stem cell activity through downregulation of two signaling pathways: beta-catenin and Yap," said Maria Diaz-Meco, Ph.D., senior co-author of the paper and professor in the Program. (
  • Activating protein-4 (AP4) has been recently shown to regulate the cancer metastases in some cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • BRCA1 mRNA and protein levels are regulated by the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone in human breast cancer cells. (
  • BRCA1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in estrogen-depleted MCF-7 and BT20T cells and increased again after stimulation with β-estradiol. (
  • However, no change in BRCA1 protein was detected in these cells. (
  • This change in MRP1 expression was also seen in isogenic cell lines in which p53 was inactivated by human papilloma virus (HPV)16E6 protein or by a dominant-negative mutant. (
  • Here, we highlight recent findings regarding the regulation of protein targeting during invadopodia formation and function. (
  • Cell surface signaling receptors, such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and cytokine receptors, are activated by binding to their ligands (e.g., growth hormones, peptide agonists, and cytokines). (
  • The modulation of mdr gene expression in sparse and confluent cells was not related to cell division, nutrient depletion, inhibition of protein synthesis, gap junction status, extracellular ATP, or the presence of various extracellular matrixes, but may be related to cell-density and cell-contact mediated changes in phosphatase activity. (
  • Adhesion to ECM proteins stimulated protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity in both untreated and etoposide-treated cells. (
  • Levels of chronic inflammation as assessed by serum C-reactive protein or β-amyloid are correlated with the risk of breast cancer recurrence after primary therapy ( 15 ). (
  • We show that β-catenin, a protein that functions in both cell adhesion and transcription, specifically binds to the ZBP1 promoter via a conserved β-catenin/TCF4 response element and activates its gene expression. (
  • A distinct role of ZBP1 is to establish cellular polarity in motile cells and developing neurons by facilitating asymmetric localization of β-actin mRNA and controlling its local protein synthesis ( 16 ). (
  • The effect of ZBP1 upon c- myc stability in vivo was elucidated in cord-blood-derived CD34 + stem cells and ovarian carcinoma-derived ES-2 cells, where downregulation of the protein resulted in decreased c- myc mRNA and protein levels ( 19 , 22 ). (
  • To examine the effects of ERK/MAPK hyperactivity on AR levels, MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with a plasmid encoding a constitutively active MEK1 protein to create MCF-7-ΔMEK1 cells. (
  • Treatment of MCF-7-ΔMEK1 with androgens caused a transient increase in AR protein levels, similar to that observed in untransfected MCF-7 cells treated with androgens. (
  • Roskoski R, Jr (2004) The ErbB/HER receptor protein-tyrosine kinases and cancer. (
  • 1997) Hyperexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase in human breast cancer. (
  • 2000) Inhibition of HER2/neu (erbB-2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases enhances tamoxifen action against HER2-overexpressing, tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. (
  • It was first identified approximately 20 years ago, and since that time extensive investigations into both mkp-1 mRNA and protein regulation and function in different cells, tissues, and organs have been conducted. (
  • In sections V and VI, mkp-1 mRNA and protein are examined in relation to cancer biology, therapeutics, and clinical studies, including a discussion of the potential role of the MAPK family. (
  • Moreover, eugenol up-regulated the versatile cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1 protein, and inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. (
  • In our previous studies we showed that upregulating claudin-6 (CLDN6) expression may contribute to preventing breast cancer, and that 17β-estradiol induces a concentration- and time-related effect on CLDN6 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 cells. (
  • ZBP1 directs the localization of β-actin mRNA to the leading edge in a variety of cell types, which results in the asymmetric translation of the β-actin protein and establishes cell polarity ( Condeelis and Singer, 2005 ). (
  • Journal Article] Determining c-Myb protein levels can isolate functional hematopoietic stem cell subtypes. (
  • Nodal can increase the transcription and protein stability of Snail in bladder cancer cells. (
  • Collectively, our data showed that Nodal can trigger the malignancy of bladder cancer cells via increasing the transcription and protein stability of Snail. (
  • Conditional suppression of functional p53 increased p110α transcripts, protein levels and PI3K activity in immortalized, non-tumorigenic ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells, the precursors of ovarian carcinoma. (
  • Conversely, overexpression of p53 by adenoviral infection and activation of p53 by γ-irradiation both diminished p110α protein levels in normal OSE and ovarian cancer cells. (
  • Interestingly, the frequency of PI3K-increases at the RNA and protein levels exceeds those at the DNA level, suggesting that copy-number-independent mechanisms also regulate PI3K levels in ovarian cancer. (
  • In addition, sub-cytotoxic MJ decreased the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression and binding on MMP-14 promoter, while restoration of Sp1 expression rescued the cancer cells from sub-cytotoxic MJ-mediated defects in MMP-14 expression, migration, invasion and angiogenesis. (
  • Verticillin A treatment decreased FLIP, Mcl-1, Bcl-x and increased Bak, Bax and Bim protein level in the tumor cells, resulting in activation of caspases, elevated cytochrome C release and increased apoptosis as determined by upregulated PARP cleavage in tumor cells. (
  • CONCLUSION: Regulation of apoptosis by L-Arg via downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and surviving, and upregulation of proapoptotic protein p53 may represent the mechanism behind antitumor effects of L-Arg. (
  • In this study, a positive correlation between Grb14 protein expression and ER alpha status in breast cancer cell lines led us to investigate regulation of Grb14 by estradiol and insulin, which synergize in the regulation of breast cancer cell proliferation. (
  • Protein Regulation of DNA Replication in Cancer Cells - A New Early Target for Broad Therapeutics? (
  • CRL4 acts to degrade CDT1, a protein that promotes replication at the appropriate time in the cell cycle. (
  • Phosphatidic acid activation of protein kinase C-zeta overexpressed in COS cells: comparison with other protein kinase C isotypes and other acidic lipids. (
  • Chemokine receptors CXCR-1/2 activate mitogen-activated protein kinase via the epidermal growth factor receptor in ovarian cancer cells. (
  • In MCF-7 cells, which were paclitaxel-sensitive, the already high basal levels of FoxO3a and Bim protein increased dramatically after drug treatment, as did Bim mRNA, which correlated with apoptosis induction. (
  • Gene silencing experiments showed that small interference RNA (siRNA) specific for FoxO3a reduced the levels of FoxO3a and Bim protein as well as inhibited apoptosis in paclitaxel-treated MCF-7 cells. (
  • Furthermore, siRNA specific for Bim reduced the levels of Bim protein and inhibited apoptosis in paclitaxel-treated MCF-7 cells. (
  • This is the first demonstration that up-regulation of FoxO3a by paclitaxel can result in increased levels of Bim mRNA and protein, which can be a direct cause of apoptosis in breast cancer cells. (
  • X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) mediates cancer cell motility via Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI)-dependent regulation of the cytoskeleton. (
  • Consistent with these findings, ETS1 protein levels investigated by western blotting were found to be higher in DU145 and PC-3 compared to LNCaP cells. (
  • ETS1 protein turnover in the cell lines was estimated by western blotting following 0-24 hours of treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, from which the half-life of ETS1 protein in DU145 and PC-3 cells was estimated to be 4-6 hours. (
  • Initial studies using the methyl transferase inhibitor, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylate inhibitor, Trichostatin A did not indicate contributions of DNA hypermethylation or histone modification to the low ETS1 protein levels in LNCaP cells, however further investigation may identify ETS1 promoter methylation in human prostate or prostate tumours. (
  • MHC-I is an essential protein for CD8 + cytotoxic T-cell responses, effective vaccination, adoptive T-cell therapies, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and organ rejection, among many important physiologic processes and therapeutic manipulations. (
  • Previous reports from our research team emphasized the intriguing link between p63 regulatory roles in gene transcription and protein stability, and resistance of tumor cells to cisplatin chemotherapy [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • It can be recognized by a constant expression of the tumour receptor necrosis factor CD30, a membrane protein expressed by activated T and B cells, in the cancer cells. (
  • The correlation of human results with our in-vivo mouse studies strongly suggests that Yap and beta-catenin are potential targets of PKC-zeta function and potential targets for new anti-cancer therapies. (
  • The groups of specialized cells that make up the various human tissues depend on an intricate communication network to regulate gene expression that in turn mediates growth, cell-type specific function, division, and programmed cell death. (
  • The dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with many human diseases including cancer. (
  • We have identified a set of miRNAs differentially expressed between human breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-tumorigenic cancer cells. (
  • Shimono Y, Mukohyama J, Nakamura S-I, Minami H. MicroRNA Regulation of Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells. (
  • Analysis of cytokine production profiles revealed that ovarian tumor cells, tumor-derived fibroblasts, and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) secreted several key cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and TGF-β, which formed a cytokine milieu that regulated and expanded human IL-17-producing T-helper (Th17) cells. (
  • Thus, we have identified a set of key cytokines secreted by ovarian tumor cells and tumor-associated APCs that favor the generation and expansion of human Th17 cells. (
  • These findings should accelerate efforts to define the function of this important subset of CD4 + T cells in the human immune response to cancer. (
  • Elevated proportions of CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells have been identified in the total CD4 + T cell populations in several different human cancers ( 7 - 9 ). (
  • Here we show that the cytokine RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand) triggers migration of human epithelial cancer cells and melanoma cells that express the receptor RANK. (
  • Dr. Rice tested whether increasing the level of zinc in the culture fluid and adding prolactin will affect the growth and vitality of human prostate cancer cells, and possibly lead to death of the cancer cells. (
  • In recent years, p53 research has begun to move into the clinic in attempts to understand how p53 is frequently inactivated in and sometimes even promotes human cancer. (
  • They also discuss how p53 dysfunction contributes to cancer, exploring the various inherited and somatic mutations in the human TP53 gene, the impact of mutant p53 proteins on tumorigenesis, and the prognostic value and clinical outcomes of these mutations. (
  • Human telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that is usually absent or rare in normal somatic cells, but is highly expressed in cancer cells. (
  • The expression of several drug-resistance genes, including MRP and p53 , increases with advancing stage of human prostate cancer. (
  • To determine whether there is a relationship between p53 status and the expression of MRP1, a human, temperature-sensitive p53 mutant (tsp Val 138 ) was transfected into LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. (
  • These results provide the first mechanistic link between expression of MRP1 and mutation of p53 in human prostate cancer and support recent clinical associations. (
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg have gained important insights for stem cell research which are also applicable to human tumours and could lead to the development of new treatments. (
  • This regulation mechanism can also be found in human cancer cells. (
  • High level MYC expression is associated with almost all human cancers. (
  • In the present study, we demonstrated that BHLHE40/41 expression was controlled in a pathological stage-dependent manner in human endometrial cancer (HEC). (
  • The liver is located at a strategic position in the human body and regulates metabolic homeostasis by producing energy and molecules used by other cells in nearby or very distant tissues. (
  • Liver cancer is ranked in the top 10 human cancers worldwide and among the top five of cancers in terms of mortality [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (
  • CUL4A has been proposed as oncogene in several types of human cancer, but its clinical significance and functional role in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. (
  • Sustained effect of continuous treatment with bevacizumab following bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy in a human ovarian clear cell carcinoma xenograft model. (
  • Inhibition of ubiquitin ‑specific protease 14 promotes connexin 32 internalization and counteracts cisplatin cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer cells. (
  • Tumor tissues and adjacent tissues from 104 NSCLC patients were collected and human NSCLC A549 cell line was selected for subsequent experiments. (
  • SAHA-mediated autophagic cell death is a promising new strategy to treatment of tamoxifen-resistant human breast cancer. (
  • There is substantial evidence that many human cancers are driven by a subpopulation of cells that display stem cell properties. (
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is the most widely expressed steroid hormone receptor in human breast cancers and androgens including 5α-dihydrotestosterone are potent inhibitors of breast cancer cell proliferation. (
  • Lea OA, Kvinnsland S, Thorsen T (1989) Improved measurement of androgen receptors in human breast cancer. (
  • Birrell SN, Hall RE, Tilley WD (1998) Role of the androgen receptor in human breast cancer. (
  • In the current study, the effects of 1 and 10nM flutamide, in combination with 1 and 10nM DHT, on expression of ZEB-1 and PSA , were investigated in 22Rv1, an androgen-responsive human PC cell line. (
  • In this study, we found that SFN can inhibit the expression and activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, in 2 prostate cancer cell lines. (
  • We determined the role of estrogen receptors in the regulation of CLDN6 expression in human breast cancer tissues and a cell line. (
  • The human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, which expresses ERα but not ERβ was used. (
  • In our previous work, we found that CLDN6 expression was downregulated in human and rat mammary cancer cell lines [ 12 ]. (
  • Here, we show that in both T47D and MDA231 human breast carcinoma cells IMP1/ZBP1 functions to suppress cell invasion. (
  • Recent evidence indicates that methyl jasmonate (MJ), a plant stress hormone, exhibits anti-cancer activity on human cancer cells. (
  • Human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and MKN-45 were treated with diverse concentrations of MJ. (
  • In general, MJ has been found to be superior to cis -jasmone and jasmonic acid in terms of cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells [ 11 , 12 ], suggesting that MJ is a promising agent for the development of cancer therapeutics. (
  • Background: Pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the most dismal prognosis among all human cancers since it is highly resistant to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy. (
  • Results: Inhibition of histone methyltransferase (HMTase) by a selective HMTase inhibitor, verticillin A, significantly increased human PDAC cell sensitivity to gemcitabine-induced growth suppression. (
  • A 24 hr incubation of T-47D human breast cancer cells with R5020, a synthetic progestin, resulted in a 200-250% increase in the specific binding of human growth hormone (hGH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) by these cells. (
  • The present study assessed antiproliferating and proapoptotic effects of L-Arg in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. (
  • Following treatment with the epigenetic targeting agents histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), GLUT-3 and GLUT-4 expression were found to be induced in NSCLC cell lines, with minimal responses in transformed normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). (
  • Inactivation of HUWE1 in a human lung cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, colony-forming capacity, and tumorigenicity. (
  • Stromal cells isolated from the PZ and TZ of normal human prostates mixed with DU145 cells subcutaneously injected into athymic nude mice. (
  • Most human prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas, which originate from the epithelial cells that line the glands and ducts of prostate [ 2 ]. (
  • We have shown previously that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-8 receptor expression is elevated in tumor cells of human prostate biopsy tissue and correlates with increased cyclin D1 expression. (
  • Effects of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor CCI-779 used alone or with chemotherapy on human prostate cancer cells and xenografts. (
  • Regulators of cell-surface HLA amounts were discovered using a pooled human kinome shRNA interference-based approach. (
  • Cisplatin is the most applicable drug for treating various human cancers, however, its efficiency is limited due to development of drug resistance by tumor cells [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Mature T-cell lymphoma can be associated with exposure to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human T-cell leukaemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). (
  • Cancer is produced by the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that control central mechanisms of cell growth. (
  • In this review we will first outline the ion transport mechanisms operating in epithelia under physiological conditions of ion/fluid transport and cell volume regulation. (
  • Despite the important role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, their prevalence and the mechanisms by which they are generated and regulated in cancer remain unclear. (
  • Although epithelial cancers are one of the leading causes of death, the mechanisms regulating the development and metastasis of carcinomas are not fully understood. (
  • Recent findings, however, suggest that by taking advantage of the reciprocal cross talk between signaling and endocytosis, cancer cells elaborate mechanisms to enhance endocytosis and recycling, potentially in receptor-selective manners. (
  • Our study demonstrates that the regulation of high levels of MYC expression in different cancer cells is driven by unique regulatory mechanisms and that such exclusive regulatory signatures in each cancer cells could be employed for targeted therapeutics. (
  • In the present study, the role of luteolin and its underlying mechanisms were explored in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. (
  • In this review, we focus on the mechanisms underlying the lack of regulation of the cell cycle during liver cancer, focusing mainly on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • suggest that the size of larval salivary gland cells is regulated by multiple cell signalling mechanisms, including lipid based second messengers. (
  • Tissue homeostasis requires rigorous control mechanisms for stem cell division and maintenance of a stable stem cell niche. (
  • 2004) Mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance: increased estrogen receptor-HER2/neu cross-talk in ER/HER2-positive breast cancer. (
  • However, the mechanisms of 17β-estradiol regulation of CLDN6 are still unclear. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms of advanced metastasis in bladder cell is important for therapy and drug development. (
  • The model will be useful for understanding the mechanisms by which the prostatic stem cell niche controls the tumorigeneis of prostatic cancer stem cells. (
  • However, the underlying mechanisms for the differential cancer origination and malignancy remains unknown [ 3 ]. (
  • Paclitaxel is used to treat breast cancers, but the mechanisms by which it induces apoptosis are poorly understood. (
  • Although immunotherapies for cancer, infectious disease, and autoimmune disease continue to gain use as effective therapeutic strategies, the mechanisms underlying the control of presentation of foreign antigens or self-tumor antigens are only partially understood and currently not exploited clinically ( 6 ). (
  • Moreover, miR-144 overexpression inhibited AP4-mediated cell invasiveness, while miR-144 depletion increased AP4-mediated cell invasiveness in NSCLC cells. (
  • Although Src expression and activity are often elevated in colon cancer, the precise consequences of overexpression of the non-catalytic Src homology (SH) domains, or enhanced catalytic activity, are unknown. (
  • miR‑384 inhibition and PTN overexpression partially reversed the inhibition of HT‑29 cells migration and invasion induced by luteolin. (
  • Overexpression of Snail can attenuate the si-Nodal suppressed cell migration and invasion. (
  • Inactivation of the transcription factor and tumor suppressor p53, and overexpression or mutational activation of PIK3CA , which encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), are two of the most common deleterious genomic changes in cancer, including in ovarian carcinomas. (
  • To simplify the analysis, we first created two "metagenes" by separately averaging up-regulated and down-regulated genes from each multigene poor-outcome cancer signature (s1-s13). (
  • Similar to other cancers, colorectal carcinogenesis is often associated with over expression of genes related to cell growth and proliferation, especially Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). (
  • Of interest, genetic polymorphism in genes encoding these cytokines predisposes affected individuals to cancer ( 16 ). (
  • For both cell lines, RP215 and anti-antigen receptors were found to regulate similarly and consistently a number of genes including NFκB-1, IgG, P21, Cyclin D1, ribosomal P1 and c-fos with only exceptions for EGFR and ribosomal P0. (
  • Among toll-like receptor genes (TLR-2, -3, -4, -6, -7 and -9), differential levels of gene expressions in different cancer cell lines were observed. (
  • Based on these preliminary observations, it can be proposed that apoptosis of the two cancer cell lines was induced similarly by RP215 and anti-antigen receptors through consistent regulations of the same groups of genes. (
  • p53 regulates genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (
  • The expression patterns of stem cell-specific genes of these DU145 cells were examined. (
  • In prostate cancers, ETS factors are commonly abnormally expressed, with up to 70% of prostate tumours containing chromosomal rearrangements that disrupt genes encoding the ETS factors, ERG, ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5. (
  • We further find that treatment of cells with matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), an inducer of EMT, interrupts a defined subset of cell contact-regulated genes, including genes encoding a variety of RNA splicing proteins known to regulate the expression of Rac1b, an activated splice isoform of Rac1 known to be a key mediator of MMP-3-induced EMT in breast, lung, and pancreas. (
  • Failure of cancer cells to maintain expression of the former genes may be an important factor in cisplatin resistance [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • P53 homolog p63 is a novel transcription factor implicated in regulation of genes involved in DNA damage response and chemotherapeutic stress in tumor cells [ 3 - 6 ]. (
  • Recent studies suggest that dynamin-1, a presumed neuron-specific isoform of the large, membrane fission GTPase, can be activated in nonneuronal cells downstream of cancer-relevant signaling pathways and thereby function as a nexus between signaling and early endocytic trafficking. (
  • The uptake of macromolecules across the PM, a process called endocytosis, occurs via multiple pathways, all involving the inward budding of vesicles that carry cargo (e.g., receptors and their bound ligands, membrane transporters, and adhesion molecules) into the cell ( Conner and Schmid, 2003 ). (
  • Modulation of estrogen signaling pathways using antiestrogens (tamoxifen and fulvestrant) or aromatase inhibitors (letrozole and anastrozole) is indeed one of the first recommended HTs and is the first treatment choice for ERα-positive breast cancers [ 3 ]. (
  • A few agents targeting these pathways in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancers are in clinical trials [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • These interactions involve inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-8, which in turn activate Stat3/NF-κB pathways in both tumor and stromal cells. (
  • These cytokine loops and the pathways they regulate resemble those activated during chronic inflammation and wound healing, and may contribute to the known link between inflammation and cancer. (
  • In the current study, we focused on the ET-1-activated signal transduction pathways in cancer cells and found that ET-1, via activation of ETB receptors, induced expression of p53 and apoptotic cell death of A375 melanoma cells. (
  • In healthy cells, this process is carefully regulated and controlled through pathways and cellular checkpoints. (
  • Using PC3 and DU145 cell lines, we sought to determine whether IL-8 signaling regulated cyclin D1 expression in androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) cells and to characterize the signaling pathways underpinning this response and that of IL-8-promoted proliferation. (
  • In this review we will focus on ion transporters and channels with key physiological functions in epithelia and known roles in the development of cancer in these tissues. (
  • Metastasis is a very complex cellular process that involves many steps, including the breaching of the basement membrane (BM) to allow the movement of cells through tissues. (
  • Then, expression of pleiotrophin (PTN) and miR‑384 was detected in cells and CRC tissues by qPCR. (
  • Luteolin was found to upregulate miR‑384 and downregulate PTN expressions both in CRC cells and tissues. (
  • As one of the cytokines secreted by T helper 17 cells in the tumor microenvironment, interleukin (IL)-22 is a cytokine that structurally associated with IL-10 and produced predominantly by activated lymphocytes in chronically inflamed tissues ( 6 ). (
  • Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were utilized to detect the levels of miR-384, COL10A, Survivin, Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-xl, Beclin 1, and LC3 in tissues and cells. (
  • CLDN6, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) expression in breast cancer tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry. (
  • The results revealed that CLDN6 expression was related to ERα in breast cancer tissues ( p =0.033). (
  • We found that the expression of Nodal was upregulated in bladder cancer cells and tissues as compared to their corresponding controls. (
  • ETS transcription factors are widely expressed during development and in adult tissues and regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation, migration and invasion. (
  • Mature T-cell lymphoma, also called Peripheral T-Cell lymphoma, is a group of rare, aggressive lymphomas that develop from mature white blood cells and originate from lymphoid tissues outside of the bone marrow. (
  • Although radical cystectomy and systemic chemotherapy have been widely used as aggressive treatment options, the prognosis and therapeutic effects for bladder cancer patients with metastases remain largely unimproved [ 5 ]. (
  • This was motivated by previous research that has associated high breast tissue density with breast cancer risk and poor prognosis as well as tissue stiffness with cancer cell aggressiveness. (
  • Zhao D, Lu Y, Yang C, Zhou X, Xu Z. Activation of FGF receptor signaling promotes invasion of non-small-cell lung cancer. (
  • The ECM proteins that make up the specialized basement membrane (BM) serve as a barrier for cell invasion. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) contribute to tumorgenesis, invasion and metastasis, and are typically resistant to chemotherapy. (
  • In addition, tumor cells induce stromal cells to secrete factors that contribute to tumor cell growth and invasion. (
  • Our results suggest that BHLHE40/41 suppress tumor cell invasion by inhibiting EMT in tumor cells. (
  • First, the effects of luteolin on CRC cells proliferation, migration and invasion were examined by CCK‑8, wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. (
  • Chen W, Jiang T, Mao H, Gao R, Gao X, He Y, Zhang H, Chen Q. Nodal Promotes the Migration and Invasion of Bladder Cancer Cells via Regulation of Snail. (
  • Knockdown of Nodal can suppress the migration, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of bladder cancer cells. (
  • We evaluated the sensitivity of cell morphology to the dimensionality, biochemistry, and mechanical properties of the extracellular environment as well as the reciprocal effects cells display when remodeling the extracellular environment during invasion. (
  • In chapter 3, we explore the role of fibrillar collagen I environments in breast cancer cell invasion. (
  • Although morphology did not predict invasive capacity as measured by spheroid invasion in collagen I, invasion was found to correlate with cancer-related gene expression profiling, suggesting the ability of cancer cells to utilize more than one mode of invasion. (
  • The aim of this study is to determine whether sub-cytotoxic MJ can abolish the migration, invasion and angiogenesis gastric cancer cells. (
  • Sub-cytotoxic (0.05 to 0.2 mM) MJ attenuated the migration, invasion and angiogenesis, but not the cell viability or proliferation, of gastric cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14) and its downstream gene vascular endothelial growth factor. (
  • Restoration of MMP-14 expression rescued the SGC-7901 and MKN-45 cells from sub-cytotoxic MJ-inhibited migration, invasion and angiogenesis. (
  • Sub-cytotoxic MJ attenuates the MMP-14 expression via decreasing the Sp1 expression and binding on MMP-14 promoter, thus inhibiting the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells. (
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological program that is activated during cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (
  • Lv Q, Shen R, Wang J. RBPJ inhibition impairs the growth of lung cancer. (
  • Involvement of basic fibroblast growth factor in suramin-induced inhibition of v79/AP4 fibroblast cell proliferation. (
  • On other hand, silencing CUL4A expression in NSCLC cells reduced proliferation, promoted apoptosis and resulted in tumor growth inhibition in cancer xenograft model. (
  • Inhibition of survivin expression by siRNA or shRNA enhances IR-induced inhibition of anchorage-independent cell growth. (
  • Therefore, selective inhibition of H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 is potentially an effective approach to overcome PDAC cells resistance to gemcitabine. (
  • Their findings indicated that cells expressing intact RepID were not affected by the SKP2 inhibitor but cells with no RepID showed high sensitivity to SKP2 inhibition. (
  • Finally, altered K+ flux under low pHe & PO2 appeared to involve TASK-3 channels as shown by inhibition with methanandamide in SK-OV-3 and MCF-7 cells. (
  • Pharmacologic inhibition of MAPK signaling also led to improved peptide/MHC target recognition and killing by T cells and TCR-mimic antibodies. (
  • Leptin-induced inhibition of p53 expression in LNCaP cells was rescued by fAd. (
  • Leptin and adiponectin interact, resulting in the inhibition of prostate cancer cell proliferation, particularly in PC3 cells, via modulation of p53 and bcl-2 expression. (
  • Epigenetic alterations in the genome of tumor cells have attracted considerable attention since the discovery of widespread alterations in DNA methylation of colorectal cancers over 10 years ago. (
  • This research shows that epigenetic modifications of the distal region of hTERT can help modulate its expression, especially in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) cells in which the distal domain is usually fully methylated. (
  • Epigenetic plasticity of hTERT gene promoter determines retinoid capacity to repress telomerase in maturation-resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. (
  • This project investigates the role played by epigenetic regulator Smchd1 in B-cell lymphoma at a mechanistic level. (
  • Integrative high-throughput analysis suggests that CCSCs and non-CCSCs might globally adopt reprogrammed metabolic functions leading to differential epigenetic regulation. (
  • Sulforaphane modulates telomerase activity via epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer cell lines. (
  • These combined results strongly support a role for SFN in the mediation of epigenetic events leading to the repression of hTERT in prostate cancer cells. (
  • Methods: PDAC cells were analyzed for apoptosis sensitivity in the presence of a selective epigenetic inhibitor. (
  • The epigenetic regulation of apoptosis regulators was determined by Western Blotting and quantitative PCR. (
  • The specific epigenetic modification of apoptosis regulator promoter chromatin was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation in PDAC cells. (
  • When cell heterogeneity and plasticity are considered, we establish a differential-integral equation based on the random transition of epigenetic states of stem cells during cell division. (
  • Tumour recurrence following chemotherapy remains a major obstacle to the cure of many cancers. (
  • Thus adhesion to ECM through β1 integrins protects SCLC cells from chemotherapy-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis by activating PTK signalling downstream of DNA damage. (
  • ConclusionsThese data support further investigation of A1mcMMAF in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian and other cancer treatments. (
  • Our data also suggest that the choice made by Rpn13 between p-ΔNp63α or LKB1 to be targeted for degradation is critical for cell death decision made by cancer cells in response to chemotherapy. (
  • Chemotherapy, drugs, autologous stem cell treatment and extracorporeal photopheresis are treatment options. (
  • This network consists of extracellular signals interacting with the receptors of individual cells and determining the fate of each. (
  • Activated receptors then transmit messages across the PM by initiating signaling cascades in the cytosol that alter cell physiology and/or behavior. (
  • TCR stimulation also increased CD25 expression, but not Foxp3 expression, in LAG3-expressing CD4+CD25- cells Compared to LAG3-nonexpressing CD4+CD25- cells, LAG3-expressing CD4+CD25- cells presented significantly higher levels of PD1 and TIM3, two inhibitory receptors best described in exhausted CD8+ T effector cells. (
  • A majority of breast cancers (BC) display characteristics of epithelial cells and express estrogen receptors and/or HER-2 (a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family). (
  • RP215 is a monoclonal antibody generated against a carbohydrate-associated epitope of glycoproteins designated as CA215, which consists mainly of immunoglobulin superfamily proteins expressed by cancer cells including antigen receptors such as immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. (
  • Since RP215 was shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in nude mouse models, the effects of RP215 and antibodies against antigen receptors on the gene regulations of cultured OC-3-VGH ovarian and C-33A cervical cancer cells were investigated through semi-quantitative RT-PCR. (
  • RP215 and anti-antigen receptors were found to up-regulate TLR-2 and/or TLR-3, whereas those of TLR-4 and TLR-9 were down regulated for both cancer cells. (
  • The innate immunity of cancer cells can also be affected by any of these antibodies through unidirectional regulations of certain toll-like receptors. (
  • Subsequently, it was further documented that RP215 not only reacts with the epitope of immunoglobulin heavy chains, but also many other immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins including antigen receptors, such as immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors, as well as cell adhesion molecules [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • For example, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) can trigger the EMT of bladder cancer cells to increase the in vivo metastasis [ 12 ]. (
  • Integrin belongs to a family of at least 24 heterodimeric cell surface receptors that consist of noncovalently associated α and β subunits ( 6 ). (
  • It is concluded that expression of hGH and EGF receptors in this breast cancer cell line is regulated by progestins. (
  • Our new research provides a better understanding of the signaling cascades that regulate stem cells and is essential for the design of new and more-efficacious therapies for cancer. (
  • Shi L, Jackstadt R, Siemens H, Li H, Kirchner T, Hermeking H. P53-induced mir-15a/16-1 and AP4 form a double-negative feedback loop to regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in colorectal cancer. (
  • Recently, invadopodia have emerged as key cellular structures that regulate the metastasis of many cancers. (
  • Based on the findings of our study, it was established that miR-384 could down-regulate COL10A1 levels, subsequently inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cell apoptosis and autophagy in NSCLC cells. (
  • Bidirectional paracrine signals coordinately regulate tumorigenic cell populations, including CSCs ( 7 , 12-14 ). (
  • Tumorigenic cells in turn produce factors that attract and regulate a diverse variety of cell types that constitute the tumor microenvironment ( 12 , 14 ). (
  • Journal Article] Mortalin and DJ-1 coordinately regulate hematopoietic stem cell function through the control of oxidative stress. (
  • Journal Article] Jam1a-Jam2a interactions regulate haematopoietic stem cell fate through Notch signalling. (
  • Nodal can positively regulate the expression of Snail, one powerful EMT transcription factors, in bladder cancer cells. (
  • The demonstration that p53 binds directly to the PIK3CA promoter and inhibits its activity identifies a novel mechanism whereby these two mediators regulate cellular functions, and whereby inactivation of p53 and subsequent upregulation of PIK3CA might contribute to the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer. (
  • Their study explains how factors that regulate the growth of adult stem cells that repair tissue in the lungs can lead to the formation of precancerous lesions. (
  • Here, we provide an insightful mechanism by which Th17 cells are generated and regulated by cytokines secreted from tumor cells and their immune infiltrates. (
  • Regulation of the Mechanism of TWIST1 Transcription by BHLHE40 and BHLHE41 in Cancer Cells. (
  • The present study aims to investigate the mechanism of miR-384 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell apoptosis and autophagy by regulating Collagen α-1(X) chain (COL10A1). (
  • Our studies suggest a novel mechanism through which IMP1/ZBP1 simultaneously regulates the local expression of many cell-motility-related mRNAs to maintain cell adherence and polarity, decrease focal adhesion turnover and maintain a persistent and directional motility. (
  • These data represent the first demonstration of regulation of Grb14 expression levels in response to hormonal stimuli, and are consistent with its role as a repressor of insulin signaling where it is induced as a negative feedback mechanism. (
  • The mechanism through which HUWE1 sustained lung cancer cell malignancy was confirmed by western blotting. (
  • We find that the c-MYC oncoprotein coordinately regulates the expression of 13 different "poor-outcome" cancer signatures. (
  • These results suggest that a defined region in the 5′-flanking region of FUT1 is critical for FUT1 transcription and that constitutive gene expression of FUT1 is regulated by Elk-1 in DLD-1 cells. (
  • Since altered expression of ion transporters and channels is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, it is timely to consider this especially for epithelia. (
  • USA 88, 3470-3474], using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay, reported 15-fold increased expression of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) in colon cancer, compared with matched normal colon mucosa, and a 200-fold increase in MTase mRNA levels compared with mucosa of unaffected patients. (
  • The increase in BRCA1 expression upon stimulation with estrogen was not coordinated with the early induction of the estrogendependent pS 2 gene but closely paralleled the delayed increase in the S-phase dependent marker cyclin A. T47-D cells deprived of steroid hormones and subsequently stimulated with progesterone also showed a delayed increase in BRCA1 mRNA expression. (
  • When considered together, the data suggest that steroid hormones may affect BRCA1 expression indirectly by altering the proliferative status of the cells rather than acting directly on DNA sequences in the BRCA1 gene itself. (
  • These descriptors, which connote "defective" endocytosis, are supported by lists of cancer-associated mutations, translocations, or altered expression levels among components of the endocytic machinery. (
  • The expression level of mdr-1 mRNA transcripts (analyzed by Northern blot and in situ hybridization) and P-glycoprotein (analyzed by flow cytometry) inversely correlated with cell density. (
  • Here we show that JQ1 does not inhibit MYC expression to a similar extent in all tumor cells. (
  • Compared with control, small interfering RNA-transfected cells decreased expression of cyclin A, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. (
  • It has also been reported that Notch-1 expression inhibits apoptosis ( 15 - 17 ), suggesting a possible role of Notch as an oncogene in many cancers. (
  • It has been reported that the expression of IL-22 is elevated in several types of gastrointestinal cancer ( 9 , 10 ) and that increased IL-22 expression is associated with cancer development ( 8 ). (
  • Interestingly, expression of the autophagic cell death markers, LC3-II and beclin-1, was significantly increased in TAMR/MCF-7 cells treated with SAHA. (
  • These experiments suggest that in breast cancer cells, the expression of ZBP1 and the expression of β-catenin are coordinately regulated. (
  • 2001) Hyperactivation of MAPK induces loss of ERalpha expression in breast cancer cells. (
  • It remains, however, a hallmark gene for studying androgen regulation as its expression is reliably stimulated by androgens such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT). (
  • 2003) Characterisation of gene expression patterns in 22RV1 cells for determination of environmental androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds. (
  • Chromatin condensation may also play a role in SFN-mediated hTERT repression, since expression and recruitment of MeCP2, a known chromatin compactor, were altered in SFN treated prostate cancer cells. (
  • See commentary " Invited Commentary: Role of Estrogen Receptor-α in Regulating Claudin-6 Expression in Breast Cancer Cells " on page 76. (
  • The effect of PPT on regulating CLDN6 expression in MCF-7 cells was blocked by ICI. (
  • CLDNs expression has been reportedly altered in several cancers [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • A representative tumor is shown with ∼19.4 % of MHC class II + , CD11c + cells positive for extracellular GRM4 expression. (
  • Silencing of ETV4 in ASPC1 and Colo357 cells reduced the growth by 55.3% and 38.9%, respectively, while forced expression of ETV4 in BXPC3 cells increased the growth by 46.8% in comparison with respective control cells. (
  • The expression of ganglioside GD2 can reprogram the lipid metabolism and EMT phenotype in bladder cancer [ 13 ]. (
  • Expression of α v β 3 integrin in LNCaP cells also enhances anchorage-independent cell growth while knockdown of α v β 3 integrin in PC-3 cells inhibits anchorage-independent cell growth. (
  • Its expression correlates strongly with malignancy in many tumor types including prostate cancer. (
  • Expression of α v β 3 integrin has been shown in prostate adenocarcinoma, as well as in the invasive prostate cancer PC-3 cell line, whereas it is absent in normal prostate epithelial cells and the less aggressive LNCaP cell line ( 9 ). (
  • RESULTS: L-Arg significantly inhibited growth of SCG-7901 gastric cancer cells and downregulated expression of antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and survivin. (
  • In MCF-7 cells maintained in charcoal-stripped serum, Grb14 expression was downregulated by estradiol and increased by the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182780. (
  • The expression of HUWE1 and p53 in lung cancer cells was modulated and the phenotypes were assessed by performing soft agar colony forming assays, cell cycle analysis, BrdU incorporation assays, and xenograft tumor growth assays. (
  • HUWE1 expression in clinical lung cancer was identified by immunohistochemistry and validated by analyzing lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous carcinoma samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. (
  • Up-regulation of p53 inhibited cancer cell malignancy, mainly through the induction of p21 expression and the down-regulation of HIF1α. (
  • In cases of RepID loss of expression or function, turning off that CDT1 switch is up to the SCF complex later in the cell cycle. (
  • The researchers conclude that, "RepID expression levels might modulate the sensitivity of cancer cells to cullin-targeting drugs. (
  • in contrast, the stromal cells in the TZ inhibit it through down-regulating the expression of C-Kit. (
  • The Inhibitory Effects of Transforming Growth Factor {beta}1 on Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation Are Mediated through Regulation of Aberrant Nuclear Factor-{{kappa}}B/Rel Expression -- Sovak et al. (
  • Nonapical and cytoplasmic expression of interleukin-8, CXCR1, and CXCR2 correlates with cell proliferation and microvessel density in prostate cancer. (
  • low PO2 0.029 atm) culture conditions on K+ channel gene expression (by qPCR) and their contributions to cell proliferation in the SK-OV-3, MCF-7 and OE-19 cancer cell lines. (
  • mRNA expression for KCNH1 and KCNH2 was decreased in low pHe compared with normal pHe & PO2 for all three cell lines tested. (
  • C): Expression levels of Sox2 in Huh7 cells transfected with siPrx II. (
  • ETS1 mRNA levels in the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145 and PC-3 were determined using RT-qPCR, with ETS1 expression ~129 fold higher in DU145 cells and ~17 fold higher in PC-3 cells compared to LNCaP cells. (
  • Analysis of the 5'ETS1 gene promoter identified 11 putative androgen responsive elements and a large CpG island flanking the transcription start site suggesting that DNA methylation may contribute to the regulation of ETS1 expression. (
  • To investigate the effects of leptin, full-length adiponectin (fAd) and globular adiponectin (gAd), alone and in combination, on LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell proliferation, and on the expression of p53 and bcl-2 gene expression. (
  • fAd and gAd had no effect on bcl-2 expression in the presence of leptin in LNCaP cells. (
  • In PC3 cells, bcl-2 expression was inhibited to negligible levels in the presence of leptin. (
  • Disturbing the homeostasis of the stem cell pool can go two ways--it can either reduce intestinal epithelial cell regeneration or increase the proliferation of stem cells," said Diaz-Meco. (
  • In the normal intestine stem cell (ISC) niche, ISCs and Paneth cells form a stable pattern to control stem cell behavior. (
  • A novel optical approach integrating a highprecision femtosecond photo-ablation laser and in vivo imaging system revealed robust pattern recovery after local perturbation in intestine stem cell niche. (
  • Stem cell maintenance in a haltered cell-cycle state (i.e., quiescence) has been proposed as a fundamental property of HSCs. (
  • Since the discovery of a stem cell phenotype in cancer, specific tumour cells with this phenotype, often called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are now widely accepted as the progenitors of oncogenesis, proliferation, treatment resistance and metastasis. (
  • The study was published online June 19 in the journal Stem Cell. (
  • Gomperts, a member of the UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research and the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, collaborated with Manash Paul and Bharti Bisht, postdoctoral scholars and co-lead authors of the study. (
  • Association of Prx II with cancer stem cell in HCC cells. (
  • Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth, during which abnormal regulations in stem cell regeneration are essential for the dynamics of cancer development. (
  • We show that, in KM12C colon cancer cells, elevated Src activity causes the components of adherens junctions, including vinculin, to be redistributed to Src-induced integrin adhesion complexes. (
  • However, the BM which is rich in laminin and collagen IV, also provides the substrate for adhesion of the migrating tumor cells. (
  • These capabilities are mediated by multiple events, including loss of cell-cell contact, an increase in focal adhesion turnover and failure to maintain a normal cell polarity. (
  • IMP1/ZBP1 selectively binds to a group of mRNAs that encode important mediators for cell adhesion and motility. (
  • In the early stages of metastasis, cancer cells disseminate from the primary tumor and obtain invasive capabilities that are mediated by multiple events, including changes in cell-cell contact, loss of cell internal polarity, an increase in focal adhesion turnover and acquisition of autonomous motility. (
  • Cichon, MA, Nelson, CM & Radisky, DC 2015, ' Regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells by cell contact and adhesion ', Cancer Informatics , vol. 14, pp. 1-13. (
  • However, alternative functions of ZBP1 to repress proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells have also been reported ( 26 , 45 ). (
  • In many cancer types, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been linked to the metastasis of cancer cells [ 6 ]. (
  • Our previous research had identified ZEB-1 as a putative biomarker for the onset of metastasis in prostate cancer. (
  • What are the key statistics about prostate cancer? (
  • Barry MJ (2001) Prostate specific antigen testing for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. (
  • 1996) Combined finasteride and flutamide therapy in men with advanced prostate cancer. (
  • Anose B.M., LaGoo L., Schwendinger J. (2008) Characterization of Androgen Regulation of ZEB-1 and PSA in 22RV1 Prostate Cancer Cells. (
  • Epidemiologic studies have revealed that diets rich in sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables, are associated with a marked decrease in prostate cancer incidence. (
  • The SFN-mediated changes in levels of histone post-translational modifications, more specifically acetylation of histone H3 lysine 18 and di-methylation of histone H3 lysine 4, 2 modifications linked with high risk of prostate cancer recurrence, were associated with regulatory elements within the hTERT promoter region. (
  • Future translational research on targeting α v β 3 integrin and survivin may reveal novel approaches as an adjunct to radiotherapy for patients with prostate cancer. (
  • Radiotherapy is an important primary treatment modality for localized prostate cancer, and recent advances in radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiotherapy have allowed dose escalation (i.e., 76-80 Gy) to improve biochemical failure rate and decrease metastasis ( 2 ). (
  • Despite these advances, intermediate- and high-risk populations of patients with prostate cancer continue to relapse after definitive radiotherapy ( 3 ). (
  • Most prostate cancers originate from the prostatic peripheral zone (PZ). (
  • Prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed malignancy, has become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States [ 1 ]. (
  • Prostate cancer often grows slowly. (
  • 70-80% of prostate cancers originate from the PZ, and 20-30% from the TZ. (
  • Most prostate cancers from the TZ exhibit relatively low malignancy. (
  • Hormone therapy for most patients with prostate cancer aims to remove or block the function of the male hormone androgen. (
  • Interleukin-8 signaling promotes translational regulation of cyclin D in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. (
  • These findings indicated that if present in prostate tumours, ETS1 mutations are rare or occur in a low proportion of cells. (
  • Bioinformatics analysis of the ETS1 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) identified two putative androgen responsive elements at 931-949 and 2911-2929 in the 3'UTR and 22 miRNA potential binding sites including miR-125b and miR-221/222 which are up regulated in prostate cancer and miR-101, miR-145 and miR-200bc, which are downregulated in prostate cancer. (
  • Their insights into this important family of proteins have been published in the journal Cancer Research and will provide a foundation for future research on the use of kinases in cancer treatments. (
  • These proteins perform both adaptor and modulatory roles in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, although their regulation is poorly understood. (
  • It, too, can facilitate degradation of chromatin proteins involved in regulation of mitosis and DNA replication later in the cell cycle (the S-phase). (
  • The first three-dimensional structure of DHHC proteins - enzymes involved in many cellular processes, including cancer - explains how they function and may offer a blueprint for designing therapeutic drugs. (
  • The goal of Dr. Kumar's research was to explore the cellular basis for the protective action of butyrate (produced by fermentation of dietary fiber) against colorectal cancer as well as the involvement of apoptosis or programmed cell death in the protective effect. (
  • AP4 is a mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in colorectal cancer. (
  • Colorectal cancer is one among the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of cancer related deaths. (
  • Pourhoseingholi MA (2012) Increased burden of colorectal cancer in Asia. (
  • Brenner H, Kloor M, Pox CP (2014) Colorectal cancer. (
  • Azeem S, Gillani SW, Siddiqui A, Jandrajupalli SB, Poh V, Syed Sulaiman SA (2015) Diet and colorectal cancer risk in Asia-a systematic review. (
  • Duffy MJ, Lamerz R, Haglund C, Nicolini A, Kalousova M, Holubec L, Sturgeon C (2014) Tumor markers in colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and gastrointestinal stromal cancers: European group on tumor markers 2014 guidelines update. (
  • Luo H, Xu R (2014) Predictive and prognostic biomarkers with therapeutic targets in advanced colorectal cancer. (
  • Luteolin suppresses colorectal cancer cell metastasis via regulation of the miR ‑384/pleiotrophin axis. (
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. (
  • Jian H, Zhao Y, Liu B, Lu S. Sema4b inhibits mmp9 to prevent metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • This group of researchers treated the depleted RepID cancer cell cultures with a drug that inhibits SKP2, known as SZL-P1-41. (
  • These data are in contrast to the previously reported results, and they indicate that changes in MTase mRNA levels in colon cancer are nonspecific and compatible with other markers of cell proliferation. (
  • The abundance of Skp2 mRNA oscillates in a cell cycle-dependent manner, being maximal in S and G 2 phases. (
  • We further demonstrate feedback regulation by finding that ZBP1 physically associates with β-catenin mRNA in vivo and increases its stability. (
  • In addition to regulation of mRNA localization and translation, mouse ZBP1 (CRD-BP) regulates the stability of c- myc , CD44, and β-TrCP1 mRNAs ( 25 , 44 ). (
  • RANK is expressed on cancer cell lines and breast cancer cells in patients. (
  • Tamoxifen is currently used for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients, but acquired resistance to tamoxifen is a critical problem in breast cancer therapy. (
  • Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in woman and one of the leading causes of cancer death in worldwide [ 1 ]. (
  • Because of its competitive antagonism, tamoxifen is binding to the ER and hence blocking breast cancer cell growth [ 4 ]. (
  • These results indicate that although ERK/MAPK hyperactivation in breast cancer cells is associated with reduced estrogen receptor (ERα) levels and antiestrogen resistance, AR levels are maintained and breast cancer cells remain susceptible to the growth inhibitory effects of androgens. (
  • Cooperative Breast Cancer Group CBC (1964) Testosterone propionate therapy in breast cancer. (
  • Breast Cancer Res Treat 14:299-306. (
  • J. Mester and G. Redeuilh, " Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells: Regulation, Mediators, Targets for Therapy", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2008) 8: 872. (
  • Breast cancer is a major health problem that threatens the lives of millions of women worldwide each year. (
  • Eugenol at low dose (2 μM) has specific toxicity against different breast cancer cells. (
  • Eugenol inhibited also several other breast cancer related oncogenes, such as NF-κB and cyclin D1. (
  • Substantial evidence implicates the role of ZBP1 in breast cancer invasiveness. (
  • The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the role of the extracellular environment in regulating breast cancer cell morphological and invasive characteristics. (
  • Breast cancer cells were found to regain an invasive phenotype in sterically constrained environments when the extracellular matrix included a fibrillar component. (
  • Here we report that progestin gene regulation in breast cancer cells requires a rapid and transient increase in poly-(ADP)-ribose (PAR), accompanied by a dramatic decrease of cellular NAD that could have broad implications in cell physiology. (
  • Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 2 (HS3ST2), an enzyme mediating 3-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS), is silenced by hypermethylation in breast cancer. (
  • Loss of ZBP1 function affects many important cellular processes, such as actin dynamics, cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness. (
  • Maintenance of quiescence protects HSCs from functional exhaustion and naturally producing extrinsic cellular insults to enable lifelong hematopoietic cell production. (
  • One of the most well-known and common traits of the disease in all types of cancer diagnoses is this this uncontrolled cellular replication and growth. (
  • Live-cell imaging methods deploying pH-sensitive (BCECF-AM, carboxy-SNARF-AM, pH nanosensor) fluorophores and the K+-sensitive (nigericin) ionophore were also developed and optimised in order to study the cellular responses of cancer cells following acid loading using the ammonium pre-pulse method. (
  • Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. (
  • is also a marked characteristic of epithelial cancers. (
  • In this review, we will focus on the canonical MMPs, more specifically the ones that are targeted to the invadopodia and implicated in BM remodeling during metastasis of epithelial cancers. (
  • Recent reports showed that SIRT2 was upregulated in several cancers. (
  • Considerable clinical evidence points to links between inflammatory states and cancer development. (
  • Rare Cancer News & Clinical Trials » PubMed - Acinic Cell Carcinoma » Fhit down-regulation is an early event in pancreatic carcinogenesis. (
  • Illustration of key molecules or factors responsible for the metastasis of bladder cancer will be great helpful for drug development and clinical therapy. (
  • The Stem Cells Portal is a shared platform for the STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine sister journals, providing up-to-the-minute coverage of the latest research from bench science and developments to clinical applications. (
  • There are many different subtypes under mature T-cell lymphoma, each being considered as a separate disease due to specific clinical features. (
  • The contributors review new observations about its basic biology, providing updates on the functions of its isoforms and domains, the myriad stresses and signals that trigger its activation or repression, and its downstream effects on genome stability and the cell cycle that enforce tumor suppression in different cell and tissue types. (
  • Dr. Gary S. Stein is Haidak Distinguished Professor and Chairman, Department of Cell Biology, and Professor of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, and Professor of Medicine. (
  • Mailing address: Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology and Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave., Bronx, NY 10461. (
  • The research's ultimate goal is to develop a targeted strategy to prevent pre-malignant lesions from forming by targeting the biology of these lesions and therefore preventing lung cancer from developing. (
  • Predictive modeling of the evolutionary dynamics of cancer is a challenge issue in computational cancer biology. (
  • Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York, New York. (
  • In addition to oncogenic mutations that act cell-autonomously, tumor cell growth depends on interactions with its microenvironment. (
  • Tumor microenvironment consists of cells of hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin, including inflammatory cells, stem and pro genitor cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and vascular mural cells. (
  • As is the case with their normal counterparts, cancer stem cells (CSC) are regulated by intrinsic signals as well as extrinsic signals originating in the tumor microenvironment ( 3-5 ). (
  • HSC quiescence is regulated through a complex network of cell intrinsic regulations along with extrinsic influences from the microenvironment. (
  • Role of Chemokines in Thyroid Cancer Microenvironment: Is CXCL8 the Main Player? (
  • We hypothesise that acidic and hypoxic microenvironment affects cancer cell behaviour mediated, in part, by K+ transport involving K+ channels. (
  • Cancer cell behaviour is modified by an acidic, low oxygen microenvironment, in part involving the TASK-3 channel. (
  • When implanted into collagen gels, invasive cell lines that generate structural changes to the extracellular matrix on their own were able to confer invasive behavior to otherwise noninvasive cell lines in some cases. (
  • Through this work, we see how cell morphology and invasive capacity are influenced by the extracellular environment. (
  • Cells that can interact with components of the extracellular matrix through matrix-specific integrins show a range of capacities for remodeling the extracellular environment, which in turn plays a role in invasive capacity. (
  • We anticipate that enhanced understanding of the role of the extracellular environment in regulating cell morphology and invasive behavior will lead to advances in the study of cell locomotion as well as in cancer research, diagnosis, and treatment. (
  • This was associated with decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 activation in insulin-stimulated Grb14-overexpressing cells. (
  • Such changes in extracellular pH (pHe) and oxygen tension (PO2) alter ion homeostasis effecting cancer hallmarks. (
  • Selective knockout of SIRT2 or elimination of SIRT2+ cells may improve the therapeutic outcome for patients with RCC. (
  • Kuppusamy P, Yusoff MM, Maniam GP, Ichwan SJ, Soundharrajan I, Govindan N (2014) Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review. (
  • Stromal cell -dependent interactions represent an attractive target for cancer therapy, because normal cells are genetically stable, and would not be expected to develop resistance to therapeutic agents. (
  • It indicated that Nodal might be a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer treatment. (
  • Leicester Research Archive: Caspase regulation in non-small cell lung cancer and its potential for therapeutic exploitation. (
  • The regulation of MHC-I by kinases is largely unstudied, even though many patients with cancer are receiving therapeutic kinase inhibitors. (
  • Tumor cell growth is known to depend on the interaction of tumor cells with such stromal cells. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that the stromal cells from PZ and transitional zone (TZ) have differential effects on the ability of tumorigenesis. (
  • The C-Kit inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, was administrated to confirm the effect of stromal cells on the tumorigenesis. (
  • In contrast, the data was significantly lower with DU145 and stromal cells from TZ than DU145 alone. (
  • These effects of the stromal cells in the PZ on DU145 cells could be blocked using imatinib mesylate. (
  • IL-23, a critical inducer of experimental autoimmune encephalitis and collagen-induced arthritis ( 15 , 16 ), promotes the development of Th17 cells in vivo ( 17 ). (
  • The SIRT2+ vs SIRT2- RCC cells were examined for the potential of forming tumor sphere in a tumor sphere formation assay, resistance to fluorouracil-induced apoptosis by CCK-8 assay, and the frequency of forming tumor in vivo after serial adoptive transplantation by bioluminescence. (
  • A TAMR/MCF-7 cells xenograft model was established to investigate the inhibitory effect of SAHA on tumor growth in vivo. (
  • We found that in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of NSCLC patients, LAG3 was significantly increased in CD4+ T cells directly ex vivo and primarily in the CD4+CD25- fraction, which was regulated by prolonged TCR stimulation and the presence of IL-27. (
  • Their research measures how changes in kinase activity can influence the growth, development and regulation of cancer cells. (
  • They measure kinase network rewiring that occurs in cancer patients so that they can identify new strategies for killing cancer cells. (
  • Our publication in the Cancer Research Journal, highlights emerging and overlooked areas within kinase research and discusses the successes and challenges associated with treating cancer patients. (
  • Drosophila larval salivary glands of varying Drosophila phosphatidylinositol 5 phosphate 4-kinase (dPIP 4 K) activity, stained with fluorescent dyes to outline individual cells and their membranes. (
  • Compared to controls, highly invasive HS3ST2-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells showed enhanced Matrigel invasiveness, transendothelial migration and motility. (
  • this condition may be due to the existence of the cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are resistant to the hormone therapy. (
  • CSCs have been isolated from many kinds of solid cancers [ 4 ]. (
  • Like normal adult stem cells, CSCs also have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into many types of cells depending on their origin. (
  • In tumor cell lines, microtubule-destabilizing agents increase cytoplasmic free tubulin and decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), whereas microtubule stabilization increases ΔΨ m . (
  • Metastasis involves tumor cell detachment from the primary tumor, and acquisition of migratory and invasive capabilities. (
  • Inflammation is considered as one of the major hallmarks of cancer and is associated with gastric cancer. (
  • Vascular endothelial cells that express dystroglycan are involved in angiogenesis'J.Cell Sci. (
  • Secretion of MSMP triggers MAPK signaling in endothelial cells (presumably via CCR2 signaling), which promotes angiogenesis. (
  • They are distinct from CD4 + Th1 cells by virtue of expressing RORγt as a critical transcription factor ( 14 ). (
  • The regulation of Skp2 transcription was investigated by cloning the promoter region of the mouse gene and determination of its activity in a luciferase reporter assay. (
  • The BL cells showed a ∼90% decrease in MYC transcription upon treatment with JQ1, however, no corresponding reduction was seen in several non-BL cells. (
  • Molecularly, these differences appear due to requirements of Brd4, the most active version of the Positive Transcription Elongation Factor B (P-TEFb) within the Super Elongation Complex (SEC), and transcription factors such as Gdown1, and MED26 and also other unknown cell specific factors. (
  • BHLHE40 and BHLHE41 (BHLHE40/41) are basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factors that play key roles in multiple cell behaviors. (
  • Eukaryotic gene regulation implies that transcription factors gain access to genomic information via poorly understood processes involving activation and targeting of kinases, histone-modifying enzymes, and chromatin remodelers to chromatin. (
  • Increased MAPK activation was accompanied by upregulation of ss-catenin in MDA-MB-231, and of the transcription factor Tcf4 in both cell lines. (
  • SIRT2 may be highly expressed in the RCC stem-like cells and regulates cancer metastasis. (
  • Cell surface receptor uptake via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and subsequent intracellular sorting for degradation or recycling regulates the strength and specificity of downstream signaling. (
  • This study identified the activation of Sirt3 played an important role in increasing sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin induced by ABT737. (
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) featured by high incidence is one of the most malignant cancer in China and there is lack of major advancements in this treatment [ 1 ]. (
  • Both LNCaP cells stably transfected with α v β 3 integrin and PC-3 cells that contain endogenous β 3 integrin were used. (
  • The α v β 3 antagonist, cRGD, significantly increases radiosensitivity in both α v β 3 -LNCaP and PC-3 cells. (
  • there was no significant effect in LNCaP cells. (