Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Fursultiamin: Compound used for therapy of thiamine deficiency. It has also been suggested for several non-deficiency disorders but has not yet proven useful.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.San FranciscoGift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.JapanEhlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.North CarolinaUDPglucose 4-Epimerase: A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Galactokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the formation of galactose 1-phosphate and ADP from ATP and D-galactose. Galactosamine can also act as the acceptor. A deficiency of this enzyme results in GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.1.6.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Perches: A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.QuinazolinesImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Kim KY, Shin SM, Kim JK, Paik SG, Yang Y, Choi I (Mar 2004). "Heat shock factor regulates VDUP1 gene expression". Biochemical ... up-regulated protein 1 as a negative regulator of thioredoxin function and expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... up-regulated protein 1 as a negative regulator of thioredoxin function and expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Champliaud MF, Viel A, Baden HP (Oct 2003). "The expression of vitamin D-upregulated protein 1 in skin and its interaction with ...
It regulates gene expression. Consisting of about 110 amino acids, the winged helix (WH) domain has four helices and a two- ... Many proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression contain DNA-binding domains. For example, proteins that regulate ... The extra domains often regulate the activity of the DNA-binding domain. The function of DNA binding is either structural or ... TAL effectors are found in bacterial plant pathogens of the genus Xanthomonas and are involved in regulating the genes of the ...
The expression of Osr1 is negatively regulated by Runx2 and Ikzf1. These genes are involved in osteoblast and lymphocyte ... Yamauchi M, Kawai S, Kato T, Ooshima T, Amano A (2008). "Odd-skipped related 1 gene expression is regulated by Runx2 and Ikzf1 ... Reduced zOsr expression results in reduced expression of kidney epithelial sodium-glucose cotransporter and sodium-potassium- ... "A Hox-Eya-Pax complex regulates early kidney developmental gene expression". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 27 (21): 7661-8. ...
Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A ... "DNA methylation regulates MicroRNA expression". Cancer Biology & Therapy. 6 (8): 1284-8. doi:10.4161/cbt.6.8.4486. PMID ... Manley NR, Capecchi MR (March 1998). "Hox group 3 paralogs regulate the development and migration of the thymus, thyroid, and ... cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor which may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and ...
... also up-regulates expression of the protein LIN28 which binds the let-7 microRNA precursor, preventing production of ... Ralston A, Shaw K (2008). "Gene Expression Regulates Cell Differentiation". Nature Education. 1 (1). Boyerinas B, Park SM, Hau ... Glis1 is a highly promiscuous transcription factor, regulating the expression of numerous genes, either positively or ... Therefore, careful regulation of Glis1 expression is required. This explains why Glis1 expression is switched off in embryos ...
Han L, Witmer PD, Casey E, Valle D, Sukumar S (Aug 2007). "DNA methylation regulates MicroRNA expression". Cancer Biology & ... Osborne J, Hu C, Hawley C, Underwood LJ, O'Brien TJ, Baker VV (1998). "Expression of HOXD10 gene in normal endometrium and ... Redline RW, Hudock P, MacFee M, Patterson P (Nov 1994). "Expression of AbdB-type homeobox genes in human tumors". Laboratory ... "Expression of HOX homeogenes in human neuroblastoma cell culture lines". Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity. 45 ...
Han, L; Witmer, PD; Casey, E; Valle, D; Sukumar, S (2007). "DNA methylation regulates MicroRNA expression". Cancer biology & ... Similarly, expression is restricted to the posterior trunk of chicken embryos. In Zebrafish embryos expression of miR-10 is ... Zebrafish embryos show miR-10a expression from 48 to 120 hours post-fertilisation, and miR-10b expression from 12 to 120 hours ... transgenes uncover Hox-like and other developmentally regulated patterns of vertebrate microRNA expression". Nature Genetics. ...
p53 by regulating LIF has been shown to facilitate implantation in the mouse model and possibly in humans. p53 expression can ... TP53 gene encodes proteins that bind to DNA and regulate gene expression to prevent mutations of the genome. In humans, the ... Ouchi T, Monteiro AN, August A, Aaronson SA, Hanafusa H (March 1998). "BRCA1 regulates p53-dependent gene expression". ... "MicroRNAs regulate p21(Waf1/Cip1) protein expression and the DNA damage response in human embryonic stem cells". Stem Cells. 30 ...
Ouchi T, Monteiro AN, August A, Aaronson SA, Hanafusa H (March 1998). "BRCA1 regulates p53-dependent gene expression". Proc. ... Thus, while BRCA1 expression is low in these cancers, BRCA1 promoter methylation is only a minor cause of reduced expression. ... while BRCA1 expression is low in the majority of these cancers, BRCA1 mutation is not a major cause of reduced expression. ... BRCA1 expression is reduced or undetectable in the majority of high grade, ductal breast cancers. It has long been noted that ...
"BRCA1 regulates p53-dependent gene expression." (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 95: 2302. A. August, S. Gibson, Y. Kawakami, T. ... This work was the first to show that this protein could regulate the transcription of genes and could potentially regulate the ... T cells are major players in regulating the development of an immune response. The importance of these cells is illustrated by ... work which he had started as a PhD student and was the first to show that this family of kinases are regulated by upstream ...
This pathway can activate enzymes and regulate gene expression. The activation of preexisting enzymes is a much faster process ... whereas regulation of gene expression is much longer and can take up to hours. The cAMP pathway is studied through loss of ...
Chao TF, Zhang Y, Yan XQ, Yin B, Gong YH, Yuan JG, Qiang BQ, Peng XZ (2008). "[MiR-9 regulates the expression of CBX7 in human ... "MicroRNA expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells: increased expression of microRNA-9 by N-(4- ... Luo H, Zhang H, Zhang Z, Zhang X, Ning B, Guo J, Nie N, Liu B, Wu X (2009). "Down-regulated miR-9 and miR-433 in human gastric ... Wang K, Long B, Zhou J, Li PF (2010). "miR-9 and NFATc3 regulate myocardin in cardiac hypertrophy". J Biol Chem. 285 (16): ...
In fish, Hox gene expression regulates mechanisms for tooth initiation.[30][31] ... The relative abundance of the two morphs in populations is regulated by frequency-dependent selection.[41][42][43] ... Similar patterns of gene expression can be detected in the developing pharynx of amphioxus and hemichordates. However, the ...
2010). "Foxa2 (HNF-3beta) regulates expression of hepatotrophic factor ALR in liver cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 395 ... Popovic J, Klajn A, Petrovic I, Stevanovic M (2010). "Tissue-specific Forkhead protein FOXA2 up-regulates SOX14 gene expression ... "Foxa2 and MafA regulate islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein gene expression". J. Mol. ... 2008). "Hepatic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by tetracycline-regulated hepatocyte ...
It also regulates the gene expression of hspb7 and hspb12. Gata4 depletion can result in reduced transcript levels of hspb7 and ... This increase in expression is transcriptionally regulated. The dramatic upregulation of the heat shock proteins is a key part ... With the exception of SRA, which down-regulates immune response.[25] How heat-shock proteins get into extracellular space[edit] ... Expression of the hspb4 gene, which codes for alpha crystallin, increases considerably in the lens in response to heat shock.[ ...
"Ankyrin-B regulates Kir6.2 membrane expression and function in heart". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (37): 28723-30 ... ANK2 is also transcriptionally regulated via over 30 alternative splicing events with variable expression of isoforms in ... Further mechanistic study showed that reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium and calpain regulate cardiac ankyrin-B ... Hund, TJ; Mohler, PJ (2008). "Ankyrin-based targeting pathway regulates human sinoatrial node automaticity". Channels (Austin, ...
By changing DNA expression, histone acetylation and methylation regulate how the circadian oscillator operates. Fustin and co- ... The peak expression of the CCA1 and LHY genes occurs at dawn, and the peak expression of the TOC1 gene occurs roughly at dusk. ... Methylation of a protein structure adds a methyl group and regulates the protein function or gene expression and in histone ... Proportional responses in downstream gene expression following siRNA-induced perturbation revealed levels of expression that ...
Liu J, Zhang H, Liu Y, Wang K, Feng Y, Liu M, Xiao X (October 2007). "KLF4 regulates the expression of interleukin-10 in ... "Matrix-Stiffness-Regulated Inverse Expression of Krüppel-Like Factor 5 and Krüppel-Like Factor 4 in the Pathogenesis of Renal ... "Kruppel-like factor-4 transcriptionally regulates VE-cadherin expression and endothelial barrier function". Circulation ... Choi BJ, Cho YG, Song JW, Kim CJ, Kim SY, Nam SW, Yoo NJ, Lee JY, Park WS (2006). "Altered expression of the KLF4 in colorectal ...
The PyrD leader regulates expression of PyrD. Translation initiation can occur at more than one different site within this ... Vial, TC; Baker, KE; Kelln, RA (Aug 1, 1993). "Dual control by purines and pyrimidines of the expression of the pyrD gene of ... This hairpin blocks ribosome-binding at the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, and therefore blocks expression of PyrD. Under low CTP/GTP ... Jensen, KF (Apr 1989). "Regulation of Salmonella typhimurium pyr gene expression: effect of changing both purine and pyrimidine ...
PAD4 regulates gene expression through histone modifications. DNA is wrapped around histones, and the histone proteins can ... PAD1 expression has been detected in epidermis and the uterus, and it acts in citrullination of keratin and filaggrin, key ... PAD3 expression has been linked to sheep wool modification. Citrullination of trichohyalin allows it to bind and cross-link ... Visel, Axel; Thaller, Eichele (January 2004). "GenePaint.org: an atlas of gene expression patterns in the mouse embryo". ...
The PyrC leader regulates expression of PyrC. Translation initiation can occur at four different sites within this leader ... This hairpin blocks ribosome-binding at the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, and therefore blocks expression of PyrC. Under low CTP ... Wilson, HR; Archer, CD; Liu, JK; Turnbough CL, Jr (January 1992). "Translational control of pyrC expression mediated by ... Turnbough CL, Switzer RL (2008). "Regulation of pyrimidine biosynthetic gene expression in bacteria: repression without ...
It is supposed that fis is regulated by H-NS, IHF (protein) and CRP. It also regulates its own expression (autoregulation). Fis ... Expression of this fis operon is negatively regulated by Fis in vivo and purified Fis can prevent stable complex formation by ... 2010) Fis Is Essential for Capsule Production in Pasteurella multocida and Regulates Expression of Other Important Virulence ... 2010) Fis Is Essential for Capsule Production in Pasteurella multocida and Regulates Expression of Other Important Virulence ...
Neuroprotection that is associated with 4-PPBP increases Bcl-2 expression; Bcl-2 expression is regulated by CREB. [3] ...
Nitric oxide may itself regulate NOS expression and activity. Specifically, NO has been shown to play an important negative ... but it is now known that they are present in many different cell types and that expression is regulated under specific ... "Nitric oxide down-regulates hepatocyte-inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression". Arch Surg. 132 (11): 1177-83. doi: ... Al-Azemi M, Refaat B, Amer S, Ola B, Chapman N, Ledger W (August 2010). "The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in ...
This regulates the transcription of genes signalled by the steroid hormone. A gene may have many different response elements, ... HRE are used in transgenic animal cells as inducers of gene expression. ... that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.[1] The sequence is most ...
Frontline Science: Defects in immune function in patients with sepsis are associated with PD-1 or PD-L1 expression and can be ... Immune inhibitory molecules LAG-3 and PD-1 synergistically regulate T-cell function to promote tumoral immune escape. Cancer ... Cytomegalovirus-Induced Expression of CD244 after Liver Transplantation Is Associated with CD8+ T Cell Hyporesponsiveness to ...
m) providing for and regulating the refund of the tax paid by the consumer on the purchase of a hybrid vehicle, as defined in ... f) defining any expression used in the Act and not herein defined;. ... i) providing for and regulating the rebate of the tax paid by a consumer on the purchase of materials that are incorporated ... k) providing for and regulating the rebate of the tax paid by an aquaculturist or silvaculturist on the purchase of certain ...
... and is used to strengthen a patients own self-awareness and ability to self-regulate. CBT allows individuals to monitor their ... and physical and emotional expression. This can involve role-play or using props (which can include other people). Experiential ...
BRCA1 regulates p53-dependent gene expression.. Ouchi T1, Monteiro AN, August A, Aaronson SA, Hanafusa H. ... 293T cells were cotransfected with p53, E2F1, and DP1 expression plasmids and/or BRCA1 to detect activation of PGluc or E2Fluc ... B) Relative luciferase activity of PGluc regulated by vector (lane 1), the wild-type (lane 2) or mutant BRCA1 (lane 3) was ... 293T cells were transfected with empty vector or BRCA1 expression plasmids together with several reporter plasmids indicated, ...
YY1 positively regulates human UBIAD1 expression.. Funahashi N1, Hirota Y2, Nakagawa K3, Sawada N3, Watanabe M3, Suhara Y4, ... These results suggest that YY1 up-regulates UBIAD1 expression and UBIAD1 conversion activity through the UBIAD1 promoter. ... UBIAD1 mRNA expression is ubiquitous in mouse tissues, and higher UBIAD1 mRNA expression levels are detected in the brain, ... UBIAD1 transcript expression significantly decreases in patients with prostate carcinoma and overexpressing UBIAD1 inhibits ...
How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human carotid body (CB) remains poorly understood. While limited information on ... 2018) Hypoxia Regulates MicroRNA Expression in the Human Carotid Body. In: Gauda E., Monteiro M., Prabhakar N., Wyatt C., ... How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human carotid body (CB) remains poorly understood. While limited information on ... Here we show using ex vivo experiments that indeed a number of miRNAs are differentially regulated in surgically removed human ...
Dysbindin regulates hippocampal LTP by controlling NMDA receptor surface expression. Tina Tze-Tsang Tang, Feng Yang, Bo-Shiun ... Dysbindin regulates hippocampal LTP by controlling NMDA receptor surface expression. Tina Tze-Tsang Tang, Feng Yang, Bo-Shiun ... suggesting that dysbindin directly regulates NR2A surface expression, rather than indirectly by regulating neuronal development ... Dysbindin regulates hippocampal LTP by controlling NMDA receptor surface expression. Tina Tze-Tsang Tang, Feng Yang, Bo-Shiun ...
As GPR30/GPER mediates rapid cell responses to estrogens, we evaluated the potential of IGF-I to regulate GPER expression and ... Our data demonstrate that the IGF-I system regulates GPER expression and function, triggering the activation of a signaling ... The upregulation of GPER expression by IGF-I involved the IGF-IR/PKCδ/ERK/c-fos/AP1 transduction pathway and required ERα, as ... The mRNA expression of GPER was normalized to 18S expression. Results are shown as fold changes of mRNA expression upon ...
High-resolution timing of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. Maga Rowicka, Andrzej Kudlicki, Benjamin P. Tu, Zbyszek ... High-resolution timing of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. Maga Rowicka, Andrzej Kudlicki, Benjamin P. Tu, Zbyszek ... The recent YMC expression data (14) exhibit strong modulation of cell cycle-regulated genes in a budding yeast culture (see SI ... Cell Cycle-Regulated Complexes.. We also timed expression of several other complexes, such as the spindle pole body (SPB) (Fig ...
Regulated expression of erythropoietin from an AAV vector safely improves the anemia of β-thalassemia in a mouse model. * ... Johnston, J., Tazelaar, J., Rivera, V. M., Clackson, T., Gao, G. P., & Wilson, J. M. (2003). Regulated expression of ... Specifically, expression of Epo was dependent on the presence of a chimeric transcription factor that is activated by the ... Epo expression and its hematologic consequences were directly dependent on the dose of rapamycin and were completely reversed ...
... complex adopts a distinct structure that sequesters the ribosome-binding site and leads to a reduction in gene expression. This ... Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. *Wade Winkler1. , ... Winkler, W., Nahvi, A. & Breaker, R. Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. ... Stormo, G. D. & Ji, Y. Do mRNAs act as direct sensors of small molecules to control their expression? Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA ...
MicroRNA-195 regulates steroid receptor coactivator-3 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. ... 2 (a-b) Western blot analysis of SRC-3 expression in HuH7 cells transfected with miR-195 mimics (a), antisense (b) or negative ... 1 (a-b) Western blot analysis of SRC-3 expression in HepG2 cells with or without transfection of miR-195 mimics (a), antisense ... Yang X, Yu J, Yin J, Xiang Q, Tang H, Lei X. Mir-195 regulates cell apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by ...
AICD Overexpression in Neuro 2A Cells Regulates Expression of PTCH1 and TRPC5. Mithu Raychaudhuri and Debashis Mukhopadhyay ... β-amyloid precursor protein regulates EGF receptor expression," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... The expression of APP in brain is developmentally regulated and it is expressed ubiquitously in differentiated neurons. APP is ... Using that c-DNA as template, expression of PTCH1 and TRPC5 were also checked by real-time PCR in both the cell lines. The ...
... to regulate antioxidant gene expression. The purpose of this study was to determine if ER and antioxidant gene expression in ... ERs may regulate Gpx3 gene expression in the soleus muscle, but skeletal muscle regulation of Gpx3 via ERs is dependent upon ... and if ERs regulate antioxidant gene expression in this tissue. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult C57BL/6 mice underwent ... The loss of estrogens through ovariectomy induced ERα gene and protein expression in the soleus, EDL, and TA muscles at both ...
... Cell Death Differ. 2011 Dec;18(12): ... The repression of PTEN by ΔNp63α occurs independently of p53 status, as loss of ΔNp63α increases PTEN expression in cell lines ... the presence of putative p63-binding sites in the pten promoter led us to investigate whether ΔNp63α regulates PTEN expression ... Conversely, in vivo nuclear PTEN was absent in the proliferative basal layer of the epidermis where ΔNp63α expression is ...
... with levels peaking at P14 after which its levels fall and its expression becomes entirely neuronal. These and other data have ... astrocytic and neuronal differentiation during development are governed by mechanisms that include the differential expression ... Citation: Hartfield EM, Rinaldi F, Glover CP, Wong L-F, Caldwell MA, Uney JB (2011) Connexin 36 Expression Regulates Neuronal ... Expression is evident at E9.5 in the forebrain and expands into the midbrain as neurogenesis occurs. By E12.5 its expression ...
... Cell. 1986 Oct 24;47(2):311-21. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674 ... Thus, the hb gene may play an important role in the specification of the boundaries of Ubx expression. Using the Ubx protein ... Mutations in kni and Kr produce complex alterations in the Ubx expression pattern. In hb mutants Ubx is ectopically expressed ...
The brain chemical serotonin can regulate expression of genes within neurons in a very unexpected way, as described in a NIDA- ... The brain chemical serotonin can regulate expression of genes within neurons in a very unexpected way, as described in a NIDA- ... www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2019/03/serotonin-unexpectedly-regulates-expression-of-brain-genes. June 4, 2020 ... www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2019/03/serotonin-unexpectedly-regulates-expression-of-brain-genes ...
... Xue Li,1 Zhou Wu,2,3 Junjun Ni,2 ... We herein report that CatB regulates the expression of collagens III and IV by fibroblasts in response to a TLR2 agonist, ... The findings indicate the critical role of CatB in regulating the expression of collagens III and IV by fibroblasts via ... Surprisingly, expression of collagens III and IV was significantly increased in the primary fibroblasts from CatB-deficient ...
A family of activator genes regulates expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes.. J T Mulligan and S R Long ... A family of activator genes regulates expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes.. J T Mulligan and S R Long ... A family of activator genes regulates expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes.. J T Mulligan and S R Long ... A family of activator genes regulates expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes. ...
For regulated expression of VMAT2 using Tet-A constructs, we used the helper virus TTA, which transactivates expression by ... as shown after VMAT2 expression in AtT-20 cells. This finding demonstrates that transporter expression can regulate the type of ... Synaptic Vesicle Transporter Expression Regulates Vesicle Phenotype and Quantal Size. Emmanuel N. Pothos, Kristin E. Larsen, ... Synaptic Vesicle Transporter Expression Regulates Vesicle Phenotype and Quantal Size. Emmanuel N. Pothos, Kristin E. Larsen, ...
HDAC4 regulates muscle fiber type-specific gene expression programs.. [Todd J Cohen, Moon-Chang Choi, Meghan Kapur, Vitor A ...
Antisense RNA Found to Regulate Gene Expression. November 22nd, 2006 Medgadget Editors News ... "Here weve found a process in which antisense RNA regulates sense RNA. This same process may occur in the sex cells of mammals ...
Article Broad-host-range expression vectors with tightly regulated promoters and their use to examine the influence of trar and ... No comments were found for Broad-host-range expression vectors with tightly regulated promoters and their use to examine the ... Broad-host-range expression vectors with tightly regulated promoters and their use to examine the influence of trar and tram ... influence of trar and tram expression on ti plasmid quorum sensing. Be the first to comment! ...
CD84 regulates PD-L1 expression on human and murine CLL cells and cells in their microenvironment. ... CD84 regulates PD-1/PD-L1 expression and function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ... CD84 regulates PD-1/PD-L1 expression and function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ... were analyzed by FACS for PD-L1 expression levels. Representative histograms are shown. IgG is shown in white and anti-CD84 in ...
Postsynaptic Density Protein-95 Regulates NMDA Channel Gating and Surface Expression. Ying Lin, V. Arvydas Skeberdis, Anna ... Postsynaptic Density Protein-95 Regulates NMDA Channel Gating and Surface Expression. Ying Lin, V. Arvydas Skeberdis, Anna ... Okabe S, Miwa A, Okado H (1999) Alternative splicing of the C-terminal domain regulates cell surface expression of the NMDA ... Postsynaptic Density Protein-95 Regulates NMDA Channel Gating and Surface Expression. Ying Lin, V. Arvydas Skeberdis, Anna ...
  • Given that dysbindin is thought to be involved in protein trafficking in the lysosomal pathway, we asked whether it may differentially regulate the trafficking of NMDAR subunits in hippocampal neurons. (pnas.org)
  • The upregulation of GPER expression by IGF-I involved the IGF-IR/PKCδ/ERK/c-fos/AP1 transduction pathway and required ERα, as ascertained by specific pharmacological inhibitors and gene-silencing. (nature.com)
  • Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-{kappa}B-mediated pathway. (osti.gov)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of the various signaling pathways involved in the regulation of gene expression indicated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is the principal one mediating the effects of waking neuromodulators on gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, this signaling pathway, which is highly conserved from Drosophila to mammals, is a key pathway that links waking experience-induced neuronal gene expression to sleep duration and quality. (sciencemag.org)
  • Collectively, our data identify the canonical Wnt signaling pathway as an important modulator of ECM expression in the TM and provide a mechanistic framework for its regulation of outflow facility and IOP. (arvojournals.org)
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, mice depleted of commensal bacteria by antibiotic treatment are highly susceptible to chemically induced colitis ( 12 ), and disruption of the NF-κB pathway in IECs results in exaggerated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and the development of spontaneous ( 15 ) and infection-induced intestinal inflammation before disruption of the epithelial barrier ( 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • Rats with lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway caused by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) serve as a model for Parkinson's disease and show alterations in gene expression in the two major output systems of the striatum to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) up-regulates COX-2 expression through an NF[kappa]B/c-Jun/AP-1-dependent pathway. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • CONCLUSION: We demonstrate for the first time that Cr(VI) is able to induce COX-2 expression via an NF[kappa]B/c-Jun/AP-1-dependent pathway. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that FFC and the exosome are part of a posttranscriptional negative feedback loop that regulates frq transcript levels and the circadian output pathway. (eurekamag.com)
  • β-thalassemic mice injected with vectors containing the regulated Epo gene failed to show any effect until they were administered a regimen of rapamycin, which led to the production of Epo and an increase in hematocrit values. (mendeley.com)
  • The timing of gene expression is also an important factor in various analyses of gene coexpression networks, evolution of regulation, global organization of transcription, inferring transcription factor specificities, and many other analyses ( 7 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Specifically, expression of Epo was dependent on the presence of a chimeric transcription factor that is activated by the orally available small molecule drug rapamycin. (mendeley.com)
  • Retinal expression of the identified transcription factor in the photoreceptors was confirmed by quantitative PCR of laser capture microdissected tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. (arvojournals.org)
  • Among the factors identified by the YOH screen was Gtf2ird1 (general transcription factor II-I repeat domain-containing protein 1), a helix-loop-helix (HLH) containing transcription factor that had not been previously implicated in retinal gene expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • Hong Y, Li M, Dai S. Ectopic Expression of Multiple Chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum × morifolium ) R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Genes Regulates Anthocyanin Accumulation in Tobacco. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we show that osteoblast-specific expression of the AP-1 transcription factor Fra-2 (Fra-2 Ob-tet ) induced a systemic inflammatory state with infiltration of neutrophils and proinflammatory macrophages into the spleen and liver as well as increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (asm.org)
  • However, these new studies suggest that the mRNA of one gene can control, and be controlled by, the mRNA of other genes via a large pool of microRNA molecules, with dozens to hundreds of genes working together in complex self-regulating sub-networks. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When two genes share a set of microRNA regulators, changes in expression of one gene affects the other. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It turns out that this type of microRNA-mediated regulation is commonplace in the cell, and thousands of genes are regulating one another through hundreds of thousands of microRNA-mediated interactions," says Pavel Sumazin, PhD, research scientist in systems biology and a first author of the CUMC paper. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the CUMC study, Dr. Sumazin and his colleagues analyzed glioblastoma mRNA and microRNA expression data from the Cancer Genome Atlas, a public database, uncovering a regulatory layer comprising more than 248,000 microRNA-mediated interactions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Expression levels of mature miRNAs were assayed using a Taqman MicroRNA assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our data suggest that in critical illness, associated muscle wasting may, in part, be mediated by increased GDF-15 expression and consequent down-regulation of muscle-specific microRNA, which are known to control muscle homeostasis. (bmj.com)
  • We hypothesized this alternatively-spliced transcript down-regulates γ-actin production by targeting these transcripts for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). (prolekare.cz)
  • Together, our data support a role for NLRC4 in regulating the phenotype of lung DCs during a respiratory viral infection and thereby influencing the magnitude of protective T cell responses. (jci.org)
  • Additionally, we show that in keratinocytes a balance between ΔNp63α and PTEN regulates Akt activation and maintains normal proliferation rates. (nih.gov)
  • We stimulated murine cortical cultures with the neuromodulatory signals that are known to control wakefulness in the brain and found that norepinephrine alone or a mixture of these neuromodulators induced activity-regulated gene transcription. (sciencemag.org)
  • Experiments requiring strong repression and precise control of cloned genes can be difficult to conduct because of the relatively high basal level of expression of currently employed promoters. (environmental-expert.com)
  • However, having different promoters available to produce slightly different transcripts from a gene helps boost expression and generates transcript diversity, even before splicing occurs mere seconds or minutes later. (phys.org)
  • At first, Fiszbein wasn't sure how the new exons were enhancing gene expression, but she theorized that new promoters were involved. (phys.org)
  • Comparative analysis of the human CB miRNAome with the global miRNA expression patterns of a large number of different human tissues showed that the CB miRNAome had a unique profile which reflects its highly specialized functional status. (springer.com)
  • Nevertheless, the human CB miRNAome is most closely related to the miRNA expression pattern of brain tissues indicating that they may have the most similar developmental origins. (springer.com)
  • Using an algorithm based on maximum-entropy deconvolution, and expression data from a highly synchronized yeast culture, we have timed the peaks of expression of transcriptionally regulated cell cycle genes to an accuracy of 2 min (≈1% of the cell cycle time). (pnas.org)
  • The set of 1,129 cell cycle-regulated genes was identified by a comprehensive analysis encompassing all available cell cycle yeast data sets. (pnas.org)
  • Many genes specific to the cell cycle are regulated transcriptionally ( 1 - 5 ) and are expressed just before they are needed ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The precise determination of the moment of maximum expression is, therefore, important for understanding the cell division process. (pnas.org)
  • The timing of gene expression by using such data and methods, therefore, is not interpretable beyond assigning transcripts to main cell cycle phases in which their expression peaks: G 1 (gap 1), S (DNA synthesis), G 2 (gap 2), M (mitosis), and M/G 1 ( 1 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we present a unique approach to the timing of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Using the characteristic profile shape of regulated genes ( Fig. 1 ) to align cell cycles of the whole culture by maximum-entropy deconvolution, we reveal a high-resolution timeline of cell cycle transcriptional events in fine detail. (pnas.org)
  • Characteristic temporal profile of cell cycle-regulated genes. (pnas.org)
  • The recent YMC expression data ( 14 ) exhibit strong modulation of cell cycle-regulated genes in a budding yeast culture (see SI Fig. 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The repression of PTEN by ΔNp63α occurs independently of p53 status, as loss of ΔNp63α increases PTEN expression in cell lines with and without functional p53. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CD11a in vitro and used in vivo models of Th2- and Th1-dependent inflammation to understand the role of the LFA-1 complex in Th cell development and tissue homing. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A or a NFAT-specific inhibitor led to a sharp reduction in PD-1 expression in the constitutive and inducible systems. (jimmunol.org)
  • As early brain development is strongly influenced by sex hormones, we investigated the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17β-estradiol on SHANK expression in a human neuroblastoma cell model. (frontiersin.org)
  • miR-15 and miR-16 were deleted or down-regulated in the majority of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias ( 9 ), and the expression levels of miR-143 and miR-145 were decreased in colon cancer tissues as well as in cancer cell lines ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression of Gtf2ird1 protein in photoreceptors was observed in late stages of retina development, after the cell fate of photoreceptors is determined. (arvojournals.org)
  • Examining how neural progenitor cell death is regulated will provide insight into normal neural development. (biologists.org)
  • Erythrocyte invasion involves specific interactions between host cell receptors and parasite ligands and coordinated expression of genes specific to this step of the life cycle. (edu.au)
  • We extend the significant correlation between vimentin and p21 expression to the mRNA level in NB cell lines as well as in patients' tumors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Many bacteria coordinate gene expression using a process of cell-cell communication termed quorum sensing. (asm.org)
  • We firstly examined the expression levels of PVT1 and miR-424 in human glioma tissues and cell lines. (medworm.com)
  • The stable expression of MD-1 conferred approximately a sevenfold increase in cell surface RP105 on a cell line that expresses RP105 alone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, MD-1 is physically associated with RP105 and is important for efficient cell surface expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • p120 catenin (p120ctn) binds to the cytoplasmic domain of cadherins in the juxtamembrane region, which has been implicated in regulating cell motility. (psu.edu)
  • An alternative model proposes that rather than promoting the presence of effector CD4 + T cell populations and cytokines in the intestine, commensal bacteria are recognized by Toll-like receptors, and MyD88-dependent NF-κB activation results in the maintenance of epithelial integrity that is associated with decreased proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression, leading to a state of immune hyporesponsiveness in the intestine ( 12 - 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • HIV-1 Vpr activates the DNA damage/stress-sensing ATR kinase and promotes G 2 cell-cycle arrest, conditions known to up-regulate NKG2D ligands. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We report here that HIV-1 selectively induces cell-surface expression of ULBP-2 in primary CD4 + T lymphocytes by a process that is Vpr dependent. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Strikingly, Vpr alone was sufficient to up-regulate expression of all NKG2D ligands and thus promoted efficient NKG2D-dependent NK cell-mediated killing. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore, the expression of genes for heme uptake changed in response to B-cell activation and heme administration. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 4-6 In contrast, oscillatory blood flow or low SS induces the expression of adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukins), and growth factors that contribute to leukocyte recruitment and infiltration, 7,8 which constitute the early steps of plaque formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • As a well-documented driver of cell cycle, E2F1 regulates the expression of genes required in the G1→S phase transition ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our findings represent a dramatic divergence from the current dogma, which works primarily on the premise that neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine act solely through the activation of their membrane receptors in the brain to regulate brain cell activity," says Ian Maze, PhD, Assistant Professor of Neuroscience, and Pharmacological Sciences, at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and senior author of the paper. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • RNase L impacts the expression of certain genes related to cell migration and inflammation such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, IL-1β, IL-10, CCL2 and Cox-2. (nih.gov)
  • OPN expression was transcriptionally enhanced by Fra-2 and stimulated mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) expansion. (asm.org)
  • Our data suggest that both genetic and epigenetic factors regulate T cell hyperactivity in SLE. (bmj.com)
  • The most important and beneficial feature of these vectors is that when they are not induced, they are maintained as a single-copy plasmid, and therefore, any residual expression is much more tightly regulated than for the conventional multicopy expression vectors. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here we show using ex vivo experiments that indeed a number of miRNAs are differentially regulated in surgically removed human CB slices when acute hypoxic conditions were applied. (springer.com)
  • Expression of genes required for V. cholerae biofilm formation is activated by an increased intracellular c-diGMP concentration. (asm.org)
  • The findings indicate the critical role of CatB in regulating the expression of collagens III and IV by fibroblasts via prolonging TLR2/NF- κ B activation and oxidative stress. (hindawi.com)
  • In a recent study, the Burge lab showed that splicing in an exon near the beginning of a gene impacts transcription and increases gene expression, offering an explanation for the patterns in their previous findings. (phys.org)
  • Collectively, these findings show that PfBDP1 critically coordinates expression of invasion genes and indicate that targeting PfBDP1 could be an invaluable tool in malaria eradication. (edu.au)
  • Taken together, our findings provide direct evidence showing that RNase L contributes to innate immunity through regulating macrophage functions. (nih.gov)
  • RNase L regulates the expression of cytokines and chemokines.RNase L deficient and wild type BMMs were treated with 1 µg/ml of LPS for 14 h. (nih.gov)
  • It has been well known that macrophages are able to secret a large number of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors under stimulation, which in turn regulate their own functions and promote adaptive immunity . (nih.gov)