Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Sex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Sex Counseling: Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors: Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.Sex Determination by Skeleton: Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Religion and SexHermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.United StatesRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Genes, sry: The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sex Reassignment Procedures: Clinical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.IndiaHIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Erotica: Literary or artistic items having an erotic theme. It refers especially to books treating sexual love in a sensuous or voluptuous manner. (Webster, 3d ed)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sexual Development: The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development: Conditions of sexual ambiguity in which the individual possesses gonadal tissues of both sexes, tissues from the OVARY and the TESTIS. There can be a testis on one side and an ovary on the other (lateral), or there may be combined ovarian and testicular tissue (ovotestes) on each side (bilateral). The karyotype may be 46,XX; 46,XY; or a mosaic of 46,XX/46,XY. These disorders have historically been called true hermaphroditism.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.JapanRisk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.46, XX Testicular Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals in which male GONADS develop in a genetic female (female to male sex reversal).Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Sex Reassignment Surgery: Surgical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.MexicoBiological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)BrazilDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.EnglandSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.New York CityChromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY: Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.SwedenData Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.LizardsBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Los AngelesX Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Great BritainBirds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
  • Temperature-dependent sex determination occurs in many reptilian species. (sciencemag.org)
  • Temperature-dependent sex determination is a notable model of phenotypic plasticity. (sciencemag.org)
  • This study establishes causality and a direct genetic link between epigenetic mechanisms and temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we provide molecular and genetic evidence that the epigenetic regulator Kdm6b plays a causal role in male sex determination by demethylating H3K27me3 (trimethylated histone H3 lysine 27) at the promoter of Dmrt1 . (sciencemag.org)
  • A switch gene for sex determination, called F, has also been identified in the housefly, Musca domestica. (uzh.ch)
  • Although the species is assumed to be male heterogametic with XY sex determination, the precise genetic basis of sexual development remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The combined results from regional heritability analysis and genome-wide association have provided new advances in the knowledge of the genetic regulation of sex determination in Atlantic salmon, supporting that Ssa02 is the candidate chromosome for sex in this species and suggesting an alternative population lineage in Spanish wild populations according to the results from Ssa21. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BENATTI T.R., VALICENTE F.H., AGGARWAL R., ZHAO C., WALLING G.J., CHEN M.S., CAMBRON S.E., SCHEMERHORN B.J. & STUART J.J. 2010: A neo-sex chromosome that drives postzygotic sex determination in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). (eje.cz)
  • Because tra expression is not sufficient to render these Sxl-mutant females fertile, we refer to this pathway as the tra-insufficient feminization (TIF) branch of the sex-determination regulatory pathway. (escholarship.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that Fgfr2 is required for male sex determination, we crossed mice carrying a floxed allele of Fgfr2 with two different Cre lines to induce a temporal or cell-specific deletion of this receptor. (elsevier.com)
  • The bench in their harsh observations accused these intermediaries of having no respect for Indian law which bans sex determination tests and kits facilitating it. (indiatimes.com)
  • In general, androgens are considered as hormones of the male sex due to their masculinizing effects and their roles in regulating male sexual behavior, whereas estrogens are considered as hormones of the female sex due to their roles in regulating female reproductive physiology and behaviors, although all sex hormones are present in both males and females, albeit at different levels between these two sexes. (hindawi.com)
  • Using a transgene that conditionally expresses two Sxl feminizing isoforms, we find that the TIF branch is required developmentally for neurons that also sex-specifically express fruitless, a tra gene target controlling sexual behavior. (escholarship.org)
  • 2019). Sex and sleep: Perceptions of sex as a sleep promoting behavior in the general adult population. (greatist.com)
  • Age and sex are associated with HDAC expression in vivo, which could drive age- and sex-related transcriptional changes and impact human behavior. (nature.com)
  • Estradiol up-regulates cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes leading to increased production of PGE2 in neurons and microglia, which which leads to sexually dimorphic patterning of dendritic spine synapses in the preoptic area and results in male-typical copulating behavior. (plos.org)
  • Thus, immune signaling is a crucial and unappreciated factor that shapes sex-specific brain development, physiology, and behavior throughout the lifespan. (plos.org)
  • One of the more popular studies this year showed that there are sex differences in idiotic behavior , as evidenced by the vast majority of Darwin Awards going to men rather than women. (plos.org)
  • Some laws regulating sexual activity are intended to protect one or all participants, while others are intended to proscribe behavior that has been defined as a crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex crimes are forms of human sexual behavior that are crimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is likely that the skewed sex ratio in most species of monogenous gall midges is a consequence of differential mortality of male and female progenies under harsh conditions. (eje.cz)
  • The skewed sex ratio was attributed to sex-selective abortion and preference for a male child as also seen elsewhere in Asia. (indiatimes.com)
  • Because societal and environmental influences can make studying sex differences difficult in humans, McCarthy uses rodent models for her research. (plos.org)
  • In the developing cortex of wild-type (WT) CD1 mice, a sex-differential protein expression was identified for all Shanks at embryonic day 17.5 and postnatal day 7.5 with significantly higher protein levels in male compared to female mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Under the control of the primary sex-determining signal, it produces functional protein only in XX animals to implement female development. (biologists.org)
  • Though highly conserved in sequence, Musca-Sxl is not sex-specifically regulated: the same transcripts and protein isoforms are expressed in both male and female animals throughout development. (uzh.ch)
  • The proportion of HtrA1-positive cells in keloids was significantly higher than that in normal skin, and HtrA1 protein was up-regulated relative to normal skin. (mdpi.com)
  • IRAP (Secreted Insulin Regulated AminoPeptidase) is a protein which collocalizes and is translocated with GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in response to insulin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The higher mRNA and protein expression of vWF in GC tumor stroma may be regulated by the VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling pathway in vitro and may contribute to GC progression in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In summary, our studies reveal a novel G protein-coupled receptor senses nutrients and regulates the dimorphic transition to filamentous growth via a Gα protein-cAMP-PKA signal transduction cascade. (genetics.org)
  • These results suggest that FLRG expression in endometrial stromal cells is regulated by the concerted action of ovarian steroid hormones via decidualization, and FLRG protein may participate in the regulation of stromal cell decidualization as a binding protein for members of TGFβ superfamily. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Targeted mutagenesis of Fgf9 in mice causes male-to-female sex reversal. (elsevier.com)
  • Using frontal cortical slices prepared from transgenic mice carrying a fluorescent reporter of Arc gene expression, this study investigates how behavioral experience and the activity-regulated Arc gene affect patterns of neuronal firing. (jneurosci.org)
  • The specific contribution of interleukin-17/interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17/IL-17R)-mediated responses in regulating host susceptibility against obligatory intracellular Chlamydia infection was investigated in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice during Chlamydia muridarum respiratory infection. (asm.org)
  • Thus, our data for the first time have demonstrated a critical role for the IL-17/IL-17R axis in regulating host susceptibility to Chlamydia infection in mice. (asm.org)
  • The ingenious evolutionary solution to this dilemma is a version of oral sex. (stanford.edu)
  • Western cultures are often far more tolerant of acts, such as oral sex, that have traditionally been held to be crimes in some cultures, but combine this with lesser tolerance for the remaining crimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Turner noted this association with fetal sex to be 'fallible', Hippocrates was remarkably astute in linking the pigment increases to the tanning response to DNA-damaging solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ultrasound was performed at 18 and 30 weeks' gestation, and birth weight and fetal sex were recorded at delivery. (nih.gov)
  • This was dependent on fetal sex: in pregnancies with a female, ICS was inversely associated with maternal cortisol in first trimester and inversely associated with maternal osteocalcin in second and third trimester. (nih.gov)
  • Musca-Sxl is apparently not controlled by the primary sex-determining signal and, thus, is unlikely to correspond to the F gene. (uzh.ch)
  • In most insects, Sxl has no sex-specific functions, and tra, rather than Sxl, is both the target of the primary sex signal and the gene that maintains the female developmental commitment via positive autoregulation. (escholarship.org)
  • Three sex steroids at various concentrations, 1 and 10 nM estradiol (E2), 10 nM progesterone (PG) and 10 nM androgen (AN), were assessed. (waocp.org)
  • In summary, these results indicate that intracellular TFV-DP varies with cell type and location in the FRT and demonstrate that estradiol and/or progesterone regulate the intracellular concentrations of TFV-DP in FRT epithelial cells and CD4 + T cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Instead, we show that dsx regulates the A/P organizer to control growth of each genital primordium, and then directs each genital primordium to differentiate defined adult structures in both sexes. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, a better understanding of the factors in NSPC niches and the intracellular molecules regulating/directing adult DG neurogenesis is needed to fully realize the potential of NSPCs in the treatment of hippocampal-related disorders. (intechopen.com)
  • This chapter systematically summarizes the factors reported in regulating adult DG neurogenesis in mammals. (intechopen.com)
  • We uncover a critical influence of the estrous cycle on the adult rat medial prefrontal cortex transcriptome resulting in partly opposite sex differences in proestrus when compared to diestrus females, and we discovered a direct role for Early Growth Response 1 in this opposite regulation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans ( T. scripta ), gonadal sex is determined by the environmental temperature experienced during embryogenesis ( 1 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which experience-related persistent firing patterns are regulated in specific neuronal populations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Age- and sex-related alterations in gene transcription have been demonstrated, however the underlying mechanisms are unresolved. (nature.com)
  • In humans, non-invasive measurement of in vivo HDAC expression is essential to investigate the contribution of neuroepigenetic mechanisms to age- and sex-related alterations in gene transcription. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, it is significant to identify the mechanisms and pathways that regulate phosphorylation of Y 682 in physiological conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • ALL organisms employ signaling mechanisms to regulate transcription and translation, cell-cycle progression, and development on the basis of changes in the extracellular environment. (genetics.org)
  • Despite recent advances in defining the molecular pathways that control development and function of ILCs, the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate ILC biology are unknown. (rupress.org)
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Isoforms may Regulate Sex-Sp" by Andrea S. Cupp, Rebecca C. Bott et al. (unl.edu)
  • They found that those having casual oral, vaginal, or anal sex fared better on well-being and self-esteem tests than those who did not have sex. (greatist.com)
  • Persons who exchange sex, if under the influence of drugs or alcohol, may have impaired judgment, engage in riskier forms of sex such as anal sex, and have difficulty negotiating safer sex (condom use, for example) with their customers. (cdc.gov)
  • These ndings suggest that intragenic LINE-1s may play roles in sex steroid mediated gene expression in breast cancer cells, which could have signi cant implications for the development and progression of sex steroid-dependent cancers. (waocp.org)
  • Skip the expensive creams and procedures: sex could be your real ticket to a youthful glow! (mindbodygreen.com)
  • After pruning by linkage disequilibrium, genome-wide association analyses revealed 114 SNPs that were significantly associated with sex, being Ssa02 the chromosome containing a greatest number of regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We find that zygotic ife-3 function promotes body growth and regulates germline development in hermaphrodite worms. (biologists.org)
  • We report here that the Gpr1 receptor is required for filamentous and haploid invasive growth and regulates expression of the cell surface flocculin Flo11. (genetics.org)
  • Despite known genomic effects of ovarian hormones, the interaction of the estrous cycle with sex differences in gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex remains unclear and warrants further investigations. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In addition, GA regulates the cellular developmental pathway of anthers leading from microspore to mature pollen grain. (biologists.org)
  • Our findings therefore reveal an Arc-dependent molecular pathway by which gene-experience interaction regulates the emergence of persistent firing patterns in specific neuronal populations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Unpredictably, we also uncover that APP, and specifically Y 682 , regulates activation of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway in vivo , the subcellular distribution of TrkA and the sensitivity of neurons to the trophic action of NGF. (jneurosci.org)
  • Epistasis analysis supports a model in which the Gpr1 receptor regulates pseudohyphal growth via the Gpa2p-cAMP-PKA pathway and independently of both the MAP kinase cascade and the PKA related kinase Sch9. (genetics.org)
  • miR-486 may regulate cardiomyocyte apoptosis via p53-mediated BCL-2 associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, up-regulating miR-486 expression in cardiomyocytes can effectively reduce the activation of the BCL-2 associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, consequently protecting cardiomyocytes. (springer.com)
  • A recent study found that DDT is a sex-specific disease modifier for MS, and its high expression can promote MS progression in males but not females [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Next, males were injected with CNO or vehicle before mating or handling for analysis of mating-induced cFos, sex experience-induced ΔFosB, and reduction of VTA dopamine soma size. (uu.nl)
  • Males and females differ in cognitive functions and emotional processing, which in part have been associated with baseline sex differences in gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Taken together, our results support the observation that the association between VitD status and MS susceptibility is genotype dependent and suggest that the outcome of VitD status in MS is determined by gene-by-sex interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Under the Prostitution Control Act, 1994, Victoria, sex workers (and the brothel owners) may be prosecuted if they knowingly work with an STI or unknowingly have an STI and have not been tested recently (definition below). (bmj.com)
  • It has never criminalized prostitution and has legally regulated it since 2002. (drugpolicy.org)
  • Depending on the country, various prostitution related activities may be prohibited (where a specific law forbids such activity), decriminalized (where there is no specific law either forbidding or allowing and regulating the activity), or regulated (where a specific law explicitly allows and regulates the activity if certain conditions are met). (wikipedia.org)
  • Very permissive prostitution policies exist in the Netherlands and Germany, and these countries are major destinations for international sex tourism . (wikipedia.org)
  • In countries such as Spain, Belgium, and the Czech Republic, attitudes are more laissez-faire and tolerant, but prostitution is not officially recognized as a job, and not officially and legally regulated, and pimping is forbidden. (wikipedia.org)
  • At one extreme, prostitution or sex work is legal in some places and regarded as a profession , while at the other extreme, it is a crime punishable by death in some other places. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostitution in Austria is legal and regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since this did little to reduce prostitution, Austrian laws changed to consider prostitution as a necessary evil that had to be tolerated but regulated by the state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostitution in Austria is regulated under the penal code (Strafgesetzbuch). (wikipedia.org)
  • This sentence was revised in 2012 (OGH April 18, 2012, 3 Ob 45/12g), explaining that prostitution can no longer generally be considered as unconscionable because moral attitudes have changed and prostitution is regulated by local laws. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various paraphilias and sexual fetishes such as transvestitism Prostitution and/or pimping Ownership of vibrators and other sex toys Public urination Streaking Sodomy Stealing underwear, sometimes regarded as more serious when done in a sexual context. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conflicting results of recent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials utilizing tenofovir (TFV) to prevent HIV infection in women led us to evaluate the accumulation of intracellular TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) in cells from the female reproductive tract (FRT) and whether sex hormones influence the presence of TFV-DP in these cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In fact, a 2019 study found that that people who had orgasms before bed (either from sex with partners or masturbation) experienced "favorable sleep outcomes," as in, hitting the hay faster and getting better quality sleep. (greatist.com)
  • However, all available reports are correlative, and whether the differential epigenetic status is a cause or consequence of sexual development in species for which sex is determined by temperature has not been elucidated. (sciencemag.org)
  • Organisms with strictly clonal life cycles go extinct more rapidly than those with sexual cycles, suggesting that sex confers an advantage, although the reasons for the dominance of sexual reproduction are controversial ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • This was a clinical audit of female sex workers attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between 1 January and 31 December 2003. (bmj.com)
  • Host quality/size is repeatedly reported to influence sexual investment in insects in terms of sex ratio adjustment. (eje.cz)
  • A 2017 study found that "sexual afterglow" lasted 48 hours post-sex and contributed to pair-bonding - those lovey, dovey feelings you have toward your mate. (greatist.com)
  • 2017). Quantifying the sexual afterglow: The lingering benefits of sex and their implications for pair-bonded relationships. (greatist.com)
  • A gene has been discovered in the brain that regulates a man's sexual desire, paving the way for new treatments for sex addiction and dysfunction. (tech2.org)
  • The Islamic sexual morality is also fundamentally different from the new sexual morality in a sense that it does not accept the concept of free sex. (al-islam.org)
  • Seeking treatment from a sex therapist is one option that could improve sexual desire and reduce ED symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Other schools of thought argue that sex work is a legitimate occupation, whereby a person trades or exchanges sexual acts for money and/or goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some believe that women in developing countries are especially vulnerable to sexual exploitation and human trafficking , while others distinguish this practice from the global sex industry, in which "sex work is done by consenting adults, where the act of selling or buying sexual services is not a violation of human rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although sex work itself is not forbidden, Section 207bSexueller Missbrauch von Jugendlichen (Sexual abuse of juveniles) allows for prosecution of clients of workers younger than 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex and the law deals with the regulation by law of human sexual activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex laws vary from one place or jurisdiction to another, and have varied over time, and unlawful sexual acts are also called sex crimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incest between close relatives Telephone scatologia, making obscene telephone calls for the purpose of sexual arousal Sex with animals Necrophilia Sexual harassment Sexual acts by people in a position of trust (such as teachers, doctors and police officers), towards people under 18 which they are involved with professionally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies determined that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its homologue D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) sex-specifically affect MS progression. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, regulation of the Vegfa gene to produce angiogenic or anti-angiogenic isoforms may be a mechanism to alter sex-specific vascular development, formation of seminiferous cords, and/or follicle progression within mammalian gonads. (unl.edu)
  • We conclude either that the CYCA1;2 produced in prophase I indirectly regulates meiosis II progression, or that a very low level of CYCA1;2 directly regulates meiosis II progression. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In plants, homeodomain proteins regulate, among other things, the patterning of petals in flowers ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • The modified genome is called an epigenome, and includes DNA methylation and modification of gene-regulating proteins, called histones, which DNA wraps around. (phys.org)
  • KDM6B directly promotes the transcription of the male sex-determining gene Dmrt1 by eliminating the trimethylation of H3K27 near its promoter. (sciencemag.org)
  • Apparently, the females did not regulate the number of female and male progenies, or adjust the numbers of male or female's eggs they produced in response to the changes in the abundance of prey. (eje.cz)
  • Results show that deletion of Fgfr2 in embryonic gonads phenocopies deletion of Fgf9 and leads to male-to-female sex reversal. (elsevier.com)
  • to favor the stability of mating systems or to protect wild populations through supportive breeding practices, as having control on the sex ratio if fundamental to maintain the effective population size and therefore to avoid inbreeding depression [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • European Journal of Entomology: Does monogeny enable gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to regulate their sex ratio? (eje.cz)
  • Theoretical models propose that the adjustment of offspring sex ratio by females may pre-dispose the evolution of monogeny in gall midges however empirical studies in this field are superficial. (eje.cz)
  • In this paper, we examined the sex ratio of the offspring of the monogenous predatory gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza attacking low and high abundances of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii . (eje.cz)
  • Two consecutive generations of female gall midges were presented with either a low or high abundance of aphids in each generation and the sex ratio of their progenies determined. (eje.cz)
  • There was no difference between the sex ratio of the progenies that developed on the high or low abundance of A. gossypii in the two generations. (eje.cz)
  • Results of this study do not support the theory of sex ratio regulation proposed for monogenous gall midges. (eje.cz)
  • BARNES H.F. 1931: The sex ratio at the time of emergence and the occurrence of unisexual families in the gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). (eje.cz)
  • CRAIG T.P., PRICE P.W. & ITAMI J.K. 1992: Facultative sex ratio shifts by a herbivorous insect in response to variation in host plant quality. (eje.cz)
  • DORCHIN N. & FREIDBERG A. 2004: Sex ratio in relation to season and host plant quality in a monogenous stem-galling midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). (eje.cz)
  • We sought to determine whether direct manipulation of VitD levels modulates central nervous system autoimmune disease in a sex-by-genotype-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • EAE protection was accompanied by sex- and genotype-specific suppression of proinflammatory transcriptional programs in CD4 T effector cells, but not CD4 regulatory T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In consomic strains, effects of VitD on EAE were also sex- and genotype dependent, whereby high VitD: (1) was protective, (2) had no effect, and (3) unexpectedly had disease-exacerbating effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reduced amounts of angiogenic VEGF isoforms inhibit testis sex-specific vasculature and normal cord formation in organ cultures while reduction of inhibitory isoforms increased vasculature and perturbed cords. (unl.edu)
  • It has been known for a long time that skin color often changes during pregnancy, which suggests that sex hormones may be involved. (elifesciences.org)
  • Some research suggests that women who have intercourse at least once a week are more likely to have normal menstrual cycles than women who are celibate or who have infrequent sex. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • This suggests that there are forces that push the sexes apart and others that pull them back together. (plos.org)
  • The BIS study suggests that cryptocurrency markets rely on regulated financial institutions to operate, bringing cryptocurrencies within reach of national regulation. (bis.org)
  • Species-specific seasonal changes of bird song, that are caused by sex hormones, can be a consequence of distinct gene expression patterns induced in the song control system. (mpg.de)
  • Although individual neurons in frontal cortical slices exhibit varying degrees of persistent activity ( Durstewitz and Gabriel, 2007 ), whether prior experience regulates the persistent activity in those neurons remains unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • The association between pregnancy and altered cutaneous pigmentation has been documented for over two millennia, suggesting that sex hormones play a role in regulating epidermal melanocyte (MC) homeostasis. (elifesciences.org)
  • As the Austin ordinance also bars discrimination on the basis of sex, the lawsuit also seeks protection of some member churches who feel the Bible doesn't allow women to serve in the role of senior pastor because of the words of 2 Timothy 2:12. (christianpost.com)
  • Their studies and subsequent findings demonstrated that this chemical, leptin, plays the central role in a self-regulating circuit: As fat accumulates, it exudes leptin, which binds to a receptor in the brain that quells the desire to eat. (laskerfoundation.org)