Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Sex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Sex Counseling: Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors: Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.Sex Determination by Skeleton: Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Religion and SexHermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.United StatesRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Genes, sry: The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sex Reassignment Procedures: Clinical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.IndiaHIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Erotica: Literary or artistic items having an erotic theme. It refers especially to books treating sexual love in a sensuous or voluptuous manner. (Webster, 3d ed)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sexual Development: The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development: Conditions of sexual ambiguity in which the individual possesses gonadal tissues of both sexes, tissues from the OVARY and the TESTIS. There can be a testis on one side and an ovary on the other (lateral), or there may be combined ovarian and testicular tissue (ovotestes) on each side (bilateral). The karyotype may be 46,XX; 46,XY; or a mosaic of 46,XX/46,XY. These disorders have historically been called true hermaphroditism.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.JapanRisk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.46, XX Testicular Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals in which male GONADS develop in a genetic female (female to male sex reversal).Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Sex Reassignment Surgery: Surgical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.MexicoBiological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)BrazilDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.EnglandSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.New York CityChromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY: Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.SwedenData Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.LizardsBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Los AngelesX Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Great BritainBirds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Fathers' rights movement
Marshall Cavendish (2009). Sex and Society Volume 2. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 596. ISBN 0-7614-7907-4.. ... "Lawrence v. Geduldig: Regulating Women's Sexuality" (PDF). Emory Law Journal. 56: 1235-1290. Archived from the original (pdf) ... The liberal version believes the differences between the sexes are due to culture and supports equality between men and women; ... and same-sex and unwed parents. Beacon Press. pp. 46-47. ISBN 0-8070-4409-1.. ...
Carol Sanders (October 14, 2010). "Ban sex-trade ads, author tells province: Wants Manitoba to follow Ontario's lead". Brandon ... Barbara Kay (October 5, 2010). "Don't regulate prostitutes. Rescue them". National Post. Retrieved November 18, 2013. Julian ... Sher (October 15, 2010). "Sex trafficking: a national disgrace". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 18, 2013. Brenlee ...
Fathers' rights movement
The liberal version believes the differences between the sexes are due to culture and supports equality between men and women; ... ISBN 0-7614-7907-4. Buchanan, KS (2007). "Lawrence v. Geduldig: Regulating Women's Sexuality" (PDF). Emory Law Journal. 56: ... ISBN 1-59337-369-4. Marshall Cavendish (2009). Sex and Society Volume 2. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 596. ... and same-sex and unwed parents. Beacon Press. pp. 46-47. ISBN 0-8070-4409-1. Fineman, Martha (1995). The neutered mother, the ...
JH may also regulate reproductive behaviour in both sexes. Insect growth regulators Insect growth regulators (IGRs) such as ... Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a group of acyclic sesquiterpenoids that regulate many aspects of insect physiology. JHs regulate ... JH in many butterfly and moth species are necessary for the production and release of the sex pheromone by females. Experiments ... 37, 1-14 Rachinsky A., Hartfelder K. (1990) Corpora allata activity, a primer regulating element for caste juvenile hormone ...
... regulates succession according to sex. Agnatic succession means succession to the throne or fief going to an agnate ... In the modern Kingdom of Italy, under the House of Savoy, succession to the throne was regulated by Salic law. The British and ... concerning terra Salica no portion or inheritance is for a woman but all the land belongs to members of the male sex who are ... but the land comes to the male sex". This can be called a Quasi-Salic system of succession and it should be classified as ...
"The Sex Determination Gene transformer Regulates Male-Female Differences in Drosophila Body Size". PLOS Genetics. 11 (12): ... These are sex-lethal, sisterless, and deadpan. Deadpan is an autosomal gene which inhibits sex-lethal, while sisterless is ... He also noted its inheritance is connected to the sex of the fly and could be paired with the inheritance of other sex- ... Sex determination. Drosophila flies have both X and Y chromosomes, as well as autosomes. Unlike humans, the Y chromosome ...
Status of unregulated sex work. The existence of regulated prostitution generally implies that prostitution is illegal outside ... The decriminalization of sex work is the removal of criminal penalties for sex work. In most countries, sex work, the ... The decriminalization of sex work is the removal of criminal penalties for sex work. Removing criminal prosecution for sex ... 1999). Sun, sex, and gold : tourism and sex work in the Caribbean. Lanham [u.a.]: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0847695164. . ...
Prostitution in Turkey
Sex work in Turkey is regulated under article 227 of the Turkish Penal Code (Law No. 5237). Promoting sex work is punishable by ... Sex work in Turkey is legal and regulated. However, many local governments now have a policy of not issuing new registrations, ... In 2008, activists and sex workers in Turkey announced they were working on a project to establish Turkey's first sex workers ... Most sex workers, however, are unregistered, as local governments have made it policy not to issue new registrations. Other ...
Sex hormones may regulate the activity of AGAT. Treatment of male rats with testosterone propionate increases AGAT activity. In ... It has been suggested that AGAT activity in tissues is regulated in a number of ways including induction by growth hormone and ... Kriskó I, Walker JB (December 1966). "Influence of sex hormones on amidinotransferase levels. Metabolic control of creatine ...
Prostitution in Venezuela
Sex work in Venezuela is legal and regulated. The country's Ministry of Health and Social Development requires sex workers to ... The Venezuelan sex work industry arose in conjunction with the oil industry of the twentieth century and continues today. Sex ... Though advocacy for sex workers did continue throughout the century, and a local sex worker organization called AMBAR received ... explains that travesti experience violence from police and clients of sex work but still feel forced to do sex work because " ...
Iowa Democratic Party
Prostitution in Europe
Prostitution legal and regulated. Buying sex legal. Brothels legal and regulated. Procuring illegal. Condoms mandatory. ... Prostitution legal and regulated. Buying sex legal. Brothels legal and regulated. Procuring illegal. Solicitation legal in ... Prostitution legal and regulated. Buying sex legal. Brothels legal and regulated. Procuring illegal. Solicitation illegal. ... Prostitution legal and regulated. Buying sex legal. Brothels legal and regulated. Procuring illegal. Solicitation restricted. ...
While GnRH has not been shown to have any direct influence on regulating brain structure and function, gonadotropins, sex ... Sex steroids also affect behavior, because sex steroids affect the brains structure and functioning. During development, ... The activation and deactivation of the HPG axis also helps to regulate life cycles. At birth FSH and LH levels are elevated ... In females FSH and LH act primarily to activate the ovaries to produce estrogen and inhibin and to regulate the menstrual cycle ...
Tokyo International Anime Fair
... they do not have distinct sex chromosomes. Live-bearing reptiles do not regulate sex through incubation temperature. A study in ... Genetics likely controlled sex in ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs and plesiosaurs. Ichthyosaurs are often assumed to have lived in ... Gastroliths, stomach stones that might have assisted digestion or regulated buoyancy, have only on a few occasions been found ... Organ, C.L.; Janes, D.E.; Meade, A.; Pagel, M. (2009). "Genotypic sex determination enabled adaptive radiations of extinct ...
Prostitution in Australia
Street work is illegal, while sole operators are legal and un-regulated. Sex workers have protested against the fact that the ... There are two types of sex work that are legal in Queensland: Private sex work: A single sex worker working alone. It is an ... promote safe sex education and practice by clients and sex workers, and enable sex workers to report criminal matters to the ... Sex Workers Outreach Project USA; Maria McMahon, Former Manager Sex Workers Outreach Project NSW and Sex Services Planning ...
Prostitution in Australia
In all jurisdictions the issue remains divisive, and in the three eastern states with regulated sex work there has been ... There are two types of sex work that are legal in Queensland:. *Private sex work: A single sex worker working alone. It is an ... promote safe sex education and practice by clients and sex workers, and enable sex workers to report criminal matters to the ... Sex Workers Outreach Project USA; Maria McMahon, Former Manager Sex Workers Outreach Project NSW and Sex Services Planning ...
The CNS regulates gait in a highly ordered fashion. The signals fire in a rhythmic fashion that matches the movement seen in ... They also wanted to see what outside factors to shod and unshod conditions and sex. This study used multiple video recording ... There are multiple pathways within the spinal cord which play a role in regulating gait: *Stretch and Flexion reflexes - as one ... There are numerous centers, both in the brain and in the spinal cord, that have been proposed to regulate gait. There are three ...
Prostitution in Armenia
Sex trafficking is also a problem. At the start of the 20thc, prostitution in Armenia was legal and regulated. The main ... He said the taxes paid by the sex workers would benifit the country, and that "Paid sex services should not be considered a ... Armenian women and children are also subjected to sex trafficking within the country. Chinese women have been subjected to sex ... Armenia is a source and, to a lesser extent, destination country for women, and children subjected to sex trafficking. Armenian ...
Release of prolactin is regulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine. Prolactin is important for regulating lactation, sex drive ... TDCPP exposure was found to alter mRNA expression of several genes that regulate thyroid function in zebrafish embryos and ... In 2011, TDCPP was listed as a carcinogen under California Proposition 65, a law that identifies and regulates chemicals ...
David C. Page
"Retinoic acid regulates sex-specific timing of meiotic initiation in mice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... In super-resolution studies of the sex chromosomes, Page has found evidence of an evolutionary "arms race" between the X and Y ... New York Times article on Y chromosome sex anomalies More on David Page from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. ... Despite a belief among geneticists that the Y chromosome contained few genes other than the sex-determining gene, Page ...
"Sex and Marriage: Homosexuality". Sex and Marriage: An Introduction to The Cultural Rules Regulating Sexual Access and Marriage ... O'Neil, Dennis, SEX AND MARRIAGE: An Introduction to The Cultural Rules Regulating Sexual Access and Marriage, Behavioral ... The fear that heterosexual sex causes them to die earlier and the belief that homosexual sex prolongs life means that ... Annual Review of Sex Research, 2003. (Accessed Nov. 5, 2006) Kottak, Conrad Phillip. Cultural Anthropology, 12th Ed. New York: ...
Prostitution in Austria
... is legal and regulated. Most sex workers are migrants, mainly from the former Eastern Bloc countries. ... "Geld für Sex nicht mehr sittenwidrig". ORF. Retrieved June 2, 2012. "Geld für Sex nicht mehr sittenwidrig,". Die Presse, June 2 ... They are a self-organisation of sex workers and promote the recognition of sex work as legitimate activity and the self- ... sex workers. Other counselling centres for sex workers exist in Vienna (Sophie) and Linz (LENA). Additionally the organization ...
"Fgf9 and Wnt4 Act as Antagonistic Signals to Regulate Mammalian Sex Determination". PLoS Biology. 4 (6): e187. doi:10.1371/ ... The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ (as opposed to ZW) sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects ... For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity. The existence of two sexes ... Not all species share a common sex-determination system. In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but ...
"The Caenorhabditis elegans sex determining gene fem-3 is regulated post-transcriptionally". The EMBO Journal. 11 (6): 2303-2310 ... Ahringer, Julie Ann (1991). Posttranscriptional regulation offem-3, a sex-determining gene of Caenorhabditis elegans (PhD ... "A conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates sexual fates in the C. Elegans hermaphrodite germ line". Nature. 390 (6659): 477 ...
"Fgf9 and Wnt4 act as antagonistic signals to regulate mammalian sex determination". PLoS Biol. 4 (6): e187. doi:10.1371/journal ... "Entrez Gene: SOX9 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (campomelic dysplasia, autosomal sex-reversal)". De Santa Barbara P, ... 1995). "Autosomal sex reversal and campomelic dysplasia are caused by mutations in and around the SRY-related gene SOX9". Cell ... 2001). "A novel mutation (296 del G) of the SOX90 gene in a patient with campomelic syndrome and sex reversal". Clin. Genet. 58 ...
Prostitution in Brazil
Professional sex work is not regulated in any way (no mandatory health checks, no licenses are issued etc.), but sex workers ... The government's website on sex workers Brazil's Labor and Employment Ministry Primer on Sex Professional, which describes sex ... A project that aims to regulate the sex worker profession and rights. The project would not only put an end to the terrible ... Oral sex is not regarded as a real sex among the teenagers, and therefore it is not considered as a form of prostitution. While ...
Tit for tat
Medical authorities strictly regulate isotretinoin use in women of childbearing age due to its known harmful effects in ... Giltay EJ, Gooren LJ (2009). "Potential side effects of androgen deprivation treatment in sex offenders". The Journal of the ... During puberty, an increase in sex hormones called androgens causes the skin follicle glands to grow larger and make more oily ... In both sexes, hormones called androgens appear to be part of the underlying mechanism, by causing increased production of ...
Health in Nepal
Life Expectancy at birth for both sexes increased by 6 years over the year 2010 and 2012.In 2012, healthy expectancy in both ... Nepal's Breast Milk Substitute Act (2049) of 1992 promotes and protects breastfeeding and regulates the unauthorized or ... The epidemic in Nepal is driven by injecting drug users, migrants, sex workers and their clients, and MSM. Results from the ... Labor migrants make up 41 percent of the total known HIV infections in Nepal, followed by clients of sex workers (15.5 percent ...
The regulated professions database contains a list of regulated professions for doctor of medicine in the EU member states, EEA ... These include treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. ... In the European Union, the profession of doctor of medicine is regulated. A profession is said to be regulated when access and ... Gender-based medicine studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects ...
This includes the embryological development of the primary male sex organs, and the development of male secondary sex ... An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates ... In males, the sex cords fully invade the developing gonads.. Androgen production. The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells ... At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes and incorporate the germ cells as they migrate into the ...
... but they regulate it strictly with health records, immunization records, and registration of the animal while other states ... examinations conducted by the UC Davis team and the Texas State University concluded based on the sex chromosomes that the male ... analysis of control region haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA and sex chromosomes from Mexican wolves, a critically endangered ...
Application in sex determination. Differences between the X chromosome and Y chromosome versions of the amelogenin gene ( ... Although the precise role of amelogenin(s) in regulating the mineralization process is unknown, it is known that amelogenins ... In one study in Spain, the amelogenin sex determination test using AMELX (977bps) and AMELY (790bps) bands was performed for ... However because of AMELY variation among individuals and populations, this method of sex determination is not 100% accurate. ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
"Seasonal and sex differences in urine marking rates of wild red foxes Vulpes vulpes". Journal of Ethology. 31: 41-47. 1 January ... Brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex. In ... Female kob may exhibit urolagnia during sex; one female will urinate while the other sticks her nose in the stream. ... The urine of animals of differing physiology or sex sometimes has different characteristics. For example, the urine of birds ...
Political positions of Marine Le Pen
... advocating for civil unions for same-sex couples instead of her party's previous opposition to legal recognition of same-sex ... maintenance and funding of places of worship to be a matter for groups of worshippers operating within a regulated framework.[ ... She has pledged to abolish same-sex marriage, if elected as President. ... "Far-right presidential candidate Marine Le Pen pledges to end same-sex marriage despite winning France's gay vote". The Daily ...
Those intoxicated men who had been less conflicted about using a condom were more likely to engage in safe sex. Therefore, ... Alcohol activates dopaminergic circuits in the midbrain that also regulate the brain's analyzation and recognition of the ... Intoxicated males subject to high levels of sexual arousal were more likely to engage in unprotected sex than sober males ... The inebriated females' abilities to analyze internal cues warning them of the risks of sex were inhibited by alcohol, while ...
Han J, Zhou H, Li Z, Xu RM, Zhang Z (Sep 2007). "Acetylation of lysine 56 of histone H3 catalyzed by RTT109 and regulated by ... Autosome/Sex chromosome (or allosome or heterosome). *Macrochromosome/Microchromosome. *Circular chromosome/Linear chromosome ... Sun ZW, Allis CD (Jul 2002). "Ubiquitination of histone H2B regulates H3 methylation and gene silencing in yeast". Nature. 418 ... Masumoto H, Hawke D, Kobayashi R, Verreault A (Jul 2005). "A role for cell-cycle-regulated histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation in ...
Conservatism in the United States
Social conservatives, many of them religious, often oppose abortion, same-sex marriage, and civil unions, and would define ... Conservatives typically hold that the government should play a smaller role in regulating business and managing the economy. ... They oppose abortion, same-sex marriage, civil unions, and anti-discrimination laws against homosexuals. The libertarian ... and that marriage should be defined as between one man and one woman and not between two members of the same sex. Many attack ...
多囊卵巢綜合症 - 维基百科，自由的百
... of the ratio of testosterone to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is highand is meant to be a predictor of free ... Augmentation of 17α-Hydroxylase Activity Is Mediated by Phosphatidyl Inositol 3-Kinase But Not Extracellular Signal-Regulated ... There are often low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin,in particular among obese or overweight women.[來源請求] ...
Thomas, V. G., & Guitart, R. (2010). Limitations of European Union policy and law for regulating use of lead shot and sinkers: ... The most reliable method to sex birds is by tarsus width and depth and bill depth but these are infrequently measured. [ ... Bortolotti G.R. (1984). "Age and sex size variation in Golden Eagles". Journal of Field Ornithology. 55: 54-66.. ... in both sexes, however. The tarsus is 90 to 101 mm (3.5 to 4.0 in), averaging 95.5 mm (3.76 in). In terms of their ...
කොලෙස්ටරෝල් - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
20.0 20.1 Lewington S, Whitlock G, Clarke R, et al (December 2007). "Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and ... Cholesterol is required to build and maintain cell membranes; it regulates membrane fluidity over a wide range of temperatures ... Their subsequent work shows how the SREBP pathway regulates expression of many genes that control lipid formation and ... Biosynthesis of cholesterol is directly regulated by the cholesterol levels present, though the homeostatic mechanisms involved ...
Women's suffrage in states of the United States
Burrows provide rats with shelter and food storage, as well as safe, thermo-regulated nest sites. Rats use their burrows to ... Blanchard, RJ; Agullana, R; McGee, L; Weiss, S; Blanchard, DC (1992). "Sex differences in the incidence and sonographic ... Nestling rats especially depend on heat from their mother, since they cannot regulate their own temperature. Huddling is an ... McClintock, MK; Anisko, JJ (1982). "Group mating among Norway rats I. Sex differences in the pattern and neuroendocrine ...
And she is simply what man decrees; thus called 'the sex', by which is meant that [...] she is sex - absolute sex, no less. She ... gender dichotomy has had a considerable influence on sociologists defining masculine and feminine behavior as regulated, ... a b c Worell, Judith, Encyclopedia of women and gender: sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender, ... The Second Sex. New York: Knopf, 1953. Print. *^ a b Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: W.W. Norton, 1963. Print. ...
Holt S, Atkins RC, Krueger RJ, Sinatra ST, Taylor T (1999). The sexual revolution: natural and healthy alternatives to sex. ... Blockage of these brain adrenoreceptors appears to reverse a central negative feedback mechanism that regulates penile erection ... the cognitive aspects of sex are far more important in humans than the basic instinctive functions observed in animals. ...
Genes in both complexes are commonly described as regulating "segmental identity.". *^ Gehring, Walter J. (January 1985). "The ... sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses. Additionally, embryology encompasses the study of congenital ... 1980). Genes of the BX-C regulate pattern formation in part of the thorax and in the abdomen, whereas different genes of the ... but rather suggests some form of hierarchical control in which the controlling genes interact to regulate the activity of ...
Green Party of England and Wales
The Green Party supports same-sex marriage and, on Brighton and Hove City Council, considered expelling Christina Summers in ... It advocates a steady-state economy with regulated capitalism, and supports proportional representation. It also takes a ... sex, and relationships education - age appropriate and LGBTIQA+-inclusive - in all schools from primary level onwards"), on ... 2012 due to opposition to same-sex marriage legislation on religious grounds. ...
Sex Hormones and Their Receptors Regulate Liver Energy Homeostasis
Epidemiological studies show sex difference in the prevalence in fatty liver disease and suggest that sex hormones may play ... In females, estradiol regulates liver metabolism via estrogen receptors by decreasing lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and fatty ... These recent integrated concepts suggest that sex hormone receptors could be potential promising targets for the prevention of ... vital roles in regulating hepatic steatosis. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the role of estrogens ...
JCI - Monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis regulates the human hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin gene
The liver produces plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which transports sex steroids and regulates their access to ... Monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis regulates the human hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin gene. David M. Selva,1,2 Kevin N. ... Human sex hormone-binding globulin gene expression in transgenic mice. Mol. Endocrinol. 12:123-136. View this article via: ... Competition between HNF-4α and COUP-TF1 at a cis-element within the human SHBG promoter regulates its activity. (A) HNF-4α ...
JCI - Monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis regulates the human hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin gene
The liver produces plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which transports sex steroids and regulates their access to ... Monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis regulates the human hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin gene. ... Monosaccharide-induced lipogenesis regulates the human hepatic sex hormone-binding globulin gene. ...
Frontiers | Sex Hormones Regulate SHANK Expression | Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Together, we could show that SHANK expression is influenced by sex hormones leading to a sex-differential expression, thus ... Together, we could show that SHANK expression is influenced by sex hormones leading to a sex-differential expression, thus ... Both sex hormones had a significant impact on the expression of all three SHANK genes, which could be effectively blocked by ... Both sex hormones had a significant impact on the expression of all three SHANK genes, which could be effectively blocked by ...
Active hexose-correlated compound down-regulates sex-determining region Y-box 2 of pancreatic cancer cells. - PubMed - NCBI
Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is reported to be up-regulated in other kinds of cancer cells and involved in ... Active hexose-correlated compound down-regulates sex-determining region Y-box 2 of pancreatic cancer cells.. Nawata J1, ... AHCC down-regulated SOX2 in KLM1-R cells. Nanog and Oct4, co-workers of SOX2 in maintaining pluripotency, did not exhibit any ... Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against ...
The histone demethylase KDM6B regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species | Science
B) Sex reversal ratio (percentage of ovaries) of gonads with Kdm6b-RNAi#1 and Kdm6b-RNAi#2 at 26°C. Gonadal sex was determined ... The histone demethylase KDM6B regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species ... The histone demethylase KDM6B regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species ... The histone demethylase KDM6B regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species ...
The histone demethylase KDM6B regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species | Science
The histone demethylase KDM6B regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species ... The histone demethylase KDM6B regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species ... The histone demethylase KDM6B regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species ... The histone demethylase KDM6B regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species ...
Cosmc is an X-linked inflammatory bowel disease risk gene that spatially regulates gut microbiota and contributes to sex...
Cosmc regulates gut microbiota and sex-biased risk. Matthew R. Kudelka, Benjamin H. Hinrichs, Trevor Darby, Carlos S. Moreno, ... Cosmc regulates gut microbiota and sex-biased risk. Matthew R. Kudelka, Benjamin H. Hinrichs, Trevor Darby, Carlos S. Moreno, ... Cosmc is an X-linked inflammatory bowel disease risk gene that spatially regulates gut microbiota and contributes to sex- ... Cosmc is an X-linked inflammatory bowel disease risk gene that spatially regulates gut microbiota and contributes to sex- ...
The sex determination gene doublesex regulates the A/P organizer to direct sex-specific patterns of growth in the Drosophila...
The sex determination gene doublesex regulates the A/P organizer to direct sex-specific patterns of growth in the Drosophila ... Instead, we show that dsx regulates the A/P organizer to control growth of each genital primordium, and then directs each ... The sexually dimorphic development of this disc is governed by the sex-specific expression of doublesex (dsx). We present data ... The classical view of genital disc development is that in each sex, dsx autonomously "represses" the development of the ...
Genetic Variant rs755622 Regulates Expression of the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Modifier D-Dopachrome Tautomerase in a Sex...
Given that MIF and DDT share a part of promoter sequence, we surmise that rs755622 can also regulate DDT expression in a sex- ... Genetic Variant rs755622 Regulates Expression of the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Modifier D-Dopachrome Tautomerase in a Sex- ... further found that DDT is a sex-specific disease modifier for MS . Given the relationship between MIF and DDT, we surmise ... promoter region of MIF gene is associated with risk of MS and affects the promoter activity to regulate MIF expression in a sex ...
Frontiers | Sex-Specific Gene-by-Vitamin D Interactions Regulate Susceptibility to Central Nervous System Autoimmunity |...
In consomic strains, effects of VitD on EAE were also sex- and genotype-dependent, whereby high VitD: 1) was protective, 2) had ... We sought to determine whether direct manipulation of VitD levels modulates central nervous system autoimmune disease in a sex- ... EAE protection was accompanied by sex- and genotype-specific suppression of proinflammatory transcriptional programs in CD4 T ... EAE protection was accompanied by sex- and genotype-specific suppression of proinflammatory transcriptional programs in ...
Sex steroids regulate skin pigmentation through nonclassical membrane-bound receptors | eLife
Estrogen and progesterone reciprocally regulate melanin synthesis. To examine whether sex steroids influence melanin synthesis ... Thank you for submitting your article "Sex Steroids Regulate Skin Pigmentation through Nonclassical Membrane-Bound Receptors" ... The authors investigated the mechanisms by which sex steroids regulate melanogenesis. The study contains descriptive and ... Sex steroid signaling in melanocytes is dependent on the nonclassical membrane bound G-protein coupled sex hormone receptors ...
Multiple Pathways Mediate the Sex-Peptide-Regulated Switch in Female Drosophila Reproductive Behaviours - PubMed
Male-derived sex-peptide (SP) induces profound changes in the behaviour of Drosophila females, resulting in decreased ... Multiple Pathways Mediate the Sex-Peptide-Regulated Switch in Female Drosophila Reproductive Behaviours Irmgard U Haussmann 1 ... Multiple Pathways Mediate the Sex-Peptide-Regulated Switch in Female Drosophila Reproductive Behaviours Irmgard U Haussmann et ... Keywords: blood brain barrier; neurohormonal signalling; sex-peptide; sex-peptide targets; sexual behaviour. ...
A Versatile Signal In Vertebrate Embryogenesis: Wnt-4 Regulates Kidney Development, Sex Organ Differentiation, Neuronal...
A,Versatile,Signal,In,Vertebrate,Embryogenesis:,Wnt-4,Regulates,Kidney,Development,,Sex,Organ,Differentiation,,Neuronal, ... A Versatile Signal In Vertebrate Embryogenesis: Wnt-4 Regulates Kidney Development, Sex Organ Differentiation, Neuronal ... Small G-Proteins Make A Big Difference -- Nerve Cell Signalling Is Regulated By Arf-GTPases And Their Activators. 6. How Nerve ... Wnt proteins are secreted glycoproteins which have been shown to regulate numerous developmental processes like brain formation ...
Regulated splicing of the Drosophila sex-lethal male exon involves a blockage mechanism. | Molecular and Cellular Biology
Regulated splicing of the Drosophila sex-lethal male exon involves a blockage mechanism.. J I Horabin, P Schedl ... Regulated splicing of the Drosophila sex-lethal male exon involves a blockage mechanism. ... Regulated splicing of the Drosophila sex-lethal male exon involves a blockage mechanism. ... Regulated splicing of the Drosophila sex-lethal male exon involves a blockage mechanism. ...
Eph kinases and their ligands ephrins act in concert with sex hormones in regulating blood pressure
In our previous studies, we have found that EPHB6 and EFNB1 function in concert with sex hormones to regulate BP. In the ... Eph kinases and their ligands ephrins act in concert with sex hormones in regulating blood pressure. Thesis or Dissertation ... Such effects of EPHs/EFNs depend on sex and sex-hormone levels. Based on this new knowledge, we could develop novel ... personalized hypertension therapy using sex hormone antagonists or sex hormone replacement therapy, depending on the sex ...
"Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Isoforms may Regulate Sex-Sp" by Andrea S. Cupp, Rebecca C. Bott et al.
Thus, regulation of the Vegfa gene to produce angiogenic or anti-angiogenic isoforms may be a mechanism to alter sex-specific ... Reduced amounts of angiogenic VEGF isoforms inhibit testis sex-specific vasculature and normal cord formation in organ cultures ... Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Isoforms may Regulate Sex-Specific Vascular Development, Cord Formation and Follicle ... Thus, regulation of the Vegfa gene to produce angiogenic or anti-angiogenic isoforms may be a mechanism to alter sex-specific ...
Sex-Specific Homeodomain Proteins Sxi1α and Sxi2a Coordinately Regulate Sexual Development in Cryptococcus neoformans |...
Sex-Specific Homeodomain Proteins Sxi1α and Sxi2a Coordinately Regulate Sexual Development in Cryptococcus neoformans. ... Sex-Specific Homeodomain Proteins Sxi1α and Sxi2a Coordinately Regulate Sexual Development in Cryptococcus neoformans ... Sex-Specific Homeodomain Proteins Sxi1α and Sxi2a Coordinately Regulate Sexual Development in Cryptococcus neoformans ... Sex-Specific Homeodomain Proteins Sxi1α and Sxi2a Coordinately Regulate Sexual Development in Cryptococcus neoformans ...
The incidence of sexually transmitted infections among frequently screened sex workers in a decriminalised and regulated system...
Victoria has decriminalised and regulated sex work legislation. Under the Prostitution Control Act, 1994, Victoria, sex workers ... Frequent screening of sex workers is expensive and may encourage women to work outside a regulated decriminalised system. The ... This study found that decriminalised regulated sex workers in Melbourne had a low incidence of any STI including C trachomatis ... Ward H , Day S, Green A, et al. Declining prevalence of STI in the London sex industry, 1985 to 2002. Sex Transm Infect2004;80: ...
The Ceratitis capitata homologue of the Drosophila sex-determining gene sex-lethal is structurally conserved, but not sex...
... but not sex-specifically regulated ... but not sex-specifically regulated. G. Saccone, I. Peluso, D. ... The Ceratitis capitata homologue of the Drosophila sex-determining gene sex-lethal is structurally conserved, but not sex- ... The Ceratitis capitata homologue of the Drosophila sex-determining gene sex-lethal is structurally conserved, but not sex- ... In Drosophila, Sxl functions as a binary switch in sex determination. Under the control of the primary sex-determining signal, ...
Sex-lethal, the master sex-determining gene in Drosophila, is not sex-specifically regulated in Musca domestica. - Zurich Open...
Sex-lethal, the master sex-determining gene in Drosophila, is not sex-specifically regulated in Musca domestica. ... the master sex-determining gene in Drosophila, is not sex-specifically regulated in Musca domestica. Development, 125(8):1487- ... Though highly conserved in sequence, Musca-Sxl is not sex-specifically regulated: the same transcripts and protein isoforms are ... Though highly conserved in sequence, Musca-Sxl is not sex-specifically regulated: the same transcripts and protein isoforms are ...
Identification of genomic regions regulating sex determination in Atlantic salmon using high density SNP data | BMC Genomics |...
This instability together with the capacity of the sex-determining gene to move across the genome as reported by previous ... Although the species is assumed to be male heterogametic with XY sex determination, the precise genetic basis of sexual ... Close examination of the candidate regions evidenced important genes related to sex in other species of Class Actinopterygii, ... supporting that Ssa02 is the candidate chromosome for sex in this species and suggesting an alternative population lineage in ...
Conservation and diversity in expression of candidate genes regulating socially-induced female-male sex change in wrasses ...
Several genes have been implicated in regulating sex change, yet the degree to which a conserved genetic machinery orchestrates ... However, it expression was not sex-biased in temperate spotty and kyusen wrasses, where sex change is more protracted and ... In the brain, our data argue against a role for brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) in initiating behavioural sex change, as its ... Using captive and in-the-field social manipulations to initiate sex change, combined with a comparative qPCR approach, we ...
Drosophila switch gene Sex-lethal can bypass its switch-gene target transformer to regulate aspects of female behavior.
In most insects, Sxl has no sex-specific functions, and tra, rather than Sxl, is both the target of the primary sex signal and ... branch of the sex-determination regulatory pathway. Using a transgene that conditionally expresses two Sxl feminizing isoforms ... we find that the TIF branch is required developmentally for neurons that also sex-specifically express fruitless, a tra gene ... The switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) was thought to elicit all aspects of Drosophila female somatic differentiation other than size ...
The canonical eIF4E isoform of C. elegans regulates growth, embryogenesis, and germline sex-determination | Biology Open
Germline sex-determination in C. elegans is regulated by successive layers of genes that alternatively promote spermatogenesis ... 2000). mag-1, a homolog of Drosophila mago nashi, regulates hermaphrodite germ-line sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans ... The canonical eIF4E isoform of C. elegans regulates growth, embryogenesis, and germline sex-determination ... The canonical eIF4E isoform of C. elegans regulates growth, embryogenesis, and germline sex-determination ...
University of Maryland researchers create temperature-regulating fabric
Temperature-regulating fabric is a smart material capable of warming up a person when theyre cold and cooling them down when ... Sex toys for the elderly. Products. Sex toys for the elderly. * News. Twisting apartment tower. ... "For all of history, the only way to regulate the radiator has been to take clothes off or put clothes on. But this fabric is a ... The temperature regulating fabric is responsive to changes in body heat. The effect would be almost instantaneous, with the ...
Factors Regulating Neurogenesis in the Adult Dentate Gyrus | IntechOpen
According to reports, both in vivo and in vitro neurogenesis in the DG are regulated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous ... Therefore, a better understanding of the factors in NSPC niches and the intracellular molecules regulating/directing adult DG ... This chapter systematically summarizes the factors reported in regulating adult DG neurogenesis in mammals. Specifically, ... Sex hormones. Several studies have shown that there are differences in hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rodents depending on ...
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 regulates proliferation and Sertoli differentiation during male sex determination<...
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 regulates proliferation and Sertoli differentiation during male sex determination. In: PNAS ... Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 regulates proliferation and Sertoli differentiation during male sex determination. / Kim, ... title = "Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 regulates proliferation and Sertoli differentiation during male sex determination ... T1 - Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 regulates proliferation and Sertoli differentiation during male sex determination ...
Ventral tegmental area dopamine cell activation during male rat sexual behavior regulates neuroplasticity and D-amphetamine...
... cell activation during male rat sexual behavior regulates neuroplasticity and D-amphetamine cross-sensitization following sex ... cell activation during male rat sexual behavior regulates neuroplasticity and D-amphetamine cross-sensitization following sex ... sex experience-induced ΔFosB, and reduction of VTA dopamine soma size. Results showed that CNO did not affect mating behavior. ...
Identification of multiple male reproductive tract-specific proteins that regulate sperm migration through the oviduct in mice ...
Expression of TEX101, regulated by ACE, is essential for the production of fertile mouse spermatozoa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. ... GDE2 regulates subtype-specific motor neuron generation through inhibition of Notch signaling. Neuron 71, 1058-1070 (2011).. ... 2D, 4D, and 7B). Thus, CST and PATE epididymal proteins regulate the stability of sperm ADAM3, but disruption of sperm ... 7 C and D). These results suggest that LY6K and LYPD4 regulate sperm fertilizing ability via an as of yet undefined pathway in ...
DifferentiationInfluenced by sex hormonesGenesDrosophilaIndicating that sex hormones playDeterminationTestosteroneLibidoChromosomesReduction in sex driveBehaviorMan's sex driveSkewed sex ratioDifferent sex hormoneMetabolismMake stuEstrogenProteinBehaviorsInterest in sexMiceHormoneOral sexFetal sexPrimary sexHormones RegulateEstradiolAdultGonadalMechanismsVascular EndothAnalSteroidsSteroidSkipChromosomeGrowth and regulatesPathwaysGenomicPathwayHepaticDevelopmentalMalesSusceptibilityDifferencesProstitutionIntracellular2019SexualProgressionProteinsMaleDevelopmentRatioGenotypeTestisProcessesSuggestsSpeciesNeuronsRoleReversalAutoimmune diseaseProstitutes
- Recently, epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications of known regulators of gonadal differentiation, have been shown to differ between temperatures in species with temperature-dependent sex determination ( 5 - 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
- A Versatile Signal In Vertebrate Embryogenesis: Wnt-4 Regulates Kidney Development, Sex Organ Differentiation, Neuronal Survival And Axona. (bio-medicine.org)
- Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology, at Harvard University, at Oulu University /Finland and at the University of California characterised the important signalling role of a secreted protein of the Wnt family in kidney development, sex organ differentiation and axonal growth and guidance in vertebrate embryogenesis. (bio-medicine.org)
- Sexual development is a multistep process involving sex determination (SD), initiation, gonadal differentiation and maintenance. (biomedcentral.com)
- The switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) was thought to elicit all aspects of Drosophila female somatic differentiation other than size dimorphism by controlling only the switch gene transformer (tra). (escholarship.org)
- A better understanding of the factors regulating neurogenesis in the DG is therefore needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved in the differentiation of NSPCs in the hippocampus. (intechopen.com)
- Indeed, adult DG neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous factors at different stages of differentiation. (intechopen.com)
- Further research revealed that GnRH3 regulates the proliferation of early embryonic zebrafish PGCs through MAPK signaling pathways, and at the same time regulates the expression of genes related to female and male glandular cells in the critical period of zebrafish early sex differentiation, and then further affects zebrafish's sex differentiation. (creative-peptides.com)
- This is the first time that GnRH3 has been found to play an important role in the proliferation and sex differentiation of PGCs in early zebrafish embryonic development. (creative-peptides.com)
- The LSD1 enzyme regulates the differentiation and metabolic activity of skeletal muscle. (phys.org)
- The researchers proposed that these aromatase-expressing regions of the brain could form an interconnected network that regulates sex-specific behaviors, but Shah cautioned that much more research needs to be done on the role of the development of sex-specific neural pathways, and that many additional factors, including genetics and socialization, could contribute to sexual differentiation. (phys.org)
Influenced by sex hormones3
- As early brain development is strongly influenced by sex hormones, we investigated the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17β-estradiol on SHANK expression in a human neuroblastoma cell model. (frontiersin.org)
- Together, we could show that SHANK expression is influenced by sex hormones leading to a sex-differential expression, thus providing novel insights into the sex bias in ASD. (frontiersin.org)
- Prenatal and neonatal brain development is known to be influenced by sex hormones, suggesting that they may indeed play a role in the sex-differential expression of ASD symptoms ( Werling, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Both sex hormones had a significant impact on the expression of all three SHANK genes, which could be effectively blocked by androgen and estrogen receptor antagonists. (frontiersin.org)
- One hypothesis to explain the sex-differential risk postulates that ASD risk genes show sex-dimorphic expression as they may reside on the sex chromosomes and are influenced by skewed X chromosome inactivation or sex-specific imprinting defects on autosomes. (frontiersin.org)
- Analysis of expression of key known VitD metabolism genes between B6 and PWD mice revealed that their expression is genetically determined and sex specific and implicated Cyp27b1 and Vdr as candidate genes responsible for differential EAE responses to VitD modulation. (frontiersin.org)
- Patterning during development in animals is controlled by a special set of coordinately regulated genes, the homeobox genes. (asm.org)
- This instability together with the capacity of the sex-determining gene to move across the genome as reported by previous studies, may explain that sexual development genes are not circumscribed to the same chromosomes in all members of the species. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we have used a 220 K SNP panel developed for Atlantic salmon to identify the chromosomes explaining the highest proportion of the genetic variance for sex as well as candidate regions and genes associated to sexual development in this species. (biomedcentral.com)
- Close examination of the candidate regions evidenced important genes related to sex in other species of Class Actinopterygii, including SDY , genes from family SOX, RSPO1, ESR1, U2AF2A, LMO7, GNRH-R, DND and FIGLA . (biomedcentral.com)
- In many non-salmonid species, master-sex determining genes are located on differentiated sex chromosomes that have undergone reduced recombination around the areas of the determining gene, leading to heteromorphic sex chromosomes [ 10 , 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- By successfully isolating the genes responsible for making enzymes, researchers hope to develop drugs to treat male sex addiction and low libido. (tech2.org)
- Sex Steroids Regulate Expression of Genes Containing Long Interspersed Elements-1s in Breast Cancer Cells', Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 17(8), pp. 4003-4007. (waocp.org)
- Here, we compared mRNA levels of genes containing an intragenic LINE-1 in breast cancer cells treated with various sex steroids from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), with the gene expression database using chi-square analysis (http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo). (waocp.org)
- We evaluated whether sex steroids in uence expression of genes containing an intragenic LINE-1. (waocp.org)
- In breast cancer cells treated with 1 or 10 nM E2, a signi cant percentage of genes containing an intragenic LINE-1 were down-regulated. (waocp.org)
- As a well-documented driver of cell cycle, E2F1 regulates the expression of genes required in the G1→S phase transition ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- To identify genes regulated by MYB98, we tested previously identified synergid-expressed genes for reduced expression in myb98 female gametophytes and identified 16 such genes. (plantcell.org)
- We dissected the promoter of one of the downstream genes, DD11 , and show that it contains a MYB98 binding site required for synergid expression, suggesting that DD11 is regulated directly by MYB98. (plantcell.org)
- Little is known about the factors that act upstream of these polarity-determining genes to regulate their expression. (plantphysiol.org)
- Scientists show how the selective expression of genes through epigenetics can regulate the social status of African cichlid fish. (stanford.edu)
- New research by Stanford biologists suggests that this lucky outcome is regulated at a genetic level, by turning genes on and off. (stanford.edu)
- The sex determination gene doublesex regulates the A/P organizer to direct sex-specific patterns of growth in the Drosophila genital imaginal disc. (nih.gov)
- Male-derived sex-peptide (SP) induces profound changes in the behaviour of Drosophila females, resulting in decreased receptivity to further mating and increased egg laying. (nih.gov)
- Regulated splicing of the Drosophila sex-lethal male exon involves a blockage mechanism. (asm.org)
- In Drosophila, Sxl functions as a binary switch in sex determination. (biologists.org)
- Here we report that, in contrast to Drosophila, the Sxl homologue in the Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, expresses the same mRNAs and protein isoforms in both XX and XY animals irrespective of the primary sex-determining signal. (biologists.org)
- Also, experiments with two inducible transgenes demonstrate that the corresponding Ceratitis SXL product has no significant sex-transforming effects when expressed in Drosophila. (biologists.org)
- Our findings suggest that Sxl acquired its master regulatory role in sex determination during evolution of the Acalyptratae group, most probably after phylogenetic divergence of the genus Drosophila from other genera of this group. (biologists.org)
- Sex-lethal, the master sex-determining gene in Drosophila, is not sex-specifically regulated in Musca domestica. (uzh.ch)
- Sex-lethal (Sxl) is the master switch gene for somatic sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster. (uzh.ch)
- Drosophila switch gene Sex-lethal can bypass its switch-gene target transformer to regulate aspects of female behavior. (escholarship.org)
- they presented evidence that the Roughex protein regulates meiosis II in Drosophila spermatogenesis via a dosage-dependent suppression of cyclin A, but not of cyclin B. Roughex seemed to modulate the function of cyclin A only in G2 of meiosis I, and yet it somehow influenced progression of meiosis II. (plantphysiol.org)
Indicating that sex hormones play1
- The state of estrogen deficiency as seen in postmenopausal women and the state of androgen deficiency as seen in aging men predispose older population to the metabolic syndrome and associated diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, indicating that sex hormones play important roles in regulating energy metabolism [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Temperature-dependent sex determination occurs in many reptilian species. (sciencemag.org)
- Temperature-dependent sex determination is a notable model of phenotypic plasticity. (sciencemag.org)
- This study establishes causality and a direct genetic link between epigenetic mechanisms and temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species. (sciencemag.org)
- Here we provide molecular and genetic evidence that the epigenetic regulator Kdm6b plays a causal role in male sex determination by demethylating H3K27me3 (trimethylated histone H3 lysine 27) at the promoter of Dmrt1 . (sciencemag.org)
- A switch gene for sex determination, called F, has also been identified in the housefly, Musca domestica. (uzh.ch)
- Although the species is assumed to be male heterogametic with XY sex determination, the precise genetic basis of sexual development remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
- The combined results from regional heritability analysis and genome-wide association have provided new advances in the knowledge of the genetic regulation of sex determination in Atlantic salmon, supporting that Ssa02 is the candidate chromosome for sex in this species and suggesting an alternative population lineage in Spanish wild populations according to the results from Ssa21. (biomedcentral.com)
- BENATTI T.R., VALICENTE F.H., AGGARWAL R., ZHAO C., WALLING G.J., CHEN M.S., CAMBRON S.E., SCHEMERHORN B.J. & STUART J.J. 2010: A neo-sex chromosome that drives postzygotic sex determination in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). (eje.cz)
- Because tra expression is not sufficient to render these Sxl-mutant females fertile, we refer to this pathway as the tra-insufficient feminization (TIF) branch of the sex-determination regulatory pathway. (escholarship.org)
- To test the hypothesis that Fgfr2 is required for male sex determination, we crossed mice carrying a floxed allele of Fgfr2 with two different Cre lines to induce a temporal or cell-specific deletion of this receptor. (elsevier.com)
- The bench in their harsh observations accused these intermediaries of having no respect for Indian law which bans sex determination tests and kits facilitating it. (indiatimes.com)
- The process of converting testosterone to estrogen builds the male sex drive. (tech2.org)
- The gene regulates an enzyme, called aromatase, that is responsible for converting testosterone into estrogen in the brain, which conducts male sexual activity. (tech2.org)
- A man's sex drive plummets, without creating estrogen from testosterone. (tech2.org)
- This is why magnesium can be an important solution when it comes to improved testosterone and sex hormone balance. (clevelandleader.com)
- Epidemiological research suggests that testosterone is affected by sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and androgen binding protein (ABP), and that both the HPT axis and the effect of fluoride exposure can be affected by certain ESRα gene polymorphisms. (thorne.com)
- 8. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) - One of the two biomarkers in this group that is not a hormone, SHBG is a protein that attaches to testosterone (and, to a lesser extent, estrogen) in the blood and helps establish a healthy testosterone level in the tissues. (thorne.com)
- Testosterone is the primary sex hormone in males, but it also has important functions in the female body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Testosterone is a key male sex hormone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Shah said that both estrogen and the male hormone testosterone are known to be essential in developing these circuits and in sex-specific behavior. (phys.org)
- Low testosterone doesn't always interfere with sex, but it is possible. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Some men with low testosterone may experience a drop in libido while others lose interest in sex completely. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Low testosterone levels can make sex more difficult because it may be tougher to get or keep an erection. (emedicinehealth.com)
- You might need to be tested for low testosterone if you have erectile dysfunction (ED), a very low sex drive, low sperm count, loss of body hair, decrease of muscle mass, and osteoporosis. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Studies suggest this increase in testosterone can strengthen muscles, protect bones, and improve sex drive. (emedicinehealth.com)
- It's strange that something so central to our sex lives would be so little understood, but like much of life, research on testosterone is pretty skewed by cultural beliefs about masculinity and femininity. (thebody.com)
- has been heavily marketed as a great, safe way to treat low testosterone and sex drive, and, possibly, reverse wasting. (thebody.com)
- However, in Atlantic salmon, as in other salmonid species, sex chromosomes are not morphologically distinguishable [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- BULL J.J. 1983: The Evolution of Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determining Mechanisms. (eje.cz)
- Extra or altered sex chromosomes can produce intersex problems of several kinds. (encyclopedia.com)
Reduction in sex drive1
- In general, androgens are considered as hormones of the male sex due to their masculinizing effects and their roles in regulating male sexual behavior, whereas estrogens are considered as hormones of the female sex due to their roles in regulating female reproductive physiology and behaviors, although all sex hormones are present in both males and females, albeit at different levels between these two sexes. (hindawi.com)
- Using a transgene that conditionally expresses two Sxl feminizing isoforms, we find that the TIF branch is required developmentally for neurons that also sex-specifically express fruitless, a tra gene target controlling sexual behavior. (escholarship.org)
- 2019). Sex and sleep: Perceptions of sex as a sleep promoting behavior in the general adult population. (greatist.com)
- Age and sex are associated with HDAC expression in vivo, which could drive age- and sex-related transcriptional changes and impact human behavior. (nature.com)
- Estradiol up-regulates cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes leading to increased production of PGE2 in neurons and microglia, which which leads to sexually dimorphic patterning of dendritic spine synapses in the preoptic area and results in male-typical copulating behavior. (plos.org)
- Thus, immune signaling is a crucial and unappreciated factor that shapes sex-specific brain development, physiology, and behavior throughout the lifespan. (plos.org)
- One of the more popular studies this year showed that there are sex differences in idiotic behavior , as evidenced by the vast majority of Darwin Awards going to men rather than women. (plos.org)
- Some laws regulating sexual activity are intended to protect one or all participants, while others are intended to proscribe behavior that has been defined as a crime. (wikipedia.org)
- Sex crimes are forms of human sexual behavior that are crimes. (wikipedia.org)
Man's sex drive2
Skewed sex ratio2
- It is likely that the skewed sex ratio in most species of monogenous gall midges is a consequence of differential mortality of male and female progenies under harsh conditions. (eje.cz)
- The skewed sex ratio was attributed to sex-selective abortion and preference for a male child as also seen elsewhere in Asia. (indiatimes.com)
Different sex hormone1
- In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the role of estrogens and androgens and the mechanisms through which estrogen receptors and androgen receptors regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver. (hindawi.com)
- Understanding of how estrogens and androgens regulate energy metabolism via their receptors may shed light on potential pharmaceutical applications. (hindawi.com)
- All cells regulate metabolism-related gene expression and adapt to environmental changes such as nutrition, oxygen supply, exercise, and temperature. (phys.org)
- In 2012, the Kumamoto University research group became the first to show the mechanism by which the demethylating enzyme LSD1 regulates energy metabolism in adipocytes ( Nature Communications ). (phys.org)
- Thus, they showed that LSD1 is an epigenome modification enzyme that regulates metabolism depending on the state of various cells. (phys.org)
- These two thyroid hormones regulate metabolism and influence all body systems, including reproduction. (thorne.com)
- Bone metabolism is one of the in vivo processes regulated by OPG. (jimmunol.org)
- Thyroxin regulates the speed of metabolism. (encyclopedia.com)
- Here we show that physiologic estrogen (17β-estradiol) and progesterone reciprocally regulate melanin synthesis. (elifesciences.org)
- Utilizing both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we establish that sex steroid effects on human pigment synthesis are mediated by the membrane-bound, steroid hormone receptors G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7). (elifesciences.org)
- Estrogen and progesterone are two of the main female sex hormones. (elifesciences.org)
- revealed that estrogen and progesterone regulate pigment production by binding to receptors that belong to a family called G protein-coupled receptors. (elifesciences.org)
- We show that exposure to estrogen neonatally can alter adult sex-specific behaviors in mice. (phys.org)
- Estrogen - Sex hormone responsible for stimulating female sexual characteristics. (encyclopedia.com)
- In the developing cortex of wild-type (WT) CD1 mice, a sex-differential protein expression was identified for all Shanks at embryonic day 17.5 and postnatal day 7.5 with significantly higher protein levels in male compared to female mice. (frontiersin.org)
- Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. (nih.gov)
- Under the control of the primary sex-determining signal, it produces functional protein only in XX animals to implement female development. (biologists.org)
- Though highly conserved in sequence, Musca-Sxl is not sex-specifically regulated: the same transcripts and protein isoforms are expressed in both male and female animals throughout development. (uzh.ch)
- The proportion of HtrA1-positive cells in keloids was significantly higher than that in normal skin, and HtrA1 protein was up-regulated relative to normal skin. (mdpi.com)
- IRAP (Secreted Insulin Regulated AminoPeptidase) is a protein which collocalizes and is translocated with GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in response to insulin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The higher mRNA and protein expression of vWF in GC tumor stroma may be regulated by the VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling pathway in vitro and may contribute to GC progression in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
- In summary, our studies reveal a novel G protein-coupled receptor senses nutrients and regulates the dimorphic transition to filamentous growth via a Gα protein-cAMP-PKA signal transduction cascade. (genetics.org)
- These results suggest that FLRG expression in endometrial stromal cells is regulated by the concerted action of ovarian steroid hormones via decidualization, and FLRG protein may participate in the regulation of stromal cell decidualization as a binding protein for members of TGFβ superfamily. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- Persons who exchange sex are at increased risk of getting or transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) because they are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex without a condom, sex with multiple partners) and substance use. (cdc.gov)
- For example, they found more aromatase-positive cells in the males in two regions of the brain known to regulate sexual and aggressive behaviors. (phys.org)
Interest in sex1
- Targeted mutagenesis of Fgf9 in mice causes male-to-female sex reversal. (elsevier.com)
- Using frontal cortical slices prepared from transgenic mice carrying a fluorescent reporter of Arc gene expression, this study investigates how behavioral experience and the activity-regulated Arc gene affect patterns of neuronal firing. (jneurosci.org)
- The specific contribution of interleukin-17/interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17/IL-17R)-mediated responses in regulating host susceptibility against obligatory intracellular Chlamydia infection was investigated in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice during Chlamydia muridarum respiratory infection. (asm.org)
- Thus, our data for the first time have demonstrated a critical role for the IL-17/IL-17R axis in regulating host susceptibility to Chlamydia infection in mice. (asm.org)
- These recent integrated concepts suggest that sex hormone receptors could be potential promising targets for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. (hindawi.com)
- The liver produces plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which transports sex steroids and regulates their access to tissues. (jci.org)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), is a neurohormone secreted by the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in regulating the reproduction of vertebrates. (creative-peptides.com)
- The 2010 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award honors two scientists for their discovery of leptin, a hormone that regulates appetite and body weight. (laskerfoundation.org)
- Androgen - Male sex hormone. (encyclopedia.com)
- We undertake a large-scale characterization of sex differences and their interaction with the estrous cycle in the adult medial prefrontal cortex transcriptome and report that females with high and low ovarian hormone levels exhibited a partly opposed sexually biased transcriptome. (beds.ac.uk)
- The ingenious evolutionary solution to this dilemma is a version of oral sex. (stanford.edu)
- Western cultures are often far more tolerant of acts, such as oral sex, that have traditionally been held to be crimes in some cultures, but combine this with lesser tolerance for the remaining crimes. (wikipedia.org)
- While Turner noted this association with fetal sex to be 'fallible', Hippocrates was remarkably astute in linking the pigment increases to the tanning response to DNA-damaging solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (elifesciences.org)
- Ultrasound was performed at 18 and 30 weeks' gestation, and birth weight and fetal sex were recorded at delivery. (nih.gov)
- This was dependent on fetal sex: in pregnancies with a female, ICS was inversely associated with maternal cortisol in first trimester and inversely associated with maternal osteocalcin in second and third trimester. (nih.gov)
- Musca-Sxl is apparently not controlled by the primary sex-determining signal and, thus, is unlikely to correspond to the F gene. (uzh.ch)
- In most insects, Sxl has no sex-specific functions, and tra, rather than Sxl, is both the target of the primary sex signal and the gene that maintains the female developmental commitment via positive autoregulation. (escholarship.org)
- Three sex steroids at various concentrations, 1 and 10 nM estradiol (E2), 10 nM progesterone (PG) and 10 nM androgen (AN), were assessed. (waocp.org)
- In summary, these results indicate that intracellular TFV-DP varies with cell type and location in the FRT and demonstrate that estradiol and/or progesterone regulate the intracellular concentrations of TFV-DP in FRT epithelial cells and CD4 + T cells. (dartmouth.edu)
- Instead, we show that dsx regulates the A/P organizer to control growth of each genital primordium, and then directs each genital primordium to differentiate defined adult structures in both sexes. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, a better understanding of the factors in NSPC niches and the intracellular molecules regulating/directing adult DG neurogenesis is needed to fully realize the potential of NSPCs in the treatment of hippocampal-related disorders. (intechopen.com)
- This chapter systematically summarizes the factors reported in regulating adult DG neurogenesis in mammals. (intechopen.com)
- We uncover a critical influence of the estrous cycle on the adult rat medial prefrontal cortex transcriptome resulting in partly opposite sex differences in proestrus when compared to diestrus females, and we discovered a direct role for Early Growth Response 1 in this opposite regulation. (beds.ac.uk)
- However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which experience-related persistent firing patterns are regulated in specific neuronal populations. (jneurosci.org)
- Age- and sex-related alterations in gene transcription have been demonstrated, however the underlying mechanisms are unresolved. (nature.com)
- In humans, non-invasive measurement of in vivo HDAC expression is essential to investigate the contribution of neuroepigenetic mechanisms to age- and sex-related alterations in gene transcription. (nature.com)
- Therefore, it is significant to identify the mechanisms and pathways that regulate phosphorylation of Y 682 in physiological conditions. (jneurosci.org)
- ALL organisms employ signaling mechanisms to regulate transcription and translation, cell-cycle progression, and development on the basis of changes in the extracellular environment. (genetics.org)
- Despite recent advances in defining the molecular pathways that control development and function of ILCs, the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate ILC biology are unknown. (rupress.org)
- They found that those having casual oral, vaginal, or anal sex fared better on well-being and self-esteem tests than those who did not have sex. (greatist.com)
- Persons who exchange sex, if under the influence of drugs or alcohol, may have impaired judgment, engage in riskier forms of sex such as anal sex, and have difficulty negotiating safer sex (condom use, for example) with their customers. (cdc.gov)
Growth and regulates2
- We find that zygotic ife-3 function promotes body growth and regulates germline development in hermaphrodite worms. (biologists.org)
- We report here that the Gpr1 receptor is required for filamentous and haploid invasive growth and regulates expression of the cell surface flocculin Flo11. (genetics.org)
- This provides clinically important information suggesting that ICS do not exert effects on glucocorticoid-regulated pathways in the fetus, and therefore are unlikely to contribute to adverse effects on fetal growth and development. (nih.gov)
- Neuroepigenetic pathways regulate gene transcription in the brain. (nature.com)
- It is therefore important to identify pathways that regulate phosphorylation of Y 682 as well as the role of Y 682 in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
- In addition, GA regulates the cellular developmental pathway of anthers leading from microspore to mature pollen grain. (biologists.org)
- Our findings therefore reveal an Arc-dependent molecular pathway by which gene-experience interaction regulates the emergence of persistent firing patterns in specific neuronal populations. (jneurosci.org)
- Unpredictably, we also uncover that APP, and specifically Y 682 , regulates activation of the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway in vivo , the subcellular distribution of TrkA and the sensitivity of neurons to the trophic action of NGF. (jneurosci.org)
- Epistasis analysis supports a model in which the Gpr1 receptor regulates pseudohyphal growth via the Gpa2p-cAMP-PKA pathway and independently of both the MAP kinase cascade and the PKA related kinase Sch9. (genetics.org)
- miR-486 may regulate cardiomyocyte apoptosis via p53-mediated BCL-2 associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. (springer.com)
- Therefore, up-regulating miR-486 expression in cardiomyocytes can effectively reduce the activation of the BCL-2 associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, consequently protecting cardiomyocytes. (springer.com)
- Wnt proteins are secreted glycoproteins which have been shown to regulate numerous developmental processes like brain formation, limb patterning, and axis formation in the vertebrate embryo. (bio-medicine.org)
- Thus, multiple signaling events are coordinated to regulate developmental processes. (genetics.org)
- A recent study found that DDT is a sex-specific disease modifier for MS, and its high expression can promote MS progression in males but not females [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Next, males were injected with CNO or vehicle before mating or handling for analysis of mating-induced cFos, sex experience-induced ΔFosB, and reduction of VTA dopamine soma size. (uu.nl)
- Males and females differ in cognitive functions and emotional processing, which in part have been associated with baseline sex differences in gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex. (beds.ac.uk)
- In this issue: (1) fasting and the metabolome, (2) cultural differences in health-promoting activities, (3) fluoride exposure and male sex hormones, and (4) xenobiotics in dental floss. (thorne.com)
- There are also sex-specific in vivo HDAC expression differences in brain regions associated with emotion and memory, including the amygdala and hippocampus. (nature.com)
- Although HDACs are implicated in age- and sex-related vulnerability to disease through preclinical and post mortem studies, differences exist between these models and living humans at both molecular and systems levels. (nature.com)
- Sex differences are cropping up everywhere. (plos.org)
- Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence suggests that sex differences in medial prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive functions are attenuated by hormonal fluctuations within the menstrual cycle. (beds.ac.uk)
- The extent of regulation within females vastly exceeds sex differences, and supports a multi-level reorganization of synaptic function across the estrous cycle. (beds.ac.uk)
- Although a causal relationship remains to be determined, the search for neurobiological correlates revealed clear sex differences in gene expression profiles in several brain areas such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) [ 6 - 8 ], which plays a central role in cognitive functions. (beds.ac.uk)
- The importance of sex differences in the mPFC and mPFC-dependent processes can be observed both at the morphological and neurophysiological levels. (beds.ac.uk)
- The mPFC therefore controls a variety of high-order processes such as emotional processing or cognitive functions, and is at the center of clear sex differences at the morphological and neurophysiological levels, which suggests that sex differences in gene expression in the mPFC likely underlie sex differences in mPFC-dependent processes. (beds.ac.uk)
- Under the Prostitution Control Act, 1994, Victoria, sex workers (and the brothel owners) may be prosecuted if they knowingly work with an STI or unknowingly have an STI and have not been tested recently (definition below). (bmj.com)
- It has never criminalized prostitution and has legally regulated it since 2002. (drugpolicy.org)
- Depending on the country, various prostitution related activities may be prohibited (where a specific law forbids such activity), decriminalized (where there is no specific law either forbidding or allowing and regulating the activity), or regulated (where a specific law explicitly allows and regulates the activity if certain conditions are met). (wikipedia.org)
- Very permissive prostitution policies exist in the Netherlands and Germany, and these countries are major destinations for international sex tourism . (wikipedia.org)
- In countries such as Spain, Belgium, and the Czech Republic, attitudes are more laissez-faire and tolerant, but prostitution is not officially recognized as a job, and not officially and legally regulated, and pimping is forbidden. (wikipedia.org)
- At one extreme, prostitution or sex work is legal in some places and regarded as a profession , while at the other extreme, it is a crime punishable by death in some other places. (wikipedia.org)
- Prostitution in Austria is legal and regulated. (wikipedia.org)
- However, since this did little to reduce prostitution, Austrian laws changed to consider prostitution as a necessary evil that had to be tolerated but regulated by the state. (wikipedia.org)
- Prostitution in Austria is regulated under the penal code (Strafgesetzbuch). (wikipedia.org)
- This sentence was revised in 2012 (OGH April 18, 2012, 3 Ob 45/12g), explaining that prostitution can no longer generally be considered as unconscionable because moral attitudes have changed and prostitution is regulated by local laws. (wikipedia.org)
- Various paraphilias and sexual fetishes such as transvestitism Prostitution and/or pimping Ownership of vibrators and other sex toys Public urination Streaking Sodomy Stealing underwear, sometimes regarded as more serious when done in a sexual context. (wikipedia.org)
- The conflicting results of recent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials utilizing tenofovir (TFV) to prevent HIV infection in women led us to evaluate the accumulation of intracellular TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) in cells from the female reproductive tract (FRT) and whether sex hormones influence the presence of TFV-DP in these cells. (dartmouth.edu)
- However, all available reports are correlative, and whether the differential epigenetic status is a cause or consequence of sexual development in species for which sex is determined by temperature has not been elucidated. (sciencemag.org)
- Organisms with strictly clonal life cycles go extinct more rapidly than those with sexual cycles, suggesting that sex confers an advantage, although the reasons for the dominance of sexual reproduction are controversial ( 7 ). (asm.org)
- This was a clinical audit of female sex workers attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between 1 January and 31 December 2003. (bmj.com)
- Host quality/size is repeatedly reported to influence sexual investment in insects in terms of sex ratio adjustment. (eje.cz)
- A 2017 study found that "sexual afterglow" lasted 48 hours post-sex and contributed to pair-bonding - those lovey, dovey feelings you have toward your mate. (greatist.com)
- 2017). Quantifying the sexual afterglow: The lingering benefits of sex and their implications for pair-bonded relationships. (greatist.com)
- A gene has been discovered in the brain that regulates a man's sexual desire, paving the way for new treatments for sex addiction and dysfunction. (tech2.org)
- The Islamic sexual morality is also fundamentally different from the new sexual morality in a sense that it does not accept the concept of free sex. (al-islam.org)
- Seeking treatment from a sex therapist is one option that could improve sexual desire and reduce ED symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Other schools of thought argue that sex work is a legitimate occupation, whereby a person trades or exchanges sexual acts for money and/or goods. (wikipedia.org)
- Some believe that women in developing countries are especially vulnerable to sexual exploitation and human trafficking , while others distinguish this practice from the global sex industry, in which "sex work is done by consenting adults, where the act of selling or buying sexual services is not a violation of human rights. (wikipedia.org)
- Although sex work itself is not forbidden, Section 207bSexueller Missbrauch von Jugendlichen (Sexual abuse of juveniles) allows for prosecution of clients of workers younger than 18. (wikipedia.org)
- Sex and the law deals with the regulation by law of human sexual activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Sex laws vary from one place or jurisdiction to another, and have varied over time, and unlawful sexual acts are also called sex crimes. (wikipedia.org)
- Incest between close relatives Telephone scatologia, making obscene telephone calls for the purpose of sexual arousal Sex with animals Necrophilia Sexual harassment Sexual acts by people in a position of trust (such as teachers, doctors and police officers), towards people under 18 which they are involved with professionally. (wikipedia.org)
- Previous studies determined that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its homologue D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) sex-specifically affect MS progression. (hindawi.com)
- Thus, regulation of the Vegfa gene to produce angiogenic or anti-angiogenic isoforms may be a mechanism to alter sex-specific vascular development, formation of seminiferous cords, and/or follicle progression within mammalian gonads. (unl.edu)
- We conclude either that the CYCA1;2 produced in prophase I indirectly regulates meiosis II progression, or that a very low level of CYCA1;2 directly regulates meiosis II progression. (plantphysiol.org)
- KDM6B directly promotes the transcription of the male sex-determining gene Dmrt1 by eliminating the trimethylation of H3K27 near its promoter. (sciencemag.org)
- Apparently, the females did not regulate the number of female and male progenies, or adjust the numbers of male or female's eggs they produced in response to the changes in the abundance of prey. (eje.cz)
- Results show that deletion of Fgfr2 in embryonic gonads phenocopies deletion of Fgf9 and leads to male-to-female sex reversal. (elsevier.com)
- The sexually dimorphic development of this disc is governed by the sex-specific expression of doublesex (dsx). (nih.gov)
- The classical view of genital disc development is that in each sex, dsx autonomously "represses" the development of the inappropriate genital primordium while allowing the development of the appropriate primordium. (nih.gov)
- The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates the development and fertility of Arabidopsis flowers. (biologists.org)
- All of the GA-deficient mutant floral phenotypes of ga1-3 can be restored to normal by application of exogenous GA ( Koornneef and van der Veen, 1980 ), demonstrating that GA regulates floral development ( Pharis and King, 1985 ). (biologists.org)
- Despite these various reports, the mechanism via which GA regulates petal, stamen and anther development remained unclear. (biologists.org)
- However, a transgenic RGL1 loss-of-function line was resistant to the arrest of floral organ development induced by paclobutrazol (PAC, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) ( Wen and Chang, 2002 ), suggesting that RGL1 might play a role in regulating floral development. (biologists.org)
- Thus, in the immune system, OPG regulates B cell maturation and development of efficient Ab responses. (jimmunol.org)
- Here, we identify a role for the lysine methyltransferase G9a in regulating ILC2 development and function. (rupress.org)
- to favor the stability of mating systems or to protect wild populations through supportive breeding practices, as having control on the sex ratio if fundamental to maintain the effective population size and therefore to avoid inbreeding depression [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- European Journal of Entomology: Does monogeny enable gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to regulate their sex ratio? (eje.cz)
- Theoretical models propose that the adjustment of offspring sex ratio by females may pre-dispose the evolution of monogeny in gall midges however empirical studies in this field are superficial. (eje.cz)
- In this paper, we examined the sex ratio of the offspring of the monogenous predatory gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza attacking low and high abundances of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii . (eje.cz)
- Two consecutive generations of female gall midges were presented with either a low or high abundance of aphids in each generation and the sex ratio of their progenies determined. (eje.cz)
- There was no difference between the sex ratio of the progenies that developed on the high or low abundance of A. gossypii in the two generations. (eje.cz)
- Results of this study do not support the theory of sex ratio regulation proposed for monogenous gall midges. (eje.cz)
- BARNES H.F. 1931: The sex ratio at the time of emergence and the occurrence of unisexual families in the gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). (eje.cz)
- CRAIG T.P., PRICE P.W. & ITAMI J.K. 1992: Facultative sex ratio shifts by a herbivorous insect in response to variation in host plant quality. (eje.cz)
- DORCHIN N. & FREIDBERG A. 2004: Sex ratio in relation to season and host plant quality in a monogenous stem-galling midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). (eje.cz)
- We sought to determine whether direct manipulation of VitD levels modulates central nervous system autoimmune disease in a sex-by-genotype-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
- EAE protection was accompanied by sex- and genotype-specific suppression of proinflammatory transcriptional programs in CD4 T effector cells, but not CD4 regulatory T cells. (frontiersin.org)
- In consomic strains, effects of VitD on EAE were also sex- and genotype dependent, whereby high VitD: (1) was protective, (2) had no effect, and (3) unexpectedly had disease-exacerbating effects. (frontiersin.org)
- It has been known for a long time that skin color often changes during pregnancy, which suggests that sex hormones may be involved. (elifesciences.org)
- Some research suggests that women who have intercourse at least once a week are more likely to have normal menstrual cycles than women who are celibate or who have infrequent sex. (mindbodygreen.com)
- This suggests that there are forces that push the sexes apart and others that pull them back together. (plos.org)
- The BIS study suggests that cryptocurrency markets rely on regulated financial institutions to operate, bringing cryptocurrencies within reach of national regulation. (bis.org)
- The association between pregnancy and altered cutaneous pigmentation has been documented for over two millennia, suggesting that sex hormones play a role in regulating epidermal melanocyte (MC) homeostasis. (elifesciences.org)
- As the Austin ordinance also bars discrimination on the basis of sex, the lawsuit also seeks protection of some member churches who feel the Bible doesn't allow women to serve in the role of senior pastor because of the words of 2 Timothy 2:12. (christianpost.com)
- Their studies and subsequent findings demonstrated that this chemical, leptin, plays the central role in a self-regulating circuit: As fat accumulates, it exudes leptin, which binds to a receptor in the brain that quells the desire to eat. (laskerfoundation.org)