Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain hellebrin (BUFANOLIDES). The extract is the basis of Boicil preparation used to treat rheumatism.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.
The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. The species of Coleus should be distinguished from PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS - which is also known as Coleus forskohlii.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
In angiosperms, the endosperm contain hormones such as cytokinins, which regulate cellular differentiation and embryonic organ ...
Cytokinins - Cytokinins regulate root apical meristem size and promote lateral root elongation. ... In response to the concentration of nutrients, roots also synthesise cytokinin, which acts as a signal as to how fast the ... All components of the root architecture are regulated through a complex interaction between genetic responses and responses due ... Malamy JE (2005). "Intrinsic and environmental response pathways that regulate root system architecture". Plant, Cell & ...
"Abscisic acid regulates root growth under osmotic stress conditions via an interacting hormonal network with cytokinin, ... They found that the plant hormone ABA regulates the root endodermal response under certain environmental conditions. In 2016 ... experimentally validated this claim by showing that ABA regulated root growth under osmotic stress conditions. Additionally, ...
Downes BP, Crowell DN (June 1998). "Cytokinin regulates the expression of a soybean β-expansin gene by a post-transcriptional ... They are also linked to cell enlargement and cell wall changes induced by other plant hormones such as gibberellin, cytokinin, ... August 2005). "Brassinosteroid regulates fiber development on cultured cotton ovules". Plant Cell Physiol. 46 (8): 1384-91. doi ... Rose JK, Lee HH, Bennett AB (May 1997). "Expression of a divergent expansin gene is fruit-specific and ripening-regulated". ...
Cytokinin hormone is known to regulate the rate of the cell division instead of the direction of cell differentiation. A study ... Auxin also regulates the two types of cell in the vascular cambium, ray and fusiform initials. Regulation of these initials ... Gibberellin stimulates the cambial cell division and also regulates differentiation of the xylem tissues, with no effect on the ... Signals received from outside the meristem act to down regulate internal factors, which promotes cell proliferation and ...
The substance is taken up by the leaves and has a cytokinin-like behavior. It causes leaves to lose weight in a controlled ... The synthesis routes and their use as plant growth regulating agent were patented in the early 1980s by the German company ...
When auxin and cytokinin are applied to callus, rooting can be generated with higher auxin to cytokinin ratios, shoot growth is ... PINs are regulated by multiple pathways, at both the transcriptional and the post-translational levels. PIN proteins can be ... Additionally, the binding of Aux/IAA to ARFs brings Aux/IAA into contact with the promoters of auxin-regulated genes. When at ... May 2009). "A regulated auxin minimum is required for seed dispersal in Arabidopsis". Nature. 459 (7246): 583-6. Bibcode: ...
... rates of cell division and either concentrate or produce required growth-regulating substances including auxins and cytokinins ... For example, an excess of auxin will often result in a proliferation of roots, while an excess of cytokinin may yield shoots. A ... balance of both auxin and cytokinin will often produce an unorganised growth of cells, or callus, but the morphology of the ...
and cytokinin action. Hepler's research is currently aimed at finding the ionic and molecular components that make up the ... "Oscillatory increases in alkalinity anticipate growth and may regulate actin dynamics in pollen tubes of lily". Plant Cell. 18 ... Saunders, M. J.; P. K. Hepler (1982). "Calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates cytokinin-like mitosis in Funaria". Science. 217 ( ... Saunders, M. J.; P. K. Hepler (1981). "Localization of membrane-associated calcium following cytokinin treatment in Funaria ...
2013). "Cytokinins as key regulators in plant-microbe-insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence" (PDF). ... This study also suggested that a source-sink relationship exists under field conditions to regulate this carbon transfer. ... Some of these exudates act synergistically upon hyphal morphology, as with rutin (a flavonol) and zeatin (a cytokinin). However ... Also, through the induction of altered levels of cytokinins in the phytosymbiont, root branching can be increased. These ...
"The Assembly of the CAAT-box Binding Complex at a Photosynthesis Gene Promoter Is Regulated by Light, Cytokinin, and the Stage ... In plants, the NF-YA subunit has evolved to regulate the development of a facultative root organ only present in leguminous ... They are regulated through various means, including hormones, mitogens, cytokines, nutrients, and other various factors. ... where its influence is potentially regulated by the binding of the protein CONSTANS (CO) to the NF-YC subunit. Because of the ...
It also regulates other responses including the germination of seeds, elongation of seedlings, the size, shape and number of ... The most important plant hormones are abscissic acid (ABA), auxins, ethylene, gibberellins, and cytokinins, though there are ... They regulate which tissues grow upwards and which grow downwards, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ... Many flowering plants use it to regulate the time of flowering based on the length of day and night (photoperiodism) and to set ...
"Role of Cytokinin and Auxin in Shaping Root Architecture: Regulating Vascular Differentiation, Lateral Root Initiation, Root ... When auxin and cytokinin are applied to callus, rooting can be generated with higher auxin to cytokinin ratios, shoot growth is ... May 2009). "A regulated auxin minimum is required for seed dispersal in Arabidopsis". Nature. 459 (7246): 583-6. Bibcode: ... Crown galls are caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria; they produce and excrete auxin and cytokinin, which interfere ...
The gene ABPH1 has been found to code for cytokinin and when changed in a mutant affected the plant's ability to regulate the ... Aintegumenta has been found to be one of these regulatory genes that regulated cell growth. It is believed that many genes are ... Hormones are known to regulate heteroblastic change in plants. One hormone that has been identified is gibberellin. In a study ... It is also hypothesized that auxin and cytokinin when working together can cause the sudden change in phyllotaxy of ...
The chvE protein regulates the second mechanism of the vir genes' activation. It increases VirA protein sensitivity to phenolic ... Genes for the production of cytokinins are also expressed. This stimulates cell proliferation and gall formation. The T-DNA ... positively regulating the transcription of genes required for conjugation[citation needed]. A. tumefaciens infects the plant ... so it means the plant has no molecular means of regulating it and auxin will be produced constitutively. ...
These stages can also be defined by the hormones that are regulating the process which are as follows: Stage I, cytokinin ... When the shoot is cut off, the lateral bud begins to lengthen which is mediated by a release of cytokinin. Once the apical ... It was first discovered in 1934 that the plant hormone auxin likely regulates apical dominance. Auxin is predominantly produced ... cytokinin released resulting in outward growth of the lateral bud; and Stage IV, auxin is decreased and gibberellic acid is ...
Cytokinin signaling is positively reinforced by WUS to prevent the inhibition of cytokinin signaling, while WUS promotes its ... In Arabidopsis thaliana, 3 interacting CLAVATA genes are required to regulate the size of the stem cell reservoir in the shoot ... The function of WUS in the shoot apical meristem is linked to the phytohormone cytokinin. Cytokinin activates histidine kinases ... Type-B ARRs work as transcription factors to activate genes downstream of cytokinin, including A-ARRs. A-ARRs are similar to B- ...
Cytokinins help to maintain the plant cell and expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes late in development prevents leaf ... Waterworth WM, Footitt S, Bray CM, Finch-Savage WE, West CE (2016). "DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and ... A withdrawal of or inability of the cell to perceive cytokinin may cause it to undergo apoptosis or senescence. In addition, ... Ivanova M., and Rost T. L., (1998). "Cytokinins and the plant cell cycle: Problems and pitfalls of proving their function". ...
Müller B, Sheen J (June 2008). "Cytokinin and auxin interaction in root stem-cell specification during early embryogenesis". ... "Mei-P26 regulates microRNAs and cell growth in the Drosophila ovarian stem cell lineage". Nature. 454 (7201): 241-5. Bibcode: ...
Auxin is known to regulate the biosynthesis of cytokinin. Because cytokinin promotes plant cell division and growth, produce ... It was hypothesized that cytokinin may affect enzymes that regulate protein synthesis and degradation. Cytokinin signaling in ... The ratio of auxin to cytokinin plays an important role in the effect of cytokinin on plant growth. Cytokinin alone has no ... Großkinsky DK, Petrášek J (February 2019). "Auxins and cytokinins - the dynamic duo of growth‐regulating phytohormones heading ...
During the formation of trichomes and root hairs, many enzymes are regulated. For example, just prior to the root hair ... Some of these phytohormones are involved in trichome formation, which include gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinins (CK), and ... The development pathway is regulated by three transcription factors: R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix, and WD40 repeat. The ...
"Cytokinin regulates type-A Arabidopsis Response Regulator activity and protein stability via two-component phosphorelay". The ... Type-C cytokinin response regulators are unique in that their expression is not induced by cytokinins like type-A cytokinin ... Type A cytokinin response regulators serve as negative regulators for cytokinin signaling. Cytokinin causes the rapid induction ... Expression of type A cytokinin response regulators decreases sensitivity to cytokinins, and a lack of type-A cytokinin response ...
Nematodes also produce plant hormones such as cytokinins that aid in the establishment of association with plants. Perhaps even ... such as plant-produced oxylipins that mimic fungal signaling molecules and can regulate fungal development or reduce virulence ...
M. extorquens also produces PhyR which plants use to regulate stress response, allowing the plant to survive in different ... LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de Lidstrom, Mary E.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila (2002-04-01). "Plants in the Pink: Cytokinin Production by ...
... modern biodynamic practitioners believe their benefit is to support the self-regulating capacities of the biota already present ... The field sprays contain substances that stimulate plant growth including cytokinins.[citation needed][clarification needed] ...
Ethylene production is regulated by a variety of developmental and environmental factors. During the life of the plant, ... Auxins Cytokinins IAA Growth substances, Ethylene. 7: 231-248. Yang SF, Hoffman NE (1984). "Ethylene biosynthesis and its ... October 2011). "EIN2 regulates salt stress response and interacts with a MA3 domain-containing protein ECIP1 in Arabidopsis". ... It acts at trace levels throughout the life of the plant by stimulating or regulating the ripening of fruit, the opening of ...
When the cutting is excised from the original root system the root inhibiting hormones, cytokinin and strigolactone, which are ... concentration which initiates root formation through a MAPK signal cascade and a cGMP-dependent pathway that both regulate ...
Ethylene production is regulated by a variety of developmental and environmental factors. During the life of the plant, ... Auxins Cytokinins IAA Growth substances, Ethylene Yang, S. F.; Hoffman N. E. (1984). "Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation ... It acts at trace levels throughout the life of the plant by stimulating or regulating the ripening of fruit, the opening of ... In this way, the immune system may regulate the resources of phagocytes that play a role in inflammation and immune responses. ...
Plants use different pathways to regulate internal hormone quantities and moderate their effects; they can regulate the amount ... Cytokinins or CKs are a group of chemicals that influence cell division and shoot formation. They also help delay senescence of ... The nuclear protein Ethylene Insensitive2 (EIN2) is regulated by ethylene production, and, in turn, regulates other hormones ... Cytokinins and auxins often work together, and the ratios of these two groups of plant hormones affect most major growth ...
Fang Y, Hirsch AM (1998). "Studying early nodulin gene ENOD40 expression and induction by nodulation factor and cytokinin in ... promoter is active in Arabidopsis thaliana and is temporally and spatially regulated". Plant Mol Biol. 39 (1): 177-181. doi: ... Lee A, Lum MR, Hirsch AM (2007). "ENOD40 Gene Expression and Cytokinin Responses in the Nonnodulating, Nonmycorrhizal (NodMyc) ...
The end result is to immobilize the TATA-binding protein (TBP) on DNA in order to down-regulate transcription initiation. ... first studies of TATA box mutations looked at a sequence of DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens for the octopine type cytokinin ... xiaojinensis has a TATA box inserted in the promoter upstream of the iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) promoter. As a result ... they are more highly regulated and display higher expression levels than promoters using the TFIID/TBP mode of recruitment.[11] ...
Auxins Cytokinins IAA Growth substances, Ethylene *^ Yang, S. F.; Hoffman N. E. (1984). "Ethylene biosynthesis and its ... Ethylene production is regulated by a variety of developmental and environmental factors. During the life of the plant, ... ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. ... Ethylene is known for regulating plant growth and development and adapted to stress conditions. Central membrane proteins in ...
... cytokinin and strigolactone, which are made in the root and transported to the stem, decrease in concentration.[8] Polyphenol ... concentration which initiates root formation through a MAPK signal cascade and a cGMP-dependent pathway that that both regulate ...
... the endosperm contain hormones such as cytokinins, which regulate cellular differentiation and embryonic organ formation.[12] ...
The rate of hormone biosynthesis and secretion is often regulated by a homeostatic negative feedback control mechanism. Such a ... A hormone may also regulate the production and release of other hormones. Hormone signals control the internal environment of ... The discovery of hormones and endocrine signaling occurred during studies of how the digestive system regulates its activities ... regulating the expression of certain genes, and thereby increasing the levels of the proteins encoded by these genes.[16] ...
regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase). to α-ketoglutaric acid. *Glutamate ... Cytokinin dehydrogenase. *Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. *Flavodoxin. *Methemoglobin reductase. *Methylenetetrahydrofolate ...
Plants use different pathways to regulate internal hormone quantities and moderate their effects; they can regulate the amount ... Cytokinins or CKs are a group of chemicals that influence cell division and shoot formation. They were called kinins in the ... The nuclear protein Ethylene Insensitive2 (EIN2) is regulated by ethylene production, and, in turn, regulates other hormones ... Auxins in seeds regulate specific protein synthesis,[19] as they develop within the flower after pollination, causing the ...
Found in all organisms, DHFR has a critical role in regulating the amount of tetrahydrofolate in the cell. Tetrahydrofolate and ... "MDM2 regulates dihydrofolate reductase activity through monoubiquitination". Cancer Research. 68 (9): 3232-42. doi:10.1158/ ...
Many flowering plants use it to regulate the time of flowering based on the length of day and night (photoperiodism) and to set ... The most important plant hormones are abscissic acid (ABA), auxins, ethylene, gibberellins, and cytokinins, though there are ... It also regulates other responses including the germination of seeds, elongation of seedlings, the size, shape and number of ... They regulate which tissues grow upwards and which grow downwards, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ...
showed that inflammatory cytokines cause an IL-10-dependent inhibition of[21] T-cell expansion and function by up-regulating PD ... Not to be confused with Cytokinin.. 3D medical animation still showing secretion of Cytokines ... and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations. Some cytokines enhance or inhibit ... There are both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that regulate this pathway. ...
Cytokinins are a class of plant hormones named for their control of cell division or cytokinesis. The natural cytokinin zeatin ... Another class of phytohormones is the jasmonates, first isolated from the oil of Jasminum grandiflorum[169] which regulates ... It is now known to be the hormone that stimulates or regulates fruit ripening and abscission,[167][168] and it, or the ... Epigenetic changes in eukaryotic biology serve to regulate the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, ...
The auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) regulates concentration of GA1 in elongating internodes in peas.[38] Removal of IAA by ... Bioactive GAs and abcisic acid levels have an inverse relationship and regulate seed development and germination.[44][45] ... Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, ... Recent evidence suggests fluctuations in GA concentration influence light-regulated seed germination, photomorphogenesis during ...
Non-shivering thermogenesis is a regulated process in which the proton gradient generated by electron transport in mitochondria ... Hydrogen cyanamide interacts with the cytokinin metabolic cycle, which results in triggering a new growth cycle.[citation ...
Many countries regulate limits for psychoactive compound (THC) concentrations in products labeled as hemp. Cannabis for ... and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects. It has been reported that sex can be reversed ...
... s are also regulated by receptor agonists. Hormones are ligands, which are any kinds of molecules that produce a signal ... Examples include abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin. Most hormones initiate a cellular response by ... Hormone effects can be inhibited, thus regulated, by competing ligands that bind to the same target receptor as the hormone in ... The rate of hormone biosynthesis and secretion is often regulated by a homeostatic negative feedback control mechanism. Such a ...
In short, initiation of sporulation is a very tightly regulated network with numerous checkpoints for efficient control. Two ... Similarly, in Dictyostelium discoideum (slime mold), SDF-2 and cytokinins are secreted during late development to trigger ... Anjard, C.; Loomis, W. F. (2008). "Cytokinins induce sporulation in Dictyostelium". Development. 135 (5): 819-27. doi:10.1242/ ...
The LFY gene regulates the expression of some genes belonging to the MADS-box family. These genes, in turn, act as direct ... Other players that have a conserved role in defining leaf primordia are the phytohormones auxin, gibberelin and cytokinin. The ... Secondly, variable apertures, the stomata that could open and close to regulate the amount of water lost by evaporation during ... The endodermis in the roots surrounds the water transport tissue and regulates ion exchange between the groundwater and the ...
... Cytokinin induces genome-wide binding of the type-B response regulator ARR10 to regulate growth and development in Arabidopsis ... Results shed light on the physiological role of the type-B ARRs in regulating the cytokinin response, mechanism of type-B ARR ... Results from our analyses shed light on the physiological role of the type-B ARRs in regulating the cytokinin response, ...
Cytokinin Regulates Compound Leaf Development in Tomato. Eilon Shani, Hadas Ben-Gera, Sharona Shleizer-Burko, Yogev Burko, ... Cytokinin Regulates Compound Leaf Development in Tomato. Eilon Shani, Hadas Ben-Gera, Sharona Shleizer-Burko, Yogev Burko, ... Cytokinin Regulates Compound Leaf Development in Tomato. Eilon Shani, Hadas Ben-Gera, Sharona Shleizer-Burko, Yogev Burko, ... 2009). Cytokinin regulates root meristem activity via modulation of the polar auxin transport. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106: ...
Cytokinin Regulates Compound Leaf Development in Tomato. Eilon Shani, Hadas Ben-Gera, Sharona Shleizer-Burko, Yogev Burko, ... Cytokinin Regulates Compound Leaf Development in Tomato. Eilon Shani, Hadas Ben-Gera, Sharona Shleizer-Burko, Yogev Burko, ... Cytokinin Regulates Compound Leaf Development in Tomato. Eilon Shani, Hadas Ben-Gera, Sharona Shleizer-Burko, Yogev Burko, ... Down-stream components of cytokinin signaling and the role of cytokinin throughout the plant ...
Rice Cytokinin GATA Transcription Factor1 Regulates Chloroplast Development and Plant Architecture. Darryl Hudson, David R. ... Rice Cytokinin GATA Transcription Factor1 Regulates Chloroplast Development and Plant Architecture. Darryl Hudson, David R. ... Regulating the expression of Cga1 through inputs from light, N, cytokinin, and GA allows plants to modulate chloroplast ... Rice Cytokinin GATA Transcription Factor1 Regulates Chloroplast Development and Plant Architecture Message Subject (Your Name) ...
... cytokinin-)regulated gene expression and therefore designated CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 (Naito et al., 2007). The ... LLM-Domain Containing B-GATA Factors Control Different Aspects of Cytokinin-Regulated Development in Arabidopsis thaliana. ... 5B), and 98 of the 294 entities up-regulated in gnc gnl were also up-regulated in the quintuple mutant (Fig. 5B). Conversely, ... 2011) Ectopic expression of different cytokinin-regulated transcription factor genes of Arabidopsis thaliana alters plant ...
... while auxin represses cytokinin signalling. The mutual inhibition between auxin and cytokinin regulates the extent of their ... Auxin and cytokinin interactions regulate primary vascular patterning during root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Show ... We sought to understand the factors regulating AHP6 expression in the root tip. Cytokinin signalling is known to flank the ... Auxin and cytokinin interactions regulate primary vascular patterning during root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. ...
"Cytokinin regulates differentially expression of P AHK -GUS constructs in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, Russian ... Cytokinin regulates differentially expression of P AHK -GUS constructs in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Cytokinin ... Cytokinin regulates differentially expression of P AHK -GUS constructs in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Danilova, M. ... Cytokinin Regulates Type-A Arabidopsis Response Regulator Activity and Protein Stability via Two-Component Phosphorelay ...
Wolfram Brenner: Cytokinin-regulated signal transduction and gene regulation: Mechanistic details and possible applications. ... Wolfram Brenner: Cytokinin-regulated signal transduction and gene regulation: Mechanistic details and possible applications ... Wolfram Brenner: Cytokinin-regulated signal transduction and gene regulation: Mechanistic details and possible applications ... Wolfram Brenner (Freie Universität Berlin, Institute for Biology - Applied Genetics, Germany): Cytokinin-regulated signal ...
Shoots expressGns1 at much higher levels when treated with ethylene, cytokinin, salicylic acid, and fungal elicitors derived ... Structure of a rice β-glucanase gene regulated by ethylene, cytokinin, wounding, salicylic acid and fungal elicitors. @article{ ... Simmons1992StructureOA, title={Structure of a rice β-glucanase gene regulated by ethylene, cytokinin, wounding, salicylic acid ... Shoots expressGns1 at much higher levels when treated with ethylene, cytokinin, salicylic acid, and fungal elicitors derived ...
Cytokinin acts through the auxin influx carrier AUX1 to regulate cell elongation in the root ... Cytokinin regulates root cell elongation through ethylene-dependent and independent mechanisms, both hormonal signals ... Cytokinin acts through the auxin influx carrier AUX1 to regulate cell elongation in the root. Development . ISSN 1477-9129 ... and support a model in which cytokinin regulates shootward auxin transport to control cell elongation and root growth. ...
AHP6 Inhibits Cytokinin Signaling to Regulate the Orientation of Pericycle Cell Division during Lateral Root Initiation. Sofia ... The formation of LR primordia is regulated antagonistically by the phytohormones cytokinin and auxin. It has previously been ... acts as a cytokinin inhibitor, we reveal that AHP6 also functions as a cytokinin repressor during early stages of LR ... In summary, we show that the inhibition of cytokinin signaling through AHP6 is required to establish the correct pattern during ...
Auxin and cytokinin in particular have been found to play important roles in this process. On the other hand, the AP2/ERF2 ... Therefore, we explored the response of drnl-2 developing gynoecia to cytokinins, and found that the loss of DRNL function ... Therefore, we explored the response of drnl-2 developing gynoecia to cytokinins, and found that the loss of DRNL function ... Some of the mutant phenotypes present similarities to those observed in plants treated with exogenous cytokinins, and AHP6 has ...
Cytokinin Positively Regulates Ovule Number. CK is an essential hormone for plant growth and development as it has a central ... Bartrina, I., Otto, E., Strnad, M., Werner, T., and Schmülling, T. (2011). Cytokinin regulates the activity of reproductive ... ANT expression is also regulated by brassinosteroids (BR), specifically being directly regulated by BZR1. ANT controls cell ... Lateral root formation and growth of Arabidopsis is redundantly regulated by cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes. J. Exp ...
Cytokinin-induced cell cycle regulates MET1 activity during shoot regeneration ($) November 3, 2017. /in Blog, Plant Science ... Moreover, MET1 expression is enhanced by the cell cycle regulator E2F as well as by the CYCD3 cyclin in a cytokinin-dependent ... SHOU4 proteins regulate trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes to the plasma membrane (Curr. Biol.) ... These findings reveal a direct epigenetic control of plant regeneration regulated by external signals including phytohormones ...
In Arabidopsis, the transcriptional response to cytokinin i... ... Abstract Cytokinins are plant hormones that play critical roles ... Members of the KMD family negatively regulate cytokinin signaling. (A and B) Effect of cytokinin on hypocotyl (A) and root (B) ... Cytokinin-Regulated KMD Genes Encode F-Box Proteins as Part of an SCF Complex.. F-box proteins, which function as the ... Cytokinin-regulated KMD genes encode F-box proteins interacting with components of the SCF complex. (A) Fourteen-day-old wild- ...
BPIFB3 regulates ER morphology to facilitate flavivirus replication.. February 28, 2020. On-Call Pay Rates Vary Widely. June 10 ... we elevated the cytokinin levels in flowers through transgenic expression of a cytokinin biosynthetic gene () from Arabidopsis ... Because the phytohormone cytokinins play an essential role in flower development, particularly pistil development, in this ... Flower-Specific Overproduction of Cytokinins Altered Flower Development and Sex Expression in the Perennial Woody Plant L.. Jan ...
Cytokinin signaling and its inhibitor AHP6 regulate cell fate during vascular development MAHONEN A. P. ... Cytokinin oxidase gene expression in maize is localized to the vasculature, and is induced by cytokinins, abscisic acid, and ... The Arabidopsis AHK4 Histidine Kinase is a Cytokinin-Binding Receptor that Transduces Cytokinin Signals Across the Membrane ... Interaction between phosphate-starvation, sugar, and cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis and the roles of cytokinin receptors ...
How does exogenously applied cytokinin type affect growth and endogenous cytokinins in micropropagated Merwilla plumbea? Plant ... Sakakibara H (2006) Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation. Ann Rev Plant Biol 57:431-449CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Jameson PE (2017) Cytokinins. In: Murray BG, Murphy DJ (eds) Encyclopedia of applied plant sciences, 2nd edn. Academic Press, ... gongylodes): effects of genotype, explant type and applied cytokinins. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 121:741-760CrossRefGoogle ...
Cytokinin oxidase regulates rice grain production. Science 309, 741-745 (2005).. CAS Google Scholar ... For instance, Cg4g018790 encodes a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase homologous to the rice OsCKX2 gene, which has been reported ... Here we identified six nucellar embryo-associated genes that are regulated by stress, which is in agreement with a previous ...
Cytokinin oxidase regulates rice grain production. Science 309, 741-5, doi:10.1126/science.1113373 (2005). ... Gn1a encodes a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase that degrades bioactive cytokinins; and reduced expression of Gn1a can lead to ... Hemsley, P. A., Kemp, A. C. & Grierson, C. S. The tip growth defective1 s-acyl transferase regulates plant cell growth in ... the accumulation of cytokinins and thus increase the number of grains24. ...
Involved in cytokinin biosynthesis. Catalyzes the transfer of an isopentenyl group from dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to ... Down-regulated by cytokinins.1 Publication. Manual assertion based on experiment ini ... "Cytokinins are central regulators of cambial activity.". Matsumoto-Kitano M., Kusumoto T., Tarkowski P., Kinoshita-Tsujimura K. ... cytokinin biosynthetic process Source: TAIR ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p>Used for information from review articles ...
In addition to regulating cytokinin biosynthesis, auxin has also been shown to affect cytokinin degradation by regulating the ... negatively regulate cytokinin biosynthesis through IPT1. Auxin and auxin activity are depicted in blue; cytokinin and cytokinin ... Ethylene-cytokinin crosstalk. It has been known for some time that cytokinin also regulates the biosynthesis of ethylene, which ... Based on this, they concluded that auxin can regulate the pool of available cytokinins but that the effect of cytokinin on ...
Cytokinin levels in plants are regulated by biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. Cytokinins are perceived by membrane- ... and by regulating root branching (Chang et al., 2013, 2015). Cytokinins also regulate root architecture, acting to inhibit ... cytokinins act in concert with auxin to regulate vascular development, with cytokinin promoting phloem and auxin xylem ... 2015). Cytokinin as a positional cue regulating lateral root spacing in Arabidopsis. J. Exp. Bot. 66, 4759-4768. doi:10.1093/ ...
Cytokinin hormones regulate a wide range of essential processes in plants. Thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea ... Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase Crystal structure Molecular docking Organic synthesis Thidiazuron Cytokinin Electronic ... The compounds were further tested for cytokinin activity in several cytokinin bioassays. We suggest that the combination of ... Frébort I, Šebela M, Galuszka P, Werner T, Schmülling T, Peč P (2002) Cytokinin oxidase/cytokinin dehydrogenase assay: ...
cytokinin. plant hormone that plays important roles in regulating development. cytoskeleton. internal protein skeleton of the ... plant hormone thought to play a key role in regulating plant growth responses to gravity; in addition it regulates many other ... they are also widely used as signaling molecules that regulate organism function. ...
Mutual interaction of auxin and cytokinins in regulating correlative dominance. Plant Growth Regulation 32: 205-217.. *CrossRef ... Auxin-cytokinin interactions in the control of shoot branching. Plant Molecular Biology 69: 429-435.. *CrossRef , ... However, the low levels of StCCD8 expression in DM may be a result of other factors that regulate CCD8 expression (Mashiguchi ... Strigolactone acts downstream of auxin to regulate bud outgrowth in pea and Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 150: 482-493.. * ...
Cytokinins - Cytokinins regulate root apical meristem size and promote lateral root elongation. ... In response to the concentration of nutrients, roots also synthesise cytokinin, which acts as a signal as to how fast the ... All components of the root architecture are regulated through a complex interaction between genetic responses and responses due ... Malamy JE (2005). "Intrinsic and environmental response pathways that regulate root system architecture". Plant, Cell & ...
Cytokinin oxidase regulates rice grain production.. Ashikari M, Sakakibara H, Lin S, Yamamoto T, Takashi T, Nishimura A, ...
Down-regulated by cytokinin.1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information for which there is published experimental evidence ... R-OSA-6796648. TP53 Regulates Transcription of DNA Repair Genes. Gene expression databases. Genevisible search portal to ...
B,C) Number of high-B stress dependent up-regulated (left) and down-regulated (right) genes annotated with "response to auxin ... A) Number of up-regulated (left) and down-regulated (right) genes in each condition. Genes that showed more than twofold change ... Effects of increased cytokinin treatment on the hypersensitivity of roots of the rpt5a mutant to high-B stress. (A) Effects of ... D,E) Differences in expression levels of all genes annotated with "response to auxin" (D) and "response to cytokinin" (E) among ...
  • We used a combination of mutants and pharmacological treatments to investigate how mutually exclusive auxin and cytokinin signalling domains are maintained in the Arabidopsis stele. (helsinki.fi)
  • While cytokinin is frequently thought to form gradients guiding developmental processes in the Arabidopsis shoot and root, we showed that an informative cytokinin gradient cannot form on the scale of these tissues via diffusion. (helsinki.fi)
  • Kulaeva, O. 2012-04-15 00:00:00 The expression regulation by cytokinin of genetic constructs P AHK2 -GUS, P AHK3 -GUS, and P AHK4 -GUS in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh plants bearing the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of the promoter of one of three genes encoding histidine protein kinases, which are membrane receptors of cytokinin was studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • In Arabidopsis, cytokinins inhibit root growth through effects on cell proliferation and cell elongation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In a similar manner to protoxylem formation in Arabidopsis roots, in which AHP6 (ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 6) acts as a cytokinin inhibitor, we reveal that AHP6 also functions as a cytokinin repressor during early stages of LR development. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Because the phytohormone cytokinins play an essential role in flower development, particularly pistil development, in this study, we elevated the cytokinin levels in flowers through transgenic expression of a cytokinin biosynthetic gene () from Arabidopsis under the control of a orthologue of () promoter that is predominantly active in flowers. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana , the model species for plant research, cytokinin biosynthesis is controlled by the ATP/ADP isopentenyltransferase (IPT) genes, which encode rate-limiting enzymes in cytokinin biosynthesis ( Fig. 1B ). (biologists.org)
  • For example, cytokinins have been described to induce resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. (sciencemag.org)
  • Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G 1 -S cell cycle phase transition. (sciencemag.org)
  • A possible role for cytokinin in regulating the expression of the Arabidopsis CycD3 gene in callus material ( 10 ) was investigated in a dispersed suspension culture of Arabidopsis cells ( 12 , 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Cells incubated for 24 hours without hormones ( 14 ) accumulated CycD3 transcripts in response to cytokinin supplied at concentrations down to 10 −3 μM ( Fig. 1 , A and B), starting within 1 hour ( Fig. 1 C). Zeatin, the most abundant cytokinin in Arabidopsis ( 15 ), and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) generated the strongest response, whereas adenine, a purine lacking cytokinin properties, showed no effect ( Fig. 1 A). (sciencemag.org)
  • CycD3 RNA induction by cytokinin in Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures ( 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Research with maize and Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that some cytokinin sensor kinases bind multiple types of cytokinins while other cytokinin sensor kinases are specific for distinct cytokinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • AHK4, a cytokinin histidine kinase in Arabidopsis thaliana, is a cytokinin sensor that allows binding of multiple types of cytokinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana, most histidine phosphotransfer proteins are redundant, positive regulators in cytokinin signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type A cytokinin response regulator family in Arabidopsis thaliana consists of 10 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Arabidopsis sensor histidine kinase CRE1 was recently reported to be a cytokinin receptor. (sciencemag.org)
  • These cytokinin responses in Arabidopsis are at least partly triggered through the recognition of cytokinins by the sensor protein CRE1, which is a member of the protein histidine kinase family ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • By forward genetic screening, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant named grow fast on cytokinins 1 (gfc1), whose seedlings grew larger aerial parts on MS medium with CK. (jove.com)
  • In Arabidopsis , the hormones auxin and cytokinin regulate branch initiation, and auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone regulate branch outgrowth. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Arabidopsis ROCK1 transports UDP-GlcNAc/UDP-GalNAc and regulates ER protein quality control and cytokinin activity. (mh-hannover.de)
  • We have demonstrated that the physiological function of tZ is distinct from that of iP, and the trans-hydroxylation of cytokinin controls shoot growth in Arabidopsis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have shown that plants have multiple modes of regulation of de novo cytokinin synthesis in response to nitrogen status: Arabidopsis mainly uses nitrate-specific response system that regulates IPT3, and rice employs multiple IPT genes for nitrogen-dependent cytokinin synthesis, and glutamine metabolism is the signal for the regulation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results indicate that at least five new loci affecting the developmentally regulated accumulation of phenylpropanoid secondary metabolites in Arabidopsis, and the cell specificity of their distribution, have been identified by screening for altered UV fluorescence phenotypes. (genetics.org)
  • Arabidopsis lateral organ boundaries negatively regulates brassinosteroid accumulation to limit growth in organ boundaries. (springer.com)
  • The bGLU:CKX1 barley line has been genetically modified by inserting the Arabidopsis thaliana cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene under the control of the root-specific β-glucosidase promoter from maize. (cbd.int)
  • Caesar K, Thamm AM, Witthöft J, Elgass K, Huppenberger P, Grefen C, Horak J, Harter K (2011 ) Evidence for the localization of the Arabidopsis cytokinin receptors AHK3 and AHK4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Dortay H, Mehnert N, Bürkle L, Schmülling T, Heyl A (2006 ) Analysis of protein interactions within the cytokinin-signaling pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana . (publish.csiro.au)
  • In detached senescing leaves, treatment with cytokinin retarded the loss of chlorophyll but did not affect significantly GUS activity under both light and darkness conditions in either of tested lines containing GUS gene under the control of promoters of histidine kinase genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus, in the studied test-system, treatment with cytokinin of A. thaliana plant grown in darkness or in the light affected differently the expression of histidine kinase genes in dependence of plant age, conditions of plant cultivation, and plant physiological state. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cytokinin biosynthesis is a multi-step process requiring the activity of several different genes. (biologists.org)
  • The phosphorylated, and thus activated, type-B RRs regulate the transcription of numerous genes, including the type-A RRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 19. Auxin regulated genes and promoters (T.J. Guilfoyle). (elsevier.com)
  • Putative receptor proteins for ethylene (1993- 95), brassinosteroids (1997) and cytokinins (2001) have been identified and the genes that encode them cloned. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Genes for histidyl-aspartyl (His-Asp) phosphorelay components (His-containing phosphotransfer proteins, HP, and response regulators, RR) were isolated from Zea mays L. to characterize their function in cytokinin signaling. (nih.gov)
  • All type-A RR genes expressed in leaves were up-regulated by exogenous cytokinin. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokinin cause a rapid increase in the expression of response regulator genes Cytokinins are a class of phytohormones that promote cell division in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins act in a restricted region of the root meristem, and their signaling and regulation of genes occurs through a multi-step phosphorelay mediate by cytokinin histidine sensor kinases, histidine phosphotransfer proteins, and cytokinin response regulator proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remainder (type A) possess no apparent functional unit other than a signal receiver domain containing two aspartate and one lysine residues (DDK) at invariant positions, and their genes are transcriptionally induced by cytokinins without de novo protein synthesis ( 7 , 9 , 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Microarray analysis in non transgenic (NT) plants evidenced a massive transcriptome remodeling during the 24 h following excision with aproximately 30% of the nuclear genes differentially regulated. (ufl.edu)
  • During this time gene networks involved in wound and stress responses showed significant regulation while genes with potential roles in root morphogenesis were significantly regulated later during the 24 to 48 hour interval. (ufl.edu)
  • I also observed a time point-specific influence of Delta DDKPtRR13 expression on the transcriptome at 24 h where 273 genes were differentially regulated. (ufl.edu)
  • A genome comparison between P. flavus strains M251 and M259 showed that both genomes contain up to 70 actinobacterial putative plant-associated genes and genes involved in known plant-beneficial pathways, such as those for auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase production. (asm.org)
  • Here, we show in Pisum sativum L. that the DELLA proteins can activate the expression of KNOX and BELL transcription factors involved in regulation of cytokinin metabolic and response genes. (edu.au)
  • Consistently, pea la cry-s (della1 della2) mutant showed reduced ability to upregulate expression of some cytokinin metabolic genes during nodulation. (edu.au)
  • RT-PCR analysis of transgenic plants revealed that BrSTY1, BrSRS7, and BrLRP1 regulate expression of several gibberellin (GA)- and auxin-related genes involved in morphogenesis in shoot apical regions. (ebscohost.com)
  • We conclude that BrSTY1, BrSRS7, and BrLRP1 regulate plant growth and development by regulating expression of GA- and auxin-related genes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Spaceflight also causes changes in the expression of many genes that are regulated by auxin and other plant hormones, as well as genes that regulate the size and shapes of cells that influence root growth patterns. (nasa.gov)
  • The fungus produces low amounts of auxins, but the auxin levels and the expression of auxin-regulated genes are not altered in colonized roots. (apsnet.org)
  • The gene pattern of genes known to be associated with cytokinin was also studied, but no gene expression pattern that the profile generated could explain the onset of senescence. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, cytokinin treatment inhibited the auxin induction of only one of two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes that exhibited impaired auxin inducibility in dgt hypocotyls. (rti.org)
  • An increased understanding of the relationships between the genes (and their products) that regulate osmotic stress responses and MDR transporters will help to identify novel strategies and targets to overcome the current stalemate in drug discovery. (asm.org)
  • auxins and cytokinins are essential to initiate the vascular cambium. (els.net)
  • Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. (mdpi.com)
  • It is a general inhibitor of growth and in this way its function is opposite to those of auxins and cytokinins. (preservearticles.com)
  • The five types of plant hormones include abscisic acid, ethylene, gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. (ebscohost.com)
  • It is noted that auxins and cytokinins are commercially available. (ebscohost.com)
  • The correct usage of auxins and cytokinins used at varying ratios and times during the grow and flowering cycles can greatly stimulate desirable effects in plants. (icmag.com)
  • Here we define key mechanistic elements in a regulatory network by which cytokinin inhibits root cell elongation in concert with the hormones auxin and ethylene. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Cytokinin regulates root cell elongation through ethylene-dependent and independent mechanisms, both hormonal signals converging on AUX1 as a regulatory hub. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Taken together, our results uncover several regulatory circuits controlling interactions of cytokinin with auxin and ethylene, and support a model in which cytokinin regulates shootward auxin transport to control cell elongation and root growth. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Finally, putative direct and indirect targets of the constitutively active PtRR13 transcription factor imply that cross-talk between cytokinin, auxin and ethylene are important during adventitious rooting in cuttings. (ufl.edu)
  • There are five classic types of hormones-auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, ethylene and abscisic acid-and new classes are still being discovered and synthesized. (maximumyield.com)
  • This group includes auxin, cytokinin, the gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, the brassinosteroids (BRs), and jasmonic acid (JA), each of which acts at low concentrations to regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. (icmag.com)
  • Cytokinin treatment also inhibited rapid auxin responses in hypocotyl segments: auxin-stimulated elongation, H(+) secretion, and ethylene synthesis were all inhibited by cytokinin in wild-type hypocotyl segments, and thus mimicked the impaired auxin responsiveness found in dgt hypocotyls. (rti.org)
  • Mutations affect ethylene binding and metabolism of other plant hormones such as auxin, cytokinins, ABA and gibberellic acid. (bio-rad.com)
  • This time we focus on gibberellins, cytokinins and abscisic acid. (maximumyield.com)
  • Long-term seedling growing in darkness on medium containing cytokinin resulted in the substantial promoter activation of the gene encoding the histidine kinase AHK2. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cytokinins are perceived by membrane-localized histidine-kinase receptors and are transduced through a His-Asp phosphorelay to activate a family of transcription factors in the nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • This pathway is initiated by cytokinin binding to a histidine kinase receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinin signaling resembles two-component systems from bacteria and yeast in which an external signal is sensed by a histidine kinase (HK) and then transferred to a response regulator (RR). (ufl.edu)
  • Cytokinins, like other plant hormones, affect a diverse array of plant growth and development processes and responses to the environment. (pnas.org)
  • These results imply that CK regulates flexible leaf patterning by dynamic interaction with additional hormones and transcription factors. (plantcell.org)
  • We discovered a feedback loop between the hormones, in which cytokinin activates auxin exporters, while auxin represses cytokinin signalling. (helsinki.fi)
  • An autoregulatory circuit is identified involving the control of ARR10 and AUX1 expression by cytokinin and auxin, this circuit potentially functioning as an oscillator to integrate the effects of these two hormones. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Cytokinins are a major class of plant hormones that are involved in various aspects of plant development, ranging from organ formation and apical dominance to leaf senescence. (biologists.org)
  • Cytokinin and auxin have long been known to interact antagonistically, and more recent studies have shown that cytokinins also interact with other plant hormones to regulate plant development. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we provide a brief overview of the metabolic pathways that regulate the levels of this group of plant hormones and highlight recent advances in the understanding of cytokinin transport. (biologists.org)
  • Cytokinin hormones regulate a wide range of essential processes in plants. (springer.com)
  • While cytokinin action in vascular plants is described as pleiotropic, this class of plant hormones specifically induces the transition from apical growth to growth via a three-faced apical cell in moss protonema. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some naturally occurring hormones are auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins. (missouri.edu)
  • Catalyses the oxidation of cytokinins, a family of N6-substituted adenine derivatives that are plant hormones, where the substituent is a dimethylallyl or other prenyl group. (genome.jp)
  • Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cytokinins are important plant hormones that influence a diverse array of physiological and developmental processes such as root and shoot morphogenesis. (ufl.edu)
  • PGPB can directly improve plant growth through various mechanisms, including improved nutrient acquisition, such as nitrogen and phosphorus uptake through nitrogen fixation ( 6 ) and phosphate solubilization ( 7 ), respectively, increasing the production of plant growth hormones like auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins ( 8 ) and producing stress tolerance enzymes like 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • All hormones work together as a signaling network to regulate a plant's defense responses. (maximumyield.com)
  • Cytokinins are hormones derived from adenine that stimulate cell division. (maximumyield.com)
  • Also known as 'endophytic' animals, these insects can even manipulate the signaling system in a plant, such as a class of plant hormones called cytokinins, which help plants to grow and to develop seeds and nutrient-storing fruits or young leaves. (elifesciences.org)
  • then developed a method to clearly distinguish cytokinins present in the insects from those produced by the plants to test whether T. notatus can transfer these plant hormones during feeding. (elifesciences.org)
  • and as this process is regulated by hormones, it can be controlled with plant growth regulators ( ZHANG ;WHITING 2013 ). (scielo.br)
  • The Nod factor signaling pathway interacts with plant hormones, including cytokinins and gibberellins. (edu.au)
  • The article focuses on plant hormones or phytohormones, which pertain to chemicals produced by plants to regulate plant growth. (ebscohost.com)
  • When a plant is under stress at any given stage of growth, it will produce less cytokinin growth hormones. (icmag.com)
  • Cytokinins, which are chemically N6-substituted purine derivatives, are a class of plant hormones that regulate cell division as well as a large number of developmental events in plants. (cbd.int)
  • Cytokinins are plant hormones believed to delay or block senescence, studies have suggested that the decrease of cytokinins and/or cytokinin signalling may precede senescence in some plants. (diva-portal.org)
  • Many aspects of plant development are regulated by antagonistic interactions between the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin, but the molecular mechanisms of this interaction are not understood. (rti.org)
  • In rice ( Oryza sativa ), the CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1 (Cga1) shows increased expression following light, nitrogen, and cytokinin treatments, while darkness and gibberellin reduce expression. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cytokinin and gibberellin, alone or associated, regardless of formation period and position, did not affect the size and physicochemical characteristics of fruits, only delayed the bunch harvest. (scielo.br)
  • However, the interaction between the cytokinin and gibberellin signaling pathways is not fully understood. (edu.au)
  • All nutrients aside, balancing of the auxin/cytokinin/gibberellin chemical equation is the real key to maximizing your specific strains potential. (icmag.com)
  • Mixing gibberellins with both auxins (IAA) and cytokinins (6BA) gives the treatment a synergizing balance and can exceed these limitations (i.e. a hardy 'stretched out' plant that is dense and full). (icmag.com)
  • Here, and in the accompanying poster, we summarize the current understanding of cytokinin metabolism, transport and signaling, and discuss how this phytohormone regulates changes in gene expression to mediate its pleiotropic effects. (biologists.org)
  • 6. Control of cytokinin biosynthesis and metabolism (E. Zazimalova, A. Brezinova, V. Motyka, M. Kaminek). (elsevier.com)
  • Our results suggest that DELLA proteins may regulate cytokinin metabolism upon nodulation. (edu.au)
  • The formation of LR primordia is regulated antagonistically by the phytohormones cytokinin and auxin. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • These findings reveal a direct epigenetic control of plant regeneration regulated by external signals including phytohormones. (plantae.org)
  • Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins are a class of phytohormones involved in various physiological events of plants. (sciencemag.org)
  • Results shed light on the physiological role of the type-B ARRs in regulating the cytokinin response, mechanism of type-B ARR activation, and basis by which cytokinin regulates diverse aspects of growth and development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic factors. (pnas.org)
  • The plant hormone cytokinin affects a diverse array of growth and development processes and responses to the environment. (pnas.org)
  • The auxin importer AUX1 functions as a positive regulator of cytokinin responses in the root, AUX1 mutants specifically affecting the ability of cytokinin to inhibit cell elongation but not cell proliferation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • An auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid = NAA) and three cytokinin (CK) types (benzyladenine = BA, meta -topolin riboside = m TR and isopentenyladenine = iP), each at three concentrations (1, 5 and 10 µM), were tested and the effect of these PGRs on the accumulation of endogenous CK metabolites was evaluated to provide clues on the observed morphological responses. (springer.com)
  • The phytohormone cytokinin plays diverse roles in plant development, influencing many agriculturally important processes, including growth, nutrient responses and the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. (biologists.org)
  • All components of the root architecture are regulated through a complex interaction between genetic responses and responses due to environmental stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 26S Proteasome Is Required for the Maintenance of Root Apical Meristem by Modulating Auxin and Cytokinin Responses Under High-Boron Stress. (nih.gov)
  • The drastically aberrant auxin and cytokinin responses in the rpt5a mutant under high-B stress were supported by transcriptome analysis using root tips. (nih.gov)
  • AHP4, however, might play a negative role in cytokinin responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional roles of three cutin biosynthetic acyltransferases in cytokinin responses and skotomorphogenesis. (jove.com)
  • Cytokinin levels in plants are regulated by biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. (biologists.org)
  • To further understand the molecular function of 26SP in tolerance to high-B stress in the RAM, in this study we investigated the pathways regulated by 26SP using a 26SP subunit mutant, rpt5a , which is hypersensitive to high-B stress. (nih.gov)
  • However, a more detailed study including genome-wide transcriptome and metabolic analysis is needed to determine the underlying genetic elements and pathways regulating the observed developmental and metabolic changes. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the molecular players involved in cytokinin repression are still unknown. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which cytokinin signaling is connected to specific traits can provide the genetic tools to improve agronomic characteristics (e.g, stem wood production per unit root biomass). (ufl.edu)
  • Previously, we have isolated and characterized a cytokinin-binding protein with the molecular mass of 70 kDa (CBP-70) and showed its receptor properties [1,2]. (bio.net)
  • M. Febs Letters (423)2 (1998) pp. 239-242 Thank you in advance, Sincerely yours, Feodor A. Brovko, Head of research team, Ph.D.(Biology), Senior researcher P.S. My team studies the molecular mechanisms of cytokinin signal reception in plant using biochemical and immunochemical methods, and methods of genetic engineering. (bio.net)
  • B ) The cytokinin biosynthesis pathway, highlighting the key enzymes involved. (biologists.org)
  • The type-A RRs negatively regulate the pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • DMADP and HMBDP used in cytokinin biosynthesis are produced by the methylerythritol phosphate pathway (MEP). (wikipedia.org)
  • A cytokinin signaling and response regulator protein is a plant protein that is involved in a two step cytokinin signaling and response regulation pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytokinin signaling pathway consists of sensor kinases, histidine phosphotransfer proteins, and response regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histidine phosphotransfer proteins transfer the phosphate in the multistep phosphorelay signaling pathway from cytokinin sensor kinases to their final target, cytokinin response regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type A cytokinin response regulators can act as negative regulators of cytokinin signaling by either competing with type-B positive regulators or by regulating the pathway through direct and indirect interactions with other pathway mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type B cytokinin response regulators are the positive regulators that oppose the negative regulation of type A cytokinin response regulators in the two-component cytokinin signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant development and growth via a two-component signaling pathway. (jove.com)
  • To test whether cytokinin controls plant development through inhibiting an early step in the auxin response pathway, we compared the effects of cytokinin with those of the dgt (diageotropica) mutation, which is known to block rapid auxin reactions of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) hypocotyls. (rti.org)
  • The USDA project focuses on the role of the type-B response regulators, which act in the final step of the cytokinin signaling pathway to regulate the transcriptional response to cytokinin. (bio.net)
  • The NSF 2010 project focuses on defining the network of interactions by which cytokinin regulates plant growth and development, and includes the analysis of additional transcription factors as well as proteins interacting with the primary signaling pathway. (bio.net)
  • Dear Colleagues: Will you be so kind to help us with pursuing the research of the cytokinin receptor from maize? (bio.net)
  • Several antibodies were able to regulate the basic function of the receptor: activation of cytokinin-dependent RNA synthesis [4]. (bio.net)
  • We think that elucidation of the correlation between the content of cytokinins in tissue (or in the cell) and the content, synthesis and activity of the receptor is of great scientific and practical interest. (bio.net)
  • The first step of cytokinin signal transduction is the transfer of a phosphoryl group from the activated receptor to a phosphotransfer protein. (publish.csiro.au)
  • trans -Zeatin cytokinin biosynthesis and the CRE1/AHK2 receptor combination are crucial for P. indica --mediated growth stimulation, while mutants lacking cis -zeatin, impaired in other cytokinin receptor combinations, or containing reduced cytokinin levels respond to the fungus. (apsnet.org)
  • Cytokinin and auxin have been known to play antagonistic roles in many of these processes since cytokinin was first identified ( Skoog and Miller, 1957 ), and this has remained an important theme in plant biology ( Coenen and Lomax, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Cytokinins are involved in many plant processes, including cell division and shoot and root morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinins are purine derivatives that promote and maintain plant cell division in cultures ( 1-8 ) and are also involved in various differentiation processes including shoot formation, photomorphogenesis, and senescence ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Type A cytokinin response regulators are also likely involved in other processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their ability to activate transcription and regulate protein activity, RRs have been proposed to coordinate most of physiological processes regulated by cytokinin. (ufl.edu)
  • I confirmed the negative role of cytokinin action in root developmental processes previously hypothesized in other plant systems, and obtained direct evidence that links a specific type RR (PtRR13) with inhibition of adventitious root formation. (ufl.edu)
  • GA regulates many essential plant developmental processes, while JA plays a dominant role in mediating. (ebscohost.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate diverse physiological processes during plant life cycle. (springer.com)
  • Cytokinins have been shown to slow aging of plant organs by preventing protein breakdown, activating protein synthesis, and assembling nutrients from nearby tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was hypothesized that cytokinin may affect enzymes that regulate protein synthesis and degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • d) a gene encoding a protein which consists of an amino acid sequence derived from the amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NOS: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 by deletion, substitution or addition of one or several amino acid residues and has activity of catalyzing reactions that synthesize active cytokinins from nucleotide cytokinins. (google.com)
  • Cycloheximide (Chx) blocks both G 1 phase progression ( 13 ) and protein synthesis in these cells ( 14 ) and did not inhibit CycD3 induction by cytokinin ( Fig. 1 D), showing that induction is independent of progression through G 1 and involves signal transduction by proteins already present in stationary phase cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inhibition of CycD3 induction by the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid and gratuitous induction by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine in the absence of cytokinin ( Fig. 1 , E and F) implicate regulatory phosphorylations in this process. (sciencemag.org)
  • We used a steroid-inducible system to show that the transcription factor-type response regulator ARR1 directs transcriptional activation of the ARR6 gene, which responds to cytokinins without de novo protein synthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. (deepdyve.com)
  • Flagella contain FAP20 (Flagellar Asociate Protein 20) and PACRG (PArkin Co-Regulated gene), which are related to composing axoneme architecture. (jove.com)
  • These results demonstrate that the availability of RBCS protein up-regulates the gene expression of rbcL primarily at the transcript level in a quantitative manner for stoichiometric assembly of Rubisco holoenzyme. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cytokinins induce a variety of physiological events, including cell division, chloroplast development, and shoot formation ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A study that regulated leaf senescence in tobacco leaves found that wild-type leaves yellowed while transgenic leaves remained mostly green. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate how cytokinin regulates autumn senescence in aspens we profiled 34 cytokinin types in a free growing mature aspen. (diva-portal.org)
  • The study showed that the individual cytokinin profiles varied significantly between the years, this despite that senescence was initiated at the same time each year. (diva-portal.org)
  • Senescence was furthermore not connected to the depletion of either active or total cytokinins levels. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results suggest that the depletion of cytokinins is unlikely to explain the tightly regulated onset of autumn leaf senescence in aspen. (diva-portal.org)
  • the AHP6 gene inhibits cytokinin signalling at the protoxylem position during normal vascular development. (helsinki.fi)
  • AUX1 is required for cytokinin-dependent changes of auxin activity in the lateral root cap associated with the control of cell elongation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Our research is open for cooperation and joint studies of the mechanisms of cytokinin reception and cytokinin signal transduction in plant. (bio.net)
  • We then discuss the mechanisms by which cytokinins signal to influence plant development. (biologists.org)
  • The cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene is under the control of the root-specific β-glucosidase promoter from maize. (cbd.int)
  • El-Showk S, Ruonala R, Helariutta Y (2013 ) Crossing paths: cytokinin signalling and crosstalk. (publish.csiro.au)
  • The ratio of auxin to cytokinin plays an important role in the effect of cytokinin on plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bud induction can be pinpointed to differentiation of a specific single cell, and thus is a very specific effect of cytokinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cytokinin and gibberelin on the agronomic and physicochemical characteristics of banana fruits cv. (scielo.br)
  • We suggest that the combination of simple synthesis, lowered cytokinin activity, and enhanced inhibitory effects on CKX isoforms, makes 3FMTDZ and HETDZ suitable candidates for in vivo studies. (springer.com)
  • The result indicates that solar UV-B may possibly suppress the plant growth by regulating the synthesis of natural growth inhibitor's like saponin. (springer.com)
  • this was followed by the identification of trans-zeatin ( Miller, 1961 ) and many other cytokinins (reviewed in Mok and Mok, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • A ) Common cytokinins found in plants include the isoprenoid cytokinins trans-zeatin (tz) and isopentenyl-adenine (iP). (biologists.org)
  • 1955 ), and subsequent studies identified the cytokinin zeatin as an endogenous plant growth regulator ( Letham, 1973 ). (biologists.org)
  • In higher plants, the most prevalent cytokinin is zeatin, which can occur in both trans and cis configurations. (biologists.org)
  • There are two types of cytokinins: adenine-type cytokinins represented by kinetin, zeatin, and 6-benzylaminopurine, and phenylurea-type cytokinins like diphenylurea and thidiazuron (TDZ). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Zeatin-binding proteins participating in cytokinin-dependent activation of transcripton. (bio.net)
  • Cytokinin activity of cis-zeatin and phenotypic alterations induced by overexpression of putative ci. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1954). Zeatin was the first natural cytokinin of plants. (preservearticles.com)
  • As expected, the levels of six cytokinin species in the inflorescences were elevated, and flower development was modified without any alterations in vegetative growth. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Cytokinins act in concert with auxin, another plant growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • More cytokinin induces growth of shoot buds, while more auxin induces root formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are known to regulate axillary bud growth and apical dominance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinin moves from the roots into the shoots, eventually signaling lateral bud growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because cytokinin promotes plant cell division and growth, produce farmers use it to increase crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • They often will work together in ratios and concentrations to regulate growth. (missouri.edu)
  • Cytokinins control the differentiation of meristem cells in plant development, particularly in shoots and roots where plants undergo growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. (mdpi.com)
  • Plants produced certain chemical substances in their cells which regulate the growth of the plant body. (preservearticles.com)
  • Cytokinins, used during early bloom, can greatly aid in setting up a better plant structure (short squat plants with close internodes), and used thereafter can stimulate cell division (growth rates) and as a result increase yields. (icmag.com)
  • However, space-grown plants show differences in root-tip distribution of cytokinin, a plant hormone that often works in concert with auxin to regulate cell division and tissue growth. (nasa.gov)
  • The effect of weightlessness on distribution of cytokinin in roots suggests that some of the spaceflight-induced features of root growth may be cytokinin-related. (nasa.gov)
  • These results provided cell-specific visual markers of where spaceflight-related auxin and cytokinin signaling occur, and how these signals may help to guide root growth in an environment without gravity. (nasa.gov)
  • Since root colonization is not affected in the cytokinin mutants, we propose that cytokinins are required for P. indica --induced growth promotion. (apsnet.org)
  • We further show that OSR2 functions redundantly with ARGOS-LIKE ( ARL ), another OSR gene that regulates cell expansion in organ growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Long-term cytokinin treatment of wild-type seedlings phenocopied morphological traits of dgt plants such as stunting of root and shoot growth, reduced elongation of internodes, reduced apical dominance, and reduced leaf size and complexity. (rti.org)
  • Arshad M, Frankenberger WT (1998) Plant growth regulating substances in the rhizosphere. (springer.com)
  • Thidiazuron ( N -phenyl- N ′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea, TDZ), formerly registered as a cotton defoliant, is a well known inhibitor of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX), an enzyme catalyzing the degradation of cytokinins. (springer.com)
  • Cytokinin dehydrogenases catalyze the irreversible degradation of cytokinins in a single enzymatic step by oxidative side chain cleavage. (cbd.int)
  • Altogether, my thesis reveals a key role for mutually inhibitory auxin-cytokinin interactions in vascular development and links these findings to other developmental contexts. (helsinki.fi)
  • The cuticle, a hydrophobic protective layer on the aerial parts of terrestrial plants, functions as a versatile defensive barrier to various biotic and abiotic stresses and also regulates water flow from the external environment. (jove.com)
  • An integrated set of approaches was used to define the targets of the type-B response regulators, a key set of transcription factors that control cytokinin-dependent gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • However, cytokinin failed to inhibit auxin-induced LeSAUR gene expression, an auxin response that is affected by the dgt mutation. (rti.org)
  • Cytokinin response regulators proteins are the final target of the two-step phosphorelay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although we have found that auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone regulate gametophytic branching in a moss, our results suggest that the auxin transport required to generate branch patterning is non-polar and not mediated by PIN proteins. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Cytokinins, which were named for their ability to promote cytokinesis, are a class of phytohormone derived from adenine. (biologists.org)
  • Naturally occurring cytokinins are adenine derivatives with isoprenoid side chains attached to the N 6 position of the adenine ring. (biologists.org)
  • Most adenine-type cytokinins are synthesized in roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many rice plants with various mutations, including activation of the plant hormone cytokinin, are grown there. (innovations-report.com)
  • Altogether, the authors suggest a model where WUS expression is tightly controlled by the local balance between the repressing CK-CYCD3-E2F-MET1 module and the activating cytokinin response factors. (plantae.org)
  • Treatments consisted of 2 pulverizations with water, 150 mg L-1 cytokinin, 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, 100 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid and 200 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, applied from the fourth to the last hand of the bunch. (scielo.br)
  • Hence, intracellular cytokinins appear to play an essential role in cytokinin signalling. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Finally, we discovered a potential link between the auxin-cytokinin feedback loop in the root tip and the initiation of lateral roots. (helsinki.fi)
  • In response to the concentration of nutrients, roots also synthesise cytokinin , which acts as a signal as to how fast the shoots can grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the auxin concentration is lower than the cytokinin, explants will induce shoots, otherwise it will form roots. (icmag.com)
  • The fungus produces relatively high levels of cytokinins, and the cytokinin levels are higher in colonized roots compared with the uncolonized controls. (apsnet.org)
  • In 4-5-day-old etiolated A. thaliana seedlings, treatment with cytokinin resulted in the strongest expression activation of the constructs P AHK2 -GUS and P AHK3 -GUS. (deepdyve.com)
  • One study found that applying cytokinin to cotton seedlings led to a 5-10% yield increase under drought conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of cytokinin-induced cell expansion in cotyledons excised from dark-grown seedlings of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and cucumber (Cucumus sativus L.) was studied. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has previously been shown that cytokinin has an inhibitory effect on the patterning events occurring during LR formation. (cpib.ac.uk)
  • Cytokinins were discovered in a search for factors that promote cell proliferation in cultured plant cells in concert with a second phytohormone, auxin. (biologists.org)
  • Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. (sciencemag.org)
  • At the Biodynamics Research Team in the Plant Productivity Systems Research Group at the RIKEN Plant Science Center, investigations have shown that cytokinin, a plant hormone that activates cell division, is closely associated with rice yields. (innovations-report.com)
  • Activation of cytokinin signaling through the homeodomain-containing transcription factors KNOX is essential for nodule formation. (edu.au)
  • It is an object of the present invention to clarify an enzyme gene capable of directly regulating the amount of active cytokinins synthesized and to provide a transformed plant with a regulated amount of cytokinins using the aforementioned gene. (google.com)
  • The Biodynamics Research Team at RIKEN leads the world in cytokinin research and are working to control the biosynthesis and activation of cytokinin with the aim of increasing the yields of rice, wheat, corn, and other crops. (innovations-report.com)
  • This enzyme plays a part in regulating rice-grain production, with lower levels of the enzyme resulting in enhanced grain production [2]. (genome.jp)
  • Availability of Rubisco small subunit up-regulates the transcript levels of large subunit for stoichiometric assembly of its holoenzyme in rice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Faiss M, Zalubìlová J, Strnad M, Schmülling T (1997 ) Conditional transgenic expression of the ipt gene indicates a function for cytokinins in paracrine signaling in whole tobacco plants. (publish.csiro.au)
  • The mutual inhibition between auxin and cytokinin regulates the extent of their domains during vascular patterning. (helsinki.fi)
  • 10. Bishopp A, Lehesranta S, Vatén A, Help H, El-Showk S, Scheres B, Helariutta K, Mähönen AP, Sakakibara H, Helariutta Y. (2011) Phloem-transported cytokinin regulates polar auxin transport and maintains vascular pattern in the root meristem. (wur.nl)
  • Aloni R, Aloni E, Langhans M, Ullrich CI (2006) Role of cytokinin and auxin in shaping root architecture: regulating vascular differentiation, lateral root initiation, root apical dominance and root gravitropism. (springer.com)
  • Type A cytokinin response regulators serve as negative regulators for cytokinin signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokinin causes the rapid induction of type A response regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type A cytokinin response regulators decreases sensitivity to cytokinins, and a lack of type-A cytokinin response regulators leads to increased sensitivity to cytokinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These regulators play a critical role in early response to cytokinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differing expression of type-B cytokinin response regulators likely play a role in controlling cellular response to cytokinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major family of type-B cytokinin response regulators are expressed in locations on the plant that are heavily influenced by cytokinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, our data demonstrate that ER-located cytokinin receptors are active in cytokinin signal transduction. (publish.csiro.au)
  • At the same time, cytokinin activated the promoter of the gene of primary response to cytokinin in the construct P ARR5 -GUS. (deepdyve.com)
  • Therefore, we explored the response of drnl-2 developing gynoecia to cytokinins, and found that the loss of DRNL function affects the response of the gynoecium to exogenously applied cytokinins in a developmental-stage-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, this gene participates during gynoecium development, possibly through the dynamic modulation of cytokinin homeostasis and response. (frontiersin.org)
  • CycD3 induction could be a direct response to cytokinin or an indirect response caused by cells reaching a certain cell cycle position under the influence of cytokinin. (sciencemag.org)
  • The current model of cytokinin signaling and response regulation shows that it works as a multi-step phosphorelay two-component signaling system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type-B cytokinin response regulator family consists of two subfamilies and one major subfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • I identified, annotated and characterized at the transcript level 11 type-As, 11 type-Bs and 11 pseudo cytokinin response reulators (RRs) in Populus balsamifera ssp. (ufl.edu)
  • Recent studies suggested that the His-to-Asp phosphorelay involving the AHP factors is at least partly implicated in signal transduction in response to cytokinin (a plant hormone). (nii.ac.jp)
  • While auxin is patterned through the activity of polarly localised transporters, there is no evidence for similar transport of cytokinin. (helsinki.fi)