Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.Health Information Systems: A system for the collection and/or processing of data from various sources, and using the information for policy making and management of health services. It could be paper-based or electronic. (From,,contentMDK:22239824~menuPK:376799~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html. of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.IdahoEnglandPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Manitoba: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Great BritainPrimary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).ItalyEnvironmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.BrazilHealth Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.United StatesHealth Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics ( Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.National Health Insurance, United StatesEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

Strengthening health management: experience of district teams in The Gambia. (1/273)

The lack of basic management skills of district-level health teams is often described as a major constraint to implementation of primary health care in developing countries. To improve district-level management in The Gambia, a 'management strengthening' project was implemented in two out of the three health regions. Against a background of health sector decentralization policy the project had two main objectives: to improve health team management skills and to improve resources management under specially-trained administrators. The project used a problem-solving and participatory strategy for planning and implementing activities. The project resulted in some improvements in the management of district-level health services, particularly in the quality of team planning and coordination, and the management of the limited available resources. However, the project demonstrated that though health teams had better management skills and systems, their effectiveness was often limited by the policy and practice of the national level government and donor agencies. In particular, they were limited by the degree to which decision making was centralized on issues of staffing, budgeting, and planning, and by the extent to which national level managers have lacked skills and motivation for management change. They were also limited by the extent to which donor-supported programmes were still based on standardized models which did not allow for varying and complex environments at district level. These are common problems despite growing advocacy for more devolution of decision making to the local level.  (+info)

Improving the quality of health care through contracting: a study of health authority practice. (2/273)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate approaches of district health authorities to quality in contracting. DESIGN: Descriptive survey. SETTING: All district health authorities in one health region of England in a National Health Service accounting year. MATERIAL: 129 quality specifications used in contracting for services in six specialties (eight general quality specifications and 121 service specific quality specifications) MAIN MEASURES: Evaluation of the use of quality specifications; their scope and content in relation to established criteria of healthcare quality. RESULTS: Most district health authorities developed quality specifications which would be applicable to their local hospital. When purchasing care outside their boundaries they adopted the quality specifications developed by other health authorities. The service specific quality specifications were more limited in scope than the general quality specifications. The quality of clinical care was referred to in 75% of general and 43% of service specific quality specifications. Both types of specification considered quality issues in superficial and broad terms only. Established features of quality improvement were rarely included. Prerequisites to ensure provider accountability and satisfactory delivery of service specifications were not routinely included in contracts. CONCLUSION: Quality specifications within service contracts are commonly used by health authorities. This study shows that their use of this approach to quality improvement is inconsistent and unlikely to achieve desired quality goals. Continued reliance on the current approach is holding back a more fundamental debate on how to create effective management of quality improvement through the interaction between purchasers and providers of health care.  (+info)

Health authority commissioning for quality in contraception services. (3/273)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the commissioning of contraception services by London health authorities with accepted models of good practice. DESIGN: Combined interview and postal surveys of all health authorities and National Health Service (NHS) trusts responsible for running family planning clinics in the Greater London area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health authority commissioning was assessed on the presence of four key elements of good practice--strategies, coordination, service specifications, and quality standards in contracts--by monitoring activity and quality. RESULTS: Less than half the health authorities surveyed had written strategies or service specifications for contraception services. Arrangements for coordination of services were limited and monitoring was underdeveloped. CONCLUSION: The process of commissioning services for contraception seems to be relatively underdeveloped despite the importance of health problems associated with unplanned pregnancy in London. These findings raise questions about the capacity of health authorities to improve the quality of these services through the commissioning process.  (+info)

Developing a model to reduce blindness in India: The International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care. (4/273)

With the continuing high magnitude of blindness in India, fresh approaches are needed to effectively deal with this burden on society. The International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care (ICARE) has been established at the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute in Hyderabad to develop such an approach. This paper describes how ICARE functions to meet its objective. The three major functions of ICARE are design and implementation of rural eye-care centres, human resource development for eye care, and community eye-health planning. ICARE works with existing eye-care centres, as well as those being planned, in underserved areas of India and other parts of the developing world. The approach being developed by ICARE, along with its partners, to reduce blindness is that of comprehensive eye care with due emphasis on preventive, curative and rehabilitative aspects. This approach involves the community in which blindness is sought to be reduced by understanding how the people perceive eye health and the barriers to eye care, thereby enabling development of strategies to prevent blindness. Emphasis is placed on providing good-quality eye care with attention to reasonable infrastructure and equipment, developing a resource of adequately trained eye-care professionals of all cadres, developing a professional environment satisfactory for patients as well as eye-care providers, and the concept of good management and financial self-sustainability. Community-based rehabilitation of those with incurable blindness is also part of this approach. ICARE plans to work intensively with its partners and develop these concepts further, thereby effectively bringing into practice the concept of comprehensive eye care for the community in underserved parts of India, and later in other parts of the developing world. In addition, ICARE is involved in assessing the current situation regarding the various aspects of blindness through well-designed epidemiologic studies, and projecting the eye-care needs for the future with the help of reliable information. With balanced attention to infrastructure, manpower, financial self-sustenance, and future planning, ICARE intends to develop a practical model to effectively reduce blindness in India on a long-term basis.  (+info)

Changing patterns of resource allocation in a London teaching district. (5/273)

The health plans of the Tower Hamlets district management team were studied to determine what effects the report of the Resource Allocation Working Party and the White Paper "Priorities in the Health and Social Services" have had on resource allocation in a teaching district. The study showed that at present acute services are allocated a greater proportion of the district budget than occurs nationally, while geriatrics, mental health, and community services receive proportionately less. In the next three years spending on acute services is expected to decrease, while spending on geriatric facilities and community services will increase. Nevertheless, cuts in acute services will take place mainly through a reduction in the number of beds serving a community function, concentrating all acute services in the teaching hospital. Services to the district might be better maintained by creating a community hospital to meet the needs of patients who would otherwise need to be accommodated in acute beds with unnecessarily expensive support services.  (+info)

An experience of utilization review in Europe: sequel to a BIOMED project. (6/273)

OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a utilization review screening tool for use in European hospitals. SETTING: In 1993 a group of researchers financed by a European Union grant reviewed the use of utilization review in Europe. They quickly noticed a lack of specifically designed instruments able to take into account the health care and cultural differences across Europe, and available for use in different health care systems. Hence, they embarked upon the task of developing and testing a utilization review screening tool for use in European hospitals. RESULTS: The European Union-Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol's list of reasons was developed and assessed. This is a common taxonomy that classifies days identified as unnecessary and provides a list of levels of care to identify patients' needs. This new protocol not only substitutes for the multiple previous local versions of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol, but will also facilitate comparisons of the varying experiences in European countries. MAIN FINDINGS: Development of utilization review in Europe has been carried out mostly on a voluntary basis and the main objective was not control. The experience varies widely: from France, where utilization review is still developing and research has been implemented by local teams, to Portugal, where utilization review programmes have been initiated by government authorities. At this point different initiatives in quality improvement, and more specifically in utilization review, are being developed within the European context.  (+info)

Introducing management principles into the supply and distribution of medicines in Tunisia. (7/273)

A number of strategies have been proposed by various organizations and governments for rationalizing the use of drugs in developing countries. Such strategies include the use of essential drug lists, generic prescribing, and training in rational prescribing. None of these require doctors to become actively involved in the management of the drug supply to their health centres. In 1997, in the Kasserine region of Tunisia, the regional health authorities piloted a radically different strategy. This involved the theoretical allocation of a proportion of the regional drug budget to each district and subsequently to each health centre according to estimated demand. Medical staff were given responsibility for the management of these budgets, allowing them to control the nature and quantities of drugs supplied to the health centres in which they worked. This paper outlines the process by which this strategy was successfully implemented in the Foussana district of Kasserine region, and explores the problems encountered. It describes now the theoretical budgets were allocated to each district and how the costs of individual drugs and the consumption of drugs in the previous year were calculated. It then continues by giving an account of the training of the staff of the health centres, the preparation of a drug order form and the method of allocation of the theoretical budgets to each of the health centres. The results give an account of how the prescribing habits of doctors were changed as a result of the strategy, in order to take into account the costs of the drugs that they prescribed. They show how the health centres were able to manage their budgets, spending overall 99.8% of the budget allocated to the district. They outline some of the changes in the prescribing habits that took place, demonstrating a greater use of appropriate and essential drugs. The paper concludes that doctors and paramedical staff can successfully manage a theoretical drug budget, and that their involvement in this process leads to more rational prescribing within existing resource constraints. This has a consequence of benefiting patients, satisfying doctors and pleasing administrators.  (+info)

Family planning funding through four federal-state programs, FY 1997. (8/273)

CONTEXT: The maternal and child health (MCH) and the social services block grants have long played an important role in the provision of family planning services in the United States. The extent to which states have incorporated family planning services into the newer federally funded, but state-controlled, programs--Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)--has yet to be identified. METHODS: The health and social services agencies in all U.S. states, the District of Columbia and five federal jurisdictions were queried regarding their family planning expenditures and activities through the MCH and social services block grants and the TANF program in FY 1997. In addition, the states' CHIP plans were analyzed following their approval by the federal government. Because of differences in methodology, these findings cannot be compared with those of previous attempts to determine public expenditures for contraceptive services and supplies. RESULTS: In FY 1997, 42 states, the District of Columbia and two federal jurisdictions spent $41 million on family planning through the MCH program. Fifteen states reported spending $27 million through the social services block grant. Most of these jurisdictions indicated that they provide direct patient care services, most frequently contraceptive services and supplies. Indirect services--most often population-based efforts such as outreach and public education--were reported to have been provided more often through the MCH program than through the social services program. MCH block grant funds were more likely to go to local health departments, while social services block grant funds were more likely to be channeled through Planned Parenthood affiliates. Four states reported family planning activities funded under TANF in FY 1997, the first year of the program's operation. Virtually all state plans for the implementation of the CHIP program appear to include coverage of family planning services and supplies for the adolescents covered under the program, even when not specifically required to do so by federal law. CONCLUSIONS: Joining two existing--but frequently overlooked--block grants, two new, largely state-controlled programs are poised to become important sources of support for publicly funded family planning services. Now more than ever, supporters of family planning services need to look beyond the traditional sources of support--Title X and Medicaid--as well as beyond the federal level to the states, where important program decisions are increasingly being made.  (+info)

  • The Health Tree service (in Finnish) gives an overall status of the population's health and well-being in Pälkäne, and can be used to compare with other municipalities in Pirkanmaa. (
  • Reflecting the relationships :an exploration of relationships between the former Eastern Health Board and voluntary organisations in the eastern region by Freda Donoghue. (
  • FILE - In this March 4, 2020, file photo, Florida's Brock Edge, right, steals second base, beating the tag by Florida A&M infielder Octavien Moyer (15), during the eighth inning of an NCAA college baseball game in Gainesville, Fla. The NCAA is planning on extending the eligibility of athletes on spring sports teams one year to make up for the season lost to the new coronavirus. (
  • On June 16, 2020 the Province released proposed Amendment No. 1 to the Growth Plan, 2019 and a proposed new Land Needs Assessment (LNA) Methodology for a public consultation period ending on July 31, 2020. (
  • On Tuesday, May 5, 2020, Dr. Sanmi Areola, director, Johnson County Department of Health and Environment updated the Board of County Commissioners on the department's efforts to contain spread of COVID-19 in Johnson County. (
  • The Collagen Powder Market report also provides an in-depth survey of key players in the market which is based on the various objectives of an organization such as profiling, the product outline, the quantity of production, required raw material, and the financial health of the organization. (
  • The LOTIS database is usable by any municipality, transportation planning organization or land planning entity and currently covers the Orlando Metro Area of Orange, Osceola and Seminole counties. (
  • Additionally, we award grants from our unrestricted funds to various hospital departments to help make possible important programs, services and capital projects throughout the Hendricks Regional Health organization. (
  • Many details of the plan, which is still in development phase, will rely on three separate components -- the Ticketmaster digital ticket app, third party health information companies like CLEAR Health Pass or IBM's Digital Health Pass and testing and vaccine distribution providers like Labcorp and the CVS Minute Clinic. (
  • If it was a 24-hour window, most people would likely be tested the same day of the event at a lab or a health clinic. (
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  • NEW YORK (AP) - The NCAA is planning to extend the eligibility of athletes on spring sports teams by one year to make up for the season lost to the new coronavirus. (
  • The Provincial Growth Plan, 2019 (external link) identifies and assigns population and job density targets for two types of Strategic Growth Areas: Urban Growth Centres and Major Transit Station Areas . (
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  • On the evening of Tuesday, Nov. 10, the registered nurses and medical laboratory scientists at Calais Regional Hospital (CRH) reached a tentative agreement with the hospital's administration on a new labor contract. (
  • Maine State Nurses Association represents nearly 50 nurses and staff at Calais Regional Hospital. (
  • Uptake among postpartum women also was substantial: 403 women who gave birth left the hospital with a method of family planning and 1,966 women who had given birth in the previous 12 months accepted a family planning method. (
  • National Jewish Health is the leading respiratory hospital in the nation. (
  • With relevant, unparalleled exposure to diverse hospital settings, highly-skilled physician groups, our academic partnership with IU School of Medicine, and our competitive health insurance company, Fellows gain comprehensive insight into health system strategy and operations, engaging in stimulating projects and rotations that link to key goals. (
  • Riley Hospital for Children at IU Health ranked among the top children's hospitals in the country by U.S. News and World Report and is the only ranked children's hospital in Indiana. (
  • Canada's health officials spoke about the recent change in guidance from the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) on the time between two COVID-19 vaccine doses, and how that may contribute to vaccine hesitancy in Canada. (
  • If the tests were negative, or the fan was vaccinated, the health pass company would verify the attendee's COVID-19 status to Ticketmaster, which would then issue the fan the credentials needed to access the event. (
  • Right now, we can only allow patients in the health center based on best practices to reduce the spread of COVID-19. (
  • The number of new COVID-19 cases reported in Virginia today is 4,652, the highest total of new cases reported in one day since March, according to Virginia Department of Health data. (
  • The Johnson County Board of County Commissioners voted to table the Johnson County COVID-19 Recovery Planning Task Force recommendations, and the county will follow the phases of Kansas Gov. Laura Kelly's Reopening Kansas plan. (
  • This initiative forms part of the Australian Government strategy to improve rural medical workforce recruitment and retention, and it is a requirement of the Department of Health and Ageing that, from January 2004, at least 25% of students will undertake 50% of their clinical training within one of the 10 national Rural Clinical Schools. (
  • LIVINGSTON - Livingston leaders are hoping the formation of a new community network will improve the health of patients in and around the surrounding communities. (
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  • Patients with a current prescription for some of the birth control pills we offer at our health can sign up for Mail-A-Pill. (
  • for established PPSWCF patients with a current prescription from this health center. (
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  • The mission of Hendricks Regional Health Foundation is to raise funds from grateful patients and their families, corporate and foundation contributors, physicians, nurses and staff, and from the community to benefit Hendricks Regional Health and those it serves. (
  • If your current health plan is not listed, please contact the Admitting Department at 714-774-1450 to inquire if your plan is accepted. (
  • Your submission to Department of City and Regional Planning has been sent. (
  • The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill / Department of City and Regional Planning is located in Chapel Hill, NC, in a suburban setting. (
  • Although the Defense Health Agency may or may not use these sites as additional distribution channels for Department of Defense information, it does not exercise editorial control over all of the information that you may find at these locations. (
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  • Republican Gov. Mike Dunleavy announced the reorganization plan Dec. 22, saying the department had become too large and its administration too burdensome to operate as a single entity, The Juneau Empire reported Thursday. (
  • The latest news in digital health delivered daily to your inbox. (
  • World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee says Australia's plan to force digital giants to pay media outlets for news content is 'unworkable' and undermines a 'fundamental principle' of the internet. (
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  • Women's Health West acknowledge the traditional custodians of the land on which we work, the people of the Kulin Nation, and we pay our respects to Elders and community members past and present. (
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  • Mention Hendricks Regional Health Foundation when booking qualified vacations, and CruiseOne will make a donation to our foundation to help support a healthy community. (
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  • UNITED NATIONS, New York - The need for resilient health systems capable of delivering quality sexual and reproductive health, and the crucial role of women in reducing disaster risks, will be discussed during a special side event organized by UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR). (
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  • This guide is intended to help communities in Michigan and across the Great Lakes Region develop a climate and health adaptation plan or to integrate climate and health concepts into existing initiatives. (
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  • Australia plans to introduce the new rules this year, with the Senate committee set to hold public hearings from Friday. (
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  • The 80th Executive Committee meeting of the FAO Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA) was held today in the Thai capital Bangkok. (
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  • Training opportunities in the Military Health System. (
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  • IU Health is the largest, most comprehensive health system in Indiana and among the top ten largest single state nonprofit health systems in the United States with headquarters in Indianapolis. (
  • The Northeast Georgia Health System is sponsoring coverage directly related to public safety so that it can be made available free to non-subscribers as a public service. (
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  • Our efforts are focused on the health, resilience, and independence of the one in four residents of the Commonwealth we serve. (
  • A list of five lessons about working from home and the potential implications for land use and urban planning. (
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  • Those people involved in food policy and urban planning are hard pressed for both the funding and access to accurate data to prepare adequate studies. (
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  • He/she must identify key corporate issues and assumptions to facilitate the processes and procedures that enable the accurate and timely completion of the annual budget planning process as well as any approvals and implementation of changes to the operating budget. (
  • Major efforts had been made over the past decade towards eliminating the risk of persistent organic pollutants, but an even greater effort was required to ensure the full implementation of the Convention at the national, regional and global levels. (
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  • On JoCo on the Go episode #39, hear from Johnson County health experts, Dr. Joseph LeMaster, Local Health Officer, and Dr. Sanmi Areola, Johnson County Health and Environment Director. (
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  • The Local Health. (
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  • His significant publications and contributions include those pertaining to identifying the social determinants for health, promoting diversity in planning leadership, building a career road map, developing an equity policy guide for the APA, and the requirement to prepare Environmental Justice general plan elements. (
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  • Find Health Affairs and Defense Health Agency policy documents. (
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  • This volume of the Marquette Area Climate and Health Adaptation Guidebook outlines action steps and further stakeholder engagement options. (
  • On Superstorm Sandy's seventh anniversary, Gov. Phil Murphy committed the state to a far-reaching plan to deal with climate change and protect itself from future storms. (
  • The ability to draw on expertise from diverse fields like planning, nursing, architecture and landscape architecture, and engineering enables UBC's Faculty of Applied Science to come up with comprehensive solutions, says Dr. Campbell. (
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