Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Iofetamine: An amphetamine analog that is rapidly taken up by the lungs and from there redistributed primarily to the brain and liver. It is used in brain radionuclide scanning with I-123.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Blood Circulation Time: Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Krypton: A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Scandium: Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Rest: Freedom from activity.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Moyamoya Disease: A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Nafronyl: A drug used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is claimed to enhance cellular oxidative capacity and to be a spasmolytic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1310) It may also be an antagonist at 5HT-2 serotonin receptors.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Cerium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Nitrogen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.Constriction: The act of constricting.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Aphasia, Wernicke: Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Anomia: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Ingvar, David H.; Lassen, Niels A. (1961). "Quantitative determination of regional cerebral blood-flow in man". The Lancet. 278 ... "Radioisotopic assessment of regional cerebral blood flow". Progress in Nuclear Medicine. 1: 376-409. PMID 4567822. Lassen, ... There is a Niels Lassen Award presented by the International Society for Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (ISCBFM). ((The ... Olaf B. Paulson (1997). "Niels A. Lassen, M.D., Ph.D.: 1926-1997". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 17: 1005-1006. ...
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 15 (4): 681-6. doi:10.1038/jcbfm.1995.85. PMID 7790418. Ortloff AR, Vío K, ... Rahner-Welsch S, Vogel J, Kuschinsky W (July 1995). "Regional congruence and divergence of glucose transporters (GLUT1) and ... characterized by numerous blood capillaries and glial cells, projects into the local blood vessels and to the subarachnoidal ... All brain capillaries of the blood-brain barrier structures have glucose transporters (GLUT1). These transporters are generally ...
Braun, A. (1 July 1997). "Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle. An H2(15)O PET study". Brain. 120 (7): ...
"Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle. An H2(15)O PET study". Brain. 120 (7): 1173-1197. doi:10.1093/ ... PET studies seem to indicate that there is a correlation between blood flow in the pontine tegmentum and REM sleep Pontine ... recent research suggests a role in providing sensory feedback to the cerebral cortex. Recent research has discovered that the ...
ISBN 978-0-8016-7701-4. Ingvar, David H.; Lassen, Niels A. (1961). "Quantitative determination of regional cerebral blood-flow ... Certain techniques such as fMRI image tissues (particularly cerebral tissues) by blood flow and thus show metabolism. Also, ... Some studies require the labeling of a patient's own blood cells with a radionuclide (leukocyte scintigraphy and red blood cell ... "Brain Function and Blood Flow" (PDF). Scientific American. 239 (4): 62-71. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1078-62. Roland, Per E ...
"Quantitative determination of regional cerebral blood-flow in man". The Lancet. 278 (7206): 806-807. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(61) ... "Brain Function and Blood Flow" (PDF). Scientific American. 239 (4): 62-71. Bibcode:1978SciAm.239d..62L. doi:10.1038/ ... as well as the flow rates of streams and rivers. In geology, archaeology, and paleontology, natural radionuclides are used to ... 91092-3. Ingvar, David H.; Franzén, Göran (1974). "Distribution of cerebral activity in chronic schizophrenia". The Lancet. 304 ...
"Reduced regional cerebral blood flow in non-psychotic violent offenders". Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. 98: 29-41. doi: ... Reduced Cerebral Blood Flow in Angular Gyrus. A couple of studies found reduced cerebral blood flow in angular gyrus of ... 2011). "Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density". Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. 191 ...
Fallon BA, Keilp J, Prohovnik I, Heertum RV, Mann JJ (2003). "Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive deficits in chronic ... and possibly testing for specific antibodies in the blood. Blood tests are often negative in the early stages of the disease. ... If the removed tick was full of blood, a single dose of doxycycline may be used to prevent development of infection, but is not ... As all people with later-stage infection will have a positive antibody test, simple blood tests can exclude Lyme disease as a ...
"Acute regional cerebral blood flow changes caused by severe head injuries". J Neurosurg. 74: 407-14. doi:10.3171/jns.1991.74. ...
August 2000). "Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow: experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal ... extra blood flow in them is used for thermoregulation of a body. In addition to delivering oxygen, blood flow helps to ... Cerebral blood flow determination by rapid-sequence computed-tomography: theoretical analysis. Radiology 137: 679-686, December ... causing either no blood or at least not enough blood to reach the tissue. Hyperperfusion can be caused by inflammation, ...
Braun, A. "Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle. An H2(15)O PET study". Brain. 120 (7): 1173-1197. doi: ... Hofle, N; Paus, T; Reutens, D; Fiset, P; Gotman, J; Evans, AC; Jones, BE (1997-06-15). "Regional cerebral blood flow changes as ... "Regional cerebral blood flow increases during wakeful rest following cognitive training". Brain Research Bulletin. 80 (3): 133- ... NREM sleep is characterized by decreased global and regional cerebral blood flow. Non-REM sleep which constitutes ~80% of all ...
Devous MD, Trivedi MH, Rush AJ (April 2001). "Regional cerebral blood flow response to oral amphetamine challenge in healthy ... reduced blood flow to the hands and feet), and tachycardia (increased heart rate). Sexual side effects in males may include ... Collaborators (2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of ... The most concerning short-term adverse effects of stimulants, such as elevated blood pressure and heart rate, waned in long- ...
Devous MD, Trivedi MH, Rush AJ (April 2001). "Regional cerebral blood flow response to oral amphetamine challenge in healthy ... reduced blood flow to the hands and feet), and tachycardia (increased heart rate). Sexual side effects in males may include ... following absorption into the blood stream, it is converted by red blood cell-associated enzymes to dextroamphetamine via ... Collaborators (2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of ...
"Effects of smoking on regional cerebral blood flow in neurologically normal subjects". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral ... Smoking also has a deleterious effect on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The chances of having a stroke increase with the ... Transfusion therapy lowers the risk for a new silent stroke in children who have both abnormal cerebral artery blood flow ... which measures cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the large intracranial arteries in the brain, has been shown in various ...
"Deep dyslexia and right hemisphere reading-a regional cerebral blood flow study". Aphasiology. 11 (12): 1139-1158. doi:10.1080/ ...
"The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow during glossolalia: A preliminary SPECT study". Psychiatry Research: ... The caudate head receives its blood supply from the lenticulostriate artery while the tail of the caudate receives its blood ... There is some indirect evidence that the caudate may perform this regulatory role by measuring the general activity of cerebral ... https://radiopaedia.org/articles/cerebral-vascular-territories McDougal, David. "Substantia Nigra". Archived from the original ...
W. 8. Theodore.W. 1995 Regional cerebral blood flow during object naming and word reading. Hum. Brain Mapp. 3. 93"106. Heath, S ... Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere. Medial view. Deep dissection. Fusiform gyrus Gray. Henry. Peter L. Williams. and Henry ... significant activation when moving from high to low contrast words as well as a correlation between word length and regional ...
Braun, A. (1 July 1997). "Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle. An H2(15)O PET study". Brain. 120 (7): ... This triggers the "continual-activation" mechanism to generate a data stream from the memory stores to flow through the ... A 2001 study showed evidence that illogical locations, characters, and dream flow may help the brain strengthen the linking and ... consolidation of semantic memories.[77] These conditions may occur because, during REM sleep, the flow of information between ...
"Pattern of white matter regional cerebral blood flow and autoregulation in normal pressure hydrocephalus". Brain. 127 (Pt 5): ... of late ischemic complications after cerebral aneurysm surgery by the intraoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow". ... Pickard, JD; Mackenzie, ET (1973). "Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and the response of baboon cerebral circulation to ... The Role of Prostaglandins in the Control of the Cerebral Circulation') from the University of Cambridge in 1981. He is a ...
September 1993). "Effects of memory processing on regional brain activation: cerebral blood flow in normal subjects". Int. J. ... facial processing has been studied using measurements of mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries ... gender-related cognitive styles determined using Fourier analysis of mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral ... Right asymmetry in the mid temporal lobe for faces has also been shown using 133-Xenon measured cerebral blood flow (CBF). ...
... on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 52 ( ...
"Regional cerebral blood flow changes in female to male gender identity disorder". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 64 (2 ... to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 11 gynephilic FtM transsexuals with that of 9 androphilic cis females. ... the study did reveal that the gynephilic FtM transsexuals showed significant decrease in blood flow in the left anterior ... Savic I, Arver S (November 2011). "Sex dimorphism of the brain in male-to-female transsexuals". Cerebral Cortex. 21 (11): 2525- ...
"Regional cerebral blood flow during script-driven imagery in childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD: a PET investigation". ...
"The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow during glossolalia: A preliminary SPECT study". Psychiatry Research: ...
Johnson, DL; Wiebe, JS; Gold, SM; Andreasen, NC; Hichwa, RD; Watkins, GL; Boles Ponto, LL (1999). "Cerebral blood flow and ... A study on regional brain volume found a positive correlation between introversion and grey matter volume in the right ... Extraverts have more blood flow in the anterior cingulate gyrus, temporal lobes, and posterior thalamus, which are involved in ... One study found that introverts have more blood flow in the frontal lobes of their brain and the anterior or frontal thalamus, ...
Like all triptans, almotriptan has a high and specific affinity for serotonin 5-HT1B/1D receptors. Binding of the drug to the receptor leads to vasoconstriction of the cranial (brain) blood vessels and thus affects the redistribution of blood flow. Almotriptan significantly increases cerebral blood flow and reduces blood flow through extracerebral cranial vessels. Even though it affects cranial blood vessels a single standard dose of almotriptan has no clinically significant effect on blood pressure or heart rate in both young and elderly healthy volunteers. Larger doses seem to slightly increase blood pressure but not beyond clinical ...
... is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia. There are four categories of cerebral hypoxia; they are, in order of severity: diffuse cerebral hypoxia (DCH), focal cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and global cerebral ischemia. Prolonged hypoxia induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis, resulting in a hypoxic brain injury. Cases of total oxygen deprivation are termed "anoxia", which can be hypoxic in origin (reduced oxygen availability) or ischemic in origin (oxygen deprivation due to a disruption in blood flow). Brain injury as a result of oxygen deprivation either due to hypoxic or anoxic mechanisms are generally termed hypoxic/anoxic injuries (HAI). Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a condition that occurs ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries develop with the PCommA reducing is size. In most adults, the PCA sources from ...
Usually, the gamma-emitting tracer used in functional brain imaging is 99mTc-HMPAO (hexamethylpropylene amine oxime). 99mTc is a metastable nuclear isomer that emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. Attaching it to HMPAO allows 99mTc to be taken up by brain tissue in a manner proportional to brain blood flow, in turn allowing cerebral blood flow to be assessed with the nuclear gamma camera. Because blood flow in the brain is tightly coupled to local brain metabolism and energy use, the 99mTc-HMPAO tracer (as well as the similar 99mTc-EC tracer) is used to assess brain metabolism regionally, in an attempt to diagnose and differentiate the different causal pathologies of dementia. Meta-analysis of many reported studies suggests that SPECT ...
The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main factors that allow variation in the body's total oxygen consumption, and are important in measuring VO2. The a-vO2 diff is usually measured in millilitres of oxygen per 100 millilitres of blood (mL/100 mL). The arteriovenous oxygen difference is usually taken by comparing the difference in the oxygen concentration of oxygenated blood in the femoral, brachial, or radial artery and the oxygen concentration in the deoxygenated blood ...
In both animals and humans, mTBI can alter the brain's physiology for hours to years,[42][43] setting into motion a variety of pathological events.[44] As one example, in animal models, after an initial increase in glucose metabolism, there is a subsequent reduced metabolic state which may persist for up to four weeks after injury.[10] Though these events are thought to interfere with neuronal and brain function, the metabolic processes that follow concussion are reversible in a large majority of affected brain cells; however, a few cells may die after the injury.[45] Included in the cascade of events unleashed in the brain by concussion is impaired neurotransmission, loss of regulation of ions, deregulation of energy use and cellular metabolism, and a reduction in cerebral blood flow.[45] Excitatory neurotransmitters, chemicals such as glutamate that serve to stimulate nerve cells, are released in excessive amounts.[46] The ...
自然形成的氙共由7種穩定同位素組成,在各元素中排第二位。第一位是錫,其穩定同位素共有10個。穩定同位素數量高於7個的元素只有錫。[69]同位素134Xe根據預測能夠進行雙重β衰變,但這未經實驗證明,因此该同位素仍被認為是穩定的。[70]除這些穩定同位素之外,氙還有40多種不穩定同位素。其中壽命最長的為124Xe,它會進行双电子俘获衰變,半衰期為1.8×1022年。[6] 129I在β衰變後,會產生129Xe同位素。該反應的半衰期為1600萬年。另外131mXe、133Xe、133mXe和135Xe都是235U和239Pu的核裂變產物,[68]因此被用作探測核爆炸的發生。[71] ...
In the physiology of the kidney, renal blood flow (RBF) is the volume of blood delivered to the kidneys per unit time. In humans, the kidneys together receive roughly 25% of cardiac output, amounting to 1.1 L/min in a 70-kg adult male. RBF is closely related to renal plasma flow (RPF), which is the volume of blood plasma delivered to the kidneys per unit time. While the terms generally apply to arterial blood delivered to the kidneys, both RBF and RPF can be used to quantify the volume of venous blood exiting the kidneys per unit time. In this context, the terms are commonly given subscripts to refer to arterial or venous blood or plasma flow, as in RBFa, RBFv, RPFa, and RPFv. Physiologically, however, the ...
... (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle. The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired. About 30% of people have atypical symptoms. Women more often have atypical symptoms than men. Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms. An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest. Most MIs occur due to coronary artery disease. Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, ...
The myogenic mechanism is how arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow within the blood vessel constant. Myogenic response refers to a contraction initiated by the myocyte itself instead of an outside occurrence or stimulus such as nerve innervation. Most often observed in (although not necessarily restricted to) smaller resistance arteries, this 'basal' tone may be useful in the regulation of organ blood flow and peripheral resistance, as it positions a vessel in a preconstricted state that allows other factors to induce additional constriction or dilation to increase or decrease blood flow. The smooth muscle of the blood vessels reacts to the ...
The effects of arteriosclerosis can lead to lack of regular blood flow. Low blood flow to the brain can make you dizzy, numb, have slurred speech, and have other symptoms. Thromboses can further block the blood flow. This causes you to be at risk of getting stroke, or a heart attack.. Arteriosclerosis is a major health problem. Arteriosclerosis can be prevented by reducing risks. Risks are smoking, obesity, and low amounts of exercise. Doctors recommend dieting and exercise. Diets consist of low amounts of cholesterol and saturated fats. Some patients may take drugs that lower the amount of cholesterol in their blood.[4]. ...
Flow in games and gaming has been linked to the Laws of Learning as part of the explanation for why learning-games (the use of games to introduce material, improve understanding, or increase retention) have the potential to be effective.[51] In particular, flow is intrinsically motivating, which is part of the Law of Readiness. The condition of feedback, required for flow, is associated with the feedback aspects of the Law of Exercise. This is exhibited in well designed games, in particular, where players perform at the edge of their competency as they are guided by clear goals and feedback.[52] The positive emotions associated with flow are associated with the Law of Effect. The intense experiences of being in a state of flow are directly associated with the Law of Intensity. Thus, the experience of gaming can be so engaging and motivating ...
Vasodilation is where blood vessels widen.[1] It results from relaxation of muscle cells within blood vessel walls. The process is essentially the opposite of vasoconstriction, which is the narrowing of blood vessels.. When vessels widen, blood flow is increased. This in turn decreases blood pressure. Drugs that cause vasodilation are called vasodilators.. ...
Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 1979;42:971. ...
1975) Regional Differences in β-Adrenergic Effects on Local Cerebral Blood Flow and Adrenergic Innervation. In: Langfitt T.W., ... Regional Differences in β-Adrenergic Effects on Local Cerebral Blood Flow and Adrenergic Innervation. ... "Continuous measurement of local cerebral blood flow, PaO2, PaCO2, and blood pressure in the nonanesthetized animal." Pflügers ... Tyramine-induced contraction of the isolated middle cerebral artery of the cat." In Brain and Blood Flow, R. W. Ross Russell, ...
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Jan;29(1):197-205. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2008.112. Epub 2008 Oct 1. Research Support, N.I.H., ... Global hemispheric and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) at baseline and after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Time ... Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of regional cerebral blood flow after asphyxial cardiac arrest in immature rats.. Manole ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow after Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest in Immature Rats ...
... the complex changes of cerebral hemody-namics and oxygenation pattern with the development of cerebral vasospasm are ... Cerebral Blood Flow Cerebral Blood Volume Cerebral Vasospasm Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Near Infrared Spectroscopy These ... Non invasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy and ... Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green. J Cereb Blood Flow ...
To investigate the effect of EA on regional cerebral blood flow, cognitive deficits, inflammation, and its probable mechanisms ... Electroacupuncture Improves Cognitive Deficits through Increasing Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Alleviating Inflammation in ... using laser Doppler flowmetry to test changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF); double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked ... in chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) rats. Methods. Rats were assigned randomly into sham operation group (sham group) and ...
Gordon, C., Emans, S., Grace, E. et al. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Differences During High-Caloric Food Challenge in Patients ... Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Differences During High-Caloric Food Challenge in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa Versus Normal ... was used to make positron emission tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). We compared 8 young women ...
Distribution of regional cerebral blood flow in voluntarily diving rats. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... The distribution of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was examined in conscious, voluntarily diving rats using the brain ... A detailed examination of the regional distribution of cerebral blood flow revealed that almost all brain regions were ... Because some brain regions did not increase flow significantly during diving, these results suggest that not all brain regions ...
Functional anatomy of human procedural learning determined with regional cerebral blood flow and PET. ST Grafton, JC Mazziotta ... Functional anatomy of human procedural learning determined with regional cerebral blood flow and PET ... Functional anatomy of human procedural learning determined with regional cerebral blood flow and PET ... Functional anatomy of human procedural learning determined with regional cerebral blood flow and PET ...
Effects of sevoflurane, propofol, and adjunct nitrous oxide on regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption, and blood ... the effects of sevoflurane and propofol as sole anesthetics and in combination with N2O on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF ... These reductions in flow and metabolism were partly attenuated by adjunct N2O. S+N especially reduced the oxygen extraction ... Anesthetic agents, especially volatile anesthetics and nitrous oxide (N2O), are suspected to perturb cerebral homeostasis and ...
... Reza Nemati ... S. E. Mouridsen, C. Videboek, H. Sogaard, and A. R. Andersen, "Regional cerebral blood-flow measured by HMPAO and SPECT in a 5- ... L. A. OTuama, D. K. Urion, M. J. Janicek, S. T. Treves, B. Bjornson, and J. M. Moriarty, "Regional cerebral perfusion in ...
Dynamics and Control Mechanisms in Maintenance of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. YURI E. MOSKALENKO, IVAN T. DEMCHENKO, ... Dynamics and Control Mechanisms in Maintenance of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. YURI E. MOSKALENKO, IVAN T. DEMCHENKO, ... Dynamics and Control Mechanisms in Maintenance of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. YURI E. MOSKALENKO, IVAN T. DEMCHENKO, ... are followed by an increase of local blood flow (LCBF) in regional brain cortex up to 0.3 to 0.4 ml per minute per 1 gm brain ...
Regional cerebral blood flow, as measured by dASL. [ Time Frame: 1 week, 6 and 12 months ]. Part I: regional cerebral blood ... Part II: regional cerebral blood flow, measured at 6 months and 12 months in AD participants and normal control participants. ... The aim of the study is to determine if regional cerebral blood flow, measured by dynamic arterial spin labeling (dASL), can be ... A Study to Assess Regional Cerebral Blood Flow as an Alzheimers Disease Biomarker Compared to Positron Emission Tomography in ...
We examined the possible relationship between the rate of cognitive deterioration and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) ... The progression of cognitive deterioration and regional cerebral blood flow patterns in Alzheimers disease: a longitudinal ...
Effect of Acetazolamide on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. Makio Kaminogo, Akio Ichikura ... Effect of Acetazolamide on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow ... Effect of Acetazolamide on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow ... Effect of Acetazolamide on Regional Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow ...
Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), analysis ofcerebrospinal fluid, auditory brain stem responses (ABR) ... Cerebral dysfunction in fibromyalgia (FM): evidence from regional cerebral blood flow measurements, otoneurological tests & ... Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), analysis of. cerebrospinal fluid, auditory brain stem responses (ABR) and ... normal flow level with slight but significant focal flow. decreases in dorsolateral frontal cortical areas of both. hemispheres ...
Duncan, Roderick (1993) Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Focal Epilepsy. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. ... have been used to study regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with focal epilepsy. The main finding has been of focal ... there was no practical way to study regional cerebral blood flow during or soon after seizures. When the present work was ... Until the development of the blood flow tracer HMPAO (hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime) ...
Chronic hyperglycaemia and recurrent severe hypoglycaemia have both been implicated as causing cerebral damage in patients with ... regional cerebral blood flow in diabetic patients with frontal excess and relative posterior reduction in cerebral blood flow. ... Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in IDDM Patients: Effects of Diabetes and of Recurrent Severe Hypoglycaemia Diabetologia. 1994 Mar ... Regional cerebral blood flow was estimated by SPECT with 99mTechnetium Exametazime in 20 patients with IDDM. Ten patients had ...
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and ... Circadian and homeostatic modulation of functional connectivity and regional cerebral blood flow in humans under normal ... and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in healthy human volunteers, using whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic ...
Selective effects of cocaine on regional cerebral blood flow in the rat.. E A Stein and S A Fuller ... Selective effects of cocaine on regional cerebral blood flow in the rat.. E A Stein and S A Fuller ... Selective effects of cocaine on regional cerebral blood flow in the rat.. E A Stein and S A Fuller ... Selective effects of cocaine on regional cerebral blood flow in the rat. ...
Relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and separate symptom clusters of major depression : a single photon emission ... Regional cerebral blood flow in depression measured by positron emission tomography : the relationship with clinical dimensions ... Statistical parametric mapping analysis of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and symptom clusters of the ... Correlation between cerebral blood flow and items of the Hamilton rating scale for depression in anti-depressant-naive patients ...
Perfusion CT performed for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) involves sequential acquisition of cerebral CT ... Summary: Perfusion CT studies of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), involving sequential acquisition of cerebral CT sections ... Using 80 kVp versus 120 kVp in Perfusion CT Measurement of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. Max Wintermark, Philippe Maeder, ... Simultaneous Measurement of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow by Perfusion CT and Stable Xenon CT: A Validation Study ...
Long-term effects of tacrine on regional cerebral blood flow changes in Alzheimers disease. Minthon, Lennart LU ; Nilsson, ... Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) before and after 14 months of tacrine ... Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) before and after 14 months of tacrine ... article{a42a0f99-94fd-4913-b3c1-936a0a2ea31b, abstract = {Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in patients with ...
Regional cerebral blood flow, white matter abnormalities, and cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in patients with idiopathic ... Regional cerebral blood flow, white matter abnormalities, and cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in patients with idiopathic ...
The goal of this study was to determine if regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)in the left and right hemithalami or the left and ... To determine if regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). in the left and right hemithalami or the left and right heads. of the ... Abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus & the caudate nucleus are associated with low pain threshold ... Anti-Aging Blood Sugar Control Cholesterol Colds & Flu Detoxification Digestion Liver Health Lyme Support Mens Health Muscle ...
... in the early period after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R). Methods: The adenovirus carried human tiss ... The aims of this study were to find out whether kallikrein could induce angiogenesis and affect the cerebral blood flow (rCBF) ... Kallikrein gene transfer induces angiogenesis and further improves regional cerebral blood flow in the early period after ... The aims of this study were to find out whether kallikrein could induce angiogenesis and affect the cerebral blood flow (rCBF) ...
  • mean +/- SD) on regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral volume was studied in a group of ten right-handed patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (age 26.0 +/- 2.4 years, duration 18.4 +/- 3.8 years) using an intravenous Xenon 133 single photon emission computed tomography technique. (lu.se)
  • Ten patients with a presenile (before 65 years old) onset of the disease and 16 with senile onset of the disease were evaluated clinically and neuropsychologically and studied with single photon emission computed tomography using the blood flow tracer [ 123 I] N -isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The studies described in this Thesis were designed to investigate the patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF) deficits that occur in Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) and relate them to performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Although the presenile subjects had more severe neuropsychological abnormalities in all realms of cognitive function, including language, and showed greater reductions in regional blood flow than the older patients, they were also more severely demented, thus complicating interpretation of the results. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Desmedt JE, Robertson D. Differential enhancement of early and late components of the cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials during forced-paced cognitive tasks in man. (iands.org)
  • With his colleague Ole Munck he began in the 1950s to use radioactive isotopes for the measurement of the blood circulation in the brain, and in the beginning of the 1960s he together with David H. Ingvar from University of Lund began the development of methods for regional measurements on the brain with krypton-85 and xenon-133 isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five patients with normal CBF tomograms on admission developed delayed neurological deficits in the 2nd week after hemorrhage, at which time repeat CBF tomograms in 4 patients revealed large areas of well defined regional flow decrease in the vascular territories of the anterior or middle cerebral arteries. (elsevier.com)
  • Functional neuroimaging studies have pointed to a possible role of cerebral circuits involving the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, the striatum, and thalamus in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). (unicamp.br)
  • After the native cerebral CT examination, one section level through the basal nuclei was selected and imaged at 120 kVp (number 1) and 80 kVp (number 2). (ajnr.org)
  • Present indications for a thrombolytic therapy rely on the time interval between the beginning of symptoms (inferior or superior to 3 hr) and the native cerebral CT findings (5, 9, 10) . (ajnr.org)
  • In one patient the conventional x-ray tomogram was negative, while the flow tomogram clearly showed a decreased flow in consonance with the clinical findings. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • To test these hypotheses, we used single-label in situ hybridization and cDNA microarray approaches to quantify the regional, laminar, and cellular expression of PV and CR mRNAs in the PFC of matched pairs of schizophrenic and control subjects and of monkeys exposed to antipsychotic medication in a manner that mimics clinical use. (jneurosci.org)
  • While the notion that arterial blood pressure is not constant, but fluctuates dynamically over time has been known since the 18th century, the clinical importance of this phenomenon is only now being recognized. (frontiersin.org)
  • With a community-based pediatric network, seven regional outpatient centers, an ambulatory surgery center, two emergency rooms, an acute care hospital, and collaborations throughout the region, Children's National is recognized for its expertise and innovation in pediatric care and as an advocate for all children. (childrensnational.org)
  • In conclusion, our findings suggest a regional component to the bias of SUVR related to the time to transient equilibrium of the specific binding. (gu.se)
  • Biphasic responses were seen in several structures manifest as increased blood flow at 0.1 mg/kg and a decrease or no effect at the mid doses only to increase again after the two highest doses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although exercising skeletal muscle was shown to modify the peripheral distribution of blood flow during diving, the brain's share of cardiac output increases primarily due to a decrease in cerebrovascular resistance. (usask.ca)
  • The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that old age results in an increase in vascular resistance and, correspondingly, a decrease in blood flow to ocular, regional cerebral, and spinal tissue in the rat. (uky.edu)