Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Blood Preservation: The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.PaperFreezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Newfoundland and Labrador: Province of Canada consisting of the island of Newfoundland and an area of Labrador. Its capital is St. John's.Chills: The sudden sensation of being cold. It may be accompanied by SHIVERING.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Sick Building Syndrome: A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Theft: Unlawful act of taking property.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Heat Exhaustion: A clinical syndrome caused by heat stress, such as over-exertion in a hot environment or excessive exposure to sun. It is characterized by SWEATING, water (volume) depletion, salt depletion, cool clammy skin, NAUSEA, and HEADACHE.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.

Growth from spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in heat-treated vegetable juice. (1/249)

Unheated spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were able to lead to growth in sterile deoxygenated turnip, spring green, helda bean, broccoli, or potato juice, although the probability of growth was low and the time to growth was longer than the time to growth in culture media. With all five vegetable juices tested, the probability of growth increased when spores were inoculated into the juice and then heated for 2 min in a water bath at 80 degrees C. The probability of growth was greater in bean or broccoli juice than in culture media following 10 min of heat treatment in these media. Growth was prevented by heat treatment of spores in vegetable juices or culture media at 80 degrees C for 100 min. We show for the first time that adding heat-treated vegetable juice to culture media can increase the number of heat-damaged spores of C. botulinum that can lead to colony formation.  (+info)

Vaccine storage in the community: a study in central Italy. (2/249)

Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunization programme, but in developed countries faulty procedures may occur more commonly than is generally believed. A survey was conducted in a health district in central Italy to assess the methods of vaccine transportation and storage. Of 52 primary vaccination offices inspected, 39 (76.5%) had a refrigerator for vaccine storage but only 17 (33.3%) kept records of received and stored doses. None of the seven main offices selected for monitoring had a maximum and minimum thermometer and none monitored the internal temperature of the refrigerator. Moreover, other faulty procedures, such as the storage of food and laboratory specimens in vaccine refrigerators and the storage of vaccines on refrigerator door shelves, indicated that the knowledge and practice of vaccine storage and handling were often inadequate.  (+info)

Bacterial resistance of refrigerated and cryopreserved aortic allografts in an experimental virulent infection model. (3/249)

PURPOSE: The bacterial resistance of refrigerated and cryopreserved aortic allografts in a highly virulent infection in a dog model was studied. METHODS: The infrarenal aorta of 12 dogs was replaced with either a cryopreserved aortic allograft (group I, n = 6) or a refrigerated aortic allograft (group II, n = 6) in infected sites. Allografts were harvested from dogs and stored for 1 week, either by cryopreservation (-140 degrees C) or refrigerated method (4 degrees C), in a preservation medium. At the time of implantation, induction of infection was achieved with an infected piece of knitted Dacron placed just beneath the allograft. The Dacron was contaminated in vitro by soaking it in a solution with Staphylococcus aureus PR209. All 12 dogs received no adjunct antibiotic or antithrombotic therapy. Four weeks after implantation, the animals were killed to recover the grafts for bacteriological and histological analyses. Bacterial results were expressed as colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2 of graft material. RESULTS: In group I, only one allograft grew bacteria at 2. 16 x 10(6 )CFU/cm2, with a blood culture positive for S aureus. In group II, one dog died at 3 weeks from a false septic aneurysm rupture, all the allografts were infected (P <.05) with a mean bacterial count of 9.41 +/- 6.8 x 10(4) CFU/cm2, and three blood cultures were positive for S aureus. The patency of the grafts was analyzed at the time of recovery. Three laminar thrombi without occlusion were present in group I; none were present in group II. A better preserved endothelium in group I was revealed by means of histologic analysis staining with factor VIII antibody before implantation. After 4 weeks of implantation in the infected site, infected allografts presented polynuclear infiltrates in the media with a high degree of inflammatory reaction, and endothelial recovery was more significant in group I, with numerous young plump cells. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that cryopreserved allografts implanted in infected sites in a dog model can produce greater bacterial resistance.  (+info)

A predictive model that describes the effect of prolonged heating at 70 to 90 degrees C and subsequent incubation at refrigeration temperatures on growth from spores and toxigenesis by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in the presence of lysozyme. (4/249)

Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability such as cook-chill and sous-vide foods rely on a minimal heat treatment at 70 to 95 degrees C and then storage at a refrigeration temperature for safety and preservation. These foods are not sterile and are intended to have an extended shelf life, often up to 42 days. The principal microbiological hazard in foods of this type is growth of and toxin production by nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum. Lysozyme has been shown to increase the measured heat resistance of nonproteolytic C. botulinum spores. However, the heat treatment guidelines for prevention of risk of botulism in these products have not taken into consideration the effect of lysozyme, which can be present in many foods. In order to assess the botulism hazard, the effect of heat treatments at 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 degrees C combined with refrigerated storage for up to 90 days on growth from 10(6) spores of nonproteolytic C. botulinum (types B, E, and F) in an anaerobic meat medium containing 2,400 U of lysozyme per ml (50 microg per ml) was studied. Provided that the storage temperature was no higher than 8 degrees C, the following heat treatments each prevented growth and toxin production during 90 days; 70 degrees C for >/=2,545 min, 75 degrees C for >/=463 min, 80 degrees C for >/=230 min, 85 degrees C for >/=84 min, and 90 degrees C for >/=33.5 min. A factorial experimental design allowed development of a predictive model that described the incubation time required before the first sample showed growth, as a function of heating temperature (70 to 90 degrees C), period of heat treatment (up to 2,545 min), and incubation temperature (5 to 25 degrees C). Predictions from the model provided a valid description of the data used to generate the model and agreed with observations made previously.  (+info)

Influence of refrigeration and formalin on the floatability of Giardia duodenalis cysts. (5/249)

Giardia duodenalis cysts obtained from fresh fecal samples, fecal samples kept under refrigeration and fecal samples treated with formalin were studied as to their floatability on sucrose solutions with the following specific gravities: 1,040 kg/m3; 1,050 kg/m3; 1, 060 kg/m3; 1,070 kg/m3; 1,080 kg/m3; 1,090 kg/m3; 1,100 kgm3; 1,150 kg/m3; 1,200 kg/m3; and 1,250 kg/m3, contained within counting-chambers 0.17 mm high. Cysts that floated on and those settled down as sediments were counted, and had their percentages estimated. Sucrose solutions of 1,200 kg/m3 specific gravity (the average specific gravity of diluting liquids employed in floatation techniques) caused to float 77.7%, 78.4% and 6.6% of the G. duodenalis cysts obtained, respectively, from fresh fecal samples, fecal samples kept under refrigeration, and fecal samples treated with formalin. Cysts obtained both from fresh fecal samples and fecal samples kept under refrigeration presented similar results concerning floatability. It was observed, however, that the treatment of feces with formalin diminished the cysts floatability under the various specific gravities studied. This results should influence, the recommendations for transport and storage of fecal samples used for parasitological coproscopy.  (+info)

High-resolution gas chromatographic profiles of volatile organic compounds produced by microorganisms at refrigerated temperatures. (6/249)

Three different strains of bacteria isolated from spoiled, uncooked chicken were grown in pure culture on Trypticase soy agar supplemented with yeast extract. The volatile organic compounds produced by each culture were concentrated on a porous polymer precolumn and analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. Twenty different compounds were identified. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in the chromatographic profiles from each culture were found.  (+info)

Fertility of mouse spermatozoa retrieved from cadavers and maintained at 4 degrees C. (7/249)

After male animals die, the spermatozoa within the testis and epididymis eventually disintegrate. In this study, the motility, viability and fertility of mouse spermatozoa were examined after retrieval from the epididymis at various days after death. Cadavers were maintained in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C. About 30% of the spermatozoa collected 10 days after death were viable, but they had limited ability to fertilize oocytes in vitro. However, when the spermatozoa were injected into oocytes, the fertilization rate was over 80%. Normal live fetuses were even obtained using immotile spermatozoa retrieved 20 days after death. Therefore, when valuable male animals die unexpectedly and sperm cryopreservation is not possible immediately, temporal storage of cadavers (or epididymis and vas deferens) at 4 degrees C in a regular refrigerator followed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection may help to preserve the genome of individuals. This procedure could be particularly important in endangered species.  (+info)

Survival of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent under refrigeration conditions. (8/249)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent in infected blood specimens remained viable during refrigeration at 4 degrees C for up to 18 days. These findings suggest that blood specimens submitted for culture may withstand transportation to a remote laboratory. HGE should be added to the list of infections potentially transmitted by blood transfusion.  (+info)

  • By eliminating the mechanical compressor from a cycle, the ejection system has the potential of providing the same amount of refrigeration (cooling capacity) with using only a fraction of electrical energy (for a pump only) as compared to conventional vapour compression systems. (igi-global.com)
  • This revolutionary technology can establish the performance of any type of air conditioning or refrigeration system, including Cooling (or Heat Pump) Capacity, Power Input, COP, Compressor Isentropic Efficiency, Superheat, Sub-Cooling, Refrigerant Charge Status and so on, without the need to establish airflow / water flow rates, air / water entering / leaving conditions! (heatingandventilating.net)
  • The chapter presents the development of ejector refrigeration technology that strongly reduces the greenhouse gases emission by using natural refrigerants and also dramatically reduces the need for the electric power. (igi-global.com)
  • Previous studies showed reduced energy use in nano-refrigeration, where refrigerants were dosed with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanoparticles. (biotechnews.com.au)
  • This document presents results from the Climate & Clean Air Coalition's Cooling & Refrigeration (HFC) Initiative reported between July 2016 and June 2017. (ccacoalition.org)
  • Since 1944, Bev Air has been a name synonymous with innovative, high-quality refrigeration products that set the standard for the foodservice industry. (webstaurantstore.com)
  • Routine maintenance can be completed easily and quickly daily with numerous Goodway products that maintain the operational health of the refrigeration plant. (goodway.com)
  • Providing mechanical and technical guidance and expertise to Operation Level Refrigeration Operators to continually improve the education, experience and skill set within the department. (dayforcehcm.com)
  • Danfoss will introduce the complete integrated evaporator control panel, semi-welded plate heat exchanger, and digital gas detector at the 2020 IIAR Natural Refrigeration Expo. (facilityexecutive.com)
  • At the 2020 IIAR Natural Refrigeration Expo on March 15-18, 2020, Danfoss will introduce three new innovations: the complete integrated evaporator control panel, semi-welded plate heat exchanger, and digital gas detector. (facilityexecutive.com)
  • Despite growing demand for refrigeration appliances, few Thai consumers intend to buy built-in fridge freezers due to them being much more expensive than freestanding fridge freezers. (euromonitor.com)
  • Assist with selection, connection, and installation of refrigeration units. (payscale.com)
  • The refrigeration facility, based in Liverpool, consists of several huge warehouse-sized freezers and chillers, used for the storage of food before transportation. (internationalgasdetectors.com)
  • With technological improvements, manufacturers are able to produce refrigeration appliances that facilitate similar cooling capacity while using less energy. (euromonitor.com)
  • In addition, optically refrigerated resonators may be used in the future as a promising starting point to perform motional cooling for exploration of quantum effects at mesoscopic length scales, temperature control within integrated photonic devices, and solid-state laser refrigeration of quantum materials. (nature.com)
  • Since then, two decades of research in the area of solid-state laser refrigeration has culminated in the development of a solid-state optical cryo-cooler with bulk Yb:YLF single crystals grown using the Czochralski method 9 , which has cooled crystals to 91 K from room temperature. (nature.com)
  • In contrast, in this work the temperature of a nanoscale semiconductor optomechanical resonator (CdSNR) is reduced using laser refrigeration of a hydrothermally synthesized Yb:YLF microcrystal attached to it. (nature.com)
  • There is an exception to the general rule that refrigeration retards bacterial growth: Listeria monocytogenes, a bacteria that causes serious illness, can grow at refrigerator temperatures . (thespruce.com)
  • The refrigeration plant supplies cooling to various parts of the ship, most importantly this includes maintaining the climate conditions of whatever cargo the ship is transporting. (goodway.com)
  • As mentioned before, the main purpose of the refrigeration plant is to avoid any spoilage or damage that could occur to the perishable cargo on the ship. (goodway.com)
  • Crew and customers both rely on the dependability and functionality of the ship's refrigeration plant. (goodway.com)
  • Without a well-maintained refrigeration plant, the rest of the ship is unable to perform its main function of transporting its cargo. (goodway.com)
  • Ships may rarely stay at a dock for a long enough period of time for engineers to fully service and maintain the health of the refrigeration plant. (goodway.com)
  • Ship engineers need to fully understand the movement schedule of a ship so that they can best plan the overall maintenance of the refrigeration plant. (goodway.com)
  • With such a small window to conduct refrigeration plant maintenance, it is vitally important that ship engineers make the time that they have to conduct maintenance count. (goodway.com)
  • Goodway's experts are also on standby ready to answer any questions about marine refrigeration plant maintenance. (goodway.com)
  • As of October 22, 2019, ABSA will begin offering a newly created refrigeration plant operator examination to interested candidates. (absa.ca)
  • Refrigeration plant owners are responsible to ensure that operators have the knowledge, skill, and experience required to operate the plant safely. (absa.ca)
  • The ability to preserve meat, without refrigeration, has long been a thorn to many outdoor enthusiasts, often leading to overweight and cumbersome coolers. (outdoorselfreliance.com)
  • Does Refrigeration Prevent Bacterial Growth in Food? (thespruce.com)