Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Methods of creating machines and devices.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The state of legal insolvency with assets taken over by judicial process so that they may be distributed among creditors.
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
Failure in built environment with loss of functional integrity.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.

Tonic accommodation, age, and refractive error in children. (1/409)

PURPOSE: An association between tonic accommodation, the resting accommodative position of the eye in the absence of a visually compelling stimulus, and refractive error has been reported in adults and children. In general, myopes have the lowest (or least myopic) levels of tonic accommodation. The purpose in assessing tonic accommodation was to evaluate it as a predictor of onset of myopia. METHODS: Tonic accommodation was measured in children enrolled in the Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia using an infrared autorefractor (model R-1; Canon, Lake Success, NY) while children viewed an empty lit field or a dark field with a fixation spot projected in Maxwellian view. Children aged 6 to 15 years were measured from 1991 through 1994 (n = 714, 766, 771, and 790 during the 4 years, successively). Autorefraction provided refractive error and tonic accommodation data, and videophakometry measured crystalline lens curvatures. RESULTS: Comparison of the two methods for measuring tonic accommodation shows a significant effect of age across all years of testing, with the lit empty-field test condition yielding higher levels of tonic accommodation compared with the dark-field test condition in children aged 6 through 11 years. For data collected in 1994, mean (+/-SD) tonic accommodation values for the lit empty-field condition were significantly lower in myopes, intermediate in emmetropes, and highest in hyperopes (1.02 +/- 1.18 D, 1.92 +/- 1.59 D, and 2.25 +/- 1.78 D, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001; between-group testing shows each group is different from the other two). Age, refractive error, and Gullstrand lens power were significant terms in a multiple regression model of tonic accommodation (R2 = 0.18 for 1994 data). Lower levels of tonic accommodation for children entering the study in the first or third grades were not associated with an increased risk of the onset of myopia, whether measured in the lit empty-field test condition (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval = 0.75, 1.08), or the dark-field test condition (relative risk = 0.83; 95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.14). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document an association between age and tonic accommodation. The known association between tonic accommodation and refractive error was confirmed and it was shown that an ocular component, Gullstrand lens power, also contributed to the tonic accommodation level. There does not seem to be an increased risk of onset of juvenile myopia associated with tonic accommodation.  (+info)

A new approach to the study of ocular chromatic aberrations. (2/409)

We measured the ocular wavefront aberration at six different visible wavelengths (between 450 and 650 nm) in three subjects, using a spatially resolved refractometer. In this technique, the angular deviation of light rays entering the pupil at different locations is measured with respect to a target viewed through a centered pupil. Fits of the data at each wavelength to Zernike polynomials were used to estimate the change of defocus with wavelength (longitudinal chromatic aberration, LCA) and the wavelength-dependence of the ocular aberrations. Measured LCA was in good agreement with the literature. In most cases the wavefront aberration increased slightly with wavelength. The angular deviations from the reference stimulus measured using a magenta filter allowed us to estimate the achromatic axis and both optical and perceived transverse chromatic aberration (TCA), (including the effect of aberrations and Stiles-Crawford effect). The amount of TCA varied markedly across subjects, and between eyes of the same subject. Finally, we used the results from these experiments to compute the image quality of the eye in polychromatic light.  (+info)

Optical characterization of liposomes by right angle light scattering and turbidity measurement. (3/409)

Liposomes have frequently been used as models of biomembranes or vehicles for drug delivery. However, the systematic characterization of lipid vesicles by right angle light scattering and turbidity has not been carried out despite the usefulness of such studies for size estimation. In this study, liposomes of various sizes were prepared by sonication and extrusion. The mean cumulant radii of the vesicles were determined by dynamic light scattering. The lamellarities were estimated based on fluorescence quenching of N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)dipalmitoyl-L-alpha-phosph ati dylethanolamine by sodium dithionite. Right angle light scattering intensity and optical density at 436 nm per unit lipid concentration were measured as a function of vesicle radius. With a vesicle radius < or =100 nm, the optical parameters could be well explained by the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye theory in which the liposomes were modeled as homogeneous spheres with mean refractive indices determined by the volume fractions of lipids in vesicles.  (+info)

High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of glycogen in sea urchin gonads with refractive index detection. (4/409)

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method using refractive index detection for the determination of glycogen in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) gonads is developed. After alkaline digestion with sodium carbonate, samples are adjusted to pH 4.6 with citric acid and incubated with amyloglucosidase to hydrolyze the glycogen. The resulting glucose is determined using a Spherisorb NH2 column as the stationary phase and an acetonitrile-water mixture (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase. The relative standard deviation (%) was 3.57, the limit of detection was 40.1 microg/mL, and the recovery percentage was 97.2%.  (+info)

Lens growth and protein density in the rat lens after in vivo exposure to ultraviolet radiation. (5/409)

PURPOSE: To investigate lens growth after different doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to investigate the long-term effect of a near-threshold UVR dose on the refractive index distribution in the lens. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats received UVR (lambda(MAX) = 300 nm) unilaterally during a 15-minute period. The exposure dose ranged from 0.1 to 20 kJ/m(2), and the rats were kept for up to 32 weeks after exposure. Intact lenses were photographed and lens wet and dry masses were measured. The protein density was estimated by quantitative microradiography. Freeze-dried lens sections were used for contact x-ray photographs. From the transmission of the microradiographs, protein density and refractive index profiles were calculated along the lens radius with a resolution of 2.5 microm. RESULTS: Lens dry mass in exposed eyes was lower than in nonexposed eyes at one week after exposure. Lens water content was decreased after low UVR doses but increased after high doses. The difference between exposed and nonexposed lenses in dry mass and water content increased with time after exposure. No significant difference was found for the mean protein density in exposed and nonexposed lenses. The protein density increased linearly in the lens cortex, from a minimum in the superficial cortex of 0.26 g/cm(3) to a maximum in the deep cortex of 0.81 g/cm(3). This corresponded to a refractive index of 1.38 and 1.48, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lenses exposed to UVR grew more slowly than their nonexposed contralaterals. This growth inhibition was dose dependent. Near-threshold doses led to decreased water content in the lens whereas high doses led to swelling. Six months after near-threshold UVR exposure, no global change of the refractive index was found. However, local variations of the refractive index caused a subtle cortical light scattering.  (+info)

Computational adaptive optics for live three-dimensional biological imaging. (6/409)

Light microscopy of thick biological samples, such as tissues, is often limited by aberrations caused by refractive index variations within the sample itself. This problem is particularly severe for live imaging, a field of great current excitement due to the development of inherently fluorescent proteins. We describe a method of removing such aberrations computationally by mapping the refractive index of the sample using differential interference contrast microscopy, modeling the aberrations by ray tracing through this index map, and using space-variant deconvolution to remove aberrations. This approach will open possibilities to study weakly labeled molecules in difficult-to-image live specimens.  (+info)

Gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens of the Black Oreo Dory (Allocyttus Niger): comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and laser ray-trace methods. (7/409)

The gradient refractive index of the crystalline lens in the Black Oreo Dory (Allocyttus Niger) was determined using two methods; an optimisation program based on finite ray-tracing and the path of laser beams through the lens, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the linear relationship between refractive index and nuclear transverse relaxation rates. The methods showed good agreement in the cortical zone of the lens, but the lack of free water in the core of the lens made MRI measurement impossible in this region. The laser-optimisation method gave mean values of 1.368 and 1.543 for the surface and core refractive indices respectively, with a radial distribution for the gradient refractive index given by n(r)=1.543-0.121r2-0.033r4-0.021r6.  (+info)

Index matching to improve optical coherence tomography imaging through blood. (8/409)

BACKGROUND: Most myocardial infarctions are caused by the rupture of small rather than large plaques in the arteries of the heart that are beyond the detection limit of current technologies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Recently, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has demonstrated considerable potential as a method for high-resolution assessment of vulnerable plaque. However, intravascular OCT imaging is complicated by the need to remove blood from the imaging field because blood results in substantial signal attenuation. This work examines index matching as a method for increasing penetration. Index matching is based on the hypothesis that the predominant source of scattering in blood is the difference in refractive index between the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and serum. By increasing the refractive index of serum to a value near that of the cytoplasm, or index matching, scattering can be substantially reduced. The concept was tested with a system that pumped blood in vitro through transparent tubing. The test compounds, dextran and intravenous contrast agent, both led to significant improvements in penetration (69+/-12% and 45+/-4%). No significant effect was seen with the saline control. For dextran, the effect could not be attributed to reductions of red cell number or volume because changes in these parameters were not different from the control. In the case of intravenous contrast, a small but significant relative reduction in red cell volume was seen. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of index matching for improving OCT imaging through blood. Future studies are required to identify compounds for effective index matching in vivo.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Refractometry and Brix Refractometry for the Diagnosis of Inadequate Transfer of Passive Immunity in Calves. AU - Buczinski, S.. AU - Gicquel, E.. AU - Fecteau, G.. AU - Takwoingi, Y.. AU - Chigerwe, Munashe. AU - Vandeweerd, J. M.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Background: Transfer of passive immunity in calves can be assessed by direct measurement of immunoglobulin G (IgG) by methods such as radial immunodiffusion (RID) or turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA). IgG can also be measured indirectly by methods such as serum refractometry (REF) or Brix refractometry (BRIX). Objectives: To determine the accuracy of REF and BRIX for assessment of inadequate transfer of passive immunity (ITPI) in calves. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies. Methods: Databases (PubMed and CAB Abstract, Searchable Proceedings of Animal Science) and Google Scholar were searched for relevant studies. ...
We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. We show that for plane parallel samples it is possible to measure their phase refractive index rather than the group index that is usually measured by interferometric methods. This is a significant development because it enables bulk refractive index measurement of scattering and soft samples, not relying on surface measurements that can be prone to error. Our technique is also noncontact and compatible with in situ refractive index measurements. Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry.. © 2008 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
In the scope of miniaturized optical sensors for liquid refractometry, this work details the design, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization of a Fabry-Pérot resonator consisting of two deeply-etched silicon cylindrical mirrors with a micro-tube in between holding the liquid analyte under study. The curved surfaces of the tube and the cylindrical mirrors provide three-dimensional light confinement and enable achieving stability for the cavity illuminated by a Gaussian beam input. The resonant optofluidic cavity attains a high-quality factor (Q)-over 2800-which is necessary for a sensitive refractometer, not only by providing a sharp interference spectrum peak that enables accurate tracing of the peak wavelengths shifts, but also by providing steep side peaks, which enables detection of refractive index changes by power level variations when operating at a fixed wavelength. The latter method can achieve refractometry without the need for spectroscopy tools, provided certain criteria
Purpose: To compare lens dimensions and refractive index distributions in type 1 diabetes and age-matched control groups. Methods: There were 17 participants with type 1 diabetes, consisting of two subgroups (7 young [23 ± 4 years] and 10 older [54 ± 4 years] participants), with 23 controls (13 young, 24 ± 4 years; 10 older, 55 ± 4 years). For each participant, one eye was tested with relaxed accommodation. A 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used to image the eye, employing a multiple spin echo (MSE) sequence to determine lens dimensions and refractive index profiles along the equatorial and axial directions. Results: The diabetes group had significantly smaller lens equatorial diameters and larger lens axial thicknesses than the control group (diameter mean ± 95% confidence interval [CI]: diabetes group 8.65 ± 0.26 mm, control group 9.42 ± 0.18 mm; axial thickness: diabetes group 4.33 ± 0.30 mm, control group 3.80 ± 0.14 mm). These differences were also significant ...
Refractometry, a combination of physics, materials, and chemistry, is a measurement technique which determines the composition of known substances by means of calculating their respective refractive indexes (RI). RIs are evaluated via a refractometer, a device which measures the curve, or refraction, resulting when the wavelength of light moves from the air into and through a tested substance. The unitless number given by the refractometer, usually between 1.3000 and 1.7000, is the refractive index. The composition of the substance is then determined with a comparison of the measured RI to standard curves developed for the substance. There are four general types of refractometers: digital, analog, lab, and inline process. Although refractometry can measure a variety of substances, the most common group of known substances to calculate is liquids. Liquid based continuous processes benefit from the use of an inline process refractometer to provide real time data about process output or ...
In the course of the characterization of a NLO crystal the temperature dependence of the refractive indices is an important aspect: phase matching conditions e.g. for SHG can be adjusted effectively by changes of temperature. In this work two techniques for the measurement of the temperature dependence of refractive indices are presented, based on a Jamin interferometer and on the Rotating-Analyser method. Six borate crystals of different symmetry: Zn4[O(BO2)6] (PG: 43m), Li2B4O7 (PG: 4mm), beta-BaB2O4 (PG: 3m), PbB4O7 (PG: mm2), BiB3O6 (PG: 2) and Bi2ZnB2O7 (PG: mm2) were investigated in the temperature range 70-285 K. The influence of temperature change on phase matching is rather large for BiB3O6 while it is small for the other borates Li2B4O7, beta-BaB2O4 and Bi2ZnB2O7. Using the example of zinc guanidinium sulfate, Zn[C(NH2)3]2(SO4)2, the temperatur dependence of refractive indices, as well as of electro-optic and piezoelectric coefficients were studied with a special focus on the symmetry ...
Optical diffraction tomography relies on solving an inverse scattering problem governed by the wave equation. Classical reconstruction algorithms are based on linear approximations of the forward model (Born or Rytov), which limits their applicability to thin samples with low refractive-index contrasts. More recent works have shown the benefit of adopting nonlinear models. They account for multiple scattering and reflections, improving the quality of reconstruction. To reduce the complexity and memory requirements of these methods, we derive an explicit formula for the Jacobian matrix of the nonlinear Lippmann-Schwinger model which lends itself to an efficient evaluation of the gradient of the data-fidelity term. This allows us to deploy efficient methods to solve the corresponding inverse problem subject to sparsity constraints.. © 2017 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurement of 4-D refractive index tomography of ...
Many materials have a well-characterized refractive index, but these indexes depend strongly upon the frequency of light. Standard refractive index measurements are taken at the yellow doublet sodium D line, with a wavelength of 589 nanometers. There are also weaker dependencies on temperature, pressure/stress, etc., as well on precise material compositions (presence of dopants, etc.); for many materials and typical conditions, however, these variations are at the percent level or less. Thus, it is especially important to cite the source for an index measurement if precision is required. In general, an index of refraction is a complex number with both a real and imaginary part, where the latter indicates the strength of absorption loss at a particular wavelength-thus, the imaginary part is sometimes called the extinction coefficient ...
The concentration dependences of the refractive index in aqueous ethanol solutions at equilibrium have been studied experimentally. Special attention was paid to their behavior in a vicinity of the peculiar point defined as the intersection point of the concentration dependences of the contraction measured at different temperatures or as a point, at which the intensity of molecular light scattering has a maximum. The refractive index is found to noticeably deviate from its reference values in a vicinity of the peculiar point, 0.05 , x , 0.1 (x is the mole fraction of ethanol). This effect reflects the fact that the equilibrium properties of the solutions concerned are established only during a few weeks. Arguments that the system becomes microinhomogeneous in this concentration interval are presented.. ...
Purpose: Many labs use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine ocular parameters in the mouse eye when studying refractive development. The optical linear distance obtained with the OCT is converted to geometrical linear distance using the refractive index of the tissue. Since the optical power of the nocturnal mouse eye is largely dependent on the large ocular lens, many published studies have used the refractive index value of 1.433 for C57BL/6J mouse lenses reported by Remtulla and Hallett (Vision Res 25:21-31; 1985) using the Abbé refractometer. Calculations from the mouse paraxial schematic eye model suggest that refractive index increased from 1.568 to 1.605 between 22 and 100 days in C57BL/6J mice (Schmucker & Schaeffel, Vision Res 44:1857-67; 2004 ). The purpose of this study was to measure the refractive index of isolated mouse lenses across age and in different strains using OCT.. Methods: Lenses were carefully dissected from C57BL/6J wild-type (C57) and nob mice eyes at 4, ...
For many applications, there is a need to measure small changes in refractive index that are easily overwhelmed by nonspecific background signals. For example, measurements of concentration via refractive index require accurate temperature control, and refractive index based biosensors need to be made insensitive to non-specific binding or bulk refractive index changes. Differential measurements with two devices offer a partial remedy. However, the attainable background suppression is often limited due to alignment errors, fabrication tolerances, and other differences between independent sensors.. Diffractive optical microdevices open up a path to differential sensing with direct background cancellation by the interference of light waves. One key advantage of these devices is that the signal of interest and the reference are closely integrated and lie on the same beam path. This principle has previously been used for displacement sensing in micromechanics,11-13 for chemical sensing,14-17 and for ...
Chrysotile has the lowest refractive indices of the six legally defined asbestos minerals. The refractive index along the length of the fiber ranges from 1.545 to 1.558. The refractive index across the fiber ranges from 1.532 to 1.552. Low iron content and missing OH groups drives the refractive index lower. High iron and restructuring following the removal of nearly all of the OH groups increases the refractive index. When thermally modified the refractive indices may go as high as 1.57 and though still a fiber, it looses its x-ray diffraction pattern as chrysotile but has not yet become forsterite. In this form it seems to become even more hazardous than chrysotile. This is the material created on older high temperature thermocouple leads, oven gaskets, and break drums. This form is easily identified using light microscopy but will not show up in an analysis based on x-ray or electron diffraction.. On rare occasions parachrysotile is found with chrysotile. Parachrysotile has a negative sign of ...
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based fiber optic sensor has been studied for multichannel and multianalyte sensing. Simulations have been carried out for a fiber optic sensor having two sensing regions coated with silver and gold for multichannel and multianalyte sensing. The simulated results have been obtained for different combinations of refractive indices of the samples around the probes. To support simulations optical fiber SPR probes with two sensing regions coated with silver and gold have been fabricated. SPR spectra for these sensors have been recorded for aqueous sucrose solutions of varying refractive indices. The refractive index of the liquid samples around both the gold and silver coated regions was kept the same to see the potential of SPR based fiber optic multichannel sensing, while it was kept different for studies related to multianalyte sensing. Both the theoretical and experimental results match qualitatively. The SPR resonance wavelengths for gold and silver being ...
Part physics, part material science and part chemistry, refractometry is the process which measures the composition of known substances by means of calculating their respective refractive indexes (RI). RIs are evaluated via a refractometer, a device which measures the curve, or refraction, resulting when the wavelength of light moves from the air into and through a tested substance. The unitless number given by the refractometer, usually between 1.3000 and 1.7000, is the RI. The composition of substances is then determined when the RI is compared to a standard curve specific to the material of the substance ...
JML-135-2007-105-114. This paper contains the results of a new experimental study of the effect of temperature on density, refractive index on mixing and ultrasonic velocity for a number of linear n-alkanes conbined with ethanol. A perusal of deviations between the experimental and calculated derived magnitudes shows that the predictive procedures give a qualitative estimation for the studied mixtures due to their high nonideality.. ...
A photonic nanojet (PNJ) corresponds to the specific highly localized spatial region of electromagnetic near-field distribution in the vicinity of a transparent micrometer-sized particle illuminated by a light wave. Here we consider dielectric spherical composite particles consisting of a core and several concentric shells having different refractive indices. The longitudinal and latitudinal sizes of a PNJ and its peak intensity depending on the optical contrast variation of shells are numerically investigated. We show that by properly changing the refractive indices of neighboring shells, it is possible to manipulate the PNJ shape and, in particular, extend its longitudinal size or increase its peak intensity.. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
An F.sub.2 -excimer laser has multiple closely-spaced spectral lines of interest around 157 nm, and one of the lines is selected by wavelength selection optics. The wavelength selection optics of a first preferred embodiment include a birefringent Brewster window enclosing the laser gas volume of the discharge chamber. The window preferably comprises MgF.sub.2 and is located at one end of the discharge chamber. One line is selected of the two when the optical thickness of the window is selected in coordination with rotatably adjustable, orthogonal refractive indices of the window. The transmissivity of the window is dependent on the orthogonal refractive indices and the optical thickness of the window. The wavelength selection optics of a second preferred embodiment include are at least partially within the laser active volume. In this way, line selection is performed in a manner which optimizes the combination of optical and discharge efficiency,
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Digital Hand-held "Pocket" Sodium bicarbonate Refractometer PAL-64S, ATAGO - 23-5584 23-5584-58 Digital Hand-held Pocket Sodium bicarbonate Refractometer PAL-64S ATAGO 4464 P-R, Refractometers, ATAGO Refractometers, Food Additives, Ingredient Refractometers, ATAGO Handheld pocket refractometer for chemical product ingredient measurement of sodium bicarbonate 0.0 to 10.0%, with a temperature range between 10.0 to 40.0 degrees C Automatic temperature compensation (ATC) for immediate and accurate calibration readings, regardless of ambient temperature LED-illuminated digital display, with an external light interference (ELI) feature to alert of outside light interference Rectangular palm-sized shape (109 x 55 x 31mm), with prism housed in circular sample well Durable, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin body, with Ingress-Protection (IP)-65 rating for protection against dust and water jets
Information about In-line process refractometers and industrial refractometry for the pulp and paper, chemical, and food and beverage industries.
Information about In-line process refractometers and industrial refractometry for the pulp and paper, chemical, and food and beverage industries.
Date: Thu, 07 Jan 1999 14:26:03 -0600 From: Louis Bonham ,lkbonham at phoenix.net, Subject: Alcohol determination by refractometry [long] Hi folks: [Warning: hard-core beer geek information follows. ,g,] Many of us use a refractometer to assay the gravity of wort during the mash or before fermentation starts. Once fermentation begins, however, the alcohol in the wort/beer skews the reading because it has a different refractive index than water; i.e., it causes light to bend more than water. As a result, a beer that actually has a specific gravity of, say, 1.010 (as measured by a hydrometer, pycnometer, digital density meter, etc.) might read as 5.5 degrees Brix (SG 1.022) on a refractometer. Because of this significant discrepancy, the conventional wisdom has been that refractometers are useless once fermentation starts. (I plead guilty to being one of the parties promulgating this.) In fact, the difference between the actual specific gravity and the apparent gravity as measured by a ...
Photonic crystals give butterflies their color and can also guide light. A typical photonic crystal consists of a piece of glass with holes arranged in regular periodic pattern throughout its volume. Since glass and the air have different refractive indices, the refractive index has a periodic structure. This is the reason these materials are called crystals-their atoms form an ordered, three-dimensional lattice as found in crystalline salt or silicon, for example. In a conventional crystal, the precise design of the 3D structure determines the behavior of electrons, resulting for example in electrical insulators, conductors and semiconductors.. In a similar manner, the optical properties of a photonic crystal depend on the periodic 3D microstructure, which is responsible for the shimmering colors of some butterfly wings, for example. Being able to control the optical properties of materials is useful in a wide variety of applications. The photonic crystal fibers developed by Philip Russell and ...
We present a novel methodology for optical fiber polymer microtip manufacturing ant testing, which supports the structure optimization process through utilization of an optical diffraction tomography system based on the lateral shear digital holographic microscope. The most important functional parameter of an optical fiber microtip is the output beam distribution in the far-field region, which depends on geometrical properties and refractive index distribution within the microtip. These factors, in turn, are determined by the optical power distribution of the actinic light and the exposition time during the photopolymerization process. In order to obtain a desired light field distribution we propose to govern the manufacturing process by a hybrid opto-numerical methodology, which constitutes a convenient feedback loop for modification of the fabrication parameters. A single cycle of the proposed scheme includes numerical modeling, tomographic measurements and modifications of fabrication ...
Solid para-H-2 is a promising gain medium for stimulated Raman scattering, due to its high number density and narrow Raman linewidth. In preparation for the design of a cw solid hydrogen Raman laser, we have made the first measurements, to our knowledge, of the index of refraction of a solid para-H-2 crystal, in the wavelength range of 430-1100 nm. For a crystal stabilized at 4.4 K, this refractive index is measured to be n(p-H2) 1.130 +/- 0.001 at 514 nm. A slight, but significant, dependence on the final crystal-growth temperature is observed, with higher n(p-H2) at higher crystal-growth temperatures. Once a crystal is grown, it can be heated up to 10 K with no change in n(p-H2). The refractive index varies only slightly over the observed wavelength range, and no significant birefringence was observed. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America. ...
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Multilayer interference pigment consisting of plateletlike titanium dioxide as carrier material, coated with alternating layers of metal oxides of low and high refractive index, the difference in the refractive indices being at least 0.1, which is obtainable by solidification and hydrolysis of an aqueous solution of a thermally hydrolysable titanium compound on a continuous belt, detachment of the resulting coat, coating of the resulting titanium dioxide platelets, with or without drying in between, by a wet method with, alternately, a metal oxide hydrate of high refractive index and a metal oxide hydrate of low refractive index by hydrolysis of the corresponding, water-soluble metal compounds, separation, drying and, if desired, calcining of the material obtained.
Vegetable oils are a class of natural products commonly used and appreciated due to their nutritional, sensorial, technological principles. Vegetable oils constitutes an important component of human diet often used in daily consumption with beneficial effects for the body balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare some of the physicochemical characteristics (dynamic viscosity, refractive index, surface tension, relative density and acidity index) in case of six food consumption vegetable oils, cold pressed. The analysed oil assortments, in these work were soybean, rapeseed, corn oil, almond, sesame and pumpkin seed oil purchased from the speciality stores with natural products, having different origins. The refractive index was measured using the refractometry method, and the dynamic viscosity using the Ostwald-type viscometer. From the physicochemical analyzed characteristics, it was observed that the values differ from one category of oil to another. Oils density varies from ...
A fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor based on a long period fiber grating (LPFG) coated with a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film was fabricated and characterized. A method to overcoat the LPFGs with a homogeneous ZnO thin films was developed. Characterization of ZnO thin films, deposited simultaneously on silicon (Si) planar substrates, was performed using Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The LPFGs with ZnO coatings from 29 to 145 nm of thickness were characterized and compared in terms of the wavelength shift and the intensity of the attenuation bands changing the surrounding refractive index (SRI) from 1.300 to 1.600. An average wavelength sensitivity of similar to 7162 nm/RIU was achieved in the RI range from 1.440 to 1.456 and more than 12,000 nm/RIU at 1.440 RI. Using a ZnO film thickness of 116 nm and in the RI region between 1.320 and 1.360 the average sensitivity of similar to 806 nm/RIU was measured for a 145 nm ...
This invention is directed to the preparation of silver halide-containing photochromic glasses exhibiting refractive indices between 1.585-1.610, Abbe numbers higher than 41, and densities less than 2.80 g/cm.sup.3 generally consisting essentially, in weight percent, of:
9 patients with monocular cataract aged 55-82 underwent surgery.The uncorrected visual acuity equaled 0.02-0.4.All patients underwent femto�â� � assisted phacoemulsification with the implantation of pseudo-accommodative IOL AcrySof ReSTOR (Alcon, USA) with �.0 D additional.The optical power of the IOL was calculated in emmetropic eye according to SRK/T formula.Femto laser stage was performed on a ZiemerFEMTO LDVZ8. Phacoemulsification was performed on StellarisPC Vision Enhancement system (Baush&Lomb,USA). The follow-up period was 6 months.The causes of loss of the paired eye were: phthisis bulbi, corneal leukoma, operated retinal detachment. Preoperative ophthalmological examination included visometry, tonometry, keratometry, refractometry, multiple biometrics,tomography of the retina ...
Urinary tract infections are the second infectious trouble which affects pets just after dermatologic affections. It is considered that 15% dogs and 1 to 3% cats have at least one urinary infection in their life time.. Two types of errors may be made in establishing the diagnosis: false positive animals diagnosed from clinical findings only and from a wrong interpretation of biological findings, and non identified infections due to the lack of systematic urinalysis.. Diagnostic steps. Urinalysis. Urinalysis is to be performed in order to analyze the physical, chemical, cytologic and microbiological features of urine. This includes several steps such as collecting urine, examining it, realizing a reagent strip, assessing urine specific gravity by refractometry, performing a nitric acid test to assess proteinuria, realizing urine sediment.. Use of urinalysis for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections Identification of organisms in urine is the only determining factor in the diagnosis of urinary ...
This study aimed to evaluate the digital Brix and optical serum total protein (STP) refractometers for measuring concentrations of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in alpacas and compare them to IgG concentrations measured by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. The appropriate cutoff point for Brix and STP refractometers and the transmission infrared (TIR) spectroscopy method was determined for low IgG concentrations (, 10 g/L). Serum samples were collected from alpacas (N = Show moreThis study aimed to evaluate the digital Brix and optical serum total protein (STP) refractometers for measuring concentrations of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in alpacas and compare them to IgG concentrations measured by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. The appropriate cutoff point for Brix and STP refractometers and the transmission infrared (TIR) spectroscopy method was determined for low IgG concentrations (, 10 g/L). Serum samples were collected from alpacas (N = ...
This study aimed to evaluate the digital Brix and optical serum total protein (STP) refractometers for measuring concentrations of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in alpacas and compare them to IgG concentrations measured by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. The appropriate cutoff point for Brix and STP refractometers and the transmission infrared (TIR) spectroscopy method was determined for low IgG concentrations (, 10 g/L). Serum samples were collected from alpacas (N = Show moreThis study aimed to evaluate the digital Brix and optical serum total protein (STP) refractometers for measuring concentrations of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in alpacas and compare them to IgG concentrations measured by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. The appropriate cutoff point for Brix and STP refractometers and the transmission infrared (TIR) spectroscopy method was determined for low IgG concentrations (, 10 g/L). Serum samples were collected from alpacas (N = ...
Anton Paar produces high precision measuring and laboratory instruments for industry and research. It is the world leader in the measurement of Density, Concentration and CO2 and in the field of Rheometry. Other areas of specialty are: Viscometry, Polarimetry, Refractometry, Microwave Sample Preparation & Synthesis, Surface Analysis and Characterisation, Nanostructure Analysis and X-Ray Scattering. Established in 1922, Anton Paar GmbH today is owned by the charitable Santner Foundation. Over 3200 employees at the headquarters in Graz and the sales subsidiaries worldwide ensure that Anton Paar products live up to their excellent reputation. The core competence of Anton Paar - high-precision production - and close contact to the scientific community form the basis for the quality of Anton Paars instruments. Located in St Albans, Anton Paar Limited provides sales, application support and service to users across the UK and ...
Elscolab offers an extensive range of instrumentation for industrial processes. There are dedicated solutions for every industry and all applications, ranging from food manufacturing via the pharmaceutical industry to heavy chemical processes.. Our equipment meets and exceeds todays industry standards. Of course they meet international guidelines and norms for safety (ATEX, SIL...) and hygiene (FDA, USP, EHEDG, …). The inline and online sensors are capable of digital and analogue communication with your process control system.. Our specialties: pH/ORP, oxygen, UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry, conductivity, colour, turbidity, refractometry, viscosity, pressure, temperature, flow, galvanic separators and much more.. ...
MilliporeSigma provides a variety of Certipur® reference materials for special applications - from refractometry to TOC analysis to color measurement
Merck provides a variety of Certipur® reference materials for special applications - from refractometry to TOC analysis to color measurement
Background Noninflammatory corneal ectasias is a group of diseases including keratoconus (KC), pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD), and keratoglobus. KC is the most common form of corneal ectasia characterized by progressive thinning of the central or inferior cornea, causing corneal steepening and cone formation. The disease typically presents during the second decade of life and is bilateral, but often one eye precedes the other. Detecting the cases of subclinical KC had always been a challenge for refractive surgeons especially when the suggestive clinical signs and symptoms to differentiate subclinical KC from the normal are not observed. Aim The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of ectatic corneal conditions among keratorefractive population admitted for refractive surgery at Al-Mashreq Eye Centre, during the period from June 2017 till December 2017, using data from the Scheimpflug tomographer imaging system. Patients and methods Our study was conducted on patients seeking ...
We theoretically investigate the properties of the series-coupled fiber double-ring resonator in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as highly sensitive temperature sensor. By comparison of phase difference between two arms, we acquired suitable phase difference of 0.5π between two arms in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sharpest asymmetric line shape around the resonance wavelength. We also analyze the effect of parameters on the sensitivity and the detection limit by measuring the intensity change at a fixed wavelength. For the 30dB signal-to-noise ratio system, the sensitivity and the detection limit can achieve 720.8/°C and 4.16×10−6 °C, respectively. These results indicate that this structure is suitable for highly sensitive, compact and stable sensors ...
Our THz laboratory is centered on a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system that provides picosecond THz pulses at a ~100 MHz repletion rate. These short pulses provide a spectral bandwidth from ~100 GHz to 4 THz. By monitoring position-dependent changes in the reflected or transmitted THz signal, we can build up an image of the material utilizing various contrast mechanisms. For example, in the time domain in a stratified medium, due to the Fresnel coefficient associated with refractive-index variations between the layers, the detected signal will be composed of various time-delayed echoes that are detected and then disentangled to identify layer thicknesses and refractive indices. Using advanced signal-processing techniques, we can obtain in some cases layer-thickness estimates down to ~20 microns. Such thicknesses are significantly below the expected resolution based on the available bandwidth.One of our laboratorys specific strength is our state-of-the-art ability to extract as much ...
Chilton Company. Refractometers Measure Jam/Jelly Brix During Cooking. Food Engineering 67 (1995): 30. Print. Considine, P. E., Douglas M., and Glenn D. Considine. Refractometers. Van Nostrands Scientific Encyclopedia . 8th ed. 1995. Print. Hanning, Anders, and Johan Roeraade. A Spectroscopic Refractometer for Temperature- Independent Refractive Index Detection. Analytical Chemistry 69 (1997): 1496-1503. Print. Sprow, Eugene E. and Production Lines Staff Refraction Test Refines Wandering Coolant. Manufacturing Engineering 114 (1995):70-72. Print. Podoleanu, A. Gh., S. R. Taplin, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson. Channeled Spectrum Liquid Refractometer. Review of Scientific Instruments 64 (1993): 3028-3029. Print. Warenghem, M., and J. M. Lefebvre. Double Arm Pulfrich Refractometer: Application to the Optical Characterization of Biaxially Stretched Polystyrene. Polymer Engineering & Science 33 (1993): 1360-1365. Print. ...
Wyatt Technology is the recognized leader in light scattering instrumentation and software for determining the absolute molar mass, size, charge and interactions of macromolecules and nanoparticles in solution.. Wyatts line of multi-angle static light scattering products couple to size exclusion chromatography (SEC-MALS), field-flow fractionation (FFF-MALS) and stop-flow composition-gradient systems (CG-MALS). Our dynamic light scattering (DLS) products operate in traditional cuvette as well as on-line and automated, high-throughput modes. We also offer unique instruments for electrophoretic light scattering (MP-PALS), differential refractometry and differential viscosity.. +1 805-681-9009 Headquarters , 6330 Hollister Ave, Santa Barbara, CA ...
Wyatt Technology is the recognized leader in light scattering instrumentation and software for determining the absolute molar mass, size, charge and interactions of macromolecules and nanoparticles in solution. Wyatt provides in-line multi-angle static light scattering - SEC-MALS; field flow fractionation (separation with no stationary phase) - FFF-MALS; composition gradients for interaction analysis - CG-MALS; high-throughput dynamic light scattering - DLS; high-sensitivity electrophoretic mobility - MP-PALS; differential refractometry, and differential viscosity.. ...
Anton Paar develops, produces and distributes highly accurate laboratory instruments and process measuring systems, and provides custom-tailored automation and robotic solutions.. It is the world leader in the measurement of density, concentration and CO2 and in the field of Rheometry. Other areas of specialty are: Viscometry, Polarimetry, Refractometry, Microwave Sample Preparation & Synthesis, Chemical and Mechanical Surface and Nanostructure Analysis.. With over 2200 employees at the headquarters in Graz (Austria) and the 25 sales subsidiaries worldwide, Anton Paar ensure that their products live up to their excellent reputation. The core competence of the company - high-precision production - and close contact to the scientific community form the basis for the quality of Anton Paars instruments.. A strong sales network in more than 110 countries guarantees customers rapid support and answers to their application and service queries.. Innovation is the basis for progress and every year Anton ...
ASTM-D5006 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fuel System Icing Inhibitors (Ether Type) in Aviation Fuels - aviation fuel; diethylene glycol monomethyl ether; fuel system icing inhibitor; refractometry ;; ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
Microlenses are fabricated with a refractive-index gradient. The refractive-index gradient is produced in a microlens material such that the refractive index is relatively higher in the material nearest the substrate, and becomes progressively lower as the layer gets thicker. After formation of the layer with the refractive-index gradient, material is etched from the layer through a resist to form microlenses. The index of refraction can be adjusted in the microlens material by controlling oxygen and nitrogen content of the microlens materials during deposition. High-oxide material has a lower index of refraction. High-oxide material also exhibits a faster etch-rate. The etching forms the material into a lens shape. After removal of the resist, the microlenses have a lower relative refractive index at their apex, where the index of refraction preferably approaches that of the ambient surroundings. Consequently, light loss by reflection at the ambient/microlens interface is reduced.
Despite the fact that many refractometers sold to aquarists recommend calibration in pure water, such a calibration alone will not ensure accuracy for the reasons described above. So my recommendation for calibration is as follows:. 1. First calibrate the refractometer in pure freshwater. This can be distilled water, RO (reverse osmosis) water, RO/DI water, bottled water and even tap water with reasonably low TDS (total dissolved solids). Calibrating with tap water that has a TDS value of 350 ppm introduces only about a 1% error in salinity, causing readings in seawater to read a bit low. So 35 ppt seawater (specific gravity = 1.0264) will read to be about 34.7 ppt, and will show a specific gravity of about 1.0261.. This calibration should ordinarily be carried out at room temperature using an ATC refractometer. The directions with some ATC refractometers insist that the calibration be carried out at a specific temperature, but Ive never understood how that could matter and I would not worry ...
A quaternary system consisting of three solutes, namely ethanol, diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG) in benzene at 298.15 K and 1.0125 × 105 Pa was studied. An experimental design in the range of concentration 0.006 < xsolute-i < 0.023 was explored, optimizing the metric distance among the solutes to avoid clustering. On-line simultaneous experimental measurements using a densitometer and a refractometer were utilized to measure bulk solution density and bulk refractive index, respectively. Response surface models describing the total molar volume and total molar refraction were employed to determine the partial molar volumes and the partial molar refractions of each solute from the dilute multi-component data alone. Neither densities nor refractive indices of any of the pure components were used and no binary information was required for the analysis. Definitions for the mean electronic polarizability and the effective molecular radius of a solute based on the partial molar ...
We demonstrate a method for the fast and simple packaging of silicon sensors into a microfluidic package consisting of the recently introduced {OSTE} polymer. The microfluidic layer is first microstructured and thereafter dry-bonded to a silicon photonic sensor, in a process compatible with wafer-level production, and with the entire packaging process lasting only 10 minutes. The fluidic layer combines molded microchannels and fluidic (Luer) connectors with photopatterned through-holes (vias) for optical fiber probing and fluid connections. All the features are fabricated in a single photocuring step. We report measurements with an integrated silicon photonic {Mach-Zehnder} interferometer refractive index sensor packaged by these means.. ...
This product is a surface-emitting semiconductor laser with a photonic crystal structure that features a narrow spot beam pattern (narrow beam spread angle, circular shape) and a narrow spectral linewidth. The photonic crystal is an optical nanostructure having a periodic refractive index distribution with dimensions nearly equal to the light wavelengths. In this product, light is amplified and diffracted by the photonic crystal mounted in the vicinity of a light amplification layer called an active layer, and the amplified light is output as a laser beam in a direction perpendicular to the surface. Even with a large area, this laser allows a stable resonance action and so delivers a high quality beam with a narrow radiant angle.
Chan, F. and Harris, M. and Singh, R. 2015. Modelling Body Mass Index Distribution using Maximum Entropy Density, 21st International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM) held jointly with the 23rd National Conference of the Australian-Society-for-Operations-Research / DSTO led Defence Operations Research Symposium (DORS, pp. 1036-1042: MODELLING & SIMULATION SOC AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND INC ...
Organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials have attracted increasing attention in recent years as low-cost, rugged materials for integrated optical devices such as optical couplers, splitters, and electro-optic modulators. These materials can be easily processed by spin-coating, wet-etching photolithography, and low-temperature baking. Precise control of waveguide core-cladding refractive indices produces well-confined low-loss propagation and good matching of the absolute refractive index to that of fused silica results in low optical coupling loss to optical fiber. The increased thermal and mechanical stability of these materials, relative to optical polymers, results in numerous packaging options and improved reliability. However organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials have not yet been often used as host of active dopants such as erbium (III) ions for 1550nm optical amplification. This limitation owes primarily to matrix and chelate dominated nonradiative relaxation processes, as high ...
Interferometric probing using an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser has measured both transmission and phase information through laser-irradiated plastic (parylene-N C8H8) targets (thickness 350 nm). Unusually, the probe beam is incident longitudinally in approximately the same direction as the incident optical laser. Agreement of the experimental interferometry results has been obtained with two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code (h2d) simulations of EUV (21.2 nm) probe transmissions and phase shifts. We show that the transmission of the EUV probe beam provides a measure of the rate of target ablation, as ablated plasma becomes close to transparent when the photon energy is less than the ionization energy of the predominate ion species. Here C3+ ions with ionization energy 64.5 eV are transparent, while lower carbon ionization stages, present in the unablated target and close to the ablation surface, absorb the 58.5 eV photons. Similarly, we show that refractive indices η below the solid ...
Plasma polymerized a-C:H thin films have been deposited on Si (100) and aluminum coated glass substrates by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium pressure using C2Hm/Ar (m = 2, 4, 6) gas mixtures. The deposited films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS), Raman spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. FT-IRRAS revealed the presence of sp3 and sp2 C-H stretching and C-H bending vibrations of bonds in the films. The presence of D and G bands was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Thin films obtained from C2H4/Ar and C2H6/Ar gas mixtures have ID/IG ratios of 0.45 and 0.3, respectively. The refractive indices were 2.8 and 3.1 for C2H4/Ar and C2H6/Ar films, respectively, at a photon energy of 2 eV.
13. A single mode optical fiber, comprising:a first central region defining a radius r1, said first central region having a maximum refractive index value n1.sub.max and a minimum refractive index value n1.sub.min; anda second ring surrounding said first central region, wherein said second ring has a substantially constant refractive index value n2 that is less than the minimum refractive index value n1.sub.min of said first central region;wherein the refractive index value of said first central region decreases from the central axis of symmetry in said first central region in a radial direction over a distance equal to the radius r1, the refractive index value decreasing from n1.sub.max to n1.sub.min in a substantially linear fashion, whereby said first central region is substantially free of a portion having a constant refractive index value, and wherein the decrease takes place in accordance with the following equation: slope = ( D 1 max - D 1 min ) / ( r 1 ) , wherein 0.13 , slope , 0.19 , D ...
The diffusion of Magnesium dopant into the Lithium Niobate host induces negative index changes. The process starts by deposition of a stripe Magnesium source, usually the oxide of Magnesium, onto the Lithium Niobate crystal. The sample is then heated for several hours, similar to the Titanium diffusion process. Formally, the resulting refractive index distribution can be modeled using similar formulas, so all parameters have the same meaning in both cases. However, the default parameters are different.. The major differences between the Ti and Mg diffusion processes:. • Magnesium distribution constants are negative in contrast to positive values for Ti diffusion. From the literature data, the constants are approximately one order of magnitude larger than those for Titanium diffusion.. • The power distribution factors for the Magnesium process are the same for ordinary and extraordinary indices and equal to unity in contrast to Titanium process.. • Different diffusion constants and ...
This study proposes a method for measuring the refractive index of articular cartilage within a thin and small specimen slice. The cartilage specimen, with a thickness of about 50 μm, was put next to a thin film of immersion oil of similar thickness. Both the articular cartilage and immersion oil were scanned along the depth direction using a confocal microscope. The refractive index mismatch between the cartilage and the immersion oil induced a slight axial deformation in the confocal images of the cartilage specimen that was accurately measured by a subpixel edge-detection-based technique. A theoretical model was built to quantify the focal shift of confocal microscopy caused by the refractive index mismatch. With the quantitative deformations of cartilage images and the quantified function of focal shift, the refractive index of articular cartilage was accurately interpolated. At 561 nm, 0.1 MPa and 20 °C, the overall refractive index of the six cartilage plugs was 1.3975 ± 0.0156. The ...
Today, silicate photothermorefractive (PTR) glasses are well known as a holographic medium for fabrication of holographic volume diffractive optical elements. The photothermoinduced crystallization process is used for recording high-efficiency phase volume holograms in this material. These holograms are used for developing unique diffractive optical elements that provide new opportunities for the laser technique, for example, narrowband filters for solid-state lasers and laser diodes, beam combiners, holographic collimator sights, chirped gratings for laser pulse compression, etc. By now, the photothermoinduced crystallization and properties of the PTR glass are investigated well enough. However, there are some issues and features still, which are solved in the present work. The mechanism of refractive index change in fluoride photothermorefractive glass during photothermoinduced crystallization and refractive index profile of the volume Bragg gratings were discussed. We studied a fine structure of a
Other possible mechanisms could be involved in the compensation we found. One is the possible effect on the aberration of the posterior corneal surface. It should be noted that what we referred to as internal ocular optics also includes the posterior surface of the cornea (Guirao & Artal, 2000). The difference in refractive index between the cornea and the aqueous humor is about 10% of the difference of indexes between air and cornea. It is, therefore, unlikely that the posterior corneal surface makes a significant contribution to the aberrations. However, if the posterior surface of the cornea has a shape similar to the first surface, because the refractive index change is opposite, a small amount of first-surface aberration could be compensated. Precise measurements of both corneal surfaces would allow determination of the posterior surfaces exact role in the aberrations. A decentration of the eyes pupil could also explain part of the balance obtained between cornea and internal surfaces. ...
Refractometer for measuring of seawater/saltwater. It comes programmed with both Seawater PPT (parts per thousand) and Specific Gravity (SG) scales.
Digital Wide Range protein / Urine Refractometer General Tools Corp. General Tool Digital Wide Range Protein / Urine Refractometer
The Europe Refractometers Industry 2016 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Refractometers industry. The
D6550 Standard Test Method for Determination of Olefin Content of Gasolines by Supercritical-Fluid Chromatography D6591 Standard Test Method for Determination of Aromatic Hydrocarbon Types in Middle Distillates-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method with Refractive Index Detection. D6750 Standard Test Methods for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High-Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine-1K Procedure (0.4 % Fuel Sulfur) and 1N Procedure (0.04 % Fuel Sulfur). D6987/D6987M Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-10 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diesel Engine. D7347 Standard Test Method for Determination of Olefin Content in Denatured Ethanol by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. D7422 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-12 Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diesel Engine. D7484 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Valve-Train Wear Performance in Cummins ISB Medium-Duty Diesel Engine. D7549 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of ...
NEW With the popular Osmocheck now obsolete, we have sourced a new range of accurate urine analysis devices, including this benchtop Digital Urine Specific Gravity Refractometer UG-α.
A new optical diffraction tomography (ODT) technique can measure the positions of optically trapped particles in three dimensions at high speed.
A fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system uses a new polarization diversity detection (PDD) scheme and requires no active polarization modulating components. Retardation of the sample can be determined from amplitudes of arbitrarily-oriented x- and y-components of the reflected light. A hybrid custom 50/50 coupler with single-mode fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber outputs combines light from sample and reference arms of an interferometer. Another embodiment ...
The century old process of staining biological tissue for examination under a microscope remains today as the standard assessment tool for pathologists looking for signs of cancer. Now a new stain-free imaging method for cancer diagnosis has been developed that provides images that rival or surpass those from histological staining. In addition, the technique is automated, and it provides quantitative data on structures at the cellular level.. Researchers from the Beckman Institute, Christie Clinic in Urbana, and the University of Illinois at Chicago reported on the results of using the method for cancer detection in a paper for the Journal of Biomedical Optics titled Tissue refractive index as marker of disease. Gabriel Popescu, director of the Quantitative Light Imaging Laboratory (QLI) at Beckman and faculty member in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Illinois, developed the technique, called Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM), and led the study.. SLIM employs ...
Majeed H, Kandel M, Han K, Luo Z, Macias V, Tangella K, Balla A, Popescu G. In Press. Breast cancer diagnosis using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM). Journal of Biomedical Optics - Special Section on Quantitative Phase Imaging in Medicine. ...
LUMISIL® 590 and LUMISIL® 591 are highly transparent, addition-curing silicone elastomers with a refractive index of 1.53, which means they rank among the high-refractive-index (HRI) encapsulants. Such grades are particularly suitable for manufacturing highly efficient LEDs. The HRI silicone protects the sensitive LED chip against mechanical influences and corrosive gases. At the same time, the silicones high refractive index enables optimum light efficiency. Semiconductor chips used to generate light in LEDs have a high refractive index. To maximize the amount of light emitted by the LED chip that can pass through the encapsulation, the refractive index of the chip and encapsulant must be roughly the same value. Thanks to their refractive index of 1.53, LUMISIL® 590 and LUMISIL® 591 make LEDs highly efficient. Whats more, the highly transparent silicones are almost completely transparent for light in the visible spectral range (approx. 400 to 700 nm) and do not yellow even when radiation ...
Dublin, Oct. 29, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Cladding Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecast (2020-2025) report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms offering. Cladding helps maintain a balance between the exterior and interior environment of the structure and is designed to meet the aesthetic and functional requirements simultaneously. Cladding is done based on the operational requirement of the building. The rise in infrastructure and construction activities in residential and non-residential spaces worldwide are the main factors driving the growth of the cladding market.Stringent government regulations, green buildings regulations, and codes such as LEED certifications are also propelling the investments in lightweight and energy-efficient market cladding systems in residential and non-residential buildings.The demand for fire resistance, thermal resistance, water resistance, and soundproof cladding systems is growing. Innovative eco preferred cladding materials are preferred in the market
This disclosure concerns optical waveguides of semiconductor material through which light is adapted to be propagated. The optical waveguides comprise respective first and second layers of semiconductor material of the same conductivity type, wherein one of the semiconductor layers has a relatively low refractive index, while the other semiconductor layer has a relatively high refractive index, with the light being adapted to be propagated through the semiconductor layer having the relatively high refractive index. The optical waveguide structures are characterized by having the semiconductor layer through which the light is to be propagated so formed as to include each of its two side surfaces and top surface as being planar faceted growth surfaces of extreme smoothness to avoid scattering light as it is being propagated therethrough, thereby minimizing losses. In a particular aspect, an optical waveguide is provided in which each of its four planar surfaces including top, bottom, and side surfaces is
Panomex Inc. brings to you a portable Urine Specific Gravity refractometer; Range: 1 to 1.050; equally useful for people and animal testing
META18, the 9th International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics will cover the entire scope of Electromagnetic & Nanophotonic Complex Materials, including metamaterials, photonic crystals and plasmonics
Colostrum Quality Colostral IgG concentration is the most common measure of colostrum quality. IgG concentration can vary considerably from camelid to camelid, and ideally, colostrum should be tested for quality to avoid feeding poor quality colostrum. A colostrometer can be used to screen for and segregate low quality colostrum but results can be inaccurate due to colostrum temperature. In addition, the colostrometer itself is not very durable. A Brix refractometer offers significant advantages over a colostrometer because instrument accuracy does not appear to be affected by sample temperature.. ...
A new imaging method that can measure cell mass using two beams of light - called spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) - offers ne
"Refractometers and refractometry". Refractometer.pl. 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2011-09-03. " ... material Index ellipsoid Laser Schlieren Deflectometry Optical properties of water and ice Prism-coupling refractometry Phase- ...
"Ultrasensitive Refractometry via Supercritical Angle Fluorescence". ACS Nano.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) ...
Lens refractometry. *Fundus image of retina. *Optical coherence tomography scan of retina ...
"Refractometers and refractometry". Refractometer.pl. 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2011-09-03.. ...
Refractometry, interferometry, polarimetry, turbidmetry Refraction of index, interference, rotation of polarization plane, ...
cit.; Specification and Standard SPS-3 Refractometry and Tables - Official; Tables A-F "ICUMSA Methods Book, op. cit. Method ... the sugar content of a solution obtained by use of refractometry with the ICUMSA table is often reported as "Refractometric Dry ...
A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction (refractometry). The index of ... Rayleigh Refractometer: Operational Principles Refractometers and refractometry explains how refractometers work.. ...
In addition to thermal migration, he also conducted research on refractometry. In 1898 he became the rector of the University ...
Okita, K.; Teramoto, A.; Kawahara, K.; Fujita, H. (1968). "Light scattering and refractometry of a monodisperse polymer in ...
Surface plasmon resonance-based instruments use refractometry to measure and analyze biomolecular interactions. Polarization ...
He is known for more than 30 technical patents in the area of refractometry, measurement, and control. Vossberg also founded ... was granted more than 30 technical patents during his lifetime in the areas of refractometry, measurement, and control. A ...
More recently immersion refractometry has been shown to be a viable method for continuous monitoring of the state of charge. ...
Among these are methods for determination of dry solids content by polarimetry, densimetry and refractometry, color (extinction ... Specification and Standard SPS-3 (2000) Refractometry and Tables Reichert Analytical Instruments, AR200 Refractometer User's ...
... dye-binding and refractometry are now available. The measurement is usually performed on automated analysers along with other ...
... refractometry and colostrometry]". Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift (in German). 121 (1-2): 66-72. PMID ...
In medicine, particularly optometry, ophthalmology and orthoptics, refraction (also known as refractometry) is a clinical test ...
UV absorption and differential refractometry, if the copolymer is composed of two base polymers that provide different ...
In conjunction with size-exclusion chromatography, UV/Vis absorption and differential refractometry, provides information on ...
... is also used in the gelatin industry. To convert the RI of a gelatin sol (reported in Brix) to a gelatin ... Refractometry is the analytical method of measuring substances' refractive index (one of their fundamental physical properties ... ISBN 0-7503-0966-0. Refractometry - Gemstone Buzz methods for measuring refractive index.. ...
Refractometry: Another category of spectral analysis in which the incident radiation changes direction is refractometry. The ... Other articles where Refractometry is discussed: chemical analysis: ... In chemical analysis: Refractometry. Another category of spectral analysis in which the incident radiation changes direction is ... ": { "url": "/science/refractometry", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/science/refractometry", "title": "Refractometry ...
Refractometry is also used in the gelatin industry. To convert the RI of a gelatin sol (reported in Brix) to a gelatin ... Refractometry is the analytical method of measuring substances refractive index (one of their fundamental physical properties ... ISBN 0-7503-0966-0. Refractometry - Gemstone Buzz methods for measuring refractive index.. ...
We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm) of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly.
Our work on the global rainbow refractometry is presented in this paper that is divided into four parts. The first part is ... Global rainbow refractometry development for droplets temperature measurement in hostile environment : Bibliographie ... The issue to achieve this measurement is to develop the Global Rainbow Refractometry. ...
Optical refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from a phase wedge M. Taghi Tavassoly and Ahad Saber. Opt. Lett. 35(21) 3679 ... Bifocal optical coherenc refractometry of turbid media Sergey A. Alexandrov, Andrei V. Zvyagin, K. K. M. B. Dilusha Silva, and ... Needle-based reflection refractometry of scattering samples using coherence-gated detection Adam M. Zysk, Daniel L. Marks, ... Optical coherence refractometry Peter H. Tomlins, Peter Woolliams, Christian Hart, Andrew Beaumont, and Matthew Tedaldi ...
Two methods of refractometry, as described by Seet 13 were employed for the calibration of microspheres. First, a refined ... Katrina Y. T. Seet, Timo A. Nieminen, and Andrei Zyvagin "Refractometry of melanocyte cell nuclei using optical scatter images ... K. Y. T. Seet, R. Vogel, T. A. Nieminen, G. Knöner, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, M. Trau, and A. Zvyagin, "Refractometry of ... This demonstrated the refractometry potential of DFM as applied to the biological phantoms, with controlled scattering ...
The latter method can achieve refractometry without the need for spectroscopy tools, provided certain criteria explained in the ... In the scope of miniaturized optical sensors for liquid refractometry, this work details the design, numerical simulation, and ... In the scope of miniaturized optical sensors for liquid refractometry, this work details the design, numerical simulation, and ... The latter method can achieve refractometry without the need for spectroscopy tools, provided certain criteria explained in the ...
... check REFRACTOMETRY definition, REFRACTOMETRY in wwf, Words With Friends score for REFRACTOMETRY, definition of REFRACTOMETRY. ... To search all scrabble anagrams of REFRACTOMETRY, to go: REFRACTOMETRY?. Rearrange the letters in REFRACTOMETRY and see some ... 2 letters out of REFRACTOMETRY. AE AM AR AT AY EF EM ER ET FA FE MA ME MO MY OE OF OM OR OY RE TA TO YA YE YO ... 3 letters out of REFRACTOMETRY. ACE ACT AFT ARC ARE ARF ARM ART ATE ATT AYE CAM CAR CAT CAY CEE COR COT COY CRY EAR EAT EFT EME ...
23 ADVANCES IN REFRACTOMETRY * 24. Colloidal refractometry: meaning and measurement of refractive index for dispersions. Mansur ... 3. REFRACTOMETRYRefractometry is the method of measuring substances refractive index (one of their fundamental physical ... Snehal refractometry * 1. Savitribai phule pune UNIVERSITY SEMINAAR ON Miss. SNEHAL K. DHOBALE M-PHARMACY - SEMESTER-1 YEAR ... Refractometry as a measure of the immunoglobulin status of the newborn dairy calf: comparison with the zinc sulfate turbidity ...
"Refractometry" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Refractometry" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Refractometry".. *Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Refractometry" by people in Profiles. ...
... and Refractometry, Second Edition is a valuable and up-to- date reference that allows the reader to better understand and ... Optics, Retinoscopy, and Refractometry. Optics, Retinoscopy, and Refractometry, Second Edition is a valuable and up-to-date ... Optics, retinoscopy, and refractometry, 2d ed. - Free Online Library. USD Ship This Item - This item is available online ... PDF Optics, Retinoscopy, and Refractometry. Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download ...
Homepage » Campus » Refractometry. Refractometry. The refraction makes you see underwater objects with a special "cross-eyed ... Infobox Refractometry All samples can be measured Influencing factor temperature Peltier temperature control Temperature ... What is Refractometry?. Light moves at different speeds in materials of different densities. In a vacuum, it reaches 299 792 ...
Refractometry. Eccentric slope-based infrared videorefractometry is a method to determine the refractive state of the eye in ...
... All Access to Lab Report Refractometry Semmelweis Egyetem PDF. Free ... Get Access Lab Report Refractometry Semmelweis EgyetemPDF and Download Lab Report Refractometry Semmelweis Egyetem PDF for Free ... There is a lot of books, user manual, or guidebook that related to Lab Report Refractometry Semmelweis Egyetem PDF, such as : ... BRIX - Sugar Determination By Density And Refractometry ...Methods Will Give The Same Result If Pure Sucrose/HFCS Content Of A ...
Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Proteinuria / Refractometry / Biuret Reaction / Humans / ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Proteinuria / Refractometry / Biuret Reaction / Humans / ... Quantitative estimation of urinary protein excretion by refractometry. Quantitative estimation of urinary protein excretion by ...
Refractometry. Fast determination of the refractive index for optical surface characterization. One of the most important ...
Controlling Refractometrys Temperature. February 10, 2016 A materials refractive index-essentially how much it bends lights- ...
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Refractometry and Brix Refractometry for the Diagnosis of ... Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Refractometry and Brix Refractometry for the Diagnosis of ... Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Refractometry and Brix Refractometry for the Diagnosis of ... T1 - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Refractometry and Brix Refractometry for the Diagnosis ...
Refractometry of Water-Ethanol Solutions Near Their Contraction Point Authors. * L. A. Bulavin Taras Shevchenko National ... Bulavin, L. A., Gotsulskiy, V. Y., Malomuzh, N. P., & Stiranets, M. V. (2019). Refractometry of Water-Ethanol Solutions Near ...
Good Density and Refractometry Practice™. Follow the GDRP™ program over the lifetime of your instruments to ensure risk-free ...
Good Density and Refractometry Practice™. Follow the GDRP™ program over the lifetime of your instruments to ensure risk-free ...
Lens refractometry. *Fundus image of retina. *Optical coherence tomography scan of retina ...
"Refractometers and refractometry". Refractometer.pl. 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2011-09-03.. ...
9.4 Refractometry. 9.7 Exercises (Correct, add) References. 10 Analysis of Solids and Powders (reorganization) ...
Miller Energy is a Manufacturers Representative and Distributor of Industrial Instrumentation and Process Control Equipment. Since 1958, we have been committed to exceeding our customers expectations by providing an unparalleled level of customer service and local technical support. We offer the most comprehensive line of measurement, control, and communication solutions in the Industry today. The products we represent solve challenging applications in the Industrial Gas, Power, Refining, Chemical / Petro-Chemical, Food & Beverage, Water/Wastewater, and Pharmaceutical markets. ...
Refractometry and Polarimetry.. Alcohols and Alkenes.. Alkyl Halides.. Acid-Base Extraction.. Phenols and Ethers.. ...
... refractometry and interferometry; and various others. Of these, the optical sensors and optical sensing detection systems ...
Measured by refractometry. *Changes in intraocular pressure [ Time Frame: Up to 4 weeks ]. Measured by pneumotonometry ...
In contrast to PIOX S and FLUXUS HPI, PIOX R measures liquids optically by use of refractometry. PIOX R employs the in-house ... Process Analytics by Inline Refractometry - PIOX R721. 12.08.2019. New process refractometer brings laboratory accuracy into ... concentration and density monitoring as well as advanced process analytics using clamp-on ultrasound and inline refractometry ...
Refractometry & Polarimetry. - Polarimeter Range Provides Enhanced Data Integrity and Usability. - Refractometers and Density ...
  • In the scope of miniaturized optical sensors for liquid refractometry, this work details the design, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization of a Fabry-Pérot resonator consisting of two deeply-etched silicon cylindrical mirrors with a micro-tube in between holding the liquid analyte under study. (mdpi.com)
  • Refractometry is the analytical method of measuring substances' refractive index (one of their fundamental physical properties) in order to, for example, assess their composition or purity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refractometry - Gemstone Buzz methods for measuring refractive index. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overview Optics, Retinoscopy, and Refractometry, Second Edition is a valuable and up-to-date reference that allows the reader to better understand and measure the patient's refractive error. (tyruvyvizo.cf)
  • IgG can also be measured indirectly by methods such as serum refractometry (REF) or Brix refractometry (BRIX). (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Despite their widespread use on dairy farms, evidence about the optimal strategy for using refractometry, including the optimal cutoff, are sparse (especially for BRIX). (elsevier.com)
  • Efficacy of Brix refractometry as a potential method for determining the resistance of sorghum against sugarcane aphids was evaluated in a greenhouse and field. (tdl.org)
  • Brix refractometry was not an applicable method to use for determining resistant sorghums to sugarcane aphids. (tdl.org)
  • The mechanism of resistance in 'RTx2783' was not related to the total sugar content and was undetectable by Brix refractometry. (tdl.org)
  • The issue to achieve this measurement is to develop the Global Rainbow Refractometry. (irsn.fr)
  • Moreover, we offer you our ready-to-use Certipur® platinum cobalt color reference solution (Hazen 500) for color measurement according to DIN EN ISO 7887, ASTM D 1209-05, DIN EN ISO 6271-1 and APHA 2120 B + C. (merckmillipore.com)
  • We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. (osapublishing.org)
  • Peter H. Tomlins, Peter Woolliams, Christian Hart, Andrew Beaumont, Matthew Tedaldi We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. (octnews.org)
  • Another category of spectral analysis in which the incident radiation changes direction is refractometry. (britannica.com)
  • You can download and read online Optics, Retinoscopy, and Refractometry file PDF Book only if you are registered here. (tyruvyvizo.cf)
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  • Refractometry" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • All Certipur® reference materials for refractometry are traceable to SRM from NIST and PTB. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Total Protein Concentration : 78 mg/ml (by Refractometry). (abcam.com)
  • Our Certipur® TOC standard facilitates precise calibration of TOC instruments according to DIN EN 1484-H3. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Quantitative estimation of urinary protein excretion by refractometry. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some of the limitations and particular virtues of refractometry as a method for quantitative analysis of living cells are discussed in comparison with more conventional biochemical techniques. (rupress.org)
  • Methods: In a State-wide sur- vey, 30 clusters were selected proportionate-to-population-size and 40 school children, 6 -12 years old, were en- rolled by random house-to-house visits in each cluster. (nhri.org.tw)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Refractometry" by people in this website by year, and whether "Refractometry" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • The latter method can achieve refractometry without the need for spectroscopy tools, provided certain criteria explained in the details are met. (mdpi.com)
  • When examined by the method of refractometry the outer segments of freshly prepared retinal rods appear homogeneous. (rupress.org)
  • Our work on the global rainbow refractometry is presented in this paper that is divided into four parts. (irsn.fr)
  • Fragments of freshly obtained retinas of several vertebrate species were studied by refractometry, with reference to the structure of the rods and cones. (rupress.org)
  • Free Download Lab Report Refractometry Semmelweis Egyetem PDF or Read Lab Report Refractometry Semmelweis Egyetem PDF on The Most Popular Online PDFLAB. (bpkihs.edu)
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  • Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry. (osapublishing.org)
  • All Access to Lab Report Refractometry Semmelweis Egyetem PDF. (bpkihs.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Refractometry" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
  • Refractometry is also used in the gelatin industry. (wikipedia.org)