Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.
Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).
The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.
The normal decreasing elasticity of the crystalline lens that leads to loss of accommodation.
Surgical procedures employed to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS such as MYOPIA; HYPEROPIA; or ASTIGMATISM. These may involve altering the curvature of the CORNEA; removal or replacement of the CRYSTALLINE LENS; or modification of the SCLERA to change the axial length of the eye.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Diseases affecting the eye.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The use of an aberrometer to measure eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.
A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.
A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.
A country in Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago. It includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco. On May 20, 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state. This followed its declared independence from Portugal on November 20, 1975 and a period of armed conflict with Indonesia.
Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
One of the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS with pharmacologic action similar to ATROPINE and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Images seen by one eye.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Nystagmus present at birth or caused by lesions sustained in utero or at the time of birth. It is usually pendular, and is associated with ALBINISM and conditions characterized by early loss of central vision. Inheritance patterns may be X-linked, autosomal dominant, or recessive. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p275)
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
Artificial implanted lenses.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Results of small incision extracapsular cataract surgery using the anterior chamber maintainer without viscoelastic. (1/740)

AIMS: To assess the efficacy of extracapsular cataract surgery using the anterior chamber maintainer (ACM) without the use of viscoelastic. To compare the effects of this surgical technique on non-diabetic and diabetic patients. METHODS: A prospective single armed clinical trial of 46 eyes in 46 patients undergoing cataract surgery using the ACM without viscoelastic. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively. The main outcome variables included visual acuity, surgically induced astigmatic change (SIAC), changes in endothelial cell density (ECD), and morphology affecting the central and superior regions of the cornea. RESULTS: Postoperatively, 56% and 70% of patients had unaided visual acuities of 6/12 or better at 3 weeks and 3 months respectively. Even after excluding those patients with pre-existing maculopathy (including diabetic maculopathy), there remains a significant difference between the non-diabetic and diabetic groups in terms of the proportion of patients attaining an unaided visual acuity of 6/12 or better at both 3 weeks (p = 0.003) and 3 months (p = 0.001). Three months postoperatively, the SIAC based upon the keratometric and refractive data was 1.1 dioptres (D) and 1.3 D respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the SIAC when the non-diabetic and diabetic groups were compared. The mean central and superior endothelial cell losses at 3 months postoperatively were 16% and 22% respectively and at 12 months postoperatively were 20% and 25% respectively. The diabetic group demonstrated greater endothelial cell losses and a more marked and protracted deviation of endothelial cell morphology from normality when compared with the non-diabetic group; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of small incision cataract surgery using the ACM in terms of visual outcome and induced astigmatism is comparable with the results obtained using other techniques that utilise a similar size of incision. However, in view of the magnitude and range of the endothelial cell losses associated with this technique the concurrent use of viscoelastic is suggested. There does not appear to be a statistically or clinically significant difference between non-diabetic and diabetic patients in terms of the magnitude of the endothelial cell losses or in the wound healing response in the 12 months after cataract surgery using the ACM.  (+info)

Tonic accommodation, age, and refractive error in children. (2/740)

PURPOSE: An association between tonic accommodation, the resting accommodative position of the eye in the absence of a visually compelling stimulus, and refractive error has been reported in adults and children. In general, myopes have the lowest (or least myopic) levels of tonic accommodation. The purpose in assessing tonic accommodation was to evaluate it as a predictor of onset of myopia. METHODS: Tonic accommodation was measured in children enrolled in the Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia using an infrared autorefractor (model R-1; Canon, Lake Success, NY) while children viewed an empty lit field or a dark field with a fixation spot projected in Maxwellian view. Children aged 6 to 15 years were measured from 1991 through 1994 (n = 714, 766, 771, and 790 during the 4 years, successively). Autorefraction provided refractive error and tonic accommodation data, and videophakometry measured crystalline lens curvatures. RESULTS: Comparison of the two methods for measuring tonic accommodation shows a significant effect of age across all years of testing, with the lit empty-field test condition yielding higher levels of tonic accommodation compared with the dark-field test condition in children aged 6 through 11 years. For data collected in 1994, mean (+/-SD) tonic accommodation values for the lit empty-field condition were significantly lower in myopes, intermediate in emmetropes, and highest in hyperopes (1.02 +/- 1.18 D, 1.92 +/- 1.59 D, and 2.25 +/- 1.78 D, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001; between-group testing shows each group is different from the other two). Age, refractive error, and Gullstrand lens power were significant terms in a multiple regression model of tonic accommodation (R2 = 0.18 for 1994 data). Lower levels of tonic accommodation for children entering the study in the first or third grades were not associated with an increased risk of the onset of myopia, whether measured in the lit empty-field test condition (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval = 0.75, 1.08), or the dark-field test condition (relative risk = 0.83; 95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.14). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document an association between age and tonic accommodation. The known association between tonic accommodation and refractive error was confirmed and it was shown that an ocular component, Gullstrand lens power, also contributed to the tonic accommodation level. There does not seem to be an increased risk of onset of juvenile myopia associated with tonic accommodation.  (+info)

The effects of spectacle wear in infancy on eye growth and refractive error in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). (3/740)

We made a comprehensive study, involving observations on 45 marmosets, of the effects on ocular growth and refraction of wearing spectacles from the ages of 4-8 weeks. This period was within the period early in life when the eye grows rapidly and refraction changes from hyperopia to its adult value of modest myopia. In one series of experiments we studied the effect of lenses of powers -8, -4, +4 and +8D fitted monocularly. In another series of experiments we studied the effect of lenses of equal and opposite powers fitted binocularly, with the two eyes alternately occluded, so as to give an incentive to use both eyes, and in particular to accommodate, for at least part of each day, through the negative lens. The vitreous chamber of eyes that wore negative lenses of -4D or -8D, combined with alternate occlusion, elongated more rapidly than that of the fellow eye (negative lens eye-positive lens eye, 0.21 +/- 0.03 mm (S.E.M.), P < 0.01 and 0.25 +/- 0.06 mm, P < 0.05, respectively) and became relatively more myopic (2.8 +/- 0.26D, P < 0.01 and 2.4 +/- 0.61D, P < 0.05 respectively). Eyes that wore -4D lenses monocularly elongated more rapidly and became myopic than fellow eyes. Eyes that wore +4D or +8D lenses were less strongly affected: animals that wore +8D lenses monocularly (without alternate occlusion) developed a slight relative hyperopia (0.99 +/- 0.21D, P < 0.01), with the more hyperopic eyes also slightly shorter (0.09 +/- 0.05 mm) than their fellow eyes, but eyes wearing +4D lenses were not significantly different from their fellow eyes. Animals that wore -8D lenses monocularly (without alternate occlusion) developed a slight relative hyperopia after three weeks of lens-wear (0.85 +/- 0.26D, P < 0.05). These were the only eyes that responded in a non-compensatory direction to the optical challenge of spectacle wear, and we interpret this effect as one due to visual deprivation. After the removal of lenses, the degree of anisometropia slowly diminished in those groups of animals in which it had been induced, but in the three groups in which the largest effects had been produced by lens-wear the overall mean anisometropia (0.68 +/- 0.24D, P < 0.01) and vitreous chamber depth (VCD) discrepancy (0.09 +/- 0.03 mm, P < 0.01) were still significant at the end of the experiments, when the animals were 273 days old. The reduction of anisometropia in these groups was associated with an increase in the rate of elongation of the vitreous chamber in the eyes that had previously grown normally i.e. the less myopic eyes grew more rapidly than their fellow eyes: in the seven weeks following lens-wear these eyes became more myopic and longer than normal eyes (refraction P < 0.001; VCD P < 0.001). Control experiments showed that occlusion of one eye for 50% of the day had no effect on eye growth and refraction, and therefore that alternate occlusion itself had no effect.  (+info)

Off-axis monochromatic aberrations estimated from double pass measurements in the human eye. (4/740)

Off-axis monochromatic aberrations in the human eye impose limits on peripheral vision. However, the magnitude of the aberrations off-axis, and in particular coma, has not been yet completely determined. We have developed a procedure to estimate third order aberrations in the periphery of the human eye. The technique is based on recording series of double pass retinal images with unequal entrance and exit pupil diameters (Artal, Iglesias, Lopez-Gil & Green (1995b). J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 12, 2358-2366.) which allows the odd asymmetries in the retinal image be assessed. The procedure that is described provides accurate estimates of the main off-axis aberrations: astigmatism, defocus and coma. We have measured these aberrations in four normal subjects. For a given eccentricity, the measured amount of coma and astigmatism are relatively similar among subjects, because the angular distance from the axis is the dominant factor in determining the magnitude of these aberrations. However, we found considerable variability in the values of peripheral defocus, probably due to a complicate combination of off-axis aberrations and fundus shape. The final off-axis optical performance of the eye for a given object location is determined by a particular mixture of defocus, astigmatism, coma and higher order aberrations.  (+info)

Abnormal tear dynamics and symptoms of eyestrain in operators of visual display terminals. (5/740)

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the relation between the prevalence of dry eye syndrome and subjective symptoms of asthenopia in visual display terminal (VDT) operators. METHOD: 722 VDT workers (242 subject workers with symptoms of asthenopia and 480 controls without such symptoms) without obvious organic ocular diseases received an ophthalmological examination consisting of refractometry and a tear function (phenol red thread) test. RESULTS: More than 30% of symptomatic workers were found to meet the criteria of dry eye, and the odds ratio compared with the controls was 4.61 (p < 0.001). This odds ratio was significantly greater than that obtained for refractive errors (2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Although this cross sectional study could not prove that dry eyes are the cause of asthenopia, the profound association of dry eyes with symptoms of asthenopia could be verified. It would be useful to carry out tear function tests in workers with symptoms of asthenopia.  (+info)

Changes in refractive error over a 5-year interval in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. (6/740)

PURPOSE: To examine changes in spherical equivalent over a 5-year period in persons 43 to 84 years of age. METHODS: All people 43 to 84 years of age and living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, in 1988 were invited for a baseline examination (1988-1990) and a 5-year follow-up examination (1993-1995). Refractions were determined according to the same protocol at both examinations. Aphakic and pseudophakic eyes were excluded as well as eyes with best corrected Snellen visual acuity of 20/40 and worse. After exclusions, refraction was obtained on 3007 right eyes and 3012 left eyes of the 3684 people participating in both examinations. RESULTS: Right and left eyes behaved similarly. Spherical equivalent became more positive in the youngest subjects and more negative in older subjects. After adjusting for other factors, the 5-year change in spherical equivalent of those 45, 55, 65, and 75 years of age was +0.15, +0.18, +0.10, and -0.07D, respectively. Severity of nuclear sclerosis was related to the amount of change. Those with mild nuclear sclerosis at baseline had a change of +0.2 D, whereas those with severe nuclear sclerosis had a change of -0.5 D. The amount of change was also related to gender, diabetes, and age at onset of myopia. It was unrelated to education and baseline spherical equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in spherical equivalent over a 5-year period were small. Before the age of 70, people became more hyperopic. After the age of 70, people became more myopic. Much of the myopic change may be related to increasing nuclear sclerosis.  (+info)

Amblyopia and visual acuity in children with Down's syndrome. (7/740)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Amblyopia in people with Down's syndrome has not been well investigated. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated conditions of amblyopia in a group of home reared children with Down's syndrome. METHODS: All children in the study group underwent an evaluation of visual acuity. In addition, previous ophthalmological records were reviewed, and a subgroup of children was examined. For the purposes of this study, amblyopia was defined quantitatively as a difference of two Snellen acuity lines between eyes or if unilateral central steady maintained (CSM) vision and a clear fixation preference was observed. A high refractive error was defined as a spherical equivalent more than 3 dioptres and astigmatism more than 1.75 dioptres. Anisometropia was defined as a difference of at least 1.5 dioptres of sphere and/or 1.0 dioptre of cylinder between eyes. 68 children with Down's syndrome between the ages of 5 and 19 years were enrolled in the final study group. RESULTS: Amblyopia was observed in 15 (22%) of 68 patients. An additional 16 (24%) patients had bilateral vision less than 20/50. Strabismus, high refractive errors, and anisometropia were the conditions most commonly associated with decreased vision and amblyopia CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the prevalence of amblyopia is higher than previously reported. Fully 46% of these children with Down's syndrome had evidence of substantial visual deficits. These patients may be at higher risk for visual impairment and should be carefully examined for ophthalmological problems.  (+info)

Refractive errors in an urban population in Southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. (8/740)

PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence, distribution, and demographic associations of refractive error in an urban population in southern India. METHODS: Two thousand five hundred twenty-two subjects of all ages, representative of the Hyderabad population, were examined in the population-based Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Objective and subjective refraction was attempted on subjects >15 years of age with presenting distance and/or near visual acuity worse than 20/20 in either eye. Refraction under cycloplegia was attempted on all subjects < or =15 years of age. Spherical equivalent >0.50 D in the worse eye was considered as refractive error. Data on objective refraction under cycloplegia were analyzed for subjects < or =15 years and on subjective refraction were analyzed for subjects >15 years of age. RESULTS: Data on refractive error were available for 2,321 (92.0%) subjects. In subjects < or =15 years of age, age-gender-adjusted prevalence of myopia was 4.44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14%-6.75%), which was higher in those 10 to 15 years of age (odds ratio, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.25-6.02), of hyperopia 59.37% (95% CI, 44.65%-74.09%), and of astigmatism 6.93% (95% CI, 4.90%-8.97%). In subjects >15 years of age, age-gender-adjusted prevalence of myopia was 19.39% (95% CI, 16.54%-22.24%), of hyperopia 9.83% (95% CI, 6.21%-13.45%), and of astigmatism 12.94% (95% CI, 10.80%-15.07%). With multivariate analysis, myopia was significantly higher in subjects with Lens Opacity Classification System HI nuclear cataract grade > or =3.5 (odds ratio, 9.10; 95% CI, 5.15-16.09), and in subjects with education of class 11 or higher (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.18-2.74); hyperopia was significantly higher in subjects > or =30 years of age compared with those 16 to 29 years of age (odds ratio, 37.26; 95% CI, 11.84-117.19), in females (odds ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.33-2.61), and in subjects belonging to middle and upper socioeconomic strata (odds ratio, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.09-4.03); and astigmatism was significantly higher in subjects > or =40 years of age (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% CI, 2.23- 4.03) and in those with education of college level or higher (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.07-2.81). CONCLUSIONS: These population-based data on distribution and demographic associations of refractive error could enable planning of eye-care services to reduce visual impairment caused by refractive error. If these data are extrapolated to the 255 million urban population of India, among those >15 years of age an estimated 30 million people would have myopia, 15.2 million hyperopia, and 4.1 million astigmatism not concurrent with myopia or hyperopia; in addition, based on refraction under cycloplegia, 4.4 million children would have myopia and 2.5 million astigmatism not concurrent with myopia or hyperopia.  (+info)

V. Prevalence of refractive error in school children. 49± 2. Background: Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of eye problem and the second cause of blindness worldwide. . Only 10. 3. To assess the prevalence of refractive error and related visual impairment in school-aged children in the rural population of the Mahabubnagar district REFRACTIVE ERROR BLINDNESS OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS WORLD-WIDEStudies around the world indicate that refractive errors are common in all ages. 3 billion people worldwide have refractive errors out of The Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC) examined the prevalence of . 9% children were ever A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban and rural children hyperopia, myopia, presbyope, presbyopia, uncorrected refractive error In southern India, Nirmalan et al (5) found a prevalence of 55 per cent in people aged Dec 3, 2015 Introduction: Uncorrected refractive ...
Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye. The most common types of refractive error are near-sightedness, far-sightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Near-sightedness results in far away objects being blurry, far-sightedness and presbyopia result in close objects being blurry, astigmatism causes objects to appear stretched out or blurry. Other symptoms may include double vision, headaches, and eye strain. Near-sightedness is due to the length of the eyeball being too long, far-sightedness the eyeball too short, astigmatism the cornea being the wrong shape, and presbyopia aging of the lens of the eye such that it cannot change shape sufficiently. Some refractive errors occur more often among those whose parents are affected. Diagnosis is by eye examination. Refractive errors are corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. Eyeglasses are the easiest and safest method of correction. Contact ...
Refractive errors are the most common eye disorders. Most people have a refractive error, but it is usually too small to affect their vision significantly. For the eye to see clearly, light rays must be bent, or refracted, by the cornea and the lens and focused on the retina. The retina receives the light rays and converts them to neural signals that are transmitted by the optic nerve to the brain, where the signals are translated into images.. Like a camera, the human eye must be properly focused to see an image clearly. If light does not bend or refract correctly and focus directly on the retina, the result is blurred vision, or a refractive error.. The four most common refractive errors are:. ...
Parents of children with anisometropia ≥ 2.00D were also more likely to have developmental concerns (OR= 2.61; 95% CI: 1.07 - 6.34).Table 5Association of significant refractive errors with parental report of Refractive Errors Physicians Locations Was this helpful? The odds of parental concerns about development significantly increased in children older than 36 months with hyperopia ≥ 3.00D, astigmatism ≥ 1.50D, or anisometropia ≥ 2.00D.ConclusionsParental concerns about general developmental problems Normal Refractive Error In Children It is possible to have astigmatism in combination with myopia or hyperopia.. PreviousNormal Vision Development in Babies and ChildrenNextChildhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Leer en Español: Errores Refractivos en los Niños Due to the potential consequences of uncorrected refractive errors, children whose parents have expressed concerns regarding development should be referred for an eye examination with cycloplegic refraction to rule out significant ...
Purpose: Refractive error is the most common eye disorder worldwide, and a prominent cause of blindness. Myopia affects over 30% of Caucasian populations, and up to 80% of Asians. We aimed to identify multiple genetic loci that explain the genetic architecture of refractive error.. Methods: The Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia (CREAM) conducted genome-wide meta-analyses including 37,382 individuals from 27 Caucasian studies, and 8,376 from 5 Asian cohorts. Identified variants were used for genetic risk score assessment.. Results: We identified 16 new loci for refractive error in Caucasians, of which 10 were shared with Asians. Combined analysis revealed 8 additional new loci. The new loci include genes with function in neurotransmission (GRIA4), ion channels (KCNQ5), retinoic acid metabolism (RDH5), extracellular matrix remodeling (LAMA2, BMP2), and eye development (SIX6, PRSS56). We also confirmed previously reported associations with GJD2 (top SNP rs524952; Pcombined=1.44x10-15) and ...
Purpose.: To provide data on prevalence and types of refractive error and the spectacle-wearing rate among adults in Nigeria and the degree to which the need for distance correction could be met by off-the-shelf spectacles. Methods.: Multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to identify a nationally representative sample of 15,027 persons aged ≥40 years. Distance vision was measured using a reduced logMAR tumbling-E chart. All participants underwent autorefraction, and those with presenting acuity of ,6/12 in one or both eyes had their corrected acuity measured and underwent detailed clinical examination to determine the cause. Results.: Included in the survey were 13,599 (89.9%) of the 15,122 persons aged ≥40 years who were enumerated. Uncorrected refractive error was responsible for 77.9% of mild visual impairment (,6/12-6/18), 57.1% of moderate visual impairment (,6/18-6/60), 11.3% of severe visual impairment (,6/60-3/60), and 1.4% of ...
Purpose : To determine the relationship between refractive errors and ocular components values in carpet weavers Methods : Refractive errors and ocular components values were investigated on carpet weavers at Mashhad city in Iran . After selection of samples, the individuals who had ophthalmic and systemic disease effective on the refractive errors were ...
The most common types of refractive errors are myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism.. Myopia (nearsightedness) is a condition where objects up close appear clearly, while objects far away appear blurry. With myopia, light comes to focus in front of the retina instead of on the retina.. Hyperopia (farsightedness) is a common type of refractive error where distant objects may be seen more clearly than objects that are near. However, people experience hyperopia differently. Some people may not notice any problems with their vision, especially when they are young. For people with significant hyperopia, vision can be blurry for objects at any distance, near or far.. Astigmatism is a condition in which the eye does not focus light evenly onto the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. This can cause images to appear blurry and stretched out.. Presbyopia is an age-related condition in which the ability to focus up close becomes more difficult. As the eye ages, the lens can ...
Contact lenses  Toric contact lenses Soft lenses [SL] Rigid gas permeable lenses [RGP] RGP do not conform to the asymmetry of corneal surface but replaces it totally and also provides F. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Laser Sub-Epithelial Keratomileusis• LASEK can treat mild to moderate myopia and hyperopia +/- astigmatism.• Can be performed as an outpt with topical anesthesia• The corneal epithelium is incompletely incised using a PowerPoint Presentation Wave Aberration: Astigmatism Wave Aberration: Coma Wave Aberration: ... , PowerPoint PPT presentation , free to view GPS Error - The accuracy of GPS signals was intentionally degraded by For a small fee you can get the industrys best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. Refractive Error In Children Ppt Anisometropia• Difference in refractive power between 2 eyes• refractive correction often leads to ...
A method of measuring the refractive error of the eye uses a digital computer and directs a variable focus, variable orientation light pattern on the eye, detects the light pattern reflected from the retina to produce an analog signal as a function of the focus of the reflected pattern, and converts the analog signal to a digital signal stream fed to the computer. The computer varies the focus of the pattern and the orientation of the pattern and selects and stores results from the digital signal stream. It then fits a sine wave to the selected signal results, and calculates the refractive error from the sine wave.
What are Refractive Errors? In refractive errors, the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing on the retina. The length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea,
Slight alterations in vision should never be neglected. Its very important to get eye examinations by trained ophthalmologists and optometrists, employing advanced equipment. Uncorrected refractive errors can lead to impaired development of vision in children, as well as amblyopia or lazy vision and squinting of eyes.. Refractive errors are of 3 types:. Myopia or short-sightedness: In myopia the rays of light coming from a distant target get focused at a point in front of the retina. Glasses or contact lenses with a minus power are prescribed to focus the image onto the retina.. Hyperopia or long-sightedness: In hyperopia the rays of light coming from a distant target get focused at a point behind the retina. Glasses or contact lenses with a plus power are prescribed to focus the image onto the retina.. Astigmatism or cylindrical power: In astigmatism the rays of light coming from a distant target cannot focus at a single point on the retina. Doctors prescribe lenses of a different curvature to ...
Methods The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination according to a standardised protocol. Refractive error was determined by an automatic refraction device (Humphrey HARK 599) without cycloplegia. Definitions for the analysis were myopia ,−0.5 dioptres (D), hyperopia ,+0.5 D, astigmatism ,0.5 cylinder D and anisometropia ,1.0 D difference in the spherical equivalent between the eyes. Exclusion criterion was previous cataract or refractive surgery.. ...
Refractive errors comprise a group of diseases which can be corrected by refractive corrections i.e. by using glasses, or contact lens. These are myopia,
AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics and late results of patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treated with 6h cryotherapy. METHODS: Out of 1252 infants screened for ROP, 52 patients were treated with temporal 6h cryotherapy from 1997 to 2005 were recalled to our clinic. Among these 23 patients were available and 46 eyes of 23 infants were included to evaluate for visual acuity, refractive error, ocular alignment, nystagmus, retinal examination (abnormal branching of retinal vessels, retinal thinning, latis degenerations, tortuosity of vessels, straightening of temporal vessels, narrowing of the angle of vessel in the juxtapapillary entrance, pigment changes, macular heterotopia), optic atrophy and optic disc cupping, axial length at birth and axial length at 1y ...
Astigmatism is one type of refractive error. Its a condition in which an abnormal curvature of the cornea can cause two focal points to fall in two different locations-making objects up close and at a distance appear blurry.
Hans Limburg The first pre-requisite for improving the results of surgery is to monitor surgical outcomes. This book summarises the work of one of the most expert researchers in this field. It is a valuable resource for anyone involved in cataract surgery delivery. A separate chapter deals with school screening for refractive errors. A limited…
Read explanations about common focusing problems and refractive errors that many people face. Austin Eye offers solutions to many of these eye problems.
Vol 9: Assessing the Accuracy and Feasibility of a Refractive Error Screening Program Conducted by School Teachers in Pre-Primary and Primary Schools in Thailand.. This article is from PLoS ONE, volume 9.AbstractIntroduction: As part of the development of a system for the screening o. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Investigators: Ma Khin Pyi Son, BA, Mayo Medical School; David O. Hodge, MS, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation; Brian G. Mohney, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation. Mentor: Brian G. Mohney, MD, Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic Introduction: Despite the common occurrence of refractive errors in infancy, their management has not been standardized among clinicians. While some clinicians prescribe spectacles to minimize blur, distorted visual stimuli are thought to advance the emmetropization process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural history of refractive error among infants.. Methods: The medical records of all patients diagnosed with moderate refractive errors (myopia -0.75 to -4.0; hyperopia ≥ +3.50; and astigmatism ≥ 2.00) within the first year of life, from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2000, were retrospectively reviewed. Children with a history of strabismus or intraocular or ...
In the elderly population, accidental falls present a significant health hazard and can result in lasting disability or even death. Falls in the elderly are often attributed to declining vision. A recent study conducted at the UC Davis Health System Eye Center took a look at the larger adult population and found some interesting correlations between eyesight and the sense of balance. In an effort to better understand how vision contributes to falls, researchers set out to compare the balance ability in groups of adults aged 40 and over who had normal vision, visual impairment, and uncorrected refractive error (blurred vision that could be remedied with corrective lenses). This study involved 4,590 adults and is the first large-scale survey to objectively measure balance as it relates to vision. Participants were assessed for their ability to stand with feet together throughout increasingly challenging conditions: firm surface or soft foam surface with eyes both opened and closed during separate ...
Eye disorders in children are either refractive or non-refractive errors. Refractive errors are those caused by the shape of the eye. Non-refractive errors are caused by disease.
An academic, researcher, educator and internationally celebrated public health leader, Professor Kovin Naidoo has been revolutionising access and delivery to eye care for the disadvantaged throughout the world. A powerful public health advocate, he has devoted his working life to reducing avoidable blindness and vision impairment, with specific emphasis on refractive error.
In regards to children, VA is included in virtually all public health screening programs, with the aim to detect amblyopia and/or significant refractive errors,7,8 and its value is indeed used as a criterion for referral for further evaluation and early treatment.9,10. Many important decisions are based on the measurement of visual acuity, and yet, up until now, the tests and scoring systems used by different practitioners were neither standard nor accurate, and often not even equivalent. The need for widespread use of standardized VA tests that may provide reliable and precise VA measurements is crucial;11 not only for recording correct initial values in a given patient, but also for identifying a true change in VA12 when a patient obtains a different score in another occasion and/or when checked by a different practitioner. This will also prevent unnecessary false positive and negative referrals amongst healthcare practitioners.. Furthermore, communication amongst different professionals ...
An electro-active spectacle lens is disclosed. The disclosed lens includes a first lens optic. The disclosed lens also includes a first electro-active zone positioned in a cooperative relationship with the first lens optic. In certain embodiments, the electro-active lens includes a range finder positioned in a cooperative relationship with the electro-active lens.
Having an initial LASIK correction for high nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism, and being older than 40 years of age, increase the chances
SouthWest Vision is your local optometrist in St George serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at 435-673-5577 for an appointment.
SouthWest Vision is your local optometrist in St George serving all of your vision care needs. Call us today at 435-673-5577 for an appointment.
If you decide to have laser eye surgery to correct a refractive error, speak to your optometrist (optician) first. They can advise you on the procedure and recommend clinics in your area. Guidelines from the Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) say that only registered surgeons with specialist training should carry out laser surgery.. Most clinics that carry out laser surgery for refractive errors will require you to:. ...
If you decide to have laser eye surgery to correct a refractive error, speak to your optometrist (optician) first. They can advise you on the procedure and recommend clinics in your area. Guidelines from the Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) say that only registered surgeons with specialist training should carry out laser surgery.. Most clinics that carry out laser surgery for refractive errors will require you to:. ...
Authors: Pirro G Hysi, Omar A Mahroo, Phillippa Cumberland, Robert Wojciechowski, Katie M Williams, Terri L Young, David A Mackey, Jugnoo S Rahi, Christopher J Hammond
Using data for more than half a million individuals, researchers identified 449 refractive area-related loci, including 336 sites not linked to the eye condition in the past.
A new visual screening process (PediaVision) is available to pediatricians and can take less than 5 seconds to complete and can assist in the detection of refractive errors, media opacities, and other abnormalities.
RECOMMENDED: If you have Windows errors then we strongly recommend that you download and run this (Windows) Repair Tool.. Dec 13, 2016. 50; , Xinming Zhang, E8031-E8040, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1605748113. with their averages and SDs (also indicated by the error bars) shown.. arcserve error e8031. Phone: Company: Customer Type: Select Customer TypeEnd CustomerTrial CustomerResellerDistributerMSP Arcserve Employee Language.. Nov 25, 2009. 2009; 4(11): e8031. (Note that errors of 0.00 indicate a truncated error that was ≤0.005.). FRET Transfer Rate and Error Calculations.. Error E8031. Failed to mark Drive [device #] [drives serial #] as OFF-LINE in Library [device #] [drives serial #]. Module: Library. Reason: This error message.. Changer Library Messages 8020 through 8046. To view information about a message, click the message number. Error E8020. Home , brightstor error , brightstor error e8031 brightstor error e8031. Related content. brightstor error.. Error E8031. Error al marcar la unidad [nº ...
The difference between an estimated value and the population true value is called an error. There are two kind of errors: Sampling and nonsampling errors.
d error issue with d error message still appears evenafter trying suggested resolution - Samsung VP-D361 Mini DV Digital question
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Sources of error are the factors that influence a test score or item performance that are extraneous to the construct of interest. Because these are not related to the construct, they are errors in...
Hi, Im quite new to using Qsort function. Have encountered problem with this error error C2664: qsort : cannot convert parameter 4 from int (const void *,const void *) to int (__cdecl...
So, I am on version 1903, but I did see updates for 1903 and an optional update for 1909. I tried to install both, but they fail. The error says, There were problems installing some updates, but well try again later. I tried running the troubleshooter, but it did not find any solutions. I tried sfc scannow and the dism command and both came up with an error too. Anyone else with this problem?. ...
The margin of error is the most widely misunderstood and misleading concept in statistics. Its positively frightening to people who actually understand what it means to see how its commonly used in the media, in conversation, sometimes even by other scientists!
Hello. Today I wanted to play Gothic Playable Teaser, unfortunately after many attempts I cant run it and I get an error message. I would like to ask for
Learn what other IT pros think about the 33 Error event generated by SideBySide. Get answers to your event log question in minutes.
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An article titled To Err Is Human published in 1999 detailed errors by doctors during surgery and triggered many ... Surgical Errors
Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of visual impairment; 48.9% globally and 62.9% in South Asia (Bhutan is part of this region) as estimated by the Vision Loss Expert Group (VLEG). Recent studies document a wide global variation in the prevalence of refractive error and predict that without control interventions the prevalence of myopia will significantly increase globally, affecting nearly 5 billion people by 2050. Considering its high prevalence and significant socioeconomic impact, refractive error has gained priority as a public health challenge, particularly in children.. Bhutan did not have any authentic evidence on prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error in the country. The WHO Global Action Plan 2014-2019 emphasized evidence generation for blindness and visual impairment and evidence-based planning and intervention. To do so, IAPB SEA, Primary eye care department of Ministry of Health , Royal Government of Bhutan carried out a nation-wide survey ...
Purpose: To compare the mean difference of visual acuity as measured by auto refraction and subjective refraction.. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.. Place and Duration of Study: Department of ophthalmology, Services hospital Lahore from November 2013 to April 2014.. Material and Methods: Using non-probability consecutive sampling 300 eyes of 300 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were recruited through OPD registration slip. Demographic data including age and gender was recorded. Complete ophthalmic examination was performed. This included measurement of refractive error by auto-refraction as well as subjective refraction. Detailed anterior segment examination with slit lamp and dilated fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed. The collected data was analyzed by using software SPSS version 17.. Results: The mean age of patients was 34.71 ± 7.45 years. There were 156 (52%) males and 144 (48%) females. There were 263 (87.69%) patients who had visual ...
Vision disorders are irregularities or abnormalities either of the eye, visual pathway, or brain, which affect ones ability to see. In healthy vision, visual acuity-often referred to as 20/20 vision-develops rapidly by three to six months of age and generally decreases rapidly as people approach 45. Poor visual acuity is often correctable with glasses or contact lenses. However, many other factors affect humans ability to see-some preventable or correctable and others not. Vision disorders may manifest from refractive errors, defective eye muscles, cataracts, lens displacement, glaucoma, fundus conditions, color vision deficits, eyelid conditions, orbital diseases, eye injuries, and optic nerve and visual pathway damage.. ...
Aims: To establish the prevalence of heterophoria and its association with refractive error and ethnicity in a population-based study of Australian school children.. Methods: The Sydney Myopia Study is a stratified, random cluster (school-based) sample of 4093 students (examined: 2003-2005). Two samples aged 6 (n=1692) and 12 years (n=2289) without heterotropia were included. Prevalent heterophoria was assessed using cover un-cover and prism bar alternate cover testing at 33cm and 6m distance fixation. Cycloplegic auto-refraction (1% cyclopentolate) was performed. Significant refractive error was defined as ≤-0.50SE and ≥+2.00SE.. Results: Exophoria was highly prevalent at near fixation (age 6: 58.3%, age 12: 52.2%). Orthophoria predominated at distance fixation (age 6: 85.4%, age 12: 90.9%). Hyperopia was associated with esophoria at near (age 6: odds ratio [OR] 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.8, age 12: OR 2.9, CI 1.1-2.8) and distance fixation (age 6: OR 9.7, CI 3.5-26, age 12: ...
Eyeglasses are the simplest and safest way to correct refractive errors. Eyeglass lenses are designed with precise curves to refract light to the degree necessary to compensate for refractive errors. Your eye care professional can prescribe lenses that will provide you with optimal vision. Contact lenses are a safe and effective option if fitted and used properly. They often provide clearer vision, a wider field of vision and greater comfort than glasses. You may not be able to wear contact lenses if you have certain eye conditions. Refractive surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea. This change in eye shape restores the focusing power of the eye by allowing the light rays to focus precisely on the retina for improved vision. There are several types of refractive surgeries, but the most popular are: ...
What are refractive errors? Refractive errors occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina. The length of the eyebal
On World Sight Day, eye care organisations around the world take note of new data that shows that global eye care efforts are at serious risk of being overwhelmed-unless we act now. New data published in the Lancet Global Health shows that decades of declining avoidable blindness-those with uncorrected refractive errors and cataract-is plateauing, and is projected to increase between 2015 and 2050.. The International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB), an international alliance of eye care organisations, has launched the IAPB Vision Atlas with the latest global data and evidence on blindness and vision impairment this World Sight Day (12 October 2017).. A new paper by the Vision Loss Expert Group (VLEG) published yesterday in the Lancet Global Health identifies the leading causes of Blindness and Moderate and Severe Vision Impairment (MSVI) in 2015. Of the 253 million people who are blind or MSVI, uncorrected refractive errors (123.8 million people) and cataract (65.2 million) are ...
Refractive Error Refractive error occurs if the eye cannot focus light properly on the retina. It may cause blurry vision. If your child shows any signs of
DR MCQUAID: So the objectives of my talk today are hopefully that when were done here you will, first of all, be able to describe some ways in which to gain a childs trust, so that you can actually make a vision assessment, and perform some retinoscopy or refraction. Id like you to be able to name a few conditions which can be revealed by your first impression of seeing the child, and some very simple binocular assessments. You should be able to explain when were done here why retinoscopy is such an important, vital skill to have when it comes to dealing with children. And then you should also be able to mention a couple of ways to manage pediatric refractive error. So now the thing is - is Im not going to stand up here and teach you how to did retinoscopy or how to do refraction on a child or anybody else. What Im gonna do here is just give you some insight and some quick non-confrontational-type tests, and that sort of thing. Im going to assume that many, if not most of you, at least ...
Poor vision is the most common impairment affecting school aged children in the developing world, comprising 48% of all disability among children aged 5 to 9 years in the India census of 2001.1 The leading and most easily remedied cause of visual impairment (visual acuity ,6/18) among children is refractive error, affecting 12.8 million children aged between 5 and 15 years, half of whom live in China.2 Spectacles provide a safe and inexpensive treatment. Several studies report that children with uncorrected refractive errors have lower scores on a variety of motor and cognitive tests,3 4 5 6 and that improvements in reading may occur when vision problems are corrected.6 7. However, the relation between academic achievement and refractive error may be complex. Hyperopia (far sightedness), causing difficulty in seeing close objects, is more likely to cause reading problems and is the focus of many studies of refractive error and school performance.5 6 Myopia (near sightedness) causes difficulty in ...
Methods: The study included 133 eyes of patients with normal-pressure glaucoma who were prospectively examined as part of the Erlanger Glaucoma Registry. Mean age was 55.50 ± 9.99 years, mean refractive error was -0.57 ± 2.61 diopters. The glaucoma group was compared with an age adapted normal control group consisting of 159 eyes of normal persons with a mean age of 54.75 ± 7.58 years and a mean refractive error of -0.13 ± 1.28 diopters. For all patients and subjects, 15 degree color stereo optic disc photographs were taken and morphometrically examined. Additionally, the mean capillary blood flow within the neuroretinal rim was measured by confocal laser scanning flowmetry (Heidelberg Retinal Flow Meter ...
Treatments for farsightedness Type of correction Advantages Disadvantages Eyeglasses The simplest, safest way to correct refractive errors, such as farsightedness, nearsightedness, and astigmatism Most people can wear glasses. Accurate and predictable vision correction to within 0.50 diopters of the desired result Less...
Annual Total Burden to the U.S. Economy of AMD, Cararact, Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Refractive Errors, Visual Impairment and Blindness
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Three months postoperately, the mean UDVA (logMAR) improved significantly from 1.2±0.42 to 0.35±0.18 (p
Eye Problems: Find out about Refractive Errors including Astigmatism, Cataracts, Hyperopia, Myopia, Presbyopia. Also discover causes and treatment
Abstract. Objectives: To provide a description of refractive errors in healthy, term-born children, aged 1 through 24 months, and to test the hypothesis that spherical equivalent becomes significantly less hyperopic and less variable with increasing age.Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional design, cycloplegic retinoscopy was used to measure the refractive error in both eyes of 100 healthy, term- born children in four age groups. Spherical equivalent, cylindrical power and axis were analyzed as a function of age.Results: Spherical equivalents of right and left eyes did not differ at any age. Hyperopia declined significantly with increasing age. The variability in spherical equivalent also decreased significantly with age. Cylindrical error of one diopter or more was found in 15% of children; the proportion with astigmatism was highest in infancy and then waned. Myopia and anisometropia were rare, occurring in 5% and 2% of the sample, respectively.Conclusions: Significant declines in ...
Rimless eyeglasses, are a type of eyeglasses in which the lenses are mounted directly to the bridge and/or temples. The style is divided into two subtypes: three-piece glasses are composed of lenses mounted to a bridge and two separate temple arms, while rimways (also called cortlands) feature a supporting arch that connects the temples to the bridge and provides extra stability for the lenses. Rimless glasses were a popular style of eyeglasses from the 1880s until into the 1960s, and re-emerged in popularity in the latter part of the 20th century and early 21st century. Apple founder, Steve Jobs, began wearing round rimless eyeglasses in 1993 until his death in 2011, an 18 year run. Despite these shifts, they are unique amongst eyeglass styles in that they have never gone completely out of fashion, remaining an acceptable alternative through the years to more stylish designs. Rimless glasses lenses are held in place (or mounted) by way of a series of screws, or hollow plastic double rivets ...
Prescription eyeglasses for sports are almost indispensable to those who indulge in serious sporting activities. People who play sports need to see clearly which is why they have to choose special prescription eyeglasses. Besides allowing you to see clearly, these items of eyewear will also provide protection to your eyes and because such items are impact resistant they also reduce the risk of suffering injuries from broken lenses.. The best part about wearing prescription eyeglasses for sports is that these items will also help you improve your performance and they will prevent injuries. Since these items of eyewear help you to see clearly there is a very low likelihood that you will injure yourself because you could not see things clearly. One should understand that ordinary prescription eyeglasses do not always help you when you wear them while playing sports. It therefore makes sense to invest in a good pair of prescription eyeglasses for sports.. When you step onto a sport field you need to ...
Refractive errors are a common, correctable cause of impaired vision throughout the world.The normal eye creates a clear image by bending (refracting) light to focus onto the retina. Refractive errors occur when a component of the eyes optical syste
Read about hypermetropia and hypermetropi. Find information hypermetropia. Read about myopia. Read on refractive errors. Read about laserbehandling., Treatment Read, read about the symptoms of hypermetropia.
Astigmatism,a type of refractive error, is a common eye condition characterized by an irregular curvature of the cornea and can be treated with glasses.
Learn more about refractive errors and vision correction at Bennett & Bloom Eye Centers serving the people of Louisville, Florence and more.
Online Doctor Chat - Refractive error in the eyes post prolonged use of TB medicines, Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Asthenopia, Online doctor patient chat conversation by Dr. Chakravarthy Mazumdar
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Association between time spent on smart devices and change in refractive error: A 1-year prospective observational study among Hong Kong children and adolescents. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
PURPOSE: This work investigates how short-term changes in blood glucose concentration affect the refractive components of the diabetic eye in patients with long-term Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Blood glucose concentration, refractive error components (mean spherical equivalent MSE, J0, J45), central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), crystalline lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL) and ocular aberrations were monitored at two-hourly intervals over a 12-hour period in: 20 T1DM patients (mean age ± SD) 38±14 years, baseline HbA1c 8.6±1.9%; 21 T2DM patients (mean age ± SD) 56±11 years, HbA1c 7.5±1.8%; and in 20 control subjects (mean age ± SD) 49±23 years, HbA1c 5.5±0.5%. The refractive and biometric results were compared with the corresponding changes in blood glucose concentration. RESULTS: Blood glucose concentration at different times was found to vary significantly within (p,0.0005) and between groups (p,0.0005). However, the refractive error components ...
Myopic shift occurs most rapidly in the first 1.5 years of life after IOL implantation in infancy, reported David R. Weakley, Jr., MD, and fellow researchers. They were focused on a myopic shift at age 5 after cataract surgery with IOL implantation for infants in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Researchers performed refractions at 1 month and at every 3 months until age 4, and then at 4.25, 4.5, and 5 years of age. Of 43 eyes that were analyzed, the mean rate of myopic direction change from 1 month after surgery to age 1.5 years was 0.35 D; after age 1.5 years, the mean rate of myopic direction change was 0.97 D per year. In children who had surgery at age 1 month and were age 5 at the time of the study, the mean refractive change was 8.97 D. The mean refractive error at age 5 was -2.53 D. If the goal is emmetropia at age 5 years, then the immediate postoperative hypermetropic targets should be +10.5 D at 4 to 6 weeks and +8.50 D from 7 weeks to 6 months, the researchers concluded. ...
More than half of the population wears some form of prescription eyeglasses. Most of these individuals are not aware that wearing eyeglasses poses some risk. The injuries from wearing eyeglasses among elderly patients aged 65 and over resulted from falls. The second highest category of eye related injuries were sports injuries. Not only the physical injuries but also the harm to your vision. For example, if you are myopic, your vision will worsen if you wear glasses because eyeglasses just help you to see clearly as a medical aid, it cannot completely cure your vision loss. So in conclusion, the most important solution is to take eye excise and naturally make your vision better.
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Abstract:. Aim: To find out the prevalence of refractive error in school children and common morbid conditions present amongst them. Material and Methods: It was a cross sectional study. The present study was planned to know the prevalence of refractive in school children in Pune city, and their correlation with socio demographic profile if any. The study was conducted in urban field practice area of a Medical College in Pune. School children of age 6-16 years of selected urban schools in the field practice area were the study population. The sample size calculated was 866 but 1157 were covered in this study. Results: Prevalence of refractory error was 6.22%. Myopia was most common (94.44%) type of refractive errors. Most commonly occur in age group of belonged to 9-11 years, females (52.78%).Only 12(16.67%) were diagnosed early having refractive error other remained undiagnosed /undetected. Amongst them only 33.33% were wearing spectacles Most common reason for not wering spectacles was not ...
Eyeglasses with corrective lenses, filtering 40% of blue light (LED) emitted from computers, tablet devices and mobile phones. Reduces eyestrain.
Eye disorders in children are either refractive or nonrefractive errors. Refractive errors are those caused by the shape of the eye. Nonrefractive errors are caused by disease.
Distinct Styles Of Eyeglasses With Advanced Technologies In the world of advance technology, eye vision problems are increasing rapidly. For protecting your precious eyes from harmful rays, healthcare professionals recommend eyeglasses. Nowadays, many national as well as international companies are associated with the manufacturing of spectacles including Ray-Ban, Prada, Gucci that offer eyeglasses with distinct […]. Read the full story. ...
Corneal inlays to correct refractive errors are not new-various materials have been tried for more than 50 years to correct blurred vision. The greatest barriers to success of corneal inlays have been a lack of biocompatibility with the cornea, the difficulty of placing them within the corneal stroma safely, and refractive predictably. ...
If either your cornea or lens is egg shaped with two mismatched curves, light rays arent bent properly, causing a refractive error. This makes a blurry image. Astigmatism is a type of refractive error.. Astigmatism occurs when your cornea or lens is curved more steeply in one direction than in another. You have corneal astigmatism if your cornea has mismatched curves. You have lenticular astigmatism if your lens has mismatched curves.. Either type of astigmatism can cause blurred vision. Blurred vision may occur more in one direction, either horizontally, vertically or diagonally.. Astigmatism may be present from birth, or it may develop after an eye injury, disease or surgery. Astigmatism isnt caused or made worse by reading in poor light, sitting too close to the television or squinting.. ...
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Halos, starbusts and refractive errors[edit]. PRK can be associated with glare, halos, and starburst aberrations, which can ... This can lead to under/overcorrection of the refractive error. In the case of the overcorrection, premature presbyopia is a ... "LASIK Alternatives , UCLA Laser Refractive Center". UCLA Laser Refractive Center. Retrieved 2018-01-29.. ... those receiving PRK were less likely to achieve a refractive error, and were less likely to have an over-correction than ...
Refractive error less than or equal to +2.00 diopters (D). Moderate: Refractive error greater than +2.00 D up to +5.00 D. High ... It is a type of refractive error. Diagnosis is based on an eye exam. Management can occur with eyeglasses, contact lenses or ... "Facts About Refractive Errors". National Eye Institute. October 2010. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 30 ... Ramjit, Sihota; Radhika, Tandon (15 July 2015). "Refractive errors of the eye". Parsons' diseases of the eye (22nd ed.). ...
... s measure spherical refractive errors. Astigmatism can also be measured using a "clock target" with the device. A ... du Toit R, Soong K, Brian G, Ramke J (August 2006). "Quantification of refractive error: comparison of autorefractor and ... A focometer is an instrument that measures refractive errors and is intended to provide rural or economically disadvantaged ... inexpensive means for measuring refractive error in human vision. The portable, hand-held instrument is highly appropriate for ...
Refractive error, axial length, and relative peripheral refractive error before and after the onset of myopia. Investigative ... Refractive error and ethnicity in children. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2003;121:1141-7. Zadnik K, Satariano WA, Mutti DO, ... Myopia and refractive error in dogs. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 1992;33:2459-63. Zadnik K, Jones LA, Irvin ... Relative peripheral refractive error and the risk of onset and progression of myopia in children. Investigative Ophthalmology ...
Retrieved 11 September 2016.CS1 maint: location (link) Weale RA (2003). "Epidemiology of refractive errors and presbyopia". ... Accumulation of errors: The idea that ageing results from chance events that escape proof reading mechanisms, which gradually ... as each cell division is a chance for errors in DNA replication. Genetic instability: Dogs annually lose approximately 3.3% of ...
Honavar SG (2019). "The burden of uncorrected refractive error". Indian J Ophthalmol. 67 (5): 577-578. doi:10.4103/ijo.IJO_762_ ...
In the case of the eye, a large pupil emphasizes refractive error and a small pupil masks it. This phenomenon can cause a ... Other types of refractive error are hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Various forms of myopia have been described by ... Because myopia is a refractive error, the physical cause of myopia is comparable to any optical system that is out of focus. ... August 2003). "Refractive error and ethnicity in children". Archives of Ophthalmology. 121 (8): 1141-7. doi:10.1001/archopht. ...
"Myopia and Refractive errors in Dogs" (pdf). Investigative Optholmology and Visual Science. Association for Research in Vision ... Familial Aggregation of Refractive Error in Labrador Retrievers". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 49 (11): 4784- ... In cases involving German Shepherds, Rottweilers and Miniature horses, the refraction errors were indicative of myopia. Nuclear ... laboratory investigations using retinoscopy of 240 dogs found myopic problems with varying degrees of refraction errors ...
These lenses may also correct refractive error. Although many brands of contact lenses are lightly tinted to make them easier ... most commonly by correcting refractive error. This is done by directly focusing light so it enters the eye with the proper ... Soft lenses are often used in the treatment and management of non-refractive disorders of the eye. A bandage contact lens ... He used wax to affix water-filled lenses to his eyes, neutralizing their refractive power, which he corrected with another pair ...
The occluder is a simple way to focus light, as in a pinhole camera, temporarily removing the effects of refractive errors such ... This can be used to distinguish visual defects caused by refractive error, which improve when the occluder is used, from other ... Naidoo, Kovin (2002). "Case Finding in the Clinic: Refractive Errors". J Comm Eye Health. 15 (43): 39-40. Retrieved 2008-12-09 ... Because light passes only through the center of the eye's lens, defects in the shape of the lens (errors of refraction) have no ...
Medical professionals characterize refractive errors as consequences of the eye's shape and other basic anatomy, for which no ... The book included accounts of 12 "real cases", but did not report any information about refractive error. Czech native John ... not only to refractive errors, but also to double vision, crossed-eye, lazy eye, and to more serious eye conditions such as ... some of these stories claimed that such methods had cured glaucoma and cataracts as well as refractive errors. In 1929, the ...
The inequality of red reflection in both the eyes indicates unequal refraction, indicating a refractive error. Pupil of a ... Congenital cataract, refractive error, ocular alignment, retinal abnormalities. Strabismus, amblyopia or amblyogenic disorder. ...
Causes include: Refractive errors Divergence insufficiency Convergence excess; this can be due to nerve, muscle, congenital or ...
Does cryotherapy affect refractive error? Ophthalmology 108:343-347, 2001. Bleyl SB, Kivlin JD, et al. (2007). "Brachymesomelic ...
Refractive error can be corrected using a pinhole occluder. If the visual acuity improves with the use of pinholes, refractive ... Refractive error can be estimated via photography, a technique called photoscreening. Research has shown that optotype " ... Often, the use of such refractive lenses will correct visual acuity to normal. ...
Refractive errors in patients with FXS are also common. Individuals with FXS are at a higher risk of developing seizures, with ...
A difference in refractive error between the eyes or the presence of astigmatism will not be accounted for. People with little ... These lenses are used when one or both eyes do not require correction of a refractive error. Some people with good natural ... The most common use is to treat refractive errors: myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Glasses or "spectacles" ... Astigmatism of the corrective lens: This phenomenon is called lens-induced oblique astigmatism error (OAE) or power error and ...
... is a type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina, due to a variation in the ... 2003). "Refractive Error and Ethnicity in Children". Archives of Ophthalmology. 121 (8): 1141-7. doi:10.1001/archopht.121.8. ... An autorefractor or retinoscopy may provide an objective estimate of the eye's refractive error and the use of Jackson cross ... They also found that the TOX gene region previously identified for spherical equivalent refractive error was the second most ...
Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity Refractive Error Study Group (August 2003). "Refractive error and ethnicity ... Other types of refractive error are hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia.[1] Types[edit]. Various forms of myopia have been ... "Facts About Refractive Errors". NEI. October 2010. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.. .mw- ... Global refractive errors have been estimated to affect 800 million to 2.3 billion.[92] The incidence of myopia within sampled ...
"Global cost of correcting vision impairment from uncorrected refractive error". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 90 ( ... "The global cost of correcting vision impairment from uncorrected refractive error", with findings published in the Bulletin of ...
"Wavefront excimer laser refractive surgery for adults with refractive errors". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 6 (6): CD012687. doi ... outcomes between conventional excimer laser refractive surgery and wavefront-guided or wavefront-optimized refractive surgery, ...
He has also discovered a new refractive error called Aberropia. He has also been the first to do a combined surgery of ... Refractive Surgery". Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery. 27 (10): 1643-1650. doi:10.1016/S0886-3350(01)00793-3. Book ... Agarwal, Amar (1999). Refractive Surgery- First edition. Chennai: Jaypee, Distributed internationally by Slack and Highlights ... He is also the past President of the International Society of Refractive Surgery (ISRS) and Secretary General of the ...
Rubin, M.L., Surgical procedures available for influencing refractive error., in Refractive Anomalies of the Eye. 1966, US ... and high refractive errors of at least -5 to -7.5 diopters with an increase per year. There may also be changes in the fundus, ... Bores, L.D., Scleral Reinforcement, in Refractive Eye Surgery. 2001, Blackwell Science, Inc.: USA. p. 466-491. Curtin, B.J., ...
Astigmatism is a condition wherein there occurs significant refractive error. Moreover, ocular albino eyes become crossed, a ...
For an unaccommodated myopic eye, the far point is closer than 6 m. It depends upon the refractive error of the person's eye. ...
Amblyopia: is a category of vision loss or visual impairment that is caused by factors unrelated to refractive errors or ... The most common causes of visual impairment globally in 2010 were: Refractive error (42%) Cataract (33%) Glaucoma (2%) Age- ... The most common causes of visual impairment globally are uncorrected refractive errors (43%), cataracts (33%), and glaucoma (2 ... This includes cataracts, onchocerciasis, trachoma, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, uncorrected refractive errors, and some ...
In an eye exam, the term refraction is the determination of the ideal correction of refractive error. Refractive error is an ... Examples of refractive error are myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia and astigmatism. A refraction procedure consists of two parts: ... The information bounced back to the instrument gives an objective measurement of refractive error without asking the patients ... Based on the movement and orientation of this retinal reflection, the refractive state of the eye is measured. An auto- ...
Address cataract, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma, refractive error, childhood blindness, and glaucoma. Improving the life ...
... the device provides a quantitative measurement of the refractive error without the need of a physician on the ground. The test ... NETRA allows for the early, low-cost diagnosis of the most common refractive Refractive Disorders. The subject looks into the ... Interactive Display for Estimating Refractive Errors and Focal Range" (PDF). ACM Transactions on Graphics. 29 (4). doi:10.1145/ ... eye diagnostics like NETRA is tremendous and is global in scale-over half a billion people have uncorrected refractive errors. ...
... and refractive error, particularly astigmatism, due to asymmetrical development of the orbits.[13] ...
Refractive error *Hyperopia. *Myopia. *Astigmatism. *Anisometropia / Aniseikonia. *Presbyopia. Vision disorders. Blindness. * ...
... which is based on knowledge of the way the refractive index of sucrose changes. For example, the refractive index of a sucrose ... and the Normal-Eichungs Kommission to 6 with the goal of the Commission being to correct errors in the 5th and 6th decimal ... The refractive index, nD, for sucrose solutions of various percentage by mass has been measured and tables of nD vs. °Bx ... is the refractive index measured at the wavelength of the sodium D line (589.3 nm) at 20 °C. Temperature is very important as ...
Amblyopia: is a category of vision loss or visual impairment that is caused by factors unrelated to refractive errors or ... The most common causes of visual impairment globally are uncorrected refractive errors (43%), cataracts (33%), and glaucoma (2 ... 3] Refractive errors include near sighted, far sighted, presbyopia, and astigmatism.[3] Cataracts are the most common cause of ... uncorrected refractive errors, and some cases of childhood blindness.[10] The Center for Disease Control and Prevention ...
Elevated levels of stress are also linked to high rates of burnout, absenteeism and diagnostic errors, and reduced rates of ... or optometrists specializing in refractive management and medical/therapeutic care. Physician assistants also practice in ...
Journal of cataract and refractive surgery 30 (6): 1209-18। ডিওআই:10.1016/j.jcrs.2003.11.040। পিএমআইডি 15177594। ...
The original set of books and supplements contained a number of errors, some of which rendered problems insoluble. Various ... Refractive index of dense materials. *Reflection from surfaces. *The magnetism of matter ...
2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Lua error in మాడ్యూల్:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 1055: attempt to compare nil with ... Refractive Surgery. 33 (12): 2028-2034. doi:10.1016/j.jcrs.2007.07.024.. ... 9.0 9.1 Lua error in మాడ్యూల్:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 1055: attempt to compare nil with number. ... See peer discussion in: Lua error in మాడ్యూల్:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 1014: attempt to compare nil with number. ...
The only external measurement required is refractive index increment, which describes the change in refractive index with ... This uncertainty is not the same as the uncertainty in the molecular mass, which reflects variance (error) in measurement not ...
Long-term results are available, published in May 2009 in the Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery.[7][8][9][10] ...
2008, p. 12. Harv error: no target: CITEREFBurrowsHolmanParsonsPilling2008 (help) *^ "IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry" ... Physical properties, such as density and refractive index tend to fall within values characteristic of the phase. The phase of ... Cite error: The named reference meyerhoff. was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ...
Refractive error *Hyperopia. *Myopia. *Astigmatism. *Anisometropia / Aniseikonia. *Presbyopia. Vision disorders. Blindness. * ...
The core and the cladding (which has a lower-refractive-index) are usually made of high-quality silica glass, although they can ... Quantum error correction. *Quantum imaging. *Quantum information. *Quantum key distribution. *Quantum logic ...
Corneal Surgery (see refractive surgery). Femtosecond lasers can be used to create bubbles in the cornea. A line of bubbles can ... Photonic Sampling, using the high accuracy of lasers over electronic clocks to decrease the sampling error in electronic ADCs ... for example in modern refractive surgery. The basis of the technique is to induce a fixed-phase relationship between the ...
Corrective lenses are used to correct refractive errors by bending the light entering the eye in order to alleviate the effects ... The most common type of corrective lens is "single vision", which has a uniform refractive index. For people with presbyopia ... Few people have a pair of eyes that show exactly equal refractive characteristics; one eye may need a "stronger" (i.e. more ... so will not correct refraction problems like astigmatism or refractive or prismatic variations between the left and right eye. ...
Refractive error *Hyperopia. *Myopia. *Astigmatism. *Anisometropia / Aniseikonia. *Presbyopia. Vision disorders. Blindness. * ...
"Prevalence of Different Eye Diseases excluding Refractive Errors Presented at the Outpatient Clinic in Beheira Eye Hospital". ...
... and effect of refractive errors". Ophthalmology. 111 (6): 1183-1190. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2003.09.039. PMID 15177969.. ...
Refractive index (nD) 1.4286 (50 °C) വിസ്കോസിറ്റി 0.583 cP (120 °C). 0.3991 cP (160 °C). 0.2934 cP (200 °C)[4] ...
Refractive error *Hyperopia. *Myopia. *Astigmatism. *Anisometropia / Aniseikonia. *Presbyopia. Vision disorders. Blindness. * ...
Refractive index (n),. Dielectric constant (εr), etc.. Thermodynamic. data. Phase behaviour. solid-liquid-gas. ... CS1 errors: dates. *Webarchive template wayback links. *CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ...
Refractive error *Hyperopia. *Myopia. *Astigmatism. *Anisometropia / Aniseikonia. *Presbyopia. Vision disorders. Blindness. * ...
the absolute value of an error[3]. *in set theory, the limit ordinal of the sequence ω. ,. ω. ω. ,. ω. ω. ω. ,. …. {\ ... the refractive index of a medium with respect to another medium or vacuum. ... the false negative rate in statistics ("Type II" error). *the beta coefficient, the non-diversifiable risk, of an asset in ...
They make errors in the naming of hues in this region because the hues appear somewhat shifted towards green. However, unlike ...
Smith 2001, p. xxi Harv error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSmith2001 (help). *^ Smith 2001, p. xxii Harv error: multiple ... Experiments with mirrors and the refractive interfaces between air, water, and glass cubes, hemispheres, and quarter-spheres ... a b c El-Bizri 2007 Harv error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFEl-Bizri2007 (help). ... a b c Sabra 1989 Harv error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSabra1989 (help). ...
The gustatory cortex is the primary receptive area for taste. The word taste is used in a technical sense to refer specifically to sensations coming from taste buds on the tongue. The five qualities of taste detected by the tongue include sourness, bitterness, sweetness, saltiness, and the protein taste quality, called umami. In contrast, the term flavor refers to the experience generated through integration of taste with smell and tactile information. The gustatory cortex consists of two primary structures: the anterior insula, located on the insular lobe, and the frontal operculum, located on the frontal lobe. Similarly to the olfactory cortex, the gustatory pathway operates through both peripheral and central mechanisms.[clarification needed] Peripheral taste receptors, located on the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, and esophagus, transmit the received signal to primary sensory axons, where the signal is projected to the nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla, or the gustatory nucleus of ...
a b Chisholm 1911, p. 767. sfn error: no target: CITEREFChisholm1911 (help) ... Refractive index (n),. Dielectric constant (εr), etc. Thermodynamic. data. Phase behaviour. solid-liquid-gas ...
Its short 10.3 m focal length (f/1.2) is made possible by an error correction system which includes secondary and tertiary ... mirrors, a three element refractive system and active mounting and optics.[15] ...
Source for information on refractive errors: The Oxford Companion to the Body dictionary. ... refractive errors Why, in our forties, does reading become progressively more difficult? People who have always enjoyed clear ... The refractive power of a lens is measured in dioptres (the reciprocal of the focal length in metres). Refractive errors are ... Interestingly, when refractive errors are present they are often closely similar in the two eyes, even down to the degree and ...
Refractive Errors. Refractive errors include nearsightedness and farsightedness, eye conditions that are very common. Most ... Facts About Refractive Errors. The most common types of refractive errors are myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, and astigmatism. ... Refractive Errors News * Ten-Year Results on Radial Keratotomy Released 10/13/94 ... Hyperopia (farsightedness) is a common type of refractive error where distant objects may be seen more clearly than objects ...
Refractive Errors. What is normal vision?. In order to better understand how refractive errors affect our vision, it is ... What are refractive errors?. Refractive errors happen when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the ... The following are the most common refractive errors. These errors affect vision and may need corrective lenses or surgery for ... Commonly known as farsightedness, hyperopia is the most common refractive error in which an image of a distant object becomes ...
The Refractive Error of Professional Baseball Players.. Laby DM1, Kirschen DG. ... For the entire eligible population, the SVOne autorefraction system found a mean spherical refractive error (M) of -0.228D, a ... These data suggest that the SVOne autorefraction system is generally able to measure the refractive error in the baseball ... There was a borderline statistically significant difference in mean spherical refractive error (M) between the manifest ...
Home , News , Clinical Eye Care , ASD: Poor accommodative responses, refractive errors common ... ASD: Poor accommodative responses, refractive errors common. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are nearly 4 times ... findings demonstrate that patients with ASD necessitate special attention to the assessment and managing of refractive errors ...
... the resident should be able to discuss basic refractive errors including hyperopia, myopia, and accommodations. Please note ... On completing this module, the resident should be able to discuss basic refractive errors including hyperopia, myopia, and ...
Individuals that have parents with certain refractive errors are more likely to have similar refractive errors. The Online ... which will improve vision only in the case of refractive error. How refractive errors are treated or managed depends upon the ... Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately on the retina due to the shape of ... Refractive surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea. The number of people globally with refractive errors has been ...
Thats a refractive error, caused by an irregular-shaped cornea or lens. Learn how its treated. ... Refractive Errors in Children (American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus) * Your Childs Vision (Nemours ... Refractive errors are vision problems that happen when the shape of the eye keeps you from focusing well. The cause could be ... Glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. Laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. ...
Refractive Errors in Children. En Español Read in Chinese How does the eye focus light?. In order to see clearly, light rays ... The refractive errors are: myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism [See figures 2 and 3]. ... At the appropriate age, laser surgery may be an alternative if the refractive error is stable. ...
... and any other refractive error not included in conventional refractive error. "Optical refractive error" can include any ... "Far distance refractive error" can include any refractive error needed to be corrected for one to see clearly at far distance ... "Near distance refractive error" can include presbyopia and any other refractive error needed to be corrected for one to see ... This refractive error measurement detects and quantifies as much non-conventional refractive errors as possible. This ...
Prevalence of refractive error in the United States, 1999-2004.. Vitale S1, Ellwein L, Cotch MF, Ferris FL 3rd, Sperduto R. ... To describe the prevalence of refractive error in the United States.. METHODS: The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition ... Of 14,213 participants 20 years or older who completed the NHANES, refractive error data were obtained for 12,010 (84.5%). The ... Estimates based on the 1999-2004 NHANES vision examination data indicate that clinically important refractive error affects ...
... researchers identified 449 refractive area-related loci, including 336 sites not linked to the eye condition in the past. ... Home » Tools & Technology » Microarrays & Multiplexing » Refractive Error GWAS Leads To More Than 300 New Loci ... Refractive Error GWAS Leads To More Than 300 New Loci. Mar 30, 2020 ... and elsewhere tracked down hundreds of new genetic loci linked to myopia or other refractive errors of the eye with a genome- ...
Refractive error blindness / Rakhi Dandona and Lalit Dandona  Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit (‎2001)‎ ... El Bayoumy, B.M., Saad, A. & Choudhury, A.H. (‎2007)‎. Prevalence of refractive error and low vision among schoolchildren in ... Cost-effective screening of schoolchildren for refractive errors / Hans Limburg, K. Vaidyanathan, & H. P. Dalal  Limburg, Hans ... A preliminary survey was conducted to detect the prevalence of refractive error [‎RE]‎ and low vision among 5839 schoolchildren ...
Refractive Error. A refractive error, or refraction error, is an error in the focusing of light by the eye and a frequent ... Other articles related to refractive error, refractive errors:. Eyeglass Prescription - Amount of Refractive Error and Degree ... Refractive Error - Epidemiology. ... The global prevalence of refractive errors has been estimated from 800 million to 2.3 ... or three diopters of refractive error ... chart for each additional 0.25 to 0.5 diopters of refractive error ... ...
The most common refractive errors are astigmatism, hyperopia and myopia. Learn more about these conditions. ... Refractive errors affect vision and may require corrective lenses for correction or improvement. ... What causes refractive errors in children? Refractive errors (myopia and hyperopia) have been found to cluster in families. A ... What are refractive errors?. The following are the most common refractive errors, all of which affect vision and may require ...
Diagnosing Refractive Errors. Ophthalmologists perform a sight exam to diagnose refractive errors, alongside asking the patient ... Such conditions are referred to collectively as refractive errors.. Refractive errors can be categorized into the following ... Refractive Errors For people with normal vision, the light which rebounds off objects into the eye is focused onto the retina, ... Treatments Available for Refractive Errors. Shortsightedness. The result of the light from objects entering the eye and ...
Diagnostic Tools for Achieving Refractive Outcomes Presentations and Lectures Video Topographic and Tomography Evaluation ...
Refractive Error and Astigmatism. By Mrinali Patel Gupta, M.D.. What Is Refractive Error? The power of your eye to focus and ... How Is Refractive Error Diagnosed?. Refractive error is diagnosed by an ophthalmologist or optometrist by using a machine ... How Is Refractive Error Treated?. Refractive error is generally corrected by glasses or contact lenses that help focus the ... and there will be refractive error. Myopia or Near-Sightedness People with myopia, or near-sightedness, can see close-up ...
... by Medindia Content Team on March 15, 2007 at 8:24 PM Women ... This study shows that parental refractive error should now be added to the constellation of factors which are related to the ...
Refractive error. Refractive error is a condition that causes blurred vision when light rays entering the eye meet in front of ... In most cases, refractive errors represent a natural variation from normal vision and are not considered a disease. ... Nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia are common refractive errors.. Vision usually can be corrected ...
It then fits a sine wave to the selected signal results, and calculates the refractive error from the sine wave. ... A method of measuring the refractive error of the eye uses a digital computer and directs a variable focus, variable ... a sine wave can be fitted to the data and the refractive error calculated without error from any optical system inaccuracies ... and calculates the refractive error from the sine wave. If the deviation of the selected signal results is excessive. then ...
... Eghosasere Iyamu ... and Spherical Equivalent Refractive Error in a Nigerian Population," ISRN Ophthalmology, vol. 2012, Article ID 295613, 6 pages ...
The refractive error was measured by static retinoscopy and subjective refraction. Result. An inverse correlation was found ... Anthropometry, Amplitude of Accommodation, and Spherical Equivalent Refractive Error in a Nigerian Population. Eghosasere Iyamu ...
... to correct refractive errors (myopia/astigmatism/hyperopia/presbyopia) ... Refractive errors including astigmatism, myopia and presbyopia Photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive ... A systematic review of the safety and efficacy of elective photorefractive surgery for the correction of refractive error, ... Photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors. The National Institute for Health and Clinical ...
... all refractive errors treated at Mass. Eye and Ear. ... Refractive Errors About 120 million people in the United States ... Although these are safe and effective methods for treating refractive errors, refractive surgeries are becoming an increasingly ... For Patients , Patient Guide , Patient Education , Diseases and Conditions , Facts About The Cornea , Refractive Errors ... Refractive errors occur when the curve of the cornea is irregularly shaped (too steep or too flat). When the cornea is of ...
Refractive errors were measured at P35 (age when refractive errors stabilize in mice) using automated infrared photorefractor. ... Uncorrected refractive errors are the major cause of vision loss and refractive errors and is one of five World Health ... of refractive error carried out by the Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia (CREAM) [30]. The CREAM meta-analysis ... To examine whether APLP2 is functionally involved in refractive error development, we studied refractive eye development in ...
Astigmatism is one type of refractive error. Its a condition in which an abnormal curvature of the cornea can cause two focal ... What are refractive errors?. Refractive errors happen when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the ... The following are the most common refractive errors. These errors affect vision and may need corrective lenses or surgery for ... Commonly known as farsightedness, hyperopia is the most common refractive error in which an image of a distant object becomes ...
... a refractive error results and vision is not clear. These imperfections in the focusing power of the eye are called refractive ... What is Refractive Error? Normally, the rays of light entering the eye are brought to a precise focus on the retina - the light ... ASTIGMATISM (cylindrical error) occurs when the incoming light rays are unable to reach a common focus within the eye. ...
The distribution of comments by topic domain was generally similar across types of correction and type of refractive error. The ... The similarity of problems mentioned across refractive error type and correction method suggests it will be possible to develop ... Development of the National Eye Institute Refractive Error Correction Quality of Life Questionnaire. Focus Groups ... the authors were able to identify content areas and aspects of visual functioning in persons with refractive error that are not ...
Refractive errors are irregularities in the shape of the eye, causing blurred vision. We aim to improve access to global ... What is refractive error?. Refractive errors are eye disorders caused by irregularity in the shape of the eye. This makes it ... Download Sightsavers refractive error strategy (pdf) to read more about our work to treat refractive error. ... How is refractive error treated?. Eye test. The patient is given an eye test to find out how badly their vision is affected. ...
  • Perfectly regular, spherical hypermetropia or myopia are not the commonest refractive errors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • On completing this module, the resident should be able to discuss basic refractive errors including hyperopia, myopia, and accommodations. (aao.org)
  • The refractive errors are: myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism [See figures 2 and 3]. (aapos.org)
  • 25 . The lens of claim 1 , wherein the lens is capable of correcting for conventional refractive error such as one of myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia and regular astigmatism. (google.com)
  • NEW YORK - A team from the UK, US, Netherlands, and elsewhere tracked down hundreds of new genetic loci linked to myopia or other refractive errors of the eye with a genome-wide association study involving more than half a million individuals. (genomeweb.com)
  • Myopia is the most common refractive error requiring correction seen in children. (childrensnational.org)
  • Refractive errors (myopia and hyperopia) have been found to cluster in families. (childrensnational.org)
  • This can arise from a cornea or crystalline lens with too much curvature (refractive myopia) or an eyeball that is too long (axial myopia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional refractive surgeries include placement of intrastromal corneal ring segments (called Intacs) into the cornea to treat low degrees of myopia or a phakic intraocular lens, in which an implantable lens is inserted in the eye to treat moderate to high myopia. (visionaware.org)
  • This study shows that parental refractive error should now be added to the constellation of factors which are related to the progression of juvenile onset myopia,' said researcher Dan Kurtz of the New England College of Optometry. (medindia.net)
  • Current evidence on photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors suggests that it is adequately safe and efficacious for use in selected patients with mild or moderate myopia. (nice.org.uk)
  • Photorefractive (laser) surgery is used to treat refractive errors such as myopia, astigmatism and low degrees of hyperopia. (nice.org.uk)
  • Functional analysis of APLP2 using an APLP2 knockout mouse model confirmed functional significance of APLP2 in refractive development and implicated a potential role of synaptic transmission at the level of glycinergic amacrine cells of the retina for the development of myopia. (plos.org)
  • Refractive errors include eye problems such as myopia (short-sightedness), hyperopia (long-sightedness) and astigmatism (caused by an irregularly curved cornea). (sightsavers.org)
  • Surgery to correct refractive errors in the eye (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) has become increasingly common. (sbu.se)
  • Surgery for minor or moderate refractive errors (up to -6 diopters for myopia and up to +3.5 diopters for hyperopia) primarily involves methods that use an excimer laser to reshape the cornea, thereby changing its refractive power. (sbu.se)
  • Refractive errors, myopia, and hyperopia are common conditions requiring corrective lenses. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2.1.1 There are several types of refractive error including myopia, hypermetropia and presbyopia. (nice.org.uk)
  • Nearsightedness (myopia) is the most common refractive error in this age group and can be corrected with eyeglasses. (stereooptical.com)
  • Participants had refractive errors ranging from high myopia to low hyperopia. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • 8, 9 Most population based studies in adults have however found significant relations between IOP and refractive error 10, 11 or myopia, 12, 13 although disputed by a few clinic based studies. (bmj.com)
  • In light of these factors that question whether IOP causes myopia, we aimed to assess whether IOP is associated with refractive error or AL using data collected from a large sample of Singaporean Chinese schoolchildren. (bmj.com)
  • This error is called myopia, or short-sightedness. (jrank.org)
  • Some aspects of refractive services may be 'task shifted' to others, e.g. nurses screening for myopia, hyperopia and presbyopia. (cehjournal.org)
  • Conclusions Refractive errors, in particular myopia, are common in IRD. (eur.nl)
  • The first patient was a woman whose postoperative refraction was high myopia to the degree of -14 D. Today cataract surgery is not only a procedure for restoring the transparency of optic media, but also for adjusting refractive errors. (prolekare.cz)
  • Recent studies document a wide global variation in the prevalence of refractive error and predict that without control interventions the prevalence of myopia will significantly increase globally, affecting nearly 5 billion people by 2050. (iapb.org)
  • The NEI-RQL-42 showed good construct validity in terms of refractive error (myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia) and mode of refractive correction (spectacles, contact lens and no correction) discrimination. (ovid.com)
  • Categorisation of myopia progression by change in refractive error and axial elongation and their impact on benefit of myopia control using orthokeratology. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • To compare the value of pre-treatment axial elongation (AE) and changes in refractive sphere (M change) for predicting the success in orthokeratology (ortho-k), in order to better identify suitable candidates for myopia control. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • As change in refractive error frequently underestimates rapid progression of AE, its value for identifying appropriate candidates for myopia control is poor. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Myopia, more commonly known as nearsightedness, is the most common refractive error. (rebuildyourvision.com)
  • Often astigmatism is present along with myopia or hyperopia, but it can also be a refractive error on its own. (rebuildyourvision.com)
  • Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is a common type of refractive error where close objects appear clearly, but distant objects appear blurry. (rockymountaineyecenter.com)
  • In the United States Radial Keratotomy (RK) and Photo Refractive Keratectomy (PRK) have emerged as the two most common refractive surgery procedures for the correction of myopia. (pacificu.edu)
  • Subjects had less than 8.75D of myopia and less than 1.50D of corneal astigmatism The patients were randomly age and refractive error matched and the results analyzed using a two-tailed test. (pacificu.edu)
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. (elsevier.com)
  • Once excessive accommodation has been related to myopia, our objective was to evaluate refractive errors changes in children under overcorrecting minus lens therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • Refractive errors include myopia (near-sightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism (distorted vision at all distances), and presbyopia that occurs between age 40-50 years (loss of the ability to focus up close, inability to read letters of the phone book, need to hold newspaper farther away to see clearly) can be corrected by eyeglasses, contact lenses, or in some cases surgery. (cdc.gov)
  • Hyperopia (farsightedness) is a common type of refractive error where distant objects may be seen more clearly than objects that are near. (nih.gov)
  • Commonly known as farsightedness, hyperopia is the most common refractive error in which an image of a distant object becomes focused behind the retina. (uhhospitals.org)
  • In individuals with hyperopia, the risk for complications is substantially greater when the refractive error exceeds +3.5 diopters. (sbu.se)
  • Pilodental dysplasia-refractive errors syndrome is a rare ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by dysplastic abnormalities of the hair and teeth (including hypodontia, abnormally shaped teeth, scalp hypotrichosis and pili annulati), follicular hyperkeratosis on the trunk and limbs, and hyperopia. (nih.gov)
  • Hyperopia, otherwise known as farsightedness is myopia's cousin error. (rebuildyourvision.com)
  • Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is a common type of refractive error where distant objects may be seen more clearly than objects that are near. (rockymountaineyecenter.com)
  • Hyperopia is a refractive error of the eye, causing a difficulty in near focussing, although in high amounts, it affects all distances. (orthoptics.ie)
  • The most common types of refractive error are near-sightedness, far-sightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cylindrical errors cause astigmatism, when the optical power of the eye is too powerful or too weak across one meridian, such as if the corneal curvature tends towards a cylindrical shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astigmatism: A person with astigmatic refractive error sees lines of a particular orientation less clearly than lines at right angles to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • ReLEx SMILE (Refractive Lenticule Extraction / Small Incision Lenticule Extraction) which is a form of surgery that can cure shortsightedness and astigmatism without the need for scalpels. (bumrungrad.com)
  • ASTIGMATISM (cylindrical error) occurs when the incoming light rays are unable to reach a common focus within the eye. (sankaranethralaya.org)
  • Similarly, patients with high refractive error and astigmatism also are more likely to need retreatments. (prohealth.com)
  • The primary refractive errors are nearsightedness , farsightedness and astigmatism . (allaboutvision.com)
  • According to the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, conventional LASIK can correct short sight, long sight and astigmatism, accounting for around 95 per cent of refractive error. (abdo.org.uk)
  • The study assessed visual acuity and refractive outcomes, with attention to vector analysis of astigmatism before surgery and at 6 months after surgery. (aao.org)
  • LASIK corrects innate refractive errors such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. (bumrungrad.com)
  • Mean spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error, astigmatism, and prevalence of higher refractive errors among African-American and white children. (nih.gov)
  • Sometimes the faulty component is the crystalline lens and in these instances the error is called lenticular astigmatism. (jrank.org)
  • Upon the calculation the Lenstar LS900 worked with selected surgically induced astigmatism of the size of 0.5 D. The difference between the estimated and actually measured refraction after the surgery served for determination of the average prediction error (PE) of postoperative refraction, its absolute error (AE) and its mean absolute error (MAE). (prolekare.cz)
  • This causes a refractive error which could be either astigmatism or myopic astigmatism. (justanswer.com)
  • Astigmatism is a refractive error that refers to the irregular curvature of the cornea. (rebuildyourvision.com)
  • Patients with compound myopic astigmatism after DALK and a spherical equivalent (SE) between −2.50 diopters (D) and −8.00 D had LASIK as a single-step procedure, correcting the manifest refraction error. (alabamaeyebank.org)
  • Other common types of refractive errors are near-sightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refractive errors happen when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina. (uhhospitals.org)
  • If light rays are not focused on the retina, a refractive error is present. (aapos.org)
  • Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately on the retina due to the shape of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • An eye that has no refractive error when viewing distant objects is said to have emmetropia or be emmetropic meaning the eye is in a state in which it can focus parallel rays of light (light from distant objects) on the retina, without using any accommodation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are frequently categorized as spherical errors and cylindrical errors: Spherical errors occur when the optical power of the eye is either too large or too small to focus light on the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • If they focus either in front of the retina or behind the retina, the image will not be as clear as possible, and there will be refractive error. (visionaware.org)
  • Refractive error is generally corrected by glasses or contact lenses that help focus the image correctly on the retina. (visionaware.org)
  • Refractive error is a condition that causes blurred vision when light rays entering the eye meet in front of or behind the retina rather than directly on it. (peacehealth.org)
  • A method of measuring the refractive error of the eye uses a digital computer and directs a variable focus, variable orientation light pattern on the eye, detects the light pattern reflected from the retina to produce an analog signal as a function of the focus of the reflected pattern, and converts. (google.com)
  • Eyeglass lenses and contact lenses are fabricated with precise curves to refract light to the necessary degree to compensate for refractive errors and bring light to a sharp focus on the retina. (allaboutvision.com)
  • Refractive errors (conditions in which the eye fails to focus objects accurately on the retina due to defects in the refractive system), are the most common cause of visual impairment. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Statistically significant moderate negative correlations were found between refractive error and absolute inter-ocular differences in retinal sensitivity at most of the locations under examination (Figure 2), particularly towards the center of the retina, that is, retinal sensitivity asymmetry increased with refractive error. (arvojournals.org)
  • In refractive errors, the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing on the retina. (rockymountaineyecenter.com)
  • With refractive errors, the light that is coming from an object focuses on the retina. (centreforsight.net)
  • The distribution of comments by topic domain was generally similar across types of correction and type of refractive error. (rand.org)
  • Your refraction may reveal that you have more than one type of refractive error. (allaboutvision.com)
  • It is a type of refractive error. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refractive errors include nearsightedness and farsightedness, eye conditions that are very common. (nih.gov)
  • Refractive surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea. (wikipedia.org)
  • These vision disorders -- called refractive errors-- affect the cornea and are the most common of all vision problems in this country. (masseyeandear.org)
  • Refractive errors occur when the curve of the cornea is irregularly shaped (too steep or too flat). (masseyeandear.org)
  • The process uses a focused, low-energy, high-repetition rate femtosecond laser to non-surgically alter the refractive index of transparent materials and tissues (cornea, lens, contact lenses and artificial intro-ocular lenses), thus changing their light-bending properties. (rochester.edu)
  • This refractive error is often caused by abnormalities in the lens of the eye, the cornea and the length of the eyeball. (rebuildyourvision.com)
  • The length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens can cause refractive errors. (rockymountaineyecenter.com)
  • Problems like refractive errors are caused by a cornea that is not shaped perfectly. (centreforsight.net)
  • There are different methodologies to correct errors like the surgical remodeling of the cornea (keratomileusis), lens replacement or lens implantation (cataract surgery). (centreforsight.net)
  • A method of correcting refractive errors of the eye by changing the shape of the cornea by softening the corneal tissue by the application of heat and reshaping the convex cornea to the curvature of the surface of a concave mold applied to the cornea. (google.com)
  • It is possible to have two or more types of refractive error at the same time. (stereooptical.com)
  • What Is Refractive Surgery? (medlineplus.gov)
  • At the appropriate age, laser surgery may be an alternative if the refractive error is stable. (aapos.org)
  • Refractive errors are corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • These options should carefully be discussed with a refractive surgeon to weigh the risks and benefits and to choose to most appropriate procedure, if refractive surgery is pursued. (visionaware.org)
  • The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence is examining photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors and will publish guidance on its safety and efficacy to the NHS in England, Wales and Scotland. (nice.org.uk)
  • The Advisory Committee has made provisional recommendations about photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors. (nice.org.uk)
  • Clinicians wishing to undertake photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors should ensure that patients understand the benefits and potential risks of the procedure, including failure to achieve the expected improvement in unaided vision, other visual disturbances, corneal infection and flap complications. (nice.org.uk)
  • Clinicians should audit and review clinical outcomes of all patients who have photorefractive (laser) surgery for the correction of refractive errors. (nice.org.uk)
  • The Royal College of Ophthalmologists has produced standards for laser refractive surgery ( www.rcophth.ac.uk/scientific/docs/RefractiveSurgeryStandardsDec2004.pdf ). (nice.org.uk)
  • A retreatment is a second surgery to correct residual refractive error after the initial surgery. (prohealth.com)
  • Refractive errors usually can be 'corrected' with eyeglasses or contact lenses , or they can be permanently treated with vision correction surgery . (allaboutvision.com)
  • Surgery is replacing other methods (mainly glasses and contact lenses) used to correct refractive errors. (sbu.se)
  • What improvements in visual acuity can patients expect following refractive surgery? (sbu.se)
  • Ways to correct such "mechanical" problems include eyeglasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery such as LASIK. (cornea.org)
  • The three most common treatments are eyeglasses, contact lenses and refractive eye surgery, such as LASIK. (cornea.org)
  • SMILE surgery combined with cyclotorsion error compensation yielded a significant improvement in surgical outcomes regarding visual acuity, refractive cylinder and safety profile. (aao.org)
  • Favorable outcomes have been achieved after the first clinical use of IOL technology that is designed to maintain an open capsule long-term after cataract surgery and enable refractive fine-tuning postoperatively. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • Two applications of femtosecond laser in eye surgery are femtosecond LASIK , for the treatment of refractive errors from traditional LASIK and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery , for removing cataracts . (bumrungrad.com)
  • Dr. Tharinee Kulkamthorn , an ophthalmologist who specializes in refractive surgery, explains the attributes of femtosecond laser, compared to the traditional method to create the corneal flap. (bumrungrad.com)
  • It also increases the chance for patients with thin corneas, to have LASIK refractive surgery ," says Dr. Tharinee. (bumrungrad.com)
  • 2.4.5 The Specialist Advisers stated that key safety outcomes include glaucoma, loss of lines of BSCVA, reduced contrast sensitivity, night vision disturbances and the need for additional refractive surgery. (nice.org.uk)
  • Wavefront excimer laser refractive surgery for adults with refractive errors. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing either wavefront modified with conventional refractive surgery or wavefront-optimized with wavefront-guided refractive surgery in participants aged ⪰ 18 years with refractive errors. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Study characteristics and risk of bias Participants were mostly women, mean age 29 and 53 years, and without previous refractive surgery, ocular pathology or systemic comorbidity. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • To analyze refractive results after cataract surgery in relation to used type of monofocal intraocular lens, calculation formula, to age, gender and laterality. (prolekare.cz)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Jin GJ, Merkley KH, Crandall AS, Jones YJ (2008) Laser in situ keratomileusis versus lens-based surgery for correcting residual refractive error after cataract surgery. (springermedizin.de)
  • From April 22 to August 31, 2019, FV Hospital's Ophthalmology & Refractive Surgery Department has a special promotion of 13% to 20% off Refractive Surgery using traditional LASIK, Femtosecond Lasik or refractive correction with corneal crosslinking. (fvhospital.com)
  • It helps to increase the cornea's durability after undergoing Lasik surgery, reduces the threat of corneal edema and stabilizes the eye's refractive status. (fvhospital.com)
  • Refractive eye surgery helps improve the affected eye's refractive state. (centreforsight.net)
  • It can also be corrected with contact lenses or refractive surgery. (orthoptics.ie)
  • Refractive errors can usually be corrected with eyeglasses or contact lens. (nih.gov)
  • Refractive errors are commonly corrected using prescription eyeglasses. (rebuildyourvision.com)
  • And if this is something you're already doing, we'll look into going beyond that to identifying the refractive error to see whoever is responsible in your health system for providing eyeglasses. (cybersight.org)
  • Management can occur with eyeglasses, contact lenses or refractive corneal surgeries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The doctor then administers an excimer laser beam to the stroma, to adjust the corneal curvature in correcting refractive errors. (bumrungrad.com)
  • Sulcoflex Toric supplementary IOLs result in good visual and refractive outcomes in eyes with no prior corneal graft. (springermedizin.de)
  • To determine corneal biomechanical parameters measured with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyser (ORA) in Singaporean children, and to assess their possible correlations with refractive error and biometry. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Utilities have been derived for a variety of ocular conditions but not previously reported for uncorrected refractive error (URE). (arvojournals.org)
  • Participants met study criteria if aged 40-65 years, wore refractive error correction and had no ocular disease impairing vision worse than 0.1 LogMAR units in the better eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • We aimed at examining the normal range of inter-ocular asymmetry in retinal sensitivity and its association with refractive error. (arvojournals.org)
  • Highly-myopic eyes, even in the absence of complications, display a different range of inter-ocular asymmetry than normal eyes, and this asymmetry increases with refractive error. (arvojournals.org)
  • Correlation analysis of the association between mean refractive error and absolute inter-ocular differences in retinal sensitivity in the myopic group. (arvojournals.org)
  • At the primary level (eye clinic), personnel such as nurses can screen and separate refractive from non-refractive patients (the pinhole is particularly useful in this respect), and provide presbyopic correction for those whose vision impairment is not caused by distance refractive error or ocular disease. (cehjournal.org)
  • Refractive errors are the most common ocular disorders worldwide and may lead to blindness. (eur.nl)
  • What are the possible outcomes of refractive errors? (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • PRK and LASEK, in contrast to LASIK, can be used to treat higher levels of refractive error, although the outcomes are worse than in treating moderate refractive errors. (sbu.se)
  • To evaluate rotational stability and visual and refractive outcomes of supplementary toric IOLs (Sulcoflex Toric 653T, Rayner Intraocular Lenses Ltd) for residual astigmatic refractive error in pseudophakic eyes. (springermedizin.de)
  • To analyze the visual and refractive outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) for keratoconus. (alabamaeyebank.org)
  • In October 2017, the first long-term data were published on the use of the NaturalVue Multifocal to decrease the progression of myopic refractive error in children. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Starting in 2017, Dr. Aller spearheaded a prospective, registered clinical trial (NCT03358862) with the objective of identifying change in refractive error as well as axial length growth in myopic children wearing NaturalVue Multifocal. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Prior to wearing NaturalVue Multifocal, the children were progressing in their myopic refractive error -1.28 + 0.79D per year. (pharmiweb.com)
  • 0.01) average of 1.04D (81%) per year decrease in myopic refractive error change. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Spherical errors had gender bias with the males more likely to be hypermetropic and the females more likely to be myopic. (scirp.org)
  • A genetic risk score (GRS) for all 39 variants explained 0.6% (P = 6.6E-08) and 2.3% (P = 6.9E-21) of the variance in refractive error at ages 7 and 15, respectively, supporting increased effects from these genetic variants at older ages. (elsevier.com)
  • Index: Age related changes in refractive index (cortical sclerosis) can cause hypermetropia. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, this technique is preferred to LASIK for the correction of higher refractive errors and for older patients. (abdo.org.uk)
  • The primary objective was to compare effectiveness and safety of wavefront procedures, laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) or laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) versus corresponding conventional procedures, for correcting refractive errors in adults for postoperative uncorrected visual acuity, residual refractive errors, and residual HOAs. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Treatment of post-DALK keratoconus patients with LASIK to correct manifest refraction error seems to be a viable option. (alabamaeyebank.org)
  • Despite the questions raised, the findings demonstrate that patients with ASD necessitate special attention to the assessment and managing of refractive errors and other visual functions. (aoa.org)
  • In patients who cannot provide the necessary feedback (including people with physical and cognitive disabilities and very young children), the doctor can assess the refractive error via a process called retinoscopy. (visionaware.org)
  • Six months after the primary procedure, four patients elected to receive a piggyback IOL to improve unaided visual acuity that was related to residual refractive error. (ophthalmologytimes.com)
  • Pinhole testing can be carried out by nurses or other primary health care workers to detect patients who need refractive error care. (cehjournal.org)
  • Regardless of the configuration, we believe that a team approach to refractive error care will create a collaborative and enabling environment which will ultimately benefit patients. (cehjournal.org)
  • The Turkish version of the NEI-RQL-42 is a reliable and valid measure of vision-related quality of life in patients with refractive error. (ovid.com)
  • All patients were treated with occlusion, and a 13-patient subset of them received overminus lens therapy (group A). Eight children received spectacles as necessary (group B). Initial age, age interval, initial spherical equivalent (SE), and magnitude of overcorrection were considered as co-variables of the mean variation in refractive error (SE of each eye) between groups, through a multivariate analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • In these cases, it's not just enough to prescribe a pair of glasses, and that's why we're going to discuss throughout our presentation here I'm going to keep reminding you, that once we've identified someone with refractive error, we really need to shift them on. (cybersight.org)
  • A refraction test is an eye test done to measure a person's refractive error, i.e., the need for glasses. (orthoptics.ie)
  • If there is a significant refractive error, glasses are recommended, or the child may be closely monitored at regular appointments until it becomes apparent that they would benefit from glasses. (orthoptics.ie)
  • Correction of refractive error was not allowed during fMRI. (dovepress.com)
  • A refractive error , or refraction error , is an error in the focusing of light by the eye and a frequent reason for reduced visual acuity. (primidi.com)
  • Changes in refractive index of lens, alterations in position of the lens or absence of lens are the other main causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Download Sightsavers refractive error strategy (pdf) to read more about our work to treat refractive error. (sightsavers.org)
  • Estimates based on the 1999-2004 NHANES vision examination data indicate that clinically important refractive error affects half of the US population 20 years or older. (nih.gov)
  • It is estimated that 5% to 7% of preschool aged children have visually important refractive errors. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Failure to properly treat significant refractive errors during emmetropization may lead to amblyopia and permanent visual impairment. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Significant refractive errors are uncommon in this population of urban preschool children. (nih.gov)
  • Ophthalmologists should be deployed at this level in cases where they are the primary refractive personnel in the country. (cehjournal.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using focus groups, the authors were able to identify content areas and aspects of visual functioning in persons with refractive error that are not measured by standard visual acuity testing in the clinic or by other vision-targeted, health-related quality of life instruments such as the 25- or 51-item National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire. (rand.org)
  • To investigate the influence of visual acuity on changes of cortical oculomotor control, we studied the representation of visually guided prosaccades in nine subjects with refractive error and 11 normally sighted subjects using fMRI. (dovepress.com)
  • This group of subjects with refractive error showed increased activation in an extended oculomotor and visual network to maintain performance during simple prosaccades. (dovepress.com)
  • Young, F.A. The Effect of Restricted Visual Space on the Refractive Error of the Young Monkey Eye. (springer.com)
  • The course aims at building the capacity of the national programs in tackling the burden of visual impairment that caused by low vision and refractive errors. (who.int)
  • Refractive errors such as short or long sightedness are the greatest cause of avoidable visual impairment among children. (who.int)
  • The global strategy of VISION 2020 focuses on visual impairment as a major public health problem and addresses its main causes including refractive errors and low vision. (who.int)
  • Bhutan did not have any authentic evidence on prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error in the country. (iapb.org)
  • Aims: To assess prevalence of refractive error (RE) and visual impairment (VI) among school-aged children in Hargeisa, Somaliland. (who.int)
  • Alghamdi W. Prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment among school-age children of Hargesia, Somaliland East Mediterr Health J. (who.int)
  • To assess the impact of efforts to reduce visual impairment by detecting and treating refractive errors (REs) among schoolchildren in two urban areas of Chile. (scielosp.org)
  • The coverage for correcting visual impairment due to refractive error was estimated. (scielosp.org)
  • Evaluar la repercusión de las medidas para reducir la deficiencia visual mediante la detección y el tratamiento de los errores refractivos en escolares de dos zonas urbanas de Chile. (scielosp.org)
  • 271 de estos 476 (56,93%) tenían agudeza visual normal en el ojo mejor al inicio. (scielosp.org)
  • Encontramos una mayor cobertura de los servicios para la deficiencia visual secundaria a errores refractivos y un mayor porcentaje de niños que usaban lentes en comparación con los valores notificados para La Florida en un artículo publicado en el 2000. (scielosp.org)
  • The annual burden to the U.S. economy of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, refractive errors, visual impairment, and blindness in adults age 40 and older is estimated at $35.4 billion-- $16.2 billion in direct medical costs, $11.1 billion in other direct costs, and $8 billion in lost productivity. (silverbook.org)
  • The visual and refractive results at 1 month, 3 months, and the last follow-up were compared with preoperative values. (alabamaeyebank.org)
  • PURPOSE To document the prevalence of visual impairment resulting from refractive error and to describe patterns of spectacle use in a representative sample of 12-year-old Australian school children. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Refractive errors in the adult pakistani population: the national blindness and visual impairment survey. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • A clinical pilot study comparing refractive error and Preferential Looking (PL) visual acuity in infants 2 to 12 months of age is described. (pacificu.edu)
  • Refractive error did net correlate with changes in PL visual acuity in infants 2 to 12 months of age. (pacificu.edu)
  • Bedford, Anne K. and Rolen, Robert D. III, "A pilot study comparing refractive error and preferential looking visual acuity in human infants" (1985). (pacificu.edu)
  • Pointed out that 49% of global visual impairment was refractive error. (cybersight.org)
  • 20 . The lens of claim 1 , wherein the lens is capable of changing the refractive error correction as the eye's line of sight moves across the lens. (google.com)
  • Incidence of Refractive Error and Amblyopia Among Young Adults - A Hospital Based Study, Advances in Ophthalmology Shimon Rumelt, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/22327. (intechopen.com)
  • To assess whether intraocular pressure (IOP) is associated with refractive error or axial length in children. (bmj.com)
  • The following are the most common refractive errors. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Some of the most common vision problems presenting in childhood are related to refractive errors. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Refractive errors are possibly the most common eye conditions among children and adults alike. (rebuildyourvision.com)
  • Our data suggest that common variants at 15q14 influence susceptibility for refractive errors in the general population. (eur.nl)
  • During this Live Webinar the limitations and benefits of vision screening, how to avoid the common pitfalls in screening program design, and the necessary steps to establish or adapt local vision screening programs to include the detection of refractive error are discussed. (cybersight.org)
  • We conducted a genome-wide association study for refractive error in 5,328 individuals from a Dutch population-based study with replication in four independent cohorts (combined 10,280 individuals in the replication stage). (eur.nl)
  • There are also a variety of refractive laser surgeries. (visionaware.org)
  • Although these are safe and effective methods for treating refractive errors, refractive surgeries are becoming an increasingly popular option. (masseyeandear.org)
  • Ophthalmologists perform a sight exam to diagnose refractive errors, alongside asking the patient to wear spectacles which will help them to see more clearly. (bumrungrad.com)
  • Refractive errors are usually corrected by wearing spectacles or contact lenses. (nice.org.uk)
  • If they have refractive error, it can then be corrected with spectacles. (sightsavers.org)
  • Refractive error was the principal cause (94.2%) of impaired vision and 88% of children who could achieve VA ³ 6/9 with best correction were without necessary spectacles. (iapb.org)
  • People with refractive error frequently have blurry vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vision issues are often the main reason a person seeks the services of eye doctor , but what does it really mean when we're told that our vision is blurry because we have a refractive error? (allaboutvision.com)
  • Ninety-three individuals (182 eyes) with varying amounts of refractive error were included in this study and divided into six groups according to their spherical equivalent. (ovid.com)
  • Conclusions: Treatment of intermittent exotropia with overcorrecting minus lens did not induce refractive errors changes, even considering age, treatment period, initial spherical equivalent and overcorrection magnitude used. (elsevier.com)
  • The invention involves a full analysis of the problems in objectively measuring refractive error of the eye and an understanding of the disadvantages of the prior art attempts to solve the problems. (google.com)
  • This process objectively measures the refractive error of the eye. (orthoptics.ie)
  • Avoidable blindness is mainly due to uncorrected refractive errors (URE). (jcdr.net)
  • It is felt that 25% of school age children have a refractive error that would benefit from correction. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • And they felt that in addition to cataract services, it was important to look at school-going children and try and provide services for refractive errors in school-going children. (futurelearn.com)
  • To determine the age-specific prevalence of refractive errors in white and African-American preschool children. (nih.gov)
  • A small proportion of preschool children would likely benefit from refractive correction, but few have had this prescribed. (nih.gov)
  • Using published estimates of axial length change based on the prior year's refractive error (1 mm=3.00 D)3, these children would have been predicted to have shown an increase in axial length of 0.43 + 0.26 mm in the year prior to wearing NaturalVue MF. (pharmiweb.com)
  • With NaturalVue MF, the 19 children who have worn the lens for at least one year demonstrated an axial length change of 0.20 + 0.19 mm in one year, a favorable difference to what would have been expected given their high rate of refractive error change observed prior to wearing NaturalVue MF. (pharmiweb.com)
  • On average, 97% of these children showed a decrease in the amount of refractive error change, with an average decrease of 0.93D/year. (pharmiweb.com)
  • These findings do not support an association between IOP and refractive error or axial length in children. (bmj.com)
  • Considering its high prevalence and significant socioeconomic impact, refractive error has gained priority as a public health challenge, particularly in children. (iapb.org)
  • To do so, IAPB SEA, Primary eye care department of Ministry of Health , Royal Government of Bhutan carried out a nation-wide survey in school going children of Bhutan, based on WHO protocol on Refractive Error in School Children (RESC) in 2019. (iapb.org)
  • The Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC) protocol was developed by WHO in collaboration with, and under financial support from the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health and the United States of America to assess the prevalence of VI and RE worldwide, as well as to assess the effect of childhood VI due to uncorrected RE (11,12). (who.int)
  • In 2013, in the communities of Concepción and La Florida, we conducted a multicenter, multistage-sampling, cross-sectional study employing methods used by the Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC) survey. (scielosp.org)
  • Refractive error and patterns of spectacle use in 12-year-old Australian children. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Refractive Error in a Sample of Black High School Children in South Africa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, the age-of-onset of association between genetic variants at these 39 loci and refractive error was investigated in 5200 children assessed longitudinally across ages 7-15 years, along with gene-environment interactions involving the major environmental risk-factors, nearwork and time outdoors. (elsevier.com)
  • The refractive error was measured by static retinoscopy and subjective refraction. (hindawi.com)
  • Mohindra's dark room retinoscopy technique was used to determine refractive error. (pacificu.edu)
  • At higher levels of refractive error the results are consistently worse and vary more among the methods. (sbu.se)
  • It can be treated for its refractive error by various methods and the process can be arrested by cross linking method. (justanswer.com)