An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The position or attitude of the body.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.
A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
The act of dilating.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
Sudden occurrence of BRADYCARDIA or HEART ARREST induced by manipulations of the MAXILLARY NERVE AND MANDIBULAR NERVE during a craniomaxillofacial or oral surgery. It is the maxillary and mandibular variants of OCULOCARDIAC REFLEX.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.

Receptor mechanisms underlying heterogenic reflexes among the triceps surae muscles of the cat. (1/474)

The soleus (S), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles of the cat are interlinked by rapid spinal reflex pathways. In the decerebrate state, these heterogenic reflexes are either excitatory and length dependent or inhibitory and force dependent. Mechanographic analysis was used to obtain additional evidence that the muscle spindle primary ending and the Golgi tendon organ provide the major contributions to these reflexes, respectively. The tendons of the triceps surae muscles were separated and connected to independent force transducers and servo-controlled torque motors in unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. The muscles were activated as a group using crossed-extension reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the caudal cutaneous sural nerve was used to provide a particularly strong activation of MG and decouple the forces of the triceps surae muscles. During either form of activation, the muscles were stretched either individually or in various combinations to determine the strength and characteristics of autogenic and heterogenic feedback. The corresponding force responses, including both active and passive components, were measured during the changing background tension. During activation of the entire group, the excitatory, heterogenic feedback linking the three muscles was found to be strongest onto LG and weakest onto MG, in agreement with previous results concerning the strengths of heteronymous Ia excitatory postsynaptic potentials among the triceps surae muscles. The inhibition, which is known to affect only the soleus muscle, was dependent on active contractile force and was detected essentially as rapidly as length dependent excitation. The inhibition outlasted the excitation and was blocked by intravenous strychnine. These results indicate that the excitatory and inhibitory effects are dominated by feedback from primary spindle receptors and Golgi tendon organs. The interactions between these two feedback pathways potentially can influence both the mechanical coupling between ankle and knee.  (+info)

The effects of posteroventral pallidotomy on the preparation and execution of voluntary hand and arm movements in Parkinson's disease. (2/474)

We studied the effect of posteroventral pallidotomy on movement preparation and execution in 27 parkinsonian patients using various motor tasks. Patients were evaluated after overnight withdrawal of medication before and 3 months after unilateral pallidotomy. Surgery had no effect on initiation time in unwarned simple and choice reaction time tasks, whereas movement time measured during the same tasks was improved for the contralesional hand. Movement times also improved for isometric and isotonic ballistic movements. In contrast, repetitive, distal and fine movements measured in finger-tapping and pegboard tasks were not improved after pallidotomy. Preparatory processes were investigated using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. A precued choice reaction time task suggested an enhancement of motor preparation for the contralesional hand. Similarly, movement-related cortical potentials showed an increase in the slope of the late component (NS2) when the patients performed joystick movements with the contralesional hand. However, no significant change was found for the early component (NS1) or when the patient moved the ipsilesional hand. The amplitude of the long-latency stretch reflex of the contralesional hand decreased after surgery. In summary, the data suggest that pallidotomy improved mainly the later stages of movement preparation and the execution of proximal movements with the contralesional limb. These results provide detailed quantitative data on the impact of posteroventral pallidotomy on previously described measures of upper limb akinesia in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

Altered reflex sensitivity after repeated and prolonged passive muscle stretching. (3/474)

Experiments were carried out to test the effect of prolonged and repeated passive stretching (RPS) of the triceps surae muscle on reflex sensitivity. The results demonstrated a clear deterioration of muscle function immediately after RPS. Maximal voluntary contraction, average electromyographic activity of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, and zero crossing rate of the soleus muscle (recorded from 50% maximal voluntary contraction) decreased on average by 23.2, 19.9, 16.5, and 12.2%, respectively. These changes were associated with a clear immediate reduction in the reflex sensitivity; stretch reflex peak-to-peak amplitude decreased by 84. 8%, and the ratio of the electrically induced maximal Hoffmann reflex to the maximal mass compound action potential decreased by 43. 8%. Interestingly, a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the stretch-resisting force of the measured muscles was observed. Serum creatine kinase activity stayed unaltered. This study presents evidence that the mechanism that decreases the sensitivity of short-latency reflexes can be activated because of RPS. The origin of this system seems to be a reduction in the activity of the large-diameter afferents, resulting from the reduced sensitivity of the muscle spindles to repeated stretch.  (+info)

Reduced reflex sensitivity persists several days after long-lasting stretch-shortening cycle exercise. (4/474)

The mechanisms related to the acute and delayed secondary impairment of the stretch reflex function were investigated after long-lasting stretch-shortening cycle exercise. The results demonstrated a clear deterioration in muscle function immediately after fatigue, which was accompanied by a clear reduction in active and passive reflex sensitivity. For active and passive stretch reflexes, this reduction was biphasic (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). However, for the ratio of the electrically induced maximal Hoffmann reflex to the maximal mass compound action potential, only one significant reduction was seen immediately after fatigue (71.2%, P < 0.01). A similar significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the stretch-resisting force of the muscle was also detected. Clear increases were found in the indirect markers of muscle damage (serum creatine kinese activity and skeletal troponin I), which could imply the occurrence of ultrastructural muscle damage. It is suggested that the acute reduction in reflex sensitivity is of reflex origin and due to two active mechanisms, disfacilitation and presynaptic inhibition. However, the delayed second decline in the sensitivity of some reflex parameters may be attributable to the secondary injury, because of some inflammatory response to the muscle damage. This might emphasize the role of presynaptic inhibition via group III and IV muscle afferents.  (+info)

Effects of physical and sporting activities on balance control in elderly people. (5/474)

OBJECTIVE: Balance disorders increase with aging and raise the risk of accidental falls in the elderly. It has been suggested that the practice of physical and sporting activities (PSA) efficiently counteracts these age related disorders, reducing the risk of falling significantly. METHODS: This study, principally based on a period during which the subjects were engaged in PSA, included 65 healthy subjects, aged over 60, who were living at home. Three series of posturographic tests (static, dynamic with a single and fast upward tilt, and dynamic with slow sinusoidal oscillations) analysing the centre of foot pressure displacements or electromyographic responses were conducted to determine the effects of PSA practice on balance control. RESULTS: The major variables of postural control were best in subjects who had always practised PSA (AA group). Those who did not take part in PSA at all (II group) had the worst postural performances, whatever the test. Subjects having lately begun PSA practice (IA group) had good postural performances, close to those of the AA group, whereas the subjects who had stopped the practice of PSA at an early age (AI group) did not perform as well. Overall, the postural control in the group studied decreased in the order AA > IA > AI > II. CONCLUSIONS: The period during which PSA are practised seems to be of major importance, having a positive bearing on postural control. It seems that recent periods of practice have greater beneficial effects on the subject's postural stability than PSA practice only at an early age. These data are compatible with the fact that PSA are extremely useful for elderly people even if it has not been a lifelong habit.  (+info)

Immediate effect of respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics and diaphragmatic breathing on respiratory pattern. Respiratory Muscle Conditioning Group. (6/474)

We investigated the immediate effect of respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics (RMSG) and diaphragmatic breathing (DB) on the respiratory pattern in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sixteen patients with COPD (age, 71.3 +/- 3.9 year) were entered in the study. DB was performed for 10 minutes in supine position. For RMSG, 5 patterns were repeated 10 times each. Respiratory variables were measured in sitting position before and after both RMSG and DB, performed in random order, patient to patient, with a 20-minute washout period in-between. After RMSG, but not after DB, there was a significant overall prolongation in expiratory time. After DB, but not after RMSG, there was an overall decrease in minute ventilation, carbon dioxide output, respiratory gas exchange ratio, end tidal O2 fraction, end tidal CO2 fraction and tidal diaphragmatic volume. The results suggest that RMSG may have a beneficial effect on the respiratory pattern. On the other hand, DB may provoke post-hyperventilation hypoxemia.  (+info)

Modulation of stretch reflexes during imposed walking movements of the human ankle. (7/474)

Our overall objectives were to examine the role of peripheral afferents from the ankle in modulating stretch reflexes during imposed walking movements and to assess the mechanical consequences of this reflex activity. Specifically we sought to define the changes in the electromyographic (EMG) and mechanical responses to a stretch as a function of the phase of the step cycle. We recorded the ankle position of a normal subject walking on a treadmill at 3 km/h and used a hydraulic actuator to impose the same movements on supine subjects generating a constant level of ankle torque. Small pulse displacements, superimposed on the simulated walking movement, evoked stretch reflexes at different phases of the cycle. Three major findings resulted: 1) soleus reflex EMG responses were influenced strongly by imposed walking movements. The response amplitude was substantially smaller than that observed during steady-state conditions and was modulated throughout the step cycle. This modulation was qualitatively similar to that observed during active walking. Because central factors were held constant during the imposed walking experiments, we conclude that peripheral mechanisms were capable of both reducing the amplitude of the reflex EMG and producing its modulation throughout the movement. 2) Pulse disturbances applied from early to midstance of the imposed walking cycle generated large reflex torques, suggesting that the stretch reflex could help to resist unexpected perturbations during this phase of walking. In contrast, pulses applied during late stance and swing phase generated little reflex torque. 3) Reflex EMG and reflex torque were modulated differently throughout the imposed walking cycle. In fact, at the time when the reflex EMG response was largest, the corresponding reflex torque was negligible. Thus movement not only changes the reflex EMG but greatly modifies the mechanical output that results.  (+info)

Hyperreflexia in Guillain-Barre syndrome: relation with acute motor axonal neuropathy and anti-GM1 antibody. (8/474)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of hyperreflexia in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), and its relation with electrodiagnosis of acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), antiganglioside GM1 antibody, and Campylobacter jejuni infection. It was reported that patients with AMAN in northern China often had hyperreflexia in the recovery phase. METHODS: In 54 consecutive Japanese patients with GBS, sequential findings of tendon reflexes were reviewed. By electrodiagnostic criteria, patients were classified as having AMAN or acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). Anti-GM1 and anti-C jejuni antibodies were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Seven (13%) patients developed hyperreflexia with the spread of the myotatic reflex to other segments in the early recovery phase, one of whom already had hyperreflexia in the acute progressive phase. Of the seven patients, six had AMAN and all seven had anti-GM1 antibodies, whereas only two had anti-C jejuni antibodies. Hyperreflexia was more often found in patients with AMAN than AIDP (6/23 v 1/18, p=0. 002), and in patients with anti-GM1 antibodies than without them (7/26 v 0/28, p=0.01). Hyperreflexic patients had milder peak disabilities than patients without hyperreflexia (p=0.03). Increased motor neuron excitability in the hyperreflexic patients was supported by increased soleus H-reflex amplitudes and the appearance of H-reflexes in the small hand or foot muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperreflexia often occurs in patients with GBS especially with AMAN, anti-GM1 antibodies, and milder disease. Increased motor neuron excitability further characterises the subgroup of patients with GBS with AMAN and anti-GM1 antibodies.  (+info)

The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex) is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. It is a monosynaptic reflex which provides automatic regulation of skeletal muscle length. When a muscle lengthens, the muscle spindle is stretched and its nerve activity increases. This increases alpha motor neuron activity, causing the muscle fibers to contract and thus resist the stretching. A secondary set of neurons also causes the opposing muscle to relax. The reflex functions to maintain the muscle at a constant length. Gamma motoneurons regulate how sensitive the stretch reflex is by tightening or relaxing the fibers within the spindle. There are several theories as to what may trigger gamma motoneurons to increase the reflexs sensitivity. For example, alpha-gamma co-activation might keep the spindles taut when a muscle is contracted, preserving stretch reflex sensitivity even as the muscle fibers become shorter. Otherwise the spindles would become slack and the reflex would cease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in Stretch Reflex Responses of Syhergistic Muscles During Different Muscle Contraction Modes. AU - S, Yamamoto. AU - S., Yamamoto. AU - K., Nakagawa. AU - H., Yano. AU - Yamamoto, Shinichirou. PY - 1996/4/1. Y1 - 1996/4/1. M3 - Article. VL - 98. SP - 50. EP - 51. JO - Journal of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. JF - Journal of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acquisition of a Simple Motor Skill. T2 - Task-Dependent Adaptation and Long-Term Changes in the Human Soleus Stretch Reflex. AU - Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie. AU - Kersting, Uwe Gustav. AU - de Brito Silva, Priscila. AU - Makihara, Yukiko. AU - Arendt-Nielsen, Lars. AU - Sinkjaer, Thomas. AU - Thompson, Aiko K. PY - 2019/7/15. Y1 - 2019/7/15. N2 - Changing the H-reflex through operant conditioning leads to CNS multi-site plasticity and can affect previously learned skills. In order to further understand the mechanisms of this plasticity, we operantly conditioned the initial (M1) component of the soleus stretch reflex. Unlike the H-reflex, the stretch reflex is affected by fusimotor control, comprises several bursts of activity resulting from temporally dispersed afferent inputs, and may activate spinal motoneurons via several different spinal and supraspinal pathways. Neurologically normal participants completed six baseline sessions and 24 operant conditioning sessions in which ...
What is the Stretch Reflex ?. It is reflex contraction of muscle resulting from stimulation of the muscle spindle ( muscle receptor )It is a monosynaptic reflex Elicitation of the reflex is by muscle stretch .In case of dynamic stretch reflex we get a jerk ( twitch , brief contraction ) ,...
Gamma motoneurons regulate how sensitive the stretch reflex is by tightening or relaxing the fibers within the spindle. There are several theories as to what may trigger gamma motoneurons to increase the reflexs sensitivity. For example, alpha-gamma co-activation might keep the spindles taut when a muscle is contracted, preserving stretch reflex sensitivity even as the muscle fibers become shorter. Otherwise the spindles would become slack and the reflex would cease to function. ...
This A Stretch Reflex and a Crossed Extensor Reflex Model Lesson Plan is suitable for 10th - 12th Grade. Students make moving models of a stretch reflex and of a crossed extensor reflex (using common materials found a hardware or craft store) to allolw them a better understanding of how relexes work.
Psychology Definition of STRETCH REFLEX: is a muscular contraction in response to some muscular stretch in the same muscle. Read also about extensors thrust.
The stretch reflex; which is also often called the myotatic reflex, knee-jerk reflex, or deep tendon reflex, is a pre-programmed response by the body to a stretch stimulus in the muscle. When a muscle spindle is stretched an impulse is immediately sent to the spinal cord and a response to contract the muscle is received. Since the impulse only has to go to the spinal cord and back, not all the way to the brain, it is a very quick impulse. It generally occurs in 1-2 milliseconds. This is designed as a protective measure for the muscles, to prevent tearing. The muscle spindle is stretched and the impulse is also immediately received to contract the muscle, protecting it from being pulled forcefully or beyond a normal range. The synergistic muscles, those that produce the same movement, are also innervated when the stretch reflex is activated. This further strengthens the contraction and prevents injury. At the same time, the stretch reflex has an inhibitory aspect to the antagonist muscles. When ...
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This article will discuss the stretch reflex, the anatomy that underpins it as well as the clinical relevance. Learn this topic now at Kenhub.
As a muscle is stretched the muscle fibres elongate. Once the muscle fibres elongate to their maximum limit, further stretching forces the collagen fibres in the surrounding connective tissue to align themselves along the line of force. This helps to realign the disorganised fibres and is the basis behind the rehabilitation of scar tissue.. When the muscle is stretched, stretch receptors, the specialized nerve endings present in the muscles and tendons, send signals to the brain initiating the stretch reflex, a protective reflex to counter the increase in muscle length by causing it to contract. The more sudden the stretching, the stronger the stretch reflex is. This reflex maintains muscle tone and reduces the risk of injury.. When the muscle is held in a stretched position for a long time, the nerves get accustomed to the new length and this diminishes the stretch reflex, allowing for greater lengthening of the muscle.. ...
Our recent study [4] revealed that visual information relating to the body state contributes to the regulation of the stretch reflex. Our experiments showed a decrease in amplitude of the stretch-reflex response under the conditions of (1) a mismatch between visual feedback and actual movement and (2) elimination of visual feedback. These results indicate that the brain uses body representation containing visual information to regulate the stretch reflex. By changing the presentation time of the visual cursor, we also found a negative relationship between the size of the reflex response and variability of movement endpoints. This is interpreted as occurring because the stretch reflex is regulated depending on the uncertainty of body-state estimates during movement. These findings suggest that more complex brain computation underlie stretch-reflex regulation than has conventionally been thought. In the future, we aim to further elucidate the information processing in the brain that regulates the ...
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Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. We come now to another pivot in Medical Neuroscience where our focus shifts from sensation to action. Or to borrow a phrase made famous by C.S. Sherrington more than a ...
If you are suffering from back pain then the Spinal Stretch back pain relief system can help. It is recommended by doctors to relieve lower back pain and can potentially help avoid the need for surgery.
In the heart, nitric oxide (NO) is constitutively produced by the vascular and endocardial endothelium, the cardiomyocytes and the autonomic nerves. Whereas stimulation of NO release from the vascular endothelium has consistently been shown to quicken the onset of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and cause a small reduction in peak contraction, the role of myocardial NO production in regulating cardiac function appears to be more complex and controversial. Some studies have shown that non-isoform-specific inhibition of NO synthesis with L-arginine analogues has no effect on basal contraction in LV myocytes. However, others have demonstrated that stimulation of myocardial NO production can offset the increase in contraction in response to a rise in intracellular Ca(2+). Cardiac NO production is also activated by stretch and under these conditions NO has been shown to facilitate the Frank-Starling response and to contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) transients that mediates the slow increase
I am far from being an expert, but regarding hyperreflexia: What was your grading of myotatic reflexes upon tapping muscle tendon? If it was just 3+ (i.e. brisk response, without clonus) and if they were symmetric, this is still considered to be normal (and in fact a common finding in BFS patients, as few members already noted). Unless this new neuro detected some other UMN or LMN lesions (besides hyperreflexia and fasciculations), I find it highly surprising that he gave you a possible ALS diagnosis ...
Anyone else have red bumps on their stretch marks. My belly has been so itchy the last few days especially, since i cant see under my belly button I didnt notice ...
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The army has begun putting up walls of barbed wire on stretches running parallel to the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir during a major counter-insurgency drive codenamed Operation Sarp Vinash carried out from April 20 to May 18. ... , Read.. ...
When the skin is tough or sagging, the pressure or weight makes it stretch a lot more than it should. This causes damage in the connective tissue and the skin tears and eventually scars. The result is the formation of stretch marks. There are treatments that can eliminate or reduce the appearance of stretch marks. However, there are good treatments as well as bad ones. We need to apply those that are safe effective.. There are different kinds of stretch marks. There are those that are easier to treat, which are the lightly colored ones. Then there are others that are reddish, purplish or pink in color and are bumpy in texture-these are naturally more difficult to treat. There are products today that are only designed to reduce the appearance of stretch marks and make them blend in more with the rest of the skin. However, these products do not target the core problem. Creams are most effective when they contain good ingredients. Components of whats good in a solution include potent, natural ...
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Diabetes can be a great teacher and a source of wisdom, a force that propels our lives forward in deeply fulfilling ways. We just have to listen.
As a CIO, risk and compliance management is one of your key performance improvement tools.  You should make it part of your everyday routine, whether looking for risks and issues in project steering committees or reviewing the status of your software licence compliance. 
Stretch marks, or striae, develop when your skin suddenly needs to stretch beyond the limits of its natural growth rate. The middle layer of your skin breaks in places, causing the lower layers of your skin to show through. Active...
We have all heard of, seen and even fallen victim to stretch marks. Although they are unpleasant to look at, the question remains: what are stretch marks and how can they be treated? On this weeks YourCosmeticDoctor.tv video, Dr. Barry Lycka tells us all we need to know. What Are Stretch Marks? Stretch marks are…. Read More ...
We look at what stretch marks are, how they are formed, who is susceptible in getting stretch marks, what can and cant be done about them and look at certain herbs that can help prevent stretch marks and improve the appearance of formed stretch marks.
If you seek information on how to get rid of stretch marks, this hub is for you. Unsightly stretch marks can really make a person feel self-conscious about their body, and nobody wants that. Stretch marks come from the fine fibers in the outer layer...
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Treating post delivery stretch marks requires patience and dedicated efforts. Learn about the ways to treat those stretch marks during post delivery period. These tips will surely help you to reduce the pregnancy stretch marks.
The key difference between the red and the white stretch marks is that red stretch marks are young while the red ones are mature stretch marks.
Stretch marks begin as flat red lines, and they appear as slightly depressed white streaks over time. Stretch marks commonly develop with obesity and during pregnancy. Getting rid of stretch marks completely isnt possible, but there are treatments available to minimize their appearance.
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I work VERY part time. I will start doing a 6 hour shift on Saturdays. That will be my longest shift. If I feed or pump before leaving and pump even on my way home will that be OK for my supply? He is 3 months old and does NOT STTN so we dont do any long overnight stretches. So this would only be one day a week that I go a longer stretch. I dont mind pumping I just really dont like the idea of bailing on a coworker for a length of time to do so. It really isnt fair. All I have is
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Whether youre growing upwards or outwards, many men, women and teens develop annoying white or silvery stretch marks. But what causes these scars, and can you get rid of them?
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Stretch reflex[edit]. When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes ... by activating motor neurons via the stretch reflex to resist muscle stretch. ... After stroke or spinal cord injury in humans, spastic hypertonia (spastic paralysis) often develops, whereby the stretch reflex ... Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ...
Muscle spindles and the stretch reflex[edit]. The knee jerk is the popularly known stretch reflex (involuntary kick of the ... Tapping the tendon stretches the thigh muscle, which activates stretch receptors within the muscle called muscle spindles. Each ... The Slowly Adapting type 2 (SA2) mechanoreceptors, with the Ruffini corpuscle end-organ, respond to skin stretch, but have not ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ...
1999 - 2000 Cleland C, Hayward L, Rymer W (1990). "Neural mechanisms underlying the clasp-knife reflex in the cat. II. Stretch- ... Free nerve endings can detect temperature, mechanical stimuli (touch, pressure, stretch) or danger (nociception). Thus, ...
Reflexes". Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology (23rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. INVERSE STRETCH REFLEX, pp. 162-163. ISBN 978-0-07- ... This stretching deforms the terminals of the Ib afferent axon, opening stretch-sensitive cation channels. As a result, the Ib ... The autogenic inhibition reflex assists in regulating muscle contraction force. It is associated with the Ib. Tendon organs ... It provides the sensory component of the Golgi tendon reflex. The Golgi organ is not to be confused with the Golgi apparatus, ...
Further stretch activates inverse stretch reflex. The resistance to flexion suddenly collapses, and the elbow flexes. Continued ... When a joint is passively flexed, the resisting force comes from the stretch reflex (or sometimes called tendon reflex) ... However, when flexion is continued, further stretching of the triceps muscle activates an inverse stretch reflex that relaxes ... Passive flexion of elbow meets immediate resistance due to stretch reflex in the triceps muscle. ...
ISBN 978-0-321-98122-6. Davidoff RA (1992). "Skeletal muscle tone and the misunderstood stretch reflex". Neurology. 42 (5): 951 ...
This process is also called the stretch reflex. Beta motor neurons innervate intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles, with ... When a muscle is stretched, sensory neurons within the muscle spindle detect the degree of stretch and send a signal to the CNS ... muscle fibers contract so that only a small stretch is required to activate spindle sensory neurons and the stretch reflex. ... Static- These focus on Bag2 fibers and enhance stretch sensitivity. Regulatory factors of lower motor neurons Size Principle - ...
There are brisk stretch reflexes and clonus occurs in patients. Late in the disease's progression, hypnagogic myoclonus can ... It often decreases stiffness and improves quality of life and startle reflex. It is generally safe, but there are possible ...
Functionally, it modulates muscle stretch reflexes of proximal limb muscles. The cerebellar interpositus nucleus is also ...
"Reflex Training" involves dodging from opposing punches. Reviews Self-Defense Training Camp was panned by critics. IGN gave the ... "Balance Practices" involves doing yoga-style stretches. In "Self Defense Rehearsal", there are five sessions consisting of six ... ", "Self Defense Rehearsal", and "Reflex Training". In "Cardio Workout", players perform "martial arts fitness workouts", such ...
Additionally, the stretch reflexes within a limb can affect the stiffness of the limb, however these commands are not sent from ... The cocontraction of antagonistic muscles, posture of the limb, and stretch reflexes within the limb all contribute to ... Shemmell, Jonathan; Krutky, M.A.; Perreault, E.J. (2010). "Stretch sensitive reflexes as an adaptive mechanism for maintaining ... and through stretch reflexes. Muscle cocontraction (similar to muscle tone) is able to vary the stiffness of a joint by the ...
Rothwell, John C. (1980). The function of the human long-latency stretch reflex (PhD thesis). King's College London (University ...
... changes in stretch reflex (86%), including increases (80%) and decreases (6%); nausea (44%); tremor (25%); and dysmetria (16 ...
For example, consider the stretch reflex, in which stretch across a muscle is detected by a sensory receptor (e.g., muscle ... Lin, Chou-Ching K.; Crago, Patrick E. (January 2002). "Neural and Mechanical Contributions to the Stretch Reflex: A Model ... A non-conscious reaction is seen in the human proprioceptive reflex, or righting reflex-in the event that the body tilts in any ... When modeling a stretch reflex, Lin and Crago improved upon this model by adding a logarithmic nonlinearity before the Houk and ...
The sympathetic storage reflex or pelvic-to-hypo-gastric reflex is initiated when the bladder swells. Stretch receptors cause ... The somatic storage reflex or the pelvic-to-pudendal or guarding reflex is initiated when one laughs, sneezes, or coughs, which ... When the guarding reflex does not function normally, SUI occurs. Duloxetine Onuf's nucleus controls rhabdosphincter motor ... When the 5-HT and NE receptors are stimulated, the guarding reflex occurs to prevent voiding of the bladder caused by ...
They incorporated EMG in their use of a novel motorized manipulandum due to its ability to detect stretch reflex activity and ... Jobin, Annik; Levin, Mindy F. (August 2000). "Regulation of stretch reflex threshold in elbow flexors in children with cerebral ... "The role of stretch reflex threshold regulation in normal and impaired motor control". Brain Research. 657 (1-2): 23-30. doi: ... Spasticity is a velocity dependent resistance to stretch due to increases in gamma motor neuron activity The most commonly ...
Arterial baroreceptors inform reflexes about arterial blood pressure but other stretch receptors in the large veins and right ... These reflexes help regulate short-term blood pressure. The solitary nucleus in the medulla oblongata of the brain recognizes ... Reflex responses from such baroreceptor activity can trigger increases or decreases in the heart rate. Arterial baroreceptor ... These action potentials are conducted to the solitary nucleus in the central nervous system by axons and have a reflex effect ...
As these receptors are trained through continual use, stretching becomes easier. When reflexes that inhibit flexibility are ... Ballistic stretching is separate from all other forms of stretching. It does not include stretching, but rather a bouncing ... NYU on Hip injuries CMCrossroads on Stretching Mayo Clinic on Stretching How to stretch About.com on Front Splits A complete ... While most stretching does not cause injury, it is said that quick, ballistic stretching can if it is done incorrectly. If a ...
Furthermore, he established the nature of postural reflexes and their dependence on the anti-gravity stretch reflex and traced ... This can be felt as tension during stretching exercises. Schiff-Sherrington reflex Associated with Moritz Schiff and Charles ... Prior to the work of Sherrington and Adrian, it was widely accepted that reflexes occurred as isolated activity within a reflex ... the Liddell-Sherrington reflex is the tonic contraction of muscle in response to its being stretched. When a muscle lengthens ...
Others explain, "H-reflex is considered to be the electrical analogue of the stretch reflex...and the reduction" is due to a ... Massage has been shown to reduce neuromuscular excitability by measuring changes in the Hoffman's reflex (H-reflex) amplitude. ... It is based on a pseudoscientific system of zones and reflex areas that purportedly reflect an image of the body on the feet ... Goldberg J, Sullivan SJ, Seaborne DE (June 1992). "The effect of two intensities of massage on H-reflex amplitude". Physical ...
Symptoms include decreased or absent reflexes and muscle tone, weakness, or paralysis. It often occurs in the rear legs and is ... Polyneuropathy is caused by stretching or compression of nerves near bone by xanthomas, which are lipid deposits. It can cause ... Symptoms usually start between the ages of 7 and 10 weeks, and include weakness, decreased reflexes, and loss of bark. Sensory ... The symptoms include weakness of all four legs and decreased reflexes. The disease is gradually progressive. Treatment is ...
... "stretches your pectoral, or chest, muscles. From there, a stretch reflex, an involuntary contraction of your chest, helps bring ... Stretching and sprint training are used to enhance the speed of the athlete at the point of release, and subsequently, the ...
It results from lack of input from the brain that quells muscle responses to stretch reflexes. It can be treated with drugs and ... Spinal shock, loss of neural activity including reflexes below the level of injury, occurs shortly after the injury and usually ... In addition, sensation and the Achilles reflex can be disrupted. Causes include tumors, physical trauma, and ischemia. Cauda ... Spinal shock, in which reflexes are suppressed, occurs immediately after the injury and resolves largely within three months ...
Loss of involuntary control results from interruption of reflex circuits such as the tonic stretch reflex. A consequence of ... The knee-jerk reflex is an example of such a monosynaptic reflex. The most extensive input to α-MNs is from local interneurons ... These connections provide the structure for the neural circuits that underlie reflexes. There are several types of reflex ... Among their many roles, interneurons synapse on α-MNs to create more complex reflex circuitry. One type of interneuron is the ...
One factor that is thought to be related to spasticity is the stretch reflex. This reflex is important in coordinating normal ... resulting from hyper-excitability of the stretch reflex as one component of the upper motor neurone (UMN) syndrome". Spasticity ... characterised by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone) with exaggerated tendon jerks, ... increased resistance to passive stretch when moved with speed and/or while attempting to be stretched out, as compared to the ...
This allows for stretch reflex from hamstrings to help scoop the bell up, ensures upward trajectory. There are many variations ...
Damage to these cell bodies can lead to severe muscle weakness and loss of reflexes. Gamma motor neurons innervate intrafusal ... muscle fibers that control the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. They have smaller cell bodies than alpha motor ... The NTS receives cardio-respiratory inputs and affects reflex tachycardia from noxious stimulation. The LPb projects to the ...
The King Cobra wears a bodysuit made of reinforced synthetic stretch material; the torso section, helmet, and tail are made of ... Combined with his superstrength, agility, reflexes and reactions, coordination, balance, and endurance, they make him a ...
The MRO is responsible for the initiation of extension and the inhibition of flexion through a reflex like mechanism. The ... Rapid IPSPs presented at the muscle receptor organ (MRO) prevent the stretch receptor from initiating extension while they are ... They are innervated by proprioreceptors that detect the stretch in extensor muscles when the flexors are contracted. They then ... the caridoid escape reflex requires that neurons be able to complete the arduous task of synchronizing the flexion of several ...
Sulfur dioxide blocks nerve signals from the pulmonary stretch receptors and abolishes the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex. It ...
A film of medical-grade polymer (ePTFE) is stretched over a hole, essentially acting as a membrane to help absorb pressure ... When this boost occurs, an acoustic reflex mechanism triggers and acts as a defense against these sounds. This mechanism seeks ... As a result, the reflex mechanism is activated again, and the cycle continues on. This ultimately leads to fatigue. ...
The arms contain tension sensors so the octopus knows whether its arms are stretched out, but this is not sufficient for the ... which show a variety of complex reflex actions that persist even when they have no input from the brain.[45] Unlike vertebrates ... Displays are often reinforced by stretching out the animal's arms, fins or web to make it look as big and threatening as ...
pulmonary stretch receptors *Hering-Breuer reflex. Lung volumes. *VC. *FRC. *Vt. *dead space ...
... stretch receptors in the bladder wall initiate a reflex contraction that has a lower threshold than the inherent contractile ... provoking a mild mass reflex. In some instances, the voiding reflex becomes hyperactive. Bladder capacity is reduced and the ... The state of the reflex system is dependent on both a conscious signal from the brain and the firing rate of sensory fibers ... In infants, some elderly individuals, and those with neurological injury, urination may occur as a reflex. It is normal for ...
The lifeforms and substances are stretched out on a wide range, from physical matter to a pure form of spiritual being, where ... is a much lower action of the mental physical which when left to itself can only repeat the same ideas and record the reflexes ...
... and exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia), including an overactive gag reflex. An abnormal reflex commonly called Babinski's ... Physical therapy can promote functional independence[99][100] through aerobic, range of motion, and stretching exercises.[95] ... Range of motion and stretching exercises can help prevent painful spasticity and shortening (contracture) of muscles. Physical ... leading to gradual onset of weakness in the proximal arm muscles and decreased or absent reflexes. Flail leg syndrome, also ...
The opening of the upper sphincter is triggered by the swallowing reflex so that food is allowed through. The sphincter also ... range of manipulation is optimally controlled by the action of several muscles and limited in its external range by the stretch ... Stimulation of the larynx by ingested matter produces a strong cough reflex in order to protect the lungs. ...
... strength training with progressive resistive exercises and isokinetic exercises and stretching of the neck muscles.[37] While ... will correct when the examiner passively rolls the patient's head up and down as part of a test for the oculocephalic reflex. ...
Brudzinski's reflex, in which passive flexion of one knee into the abdomen leads to involuntary flexion in the opposite leg, ... and stretching of a limb that was flexed leads to contralateral extension.[11] ... The most commonly used sign (Brudzinski's neck sign) is positive when the forced flexion of the neck elicits a reflex flexion ...
Abnormal muscle tone, delayed motor development and persistence of primitive reflexes are the main early symptoms of CP.[28] ... Occupational therapy and physical therapy regimens of assisted stretching, strengthening, functional tasks, or targeted ... Cerebral palsy is characterized by abnormal muscle tone, reflexes, or motor development and coordination. The neurological ... not being able to bend the hips enough to allow the arms to stretch forward to reach and grasp food or utensils, and lack of ...
In the muscles, the muscle spindles convey information about the degree of muscle length and stretch to the central nervous ... Though this postural control is generally maintained as an unconscious reflex, the muscles responsible react to conscious ... and these membranes support muscle function both by resisting passive stretching of the tissue and by distributing forces ...
牵张感受器(英语:pulmonary stretch receptors) *赫-布反射(英语:Hering-Breuer reflex) ...
... and at other times stretching out to an orbital eccentricity of 5% (currently 1.67%). As the orbital eccentricity changes, the ...
Axons are stretched and damaged when parts of the brain of differing density slide over one another. Prognoses vary widely ... In addition to this hearing, vision, balance, and reflexes may also be assessed as an indicator of the severity of the injury.[ ...
Low pressure in the arteries, causes the opposite reflex of constriction of the arterioles, and a speeding up of the heart rate ... and measured by stretch receptors in the walls of the aortic arch and carotid sinuses at beginnings of the internal carotid ... However, since the kidneys cannot generate water, the thirst reflex is the all-important second effector mechanism of the body ... Rising pressure is detected when the walls of the arteries stretch due to an increase in blood volume. This causes heart muscle ...
Therapists may also recommend a hand splint for active use or for stretching at night. Some therapists actually make the splint ... exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and decreased endurance. ...
The amino acid sequence of any polypeptide created by a cell is in turn determined by the stretches of DNA called genes. In all ...
... and then taking a reflex catch to dismiss Inzamam-ul-Haq in the second Test at Bellerive Oval, although he only scored five and ... taking a horizontal airborne catch of Chris Cairns at full stretch. He proceeded to score 86, including a lofted drive from ...
Stretch reflexes. *upper limb: Biceps reflex C5/C6. *Brachioradialis reflex C6. *Triceps reflex C7/C8. lower limb: Patellar ... Galant reflex, or truncal incurvation reflex, is a newborn reflex, named after neurologist Johann Susmann Galant. It is ... This is one of the reflexes tested in newborns to help rule out brain damage at birth. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Galant_reflex&oldid=866025822" ...
... the tonic immobility reflex. This reflex, also known as animal hypnosis or death feigning, functions as the last line of ... The most famous of these dream stories was Jacob's dream of a ladder that stretches from Earth to Heaven. Many Christians ... especially the tonic immobility reflex), a fact that lends support to evolutionary theories claiming that dreams specialize in ...
... with the carotid body chemoreceptors being the major mediators of reflex responses to hypoxia.[32] This response does not ...
... and a negative test result would normally be a gag reflex attempting to expel the foreign object. A short report in The ... lit. 'to stretch'.[36] ...
... some may not have a strong sucking reflex. Their cries are weak, and they have difficulty waking up. Another sign of this ... Stretch marks. *Delayed motor development. NeurocognitiveEdit. Individuals with PWS are at risk of learning and attention ...
Loss of involuntary control results from interruption of reflex circuits such as the tonic stretch reflex. A consequence of ... These connections provide the structure for the neural circuits that underlie reflexes. There are several types of reflex ... The knee-jerk reflex is an example of such a monosynaptic reflex. ... Among their many roles, interneurons synapse on α-MNs to create more complex reflex circuitry. One type of interneuron is the ...
The ear canal stretches for about 1 inch (2.5 cm). The first part of the canal is surrounded by cartilage, while the second ... via the vestibulo-ocular reflex. ... ornaments have been placed to stretch and enlarge the earlobes ...
The grasp reflex allows the mother to escape danger by climbing a tree using both hands and feet.[13][39] ... Each species is confined to a stretch of the north coast between rivers which descend from the Atlas mountains to the ... The strong grip of a baby is another example.[38] It is a vestigial reflex, a remnant of the past when pre-human babies clung ...
Deep tendon reflexes (also known as a Stretch reflex) may be diminished or absent in areas innervated by a particular nerve ... Similarly, in the case of lumbosacral radiculopathy, a straight leg raise maneuver or a femoral nerve stretch test may ... part of the stabilization procedure is achieving a pain free full range of motion which can be accomplished through stretching ...
The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex), or more accurately "muscle stretch reflex", is a muscle contraction in response to ... is an example of the stretch reflex and it is used to determine the sensitivity of the stretch reflex. Reflexes can be tested ... Jaw jerk reflex (CN V) Biceps reflex C5/C6 Brachioradialis reflex C6 Extensor digitorum reflex C6/C7 Triceps reflex C6/C7 ... Like the patellar reflex, this reflex can be enhanced by the Jendrassik maneuver. Spinal control of the stretch reflex means ...
The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex) is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. It is a monosynaptic ... This reflex has the shortest latency of all spinal reflexes including the Golgi tendon reflex and reflexes mediated by pain and ... The reflex functions to maintain the muscle at a constant length. Gamma motoneurons regulate how sensitive the stretch reflex ... this particular reflex causes a contraction in the soleus-gastrocnemius group of muscles. Like the patellar reflex, this reflex ...
... stretch reflex explanation free. What is stretch reflex? Meaning of stretch reflex medical term. What does stretch reflex mean? ... Looking for online definition of stretch reflex in the Medical Dictionary? ... Synonym(s): deep tendon reflex, muscle spindle reflex, stretch reflex. stretch reflex. or myostatic reflex. the contraction of ... muscular reflex, stretch reflex. stretch reflex. n.. A reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching of an attached ...
... soleus stretch reflexes (SR/M ratio). H and stretch reflex latencies were shorter (P , 0.05), and reflex amplitudes were ... 1983) Stretch reflexes of triceps surae in patients with upper motor neuron syndromes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 46:54-60 ... Powers RK, Campbell DL, Rymer WZ (1989) Stretch reflex dynamics in spastic elbow flexor muscles. Ann Neurol 25:32-42Google ... Lower limb reflexes examined were: (1) the ratio of maximal H reflex to M response (H/M ratio), (2) the inhibition of the H ...
The Elbeco Reflex Stretch Long Sleeve Uniform Shirt provides a class A appearance with class B functionality with quality nano ... The Elbeco Reflex Stretch Long Sleeve Uniform Shirt combines Class A appearance with Class B functionality. Built with high- ... Lightweight stretch RipStop fabric with permanent Nano Fluid Repellency applied at the fiber level ...
Buy your PS By Paul Smith Reflex Super Stretch Slim Fit Denim online now at House of Fraser. Shop online or in-store for some ... PS By Paul Smith Reflex Super Stretch Slim Fit Denim*Paul Smith ...
Computer illustration showing the muscle and associated structures involved in the stretch reflex (myotatic reflex). ... myotatic reflex). The stretch reflex is a monosynaptic reflex that causes a muscle to contract in response to stretching. It ... Stretch reflex mechanism. Computer illustration showing the muscle and associated structures involved in the stretch reflex ( ... This increases alpha motor neuron activity, causing the muscle fibres to contract and thus resist the stretching. At the same ...
... myotatic reflex). The stretch reflex is a monosynaptic reflex that causes a muscle to contract in response to stretching. It ... Computer illustration showing the muscle and associated structures involved in the stretch reflex ( ... This increases alpha motor neuron activity, causing the muscle fibres to contract and thus resist the stretching. At the same ... When the muscle lengthens, the muscle spindle (centre) is stretched and its nerve activity increases. ...
Shop the PS by Paul Smith Reflex Super Stretch Slim Fit Jeans and full range of PS by Paul Smith clothing online. Fast ...
Neurophysiology- stretch reflex tests. Human Anatomy, Physiology, and Medicine. Anything human!. Moderators: honeev, Leonid, ... 1. Is a diminished or absent stretch reflex always linked to a pathological state? YES/NO. 2. Briefly explain your answer to ... 4. A patient shows the Babinski sign in their left leg but a normal plantar reflex in their right leg. With reference to a ... 3. With reference to neurophysiological basis, how is the knee jerk reflex response greater when carried out with a Jendrassik ...
... we chose to measure both the stretch reflex and the H-reflex (Hoffmann reflex). The H-reflex, which is elicited by electrical ... The stretch reflex and H-reflex differ in ways other than the involvement (or lack of involvement) of the stretch receptors of ... Stretch reflex amplitudes are expressed as the ratio of measured stretch reflex amplitude to maximum M-wave amplitude in the ... Stretch reflex amplitudes are expressed as the ratio of measured stretch reflex amplitude to maximum M-wave amplitude in the ...
This mini review discusses the nature of startle and stretch reflex interactions in human and non-human primates and the ... In their most basic form, the pathways responsible for these reflex responses are relatively simple processing units that ... Neural pathways underpinning startle reflex and limb stretch reflexes evolved independently and have served vastly different ... Neural pathways underpinning startle reflex and limb stretch reflexes evolved independently and have served vastly different ...
Stretch Reflexes from the Main Pulmonary Artery to the Systemic Circulation. RICHARD J. LEWIN, CECIL E. CROSS, P. ANDRE RIEBEN ... Stretch Reflexes from the Main Pulmonary Artery to the Systemic Circulation. RICHARD J. LEWIN, CECIL E. CROSS, P. ANDRE RIEBEN ... Stretch Reflexes from the Main Pulmonary Artery to the Systemic Circulation. RICHARD J. LEWIN, CECIL E. CROSS, P. ANDRE RIEBEN ... and by reflex systemic hypotension elicited by multiple small pulmonary emboli. The pressor reflex from the pulmonary artery to ...
... ... We present an improved in vitro model of the monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit, based on primary organotypic cell cultures. ... of circumspinal tissue we could make the in vitro system more in vivo like in the sense that it focuses on the stretch reflex ... in the cultures showing that this system has the potential to contain the complete reflex circuits. ...
Students make moving models of a stretch reflex and of a crossed extensor reflex (using common materials found a hardware or ... This A Stretch Reflex and a Crossed Extensor Reflex Model Lesson Plan is suitable for 10th - 12th Grade. ... Students make moving models of a stretch reflex and of a crossed extensor reflex (using common materials found a hardware or ... Students examine the effects of a stimulus on a reflex by changing the strength or force at which the stimulus is applied. ...
Long-latency stretch reflex and volitional EMG amplitude modulations were assessed as functions of the tracking phase. Reflex ... At these phases the reflex generated torque is opposite in direction to the volitionally generated torque and the tracking ... In the parkinsonian group, the abnormality consisted of an increased reflex activity during tracking phases in which the muscle ... Significant correlations were found between ratings of bradykinesia and the amount of abnormal reflex modulation in the wrist ...
... which affects the stretch reflex but not the H-reflex. Because the stretch reflex is related to motor function more directly ... which affects the stretch reflex but not the H-reflex. Because the stretch reflex is related to motor function more directly ... which affects the stretch reflex but not the H-reflex. Because the stretch reflex is related to motor function more directly ... which affects the stretch reflex but not the H-reflex. Because the stretch reflex is related to motor function more directly ...
Tenteromano L, Andersen JB, Sinkjær T, Thompson A. Modulation of the soleus stretch reflex during walking in people with ... Tenteromano, L., Andersen, J. B., Sinkjær, T., & Thompson, A. (2013). Modulation of the soleus stretch reflex during walking in ... Tenteromano, L, Andersen, JB, Sinkjær, T & Thompson, A 2013, Modulation of the soleus stretch reflex during walking in people ... Modulation of the soleus stretch reflex during walking in people with spasticity due to chronic incomplete spinal cord injury. ...
Isokinetic Robotic Device to Improve Test-Retest and Inter-Rater Reliability for Stretch Reflex Measurements in Stroke Patients ... Isokinetic Robotic Device to Improve Test-Retest and Inter-Rater Reliability for Stretch Reflex Measurements in Stroke Patients ...
The stretch reflexes and shortening reactions evoked in six normal subjects during reinforcement were compared with those ... Comparison of stretch reflexes and shortening reactions in activated normal subjects with those in Parkinsons disease ... It is concluded that the rigidity of Parkinsons disease is not simply an exaggeration of the stretch reflexes found in normal ... Comparison of stretch reflexes and shortening reactions in activated normal subjects with those in Parkinsons disease ...
... stretch reflex responses evoked by the dorsiflexions in an ankle ergometer were almost identical to the supposed stretch reflex ... For that purpose, frequency spectra and latencies of mechanically evoked stretch reflexes and of the EMG signal during WBV were ... The present results support the hypothesis of WBV-induced stretch reflexes. Contribution of motion artifacts to the overall EMG ... Electromyographic Activity During Whole Body Vibration: Motion Artifacts or Strech Reflex Responses?. Year: 2009 ...
Whole body vibration does not potentiate the stretch reflex. Year: 2009. Hopkins JT, Fredericks D, Guyon PW, Parker S, Gage M, ... Whole body vibration (WBV) is theorized to enhance neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to ... Subjects were 22 volunteers (age 23 +/- 2 yrs, ht 172.8 +/- 10.8 cm, body mass 68.6 +/- 12.3 kg). The stretch reflex was ... A single session WBV treatment does not affect the quadriceps stretch reflex in terms of timing or amplitude.. GID: 1715; Last ...
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Alleviation of Motor Impairments in Patients with Cerebral Palsy: Acute Effects of Whole-body Vibration on Stretch Reflex ... Alleviation of Motor Impairments in Patients with Cerebral Palsy: Acute Effects of Whole-body Vibration on Stretch Reflex ... recordings of stretch reflex (SR) activity of the triceps surae, (2) electromyography (EMG) measurements of maximal voluntary ... Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is ...
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This approach is based on the velocity-dependent of the Stretch Reflex threshold. The relevant variables, the measurement range ... Reliability of a Medical Device for Spasticity Quantification Based on the Velocity Dependence of the Stretch Reflex Threshold ... Biomedical device for spasticity quantification based on the velocity dependence of the stretch reflex threshold. ...
1. Function of the stretch reflex.. Previous research has shown that stretch reflex responses are not constant but can be ... 2. Mechanisms and functions of the stretch reflex The stretch reflex is involuntary muscle contraction induced by a sudden ... There are two responses of the stretch reflex: (1) short-latency stretch reflex generated in a spinal circuit and (2) long- ... Effect of inconsistent visual feedback on stretch reflex.. 4. Effect of uncertainty in estimating body states on stretch-reflex ...
Stretch reflex[edit]. When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes ... by activating motor neurons via the stretch reflex to resist muscle stretch. ... After stroke or spinal cord injury in humans, spastic hypertonia (spastic paralysis) often develops, whereby the stretch reflex ... Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ...
Written by Jay Stadtfeld for LiftBigEatBig.com The stretch reflex is a big component to your squat. Without it, the squat would ... None of it possible without the stretch reflex.. The stretch reflex occurs in various positions of the squat, depending on the ... The stretch reflex is a big component to your squat. Without it, the squat would be a slow, painful, grind of a lift. Perhaps ... Learn how to use the stretch reflex in your squat if you havent already, get some good footwear, and prosper forth, lifters. ...
What is erector spinae reflex? Meaning of erector spinae reflex medical term. What does erector spinae reflex mean? ... Looking for online definition of erector spinae reflex in the Medical Dictionary? erector spinae reflex explanation free. ... Moro reflex. See: Moro reflex. muscle stretch reflex. Deep tendon reflex.. myenteric reflex. Reflex caused by distention of the ... Gault reflex. See: Gault reflex. Geigel reflex. See: Geigel reflex. Gifford reflex. See: Gifford reflex. glabellar reflex. ...
  • The stretch reflexes (often called deep tendon reflexes , though not to be confused with Golgi tendon reflexes ) provide information on the integrity of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system . (wn.com)
  • Deep tendon reflexes are responses to muscle stretch. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tendon reflexes for predicting movement recovery after acute spinal cord injury in humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Miller Fisher syndrome a variant of the Guillain-Barre syndrome characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. (medcraveonline.com)
  • From the extraordinary performances of athletes to our most common everyday actions, human body movements are heavily governed by unconscious and automatic information processing of sensory-motor flow, some of which is known as a reflex. (ntt-review.jp)
  • Our resent research has demonstrated that the brain flexibly regulates stretch reflexes, using body information shaped by integrating multiple sensory cues, including vision. (ntt-review.jp)
  • There are two responses of the stretch reflex: (1) short-latency stretch reflex generated in a spinal circuit and (2) long-latency stretch reflex generated through broader neural circuits including a sensory-motor area in the cerebral cortex [2]. (ntt-review.jp)
  • For instance, it is unknown whether adjustments of the stretch reflex depend on only proprioceptive information or body states obtained by combining multiple sensory information, including vision. (ntt-review.jp)
  • The second hypothesis, on the other hand, proposes that stretch-reflex modulation depends on the body information provided by multiple sensory sources, including vision. (ntt-review.jp)
  • When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and velocity and transmit this activity to the spinal cord in the form of changes in the rate of action potentials . (wikipedia.org)
  • In a simple reflex this includes a sensory receptor, afferent or sensory neuron, reflex center in the brain or spinal cord, one or more efferent neurons, and an effector organ. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When the muscle is stretched, they send an impulse via the sensory neurons to the relevant spinal cord segment. (kenhub.com)
  • A reflex requires sensory receptors that detect the stimulus, sensory nerve fibres that conduct the information to the central nervous system (CNS), neurons in the CNS itself, nerve fibres conducting the command away from the CNS, and the effector . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sir Charles Sherrington (1857-1952) was the first to introduce the word 'reflex', taking the view that sensory information going into the cord was reflected out again along the motor nerve fibres, analogous to a beam of light being reflected by a mirror. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We now know that this reflex response is initiated from the class of sensory receptors called muscle spindle receptors . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The study of spinal reflexes allowed early workers to deduce properties of transmission of information from the sensory nerve fibres to the motor nerve cells within the spinal cord. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the reflex arc, information entered the cord along sensory nerve fibres to elicit activity leaving the cord in motor nerve fibres but, because of the special properties of the synapse, information could not flow in the opposite direction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If reflex gain is tuned according to this sensory-weighting, we could expect an enhancement of stretch reflex. (elifesciences.org)
  • Sensory fibers in the pelvic nerve carry impulses from stretch receptors present on the wall of the urinary bladder to the spinal centre of micturition. (scribd.com)
  • REFLEXES - Sensory(Afferent)-carry messages to brain and spinal cord. (powershow.com)
  • Standard nerve conduction studies typically include motor nerve conduction, sensory nerve conduction, F waves, and H reflexes. (medscape.com)
  • Patient is presented here was a young female came with ataxia and ophthalmoplegia and unusual features of normal muscle stretch reflexes and had absent sural SNAP (Sensory Nerve Action Potential) in nerve conduction study. (medcraveonline.com)
  • These responses are often referred to short latency stretch reflexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The responses from these pathways are often termed medium or long latency stretch reflexes, because the time course is longer due to distance it needs to travel. (wikipedia.org)
  • baroreceptor reflex the reflex responses to stimulation of baroreceptors of the carotid sinus and aortic arch, regulating blood pressure by controlling heart rate, strength of heart contractions, and diameter of blood vessels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The decreased reflex latencies and increased reflex responses in the hemiparetic subjects suggested that spasticity may be related to reduced reflex thresholds. (springer.com)
  • Chan CWY (1983) Segmental versus suprasegmental contributions to long-latency stretch responses in man. (springer.com)
  • In their most basic form, the pathways responsible for these reflex responses are relatively simple processing units that produce a motoric response that is proportional to the stimulus received. (edu.au)
  • Although the responses to stretch and shortening of triceps were similar in both groups, they differed in the biceps muscle. (bmj.com)
  • Electromyographic Activity During Whole Body Vibration: Motion Artifacts or Strech Reflex Responses? (galileo-training.com)
  • The latencies of the stretch reflex responses evoked by the dorsiflexions in an ankle ergometer were almost identical to the supposed stretch reflex responses during vibration (differences of less than one millisecond). (galileo-training.com)
  • Protocols demonstrate that pathological reflex responses are reduced (spinal level), while the execution of voluntary movement (supraspinal level) is improved in regards to kinematic and neuromuscular control. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Previous research has shown that stretch reflex responses are not constant but can be modulated in response to changes in the tasks or environment [3, 5]. (ntt-review.jp)
  • The responses of muscle spindles to changes in length also play an important role in regulating the contraction of muscles , for example, by activating motor neurons via the stretch reflex to resist muscle stretch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reflexes are automatic , subconscious responses to changes within or outside the body. (kenhub.com)
  • With a partner, you can gauge your own reflex responses. (livestrong.com)
  • Stretch and H-reflex responses were elicited while the subjects maintained passive standing (ST) and supine (SP) postures. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vibration on the stretch reflex and, in particular, to explore the quantitative relationship between dynamic muscle responses and low-frequency vibrations. (hindawi.com)
  • Irvin M. Korr, PhD, hypothesized that sensitivity of the monosynaptic stretch reflex (ie, deep tendon reflex) plays a major role in the restriction-of-motion characteristic of somatic dysfunction, and that restoration of range of motion through osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) could be achieved by resetting of the stretch receptor gain. (jaoa.org)
  • The spindle is a stretch receptor with its own motor supply consisting of several intrafusal muscle fibres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of this reflex could indicate a possible a neurological disorder, like receptor damage or peripheral nerve disease. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • Sherrington referred to the chain of structures - receptor, conductor, and effector - as a reflex arc . (encyclopedia.com)
  • It's this whole structure right here, and this particular somatosensory receptor is a mechanoreceptor that detects stretch of skeletal muscle, so when this skeletal muscle is stretched, this receptor can detect that and send that information back to the central nervous system, through neurons. (khanacademy.org)
  • We present an improved in vitro model of the monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit, based on primary organotypic cell cultures. (ovid.com)
  • The monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit is one of the simplest circuits of the central nervous system. (wright.edu)
  • This reflex has the shortest latency of all spinal reflexes including the Golgi tendon reflex and reflexes mediated by pain and cutaneous receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are known as spinal reflexes . (kenhub.com)
  • Although simple manifestations of activity of the central nervous system , spinal reflexes are meaningful, in that each reflex subserves an obvious function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Spinal reflexes - Spinal reflexes The reflex arc The reflex arc An automatic, rapid response to an adverse stimulus. (powershow.com)
  • In addition, these receptors are components of certain spinal reflexes that are important for both clinical diagnosis as well as for a basic understanding of the principles of motor control. (tmc.edu)
  • As discussed below, spinal reflexes can be modulated by higher levels of the hierarchy, and thus a hyperactive or hypoactive stretch reflex is an important clinical sign to localize neurological damage. (tmc.edu)
  • The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex), or more accurately "muscle stretch reflex", is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • this particular reflex causes a contraction in the soleus-gastrocnemius group of muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • acoustic reflex contraction of the stapedius muscle in response to intense sound. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • anal reflex contraction of the anal sphincter on irritation of the anal skin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The stretch reflex is involuntary muscle contraction induced by a sudden passive muscle extension. (ntt-review.jp)
  • This signal then causes contraction of the stretched muscles after it is instantaneously processed by specific brain areas. (ntt-review.jp)
  • Importantly, even the long-latency stretch reflex generates muscle contraction in quite a short time of 50 ms from the stimulus onset, which is shorter than the response latency of voluntary reactions (100-150 ms). Accordingly, stretch reflexes enable us to react and compensate for postural changes more quickly than the fastest voluntary movements. (ntt-review.jp)
  • a reflex characterized by contraction of the sacrospinalis and other back muscles when the overlying skin is stimulated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The stretch reflex is the contraction of a muscle that occurs in response to its stretch. (kenhub.com)
  • When a stretch reflex is activated, it not only causes contraction of the synergistic muscles, but also caused relaxation i.e. has an inhibitory effect on the antagonist muscles. (kenhub.com)
  • The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex) is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the Gamma motoneurons regulate how sensitive the stretch reflex is by tightening or relaxing the fibers within the spindle. (medove-pernicky.com)
  • Simple reflexes such as stretch reflex require coordinated Efferent axons Activation of gamma MN during active muscle contraction enables Also, the reflex can produce an opposite effect in the Other descending pathway provides. (medove-pernicky.com)
  • is a muscular contraction in response to some muscular stretch in the same muscle. (psychologydictionary.org)
  • Thus, when a muscle spindle is stretched and the stretch reflex is activated, the opposing muscle group must be inhibited to prevent it from working against the resulting contraction of the homonymous muscle (Figure 2.2). (tmc.edu)
  • This stretching is followed by reflex contraction. (medscape.com)
  • A second contraction in the initially stretched piriformis muscle occurs when the opposite foot swings forward. (medscape.com)
  • This gait pattern leads to hypertrophy, and the dual contraction is further exacerbated by the stretching of the piriformis muscle on the side of a shortened leg. (medscape.com)
  • Achilles reflex ankle jerk . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To test Korr's hypothesis in the context of Achilles tendinitis, examining whether OMT applied to patients with Achilles tendinitis reduces the strength of the stretch reflex. (jaoa.org)
  • Amplitudes for stretch reflex and H-reflex (Hoffmann reflex) in the triceps surae muscles (the soleus together with the lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius) were measured in subjects with diagnosed Achilles tendonitis (n=16), both before and after OMT. (jaoa.org)
  • The ankle jerk reflex, also known as the Achilles reflex, occurs when the Achilles tendon is tapped while the foot is dorsiflexed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Achilles reflex checks if the S1 and S2 nerve roots are intact and could be indicative of sciatic nerve pathology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patellar reflex (knee jerk) is an example of the stretch reflex and it is used to determine the sensitivity of the stretch reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The knee jerk is an example of the simplest type of reflex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3. With reference to neurophysiological basis, how is the knee jerk reflex response greater when carried out with a Jendrassik manoeuvre at the upper arm level than when no Jendrassik manoeuvre is carried out? (biology-online.org)
  • A reflex elicited by quick, vigorous dorsiflexion of the foot while the knee is held in a flexed position, resulting in repeated clonic movement of the foot as long as it is maintained in dorsiflexion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2007/12/19· When clenching a book and doing the knee-jerk reflex test, why is the reflex more prominent? (meenampal.nl)
  • The knee-jerk reflex is a great example of the stretch reflex. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • When the doctor taps your patellar tendon just below your knee, it stretches your patellar tendon, your quadriceps tendon, and your quadriceps muscles. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • Diminished, subtle or absent reflex at the knee, known as the Erb-Westphal sign, could mean there is a problem near the vertebrae, such as a herniated disc or peripheral nerve disease. (livestrong.com)
  • a tap to the patellar tendon (just below the front of the knee) causes a reflex twitch in the quadriceps muscles (the muscle mass on the front of the thigh). (encyclopedia.com)
  • If you haven't seen this, go to a doctors office, sit on a table, and let him tap under your knee cap for that reflex. (speedendurance.com)
  • Reflecting on Reflexes - Reflecting on Reflexes How to test the knee jerk reflex: Have a partner sit with his/her legs crossed so that his leg can swing freely. (powershow.com)
  • It's called the knee-jerk reflex. (webmd.com)
  • The knee-jerk reflex is important: It helps you keep your balance. (webmd.com)
  • This is also known as the stretch reflex, the knee-jerk reflex, and the deep tendon reflex. (tmc.edu)
  • It is the same circuit that produces the knee-jerk , or stretch , reflex . (tmc.edu)
  • When the physician taps the patellar tendon with a hammer, this action causes the knee extensor muscle to stretch abruptly. (tmc.edu)
  • The postural muscles that are closely connected to the vertebral column on the opposite side will stretch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscle spindles in those muscles will detect this stretching, and the stretched muscles will contract to correct posture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in standing still, the stretch reflexes in the skeletal muscles make many tiny adjustments to keep the body erect. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The "hot stove" reflex is more complex, calling into play many different muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 He proposed that hyperactive stretch reflexes cause resistance to the stretch of dysfunctional muscles. (jaoa.org)
  • By using limb tissue as a source of muscle fibers instead of circumspinal tissue we could make the in vitro system more in vivo like in the sense that it focuses on the stretch reflex involving limb muscles. (ovid.com)
  • Reflex modulation during tracking, both in wrist flexor and extensor muscles, was found to differ significantly between parkinsonian and normal subjects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Assessment included (1) recordings of stretch reflex (SR) activity of the triceps surae, (2) electromyography (EMG) measurements of maximal voluntary muscle activation of lower limb muscles, and (3) neuromuscular activation during active range of motion (aROM). (uni-koeln.de)
  • Evolutionarily, the stretch reflex was designed as a protective measure for the muscles, in order to prevent tearing that can occur due to vigorous movement. (kenhub.com)
  • When a reflex takes place, all of the synergistic muscles (those that cause the same movement) also contract while antagonistic muscles are inhibited. (kenhub.com)
  • When the stretch reflex is activated the impulse is sent from the stretched The gamma efferent cells in the loop work to keep the muscles ready for. (medove-pernicky.com)
  • These regions are innervated by gamma (γ) efferent Stretching the muscles activates the muscle spindle. (medove-pernicky.com)
  • The stretch reflex is a function of the gamma loop , a feedback loop in our nervous system that regulates the level of tension in our muscles. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • Muscle spindles detect changes in the length of our muscles, and for this reason they're also referred to as stretch receptors. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • When one of your skeletal muscles is stretched-either by you pulling on it, someone else pulling on it, or by someone giving you a deep massage-the muscle spindles within that muscle are stretched too. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • If you suddenly lean to the right side, the postural muscles on the left side of your vertebral column are stretched. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • The stretch reflex also prevents us from tearing our muscles, tendons, and ligaments. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • Our brain is sending the voluntary message to manually stretch our muscles by pulling on them. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • But despite all our efforts, our stretch reflex is automatically kicking in, contracting our muscles to prevent us from overstretching and tearing our muscles, tendons, and ligaments. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • That's right-static stretching doesn't actually change the resting level of tension in your muscles that's being set by the gamma loop. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • Ranges and rates of pedalling movement were combined to produce two or three equivalent estimated rates of tissue stretch of the vasti muscles at each of 4, 16, 32 and 64 mm/s. (springer.com)
  • The stretch reflex threshold represents the joint angle at which antagonist muscles or motor neurons begin to contract when the affected limbs of the subject are stretched passively [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Which reflex arc prevents muscles from over-extending and helps us keep proper posture? (study.com)
  • 2. Which of the following is the type of neuron that activates muscles to contract in a reflex arc? (study.com)
  • If one is standing upright and starts to sway to the left, muscles in the legs and torso are stretched, activating the myotatic reflex to counteract the sway. (tmc.edu)
  • 1983) Stretch reflexes of triceps surae in patients with upper motor neuron syndromes. (springer.com)
  • Brunia CHM, Burke D, Delwaide PJ, et al (1973) A discussion of the methodology of the Triceps surae T- and H-reflexes. (springer.com)
  • Rabbits ' triceps surae were dissected and stretched 5 mm at the rate of 2 mm/sec using a step motor. (bvsalud.org)
  • Introduction: Individuals suffering from cerebral palsy (CP) often have involuntary, reflex-evoked muscle activity resulting in spastic hyperreflexia. (uni-koeln.de)
  • A reflex action , differently known as a reflex , is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus . (wn.com)
  • When we practice static stretching (the type of stretching traditionally taught in athletic training), the voluntary and involuntary parts of our nervous system are battling each other, trying to achieve opposite results. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • Most reflexes, however, are more complicated and include internuncial or associative neurons intercalated between afferent and efferent neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The stretch reflex can be activated by external forces such as a load placed on the muscle or internal forces i.e. the motor neurons being stimulated from within. (kenhub.com)
  • A gamma motor neuron (γ motor neuron), also called gamma motoneuron, is a type of lower Efferent stimulation of the spindle by gamma motor neurons contracts the myofibrils, of change in length and controls the static sensitivity of the stretch reflex. (medove-pernicky.com)
  • In the basic circuit of the muscle spindle stretch reflex, a type Ia fiber ( annulospiral Thus, this is a monosynaptic pathway that allows a reflex signal to return with the all the motor nerve fibers to the muscle are gamma efferent fibers rather than large, an effect called co-activation of the alpha and gamma motor neurons. (medove-pernicky.com)
  • In fact, the neurons carrying the stretch reflex messages back and forth from the spine are among the most heavily myelinated (insulated) in the body. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • Such reflexes always involve two efferent neurons (preganglionic and postganglionic). (tabers.com)
  • The reduction of stretch reflex amplitude with OMT, together with no change in H-reflex amplitude, is consistent with Korr's proprioceptive hypothesis for somatic dys-function and patient treatment. (jaoa.org)
  • Because subjects' soreness ratings also declined immediately after treatment, decreased nociceptor activity may play an additional role in somatic dysfunction, perhaps by altering stretch reflex amplitude. (jaoa.org)
  • Long-latency stretch reflex and volitional EMG amplitude modulations were assessed as functions of the tracking phase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Moreover, pressure application via a blood pressure cuff served to reduce the amplitude of the short latency component of the stretch reflex, thus allowing an estimation of the stretch reflex contribution to the EMG signal. (galileo-training.com)
  • F ((2,40)) = 1.24, p = .301), or quadriceps force (F ((2,40)) = 1.11, p = .341) A single session WBV treatment does not affect the quadriceps stretch reflex in terms of timing or amplitude. (galileo-training.com)
  • Pre-stimulus EMG, Onset, Offset and Peak-peak of reflex amplitude of the reflex were analysed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • However, there was no significant difference for the normalized reflex amplitude EMG (peak-peak / pre-stimulus-EMG) (p=0.130, p= 0.932, p=0.116). (marmara.edu.tr)
  • Furthermore, the stretch-reflex amplitude reduced with increasing elimination durations which would degrade state estimates. (elifesciences.org)
  • The results revealed that the H-reflex amplitude in the ST was smaller than that in the SP condition, which is in good agreement with previous reports. (elsevier.com)
  • The persistence, amplitude and amplitude ratio of H/M during stretching were lower than those before and after in the patients with moderately increased muscle tonus. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Are H and stretch reflexes in hemiparesis reproducible and correlated with spasticity? (springer.com)
  • As yet, there is no literature addressing the reproducibility of the existing barrage of clinical evaluations of spasticity and reflex measurement. (springer.com)
  • After delineating the differences in spasticity scores and reflex functions between spastic and normal states, the aims of this study were to examine the reliability of these measurements in hemiparetic subjects, and the correlation between altered reflex functions and clinically measured spasticity. (springer.com)
  • However, results of the correlational study indicated that the severity of spasticity may not be fully described by static reflex measurements alone. (springer.com)
  • Burke D, Lance JW (1973) Studies of the reflex effects of primary and secondary spindle endings in spasticity. (springer.com)
  • Chan CWY, Levin MF (1990) Relief of spasticity by TENS is associated with improvement in reflex and voluntary motor functions. (springer.com)
  • Reliability of a Medical Device for Spasticity Quantification Based on the Velocity Dependence of the Stretch Reflex Threshold , Trabalho apresentado em ETFA'2011 - IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation, In Proceedings of ETFA'2011 - IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation, Toulouse, 2011. (uminho.pt)
  • Accurate spasticity assessment provides an objective evaluation index for the rehabilitation treatment of patients with spasticity, and the key is detecting stretch reflex onset. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spasticity is clinically manifested by an increase in passive stretching resistance, i.e., an increase in muscle tension, and resistance increases with passive stretching speed [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Spasticity is the velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone due to the exaggeration of stretch reflex. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, in patients with UMNS, hypertonia can be divided into two components: hypertonia mediated by the stretch reflex, which corresponds to spasticity, and hypertonia due to soft tissue changes, which is often referred as nonreflex hypertonia or intrinsic hypertonia. (hindawi.com)
  • Spasticity is a stretch reflex disorder, manifested clinically as an increase in muscle tone that becomes more apparent with more rapid stretching movement. (hindawi.com)
  • The core feature of spasticity is the exaggeration of stretch reflexes. (hindawi.com)
  • In 1980, Lance published this frequently cited definition: "Spasticity is a motor disorder characterised by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone) with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex, as one component of the upper motoneuron syndrome" [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The present study confirms the efficacy of cannabinoids in reducing spasticity in patients with MS, suggesting a higher sensitivity and specificity of the stretch reflex compared with other measures. (cannabis-med.org)
  • Computer illustration showing the muscle and associated structures involved in the stretch reflex (myotatic reflex). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The stretch reflex is also referred to as the deep tendon reflex or myotatic reflex . (kenhub.com)
  • What is the Stretch Reflex (Myotatic Reflex)? (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • Unfortunately, stretching usually doesn't accomplish much, mainly due to the myotatic reflex, more commonly referred to as the stretch reflex. (somaticmovementcenter.com)
  • The myotatic reflex is illustrated in Figure 2.1. (tmc.edu)
  • A major role of the myotatic reflex is the maintenance of posture. (tmc.edu)
  • The lower levels of the hierarchy implement the command with such mechanisms as the myotatic reflex, freeing the higher levels to perform other tasks such as planning the next sequence of movements. (tmc.edu)
  • The myotatic reflex is an important clinical reflex. (tmc.edu)
  • This stretch activates the myotatic reflex, causing an extension of the lower leg. (tmc.edu)
  • The myotatic reflex is initiated by the muscle spindle, not the Golgi tendon organ. (tmc.edu)
  • When a muscle lengthens, the muscle spindle is stretched and its nerve activity increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve pathway of a simple reflex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is concluded that the rigidity of Parkinson's disease is not simply an exaggeration of the stretch reflexes found in normal man but differs in that the effects of flexor reflex afferent nerve fibres are submerged by group Ia afferent activity, and that some long-loop reflex pathways are no longer operative in Parkinson's disease. (bmj.com)
  • Any reflex produced by stimulation of the auditory nerve, esp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The radial nerve reflex is located at the forearm. (livestrong.com)
  • The forearm reflex is known as the radial nerve reflex, or the extensor digitorum reflex, named after the muscle that runs from the elbow down the forearm to the wrist. (livestrong.com)
  • A latent, or abnormal, reflex could indicate pathology of the radial nerve. (livestrong.com)
  • A reflex is a simple nerve circuit. (encyclopedia.com)
  • reflexes The term 'reflex' was first used to describe an automatic, almost immediate movement in response to a stimulus, involving a nerve circuit that traverses the spinal cord . (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is a type of stretch reflex that tests the function of the gastrocnemius muscle and the nerve that supplies it. (wikipedia.org)
  • SEPs from Cz', referenced to Fpz' (2 cm caudal to Cz and Fpz, respectively, according to the International 10-20 System), along with soleus H-reflexes were elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa. (springer.com)
  • Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of inhibiting the stretch reflex of the soleus muscle by a conditioning stimulus applied to the deep peroneal nerve in spastic stroke participants during the early swing phase of gait. (utwente.nl)
  • Materials and Methods: This study investigated the effect of an electrical conditioning stimulus applied to the deep peroneal nerve on the magnitude at the peak of the soleus stretch reflex in the early swing phase of gait in six spastic stroke participants. (utwente.nl)
  • Conclusions: It is concluded that the inhibition of the soleus stretch reflex with an electrical conditioning stimulus applied to the deep peroneal nerve is feasible in the early swing phase of walking. (utwente.nl)
  • H-reflex was recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis on the affected side after stimulation of median nerve in supine position. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The stretch reflex occurs in various positions of the squat, depending on the position of the bar. (liftbigeatbig.com)
  • In a low bar squat the stretch reflex occurs when you hit parallel in the descent, even though the hamstring is engaged throughout. (liftbigeatbig.com)
  • The stretch reflex in this position typically occurs much lower in position than the low bar squat, mostly because of the lesser hamstring tension and more upright torso position. (liftbigeatbig.com)
  • The dynamic phase occurs only when the muscle is stretched e.g. when the tendon is struck with a tendon hammer. (kenhub.com)
  • Once a stretch reflex occurs, the impulse is sent from the stretched muscle spindle, to the alpha motor neuron . (kenhub.com)
  • Absence of this reflex occurs in blindness and in injuries to cranial nerves III, V, and VII. (tabers.com)
  • Neonatal reflexes : Moro reflex - occurs from birth until about 3 months of age. (powershow.com)
  • In Parkinson's disease increasing muscle stretch of biceps was associated with increasing reflex activity, whereas the reverse relationship occurred in the activated normal subjects. (bmj.com)
  • The biceps EMG during sinusoidal stretching comprised two peaks in the activated normal group, a phenomenon not seen in Parkinson's disease. (bmj.com)
  • A healthy biceps reflex causes a flex muscle. (livestrong.com)
  • The biceps reflex tests function of the nerves of the upper arm and the C5 and C6 vertebrae of the cervical spine. (livestrong.com)
  • When the heavy pitcher is placed on the tray, the increased weight stretches the biceps muscle, which results in the activation of the muscle spindle 's Ia afferents. (tmc.edu)
  • What Is The Jaw Jerk Reflex? (meenampal.nl)
  • One of the best-known reflexes is the tendon jerk reflex . (encyclopedia.com)
  • A reduction in the ankle jerk reflex may also be indicative of peripheral neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term deep tendon reflex is often wrongfully used by many health workers and students to refer to this reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being a deep tendon reflex, it is monosynaptic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the physician taps the tendon, this reflex is also referred to as the deep tendon reflex. (tmc.edu)
  • Modulation of the stretch reflex during volitional sinusoidal tracking in Parkinson's disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phase-dependent and task-dependent modulation of stretch reflexes during rhythmical hand tasks in humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thanks to modulation of the reflex system, the brain can flexibly adapt motor control to various contexts. (ntt-review.jp)
  • However, the details of the information processing underlying this functional reflex modulation remains unclear. (ntt-review.jp)
  • Movement-induced gain modulation of somatosensory potentials and soleus H-reflexes evoked from the leg II. (springer.com)
  • It can also include a polysynaptic component, as in the tonic stretch reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aggregate of lower limb reflexes was comapred between ten spastic hemiparetic and seven age-matched normal subjects. (springer.com)
  • Lower limb reflexes examined were: (1) the ratio of maximal H reflex to M response (H/M ratio), (2) the inhibition of the H reflex during vibration (H vib /H ctl ratio), and (3) soleus stretch reflexes (SR/M ratio). (springer.com)
  • Neural pathways underpinning startle reflex and limb stretch reflexes evolved independently and have served vastly different purposes. (edu.au)
  • Muscle spindles, receptors that sense changes in muscle length, detect the sudden stretch of the muscle occurring with the postural change and send that signal to the central nervous system. (ntt-review.jp)
  • Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of the reflexes initiated by several stimuli originating in widely separated receptors whose impulses follow the final common path to the effector organ and reinforce one another. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two or more reflexes initiated simultaneously in different receptors that involve the same motor center but produce opposite effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • it should alter the discharge of muscle stretch receptors. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that muscle stretch receptors play a more important role than joint or cutaneous receptors in regulating SEP gain consequent to movement. (springer.com)
  • however, the biomechanical model of stretch applies also to receptors in the hip extensors. (springer.com)
  • Reflexes - Olfactory receptors. (powershow.com)
  • Another mechanism underlying the clasp knife phenomenon could be the excitation of higher-threshold muscle receptors (groups III and IV) belonging to the flexor reflex afferents [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As an example of a spinal reflex, it results in a fast response that involves an afferent signal into the spinal cord and an efferent signal out to the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reflexly evoked activity in the alpha motoneurons is then transmitted via their efferent axons to the extrafusal fibers of the muscle, which generate force and thereby resist the stretch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the H-reflex, the stretch reflex is affected by fusimotor control, comprises several bursts of activity resulting from temporally dispersed afferent inputs, and may activate spinal motoneurons via several different spinal and supraspinal pathways. (aau.dk)
  • To better understand the individual and joint contribution of reflex pathways in locomotor tasks, we developed a neuromuscular model that describes hopping movements. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reflexes can be difficult to elicit if the person is paying too much attention to the stimulus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In animal experiments, Sherrington showed that the adequate stimulus for this reflex was a mere 0.01 mm elongation of the quadriceps muscle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This pathway is called the reflex arc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To understand this first you need to understand the stretch reflex pathway. (medove-pernicky.com)
  • Therefore, we explore the space describing the blending of the monosynaptic reflex pathway gains. (frontiersin.org)
  • The model predicted that different reflex pathway compositions selectively optimize specific hopping characteristics (e.g., performance and efficiency). (frontiersin.org)
  • We propose that the spleen influences systemic blood pressure through a reflex pathway comprising splenic afferent nerves and renal sympathetic control of renin release. (ahajournals.org)
  • Whole body vibration (WBV) is theorized to enhance neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. (galileo-training.com)
  • The stretch reflex is an example of a circuit that skips the brain , and follows the simple neural loop connecting the muscle to the spinal cord and back. (kenhub.com)
  • Slow or diminished reflexes can indicate a localized problem or a remote disease affecting neural function, likely near the spine. (livestrong.com)
  • The study by Sherrington and colleagues of the spinal reflex provided an understanding of the basis of the simplest neural circuits in the central nervous system , an understanding on which subsequent advances in neuroscience relied. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since the experimental conditions of both the stretch and H-reflex measurements were exactly the same, the results were attributed to differences in the underlying neural mechanisms of the two reflex systems: different sensitivity of the presynaptic inhibition onto the spinal motoneuron pool and/or a change in the muscle spindle sensitivity. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate excitability of spinal neural function during stretching excises in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD), H-reflex was analyzed before, during and after 1 min. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • We require reflexes to maintain our posture and trunkal balance. (kenhub.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to test whether the spinal reflex excitability of the soleus muscle is modulated as posture changes from a supine to a passive upright position. (elsevier.com)
  • The passive standing posture was accomplished by using a gait orthosis to which a custom-made device was mounted to elicit stretch reflex in the soleus muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • Reflex is one of these mechanisms, which evokes actions without conscious thought in response to stimuli such as visual or proprioceptive * inputs. (ntt-review.jp)
  • Reflexes can be tested as part of a neurological examination, often if there is an injury to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reflex tests are performed as part of a neurological exam, either a mini-exam done to quickly confirm integrity of the spinal cord or a more complete exam performed to diagnose the presence and location of spinal cord injury or neuromuscular disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Factors that may indicate neurological dysfunction: Primitive Reflexes. (powershow.com)
  • Abnormal reflex response ranges from absent or subtle, known as hyporeflexia, to overly brisk or repeating, known as hyperreflexia. (livestrong.com)
  • Parents should only be concerned when they are told of abnormal reflex test results. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To develop an experimental model that is useful to evaluate the effect of antispastic medication administered intrathecally and to titrate the intrathecal baclofen effect quantitatively by using muscle stretch reflex . (bvsalud.org)
  • After 8~12 days, muscle stretch reflex was measured before intrathecal baclofen injection (ITBI) and after ITBI 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 120 minutes. (bvsalud.org)
  • The measurement of muscle stretch reflex was available in 5 of 10 spinal cord injured rabbits . (bvsalud.org)
  • Our data proved the antispastic effect of ITBI quantitatively by using muscle stretch reflex . (bvsalud.org)
  • When the pitcher is placed on the tray, the stretch reflex activates the flexor and inhibits the extensor. (tmc.edu)
  • abstract = "Changing the H-reflex through operant conditioning leads to CNS multi-site plasticity and can affect previously learned skills. (aau.dk)
  • abstract = "An investigation was undertaken to determine whether ankle stretch reflexes vary with the task performed by a subject. (northwestern.edu)
  • Title: """"""""ADAPTIVE PLASTICITY IN THE SPINAL STRETCH REFLEX"""""""" ABSTRACT Throughout life, the nervous system acquires and maintains many different motor skills. (grantome.com)
  • The H-reflex was not significantly affected by OMT. (jaoa.org)
  • In control subjects, neither reflex was significantly affected by sham manipulative treatment. (jaoa.org)
  • The offset of stretch reflex were significantly decreased (p=0.013) causing a significantly shorter duration during CL compared to BL (p =0.018). (marmara.edu.tr)
  • The peak-peak values of stretch reflex during CL is significantly higher compared to BL (p=0.018) and AC (p=0.032). (marmara.edu.tr)
  • On the other hand, the stretch reflex was significantly larger in the ST than in the SP condition. (elsevier.com)
  • Stretch reflex responders were taking a significantly higher number of sprays of the cannabis extract Sativex, suggesting that a higher dosage would add benefit if tolerated. (cannabis-med.org)
  • It is a simple pre-programmed response by the human body in response to the muscle being passively stretched e.g. by a tendon hammer, or a sudden change in the ground surface. (kenhub.com)
  • The result is the velocity-dependent increase in resistance of a passively stretched muscle or muscle group. (hindawi.com)
  • Students make moving models of a stretch reflex and of a crossed extensor reflex (using common materials found a hardware or craft store) to allolw them a better understanding of how relexes work. (lessonplanet.com)
  • We hypothesized that: (1) SEP gain reduction correlates with both the range and the rate of movement, and (2) manipulation of range and rate of movement to achieve similar estimated rates of stretch of a leg extensor muscle group (the vasti) results in similar decreases in SEP gain. (springer.com)
  • This orthosis makes it possible to elicit stretch and H-reflexes without background muscle activity in the soleus muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • 4. A patient shows the Babinski sign in their left leg but a normal plantar reflex in their right leg. (biology-online.org)
  • Another type of reflex test is called the Babinski test, which involves gently stroking the sole of the foot to assess proper development of the spine and cerebral cortex . (encyclopedia.com)
  • When performing the Babinski reflex test, the doctor will gently stroke the outer soles of the person's feet with the mallet while checking to see whether the big toe extends out as a result. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A normal response to the Babinski reflex test depends upon the age of the person being examined. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alleviation of Motor Impairments in Patients with Cerebral Palsy: Acute Effects of Whole-body Vibration on Stretch Reflex Response, Voluntary Muscle Activation and Mobility. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is still limited. (uni-koeln.de)
  • While the reflexes above are stimulated mechanically, the term H-reflex refers to the analogous reflex stimulated electrically, and Tonic vibration reflex for those stimulated to vibration. (wn.com)
  • Stretch reflex is an important factor that influences the biomechanical response of the human body under whole-body vibration. (hindawi.com)
  • Variables including dynamic muscle force, vibration acceleration, and displacement were recorded in two conditions, with and without the stretch reflex. (hindawi.com)
  • Experimental results of this study could benefit musculoskeletal model by providing a theoretical support to build a stretch reflex model for low-frequency vibration. (hindawi.com)
  • Vibration can cause muscle lengthening and shortening, potentially resulting in increased muscle tension due to a stretch reflex [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 1. Is a diminished or absent stretch reflex always linked to a pathological state? (biology-online.org)
  • This reflex is usually absent in disk herniations at the L5-S1 level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if WBV affects the quadriceps reflex from a patellar tendon tap. (galileo-training.com)
  • The first part of the procedure is to put the quadriceps on the stretch. (bmj.com)
  • The next grant period will evaluate these hypotheses: by defining the changes in SMC activity that precede and accompany soleus H-reflex conditioning;and by showing that therapeutic interventions that change H-reflex size cause changes in SMC activity that underlie the changes in H-reflex size and the associated functional improvements, and that these functional improvements persist after H-reflex conditioning ends. (grantome.com)
  • These aims will be addressed by studying SMC neuronal activity, H-reflexes, and locomotor function before, during, and after up-conditioning or down-conditioning of the soleus H-reflex in normal rats and in rats with spinal cord lesions that create locomotor abnormalities. (grantome.com)
  • This article briefly explains the function of the stretch reflex (a reflex driven by proprioceptive inputs) then reviews our recent study [4] regarding information processing for generating the stretch reflex. (ntt-review.jp)
  • For instance, a stretch reflex provides the function of feedback control, driven by proprioceptive input. (elifesciences.org)
  • Tendons have little to do with the response, other than being responsible for mechanically transmitting the sudden stretch from the reflex hammer to the muscle spindle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults and children over the age of one-and-a-half years, the myelin sheath should be completely formed, and, as a result, all the toes will curl under (planter flexion reflex). (encyclopedia.com)