An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.
Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
The position or attitude of the body.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Sudden occurrence of BRADYCARDIA or HEART ARREST induced by manipulations of the MAXILLARY NERVE AND MANDIBULAR NERVE during a craniomaxillofacial or oral surgery. It is the maxillary and mandibular variants of OCULOCARDIAC REFLEX.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.

Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (1/3371)

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (2/3371)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex of monkeys using a precision grip. III. Responses to altered friction perturbations. (3/3371)

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the activity changes in single units of the somatosensory cortex in response to lubricating and adhesive coatings applied to a hand-held object. Three monkeys were trained to grasp an object between the thumb and index fingers and to lift and hold it stationary within a narrow position window for 1 s before release. Grip forces normal to the skin surface, load forces tangential to the skin surface, and the displacement of the object were measured on each trial. Adhesive (rosin) and lubricant (petroleum jelly) coatings were applied to the smooth metal surface of the object to alter the friction against the skin. In addition, neuronal activity evoked by force pulse-perturbations generating shear forces and slip on the skin were compared with the patterns of activity elicited by grasping and lifting the coated surfaces. Following changes in surface coatings, both monkeys modulated the rate at which grip forces normal to the skin surface and load forces tangential to the skin surface were applied during the lifting phase of the task. As a result, the ratio of the rates of change of the two forces was proportionately scaled to the surface coating properties with the more slippery surfaces, having higher ratios. This precise control of normal and tangential forces enabled the monkeys to generate adequate grip forces and prevent slip of the object. From a total of 386 single neurons recorded in the hand area of the somatosensory cortex, 92 were tested with at least 1 coating. Cell discharge changed significantly with changes in surface coating in 62 (67%) of these cells. Of these coating-related cells, 51 were tested with both an adhesive and lubricating coating, and 45 showed significant differences in activity between the untreated metal surface and either the lubricant or the adhesive coating. These cells were divided into three main groups on the basis of their response patterns. In the first group (group A), the peak discharge increased significantly when the grasped surface was covered with lubricant. These cells appeared to be selectively sensitive to slip of the object on the skin. The second group (group B) was less activated by the adhesive surface compared with either the untreated metal or the lubricated surface, and they responded mainly to variations in the force normal to the skin surface. These cells provide useful feedback for the control of grip force. The third group (group C) responded to both slips and to changes in forces tangential to the skin. Most of these cells responded with a biphasic pattern reflecting the bidirectional changes in load force as the object was first accelerated and then decelerated. One hundred sixty-eight of the 386 isolated neurons were tested with brief perturbations during the task. Of these, 147 (88%) responded to the perturbation with a significant change in activity. In most of the cells, the response to the perturbation was shorter than 100 ms with a mean latency of 44.1 +/- 16.3 (SD) ms. For each of the cell groups, the activity patterns triggered by the perturbations were consistent with the activity patterns generated during the grasping and lifting of the coated object.  (+info)

Mechanisms of capsaicin- and lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog. (4/3371)

1. Capsaicin activation of the pulmonary C fibre vanilloid receptor (VR1) evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex and reflex bronchoconstriction. Among potential endogenous ligands of C fibre afferents, lactic acid has been suggested as a promising candidate. We tested the hypotheses that (a) lactic acid behaves as a stimulant of C fibre receptors in the newborn dog to cause reflex bronchoconstriction, and (b) lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction via the same pulmonary C fibre receptor mechanism as capsaicin using the competitive capsaicin/VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. 2. Right heart injection of lactic acid caused a significant increase (47 +/- 8.0 %) in lung resistance (RL) that was atropine sensitive (reduced by 75 %; P < 0.05), consistent with reflex activation of muscarinic efferents by stimulation of C fibre afferents. 3. Infusion of the competitive capsaicin antagonist capsazepine caused an 80 % reduction (P < 0.01) in the control bronchoconstrictor response (41 +/- 8.5 % increase in RL) to right heart injections of capsaicin. The effects of capsazepine are consistent with reversible blockade of the VR1 receptor to abolish C fibre-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. 4. Lactic acid-evoked increases in RL were unaffected by VR1 blockade with capsazepine, consistent with a separate lactic acid-induced reflex mechanism. 5. We conclude that (a) putative stimulation of C fibres with lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog, (b) capsazepine reversibly antagonizes reflex bronchoconstriction elicited by right heart injection of capsaicin, presumably by attenuating capsaicin-induced activation of the C fibre 'capsaicin' receptor (VR1), and (c) capsazepine resistance of lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction indicates that lactic acid evokes reflex bronchoconstriction by a separate mechanism, possibly via the acid-sensing ionic channel.  (+info)

Modulation of the thermoregulatory sweating response to mild hyperthermia during activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. (5/3371)

1. To investigate the effect of the muscle metaboreflex on the thermoregulatory sweating response in humans, eight healthy male subjects performed sustained isometric handgrip exercise in an environmental chamber (35 C and 50 % relative humidity) at 30 or 45 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), at the end of which the blood circulation to the forearm was occluded for 120 s. The environmental conditions were such as to produce sweating by increase in skin temperature without a marked change in oesophageal temperature. 2. During circulatory occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 120 s or at 45 % MVC for 60 s, the sweating rate (SR) on the chest and forearm (hairy regions), and the mean arterial blood pressure were significantly above baseline values (P < 0.05). There were no changes from baseline values in the oesophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, or SR on the palm (hairless regions). 3. During the occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 60 s and during the occlusion alone, none of the measured parameters differed from baseline values. 4. It is concluded that, under mildly hyperthermic conditions, the thermoregulatory sweating response on the hairy regions is modulated by afferent signals from muscle metaboreceptors.  (+info)

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (6/3371)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Selective potentiation of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea. (7/3371)

BACKGROUND: The chemoreflexes are an important mechanism for regulation of both breathing and autonomic cardiovascular function. Abnormalities in chemoreflex mechanisms may be implicated in increased cardiovascular stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis that chemoreflex function is altered in patients with OSA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared ventilatory, sympathetic, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and the cold pressor test in 16 untreated normotensive patients with OSA and 12 normal control subjects matched for age and body mass index. Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was higher in the patients with OSA than in the control subjects (43+/-4 versus 21+/-3 bursts per minute; P<0. 001). During hypoxia, patients with OSA had greater increases in minute ventilation (5.8+/-0.8 versus 3.2+/-0.7 L/min; P=0.02), heart rate (10+/-1 versus 7+/-1 bpm; P=0.03), and mean arterial pressure (7+/-2 versus 0+/-2 mm Hg; P=0.001) than control subjects. Despite higher ventilation and blood pressure (both of which inhibit sympathetic activity) in OSA patients, the MSNA increase during hypoxia was similar in OSA patients and control subjects. When the sympathetic-inhibitory influence of breathing was eliminated by apnea during hypoxia, the increase in MSNA in OSA patients (106+/-20%) was greater than in control subjects (52+/-23%; P=0.04). Prolongation of R-R interval with apnea during hypoxia was also greater in OSA patients (24+/-6%) than in control subjects (7+/-5%) (P=0.04). Autonomic, ventilatory, and blood pressure responses to hypercapnia and the cold pressor test in OSA patients were not different from those observed in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is associated with a selective potentiation of autonomic, hemodynamic, and ventilatory responses to peripheral chemoreceptor activation by hypoxia.  (+info)

Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation. (8/3371)

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

Examples of abnormal reflexes include:

1. Overactive reflexes: Reflexes that are too strong or exaggerated, such as an oversensitive knee jerk reflex.
2. Underactive reflexes: Reflexes that are too weak or diminished, such as a decreased tendon reflex in the arm.
3. Delayed reflexes: Reflexes that take longer than expected to occur, such as a delayed deep tendon reflex.
4. Abnormal reflex arc: A reflex arc that is not normal or expected for the situation, such as a spastic reflex arc.
5. Reflexes that are out of proportion to the stimulus: Such as an excessive or exaggerated reflex response to a mild stimulus.
6. Reflexes that occur in the absence of a stimulus: Such as a spontaneous reflex.
7. Reflexes that do not resolve: Such as a persistent reflex.
8. Reflexes that are painful or uncomfortable: Such as an abnormal rectal reflex.

It's important to note that not all abnormal reflexes are necessarily indicative of a serious medical condition, but they should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

The term "decerebrate" comes from the Latin word "cerebrum," which means brain. In this context, the term refers to a state where the brain is significantly damaged or absent, leading to a loss of consciousness and other cognitive functions.

Some common symptoms of the decerebrate state include:

* Loss of consciousness
* Flaccid paralysis (loss of muscle tone)
* Dilated pupils
* Lack of responsiveness to stimuli
* Poor or absent reflexes
* Inability to speak or communicate

The decerebrate state can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Severe head injury
* Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Traumatic brain injury

Treatment for the decerebrate state is typically focused on addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may involve medications to control seizures, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, the decerebrate state may be a permanent condition, and individuals may require long-term care and support.

A positive Babinski reflex suggests that there may be damage to the corticospinal tracts, which carry messages from the brain to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. It is often used as a diagnostic tool to assess for brainstem or cerebral hemisphere lesions, such as those caused by stroke, traumatic brain injury, or multiple sclerosis. The Babinski reflex can also be used to monitor the progression of neurological disorders and the effectiveness of treatment interventions.

1. Anxiety or panic attacks: During an anxiety or panic attack, individuals may experience gagging sensations due to hyperventilation or increased heart rate.
2. Asthma or other respiratory conditions: Gagging can be a symptom of asthma or other respiratory conditions, such as bronchitis or pneumonia.
3. Food or object lodged in the throat: When food or an object becomes lodged in the throat, it can cause gagging sensations and lead to choking.
4. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): GERD can cause stomach acid to flow up into the esophagus, leading to gagging and heartburn.
5. Sinus infections or allergies: Infections or allergies in the sinuses can cause postnasal drip, which can lead to gagging sensations.
6. Dental problems: Tooth abscesses, dental work, or other dental issues can cause gagging sensations.
7. Neurological disorders: Certain neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis, can affect the nerves that control swallowing and lead to gagging.
8. Side effects of medication: Some medications, such as antidepressants or antipsychotics, can cause dry mouth or other side effects that lead to gagging.
9. Vomiting or nausea: Gagging can be a symptom of vomiting or nausea due to a variety of causes, such as motion sickness, viral infections, or food poisoning.

If you are experiencing persistent or severe gagging sensations, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

People with reflex epilepsy may experience a range of symptoms, including:

1. Seizures triggered by specific stimuli such as flashing lights, loud noises, or certain patterns or colors.
2. Loss of consciousness or awareness during the seizure.
3. Body stiffness or rigidity.
4. Jerky movements or twitches.
5. Altered sensation or perception.
6. Vision problems or blurred vision.
7. Hearing problems or ringing in the ears.
8. Nausea and vomiting.
9. Headaches.
10. Fatigue and exhaustion after the seizure.

Reflex epilepsy can be difficult to diagnose, as the seizures may not always be obvious or easy to identify. In some cases, people with reflex epilepsy may experience seizures that are triggered by internal stimuli, such as changes in hormone levels or stress, rather than external stimuli.

Treatment for reflex epilepsy typically involves avoiding triggers and managing stress, as well as medication to control seizures. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain that is causing the seizures. It's important for people with reflex epilepsy to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that is tailored to their specific needs and circumstances.

The symptoms of RSD can vary in severity and may include:

* Severe pain that is disproportionate to the original injury
* Swelling and inflammation in the affected limb
* Redness and warmth of the skin
* Limited mobility and stiffness in the affected joints
* Abnormalities in sensation, such as increased sensitivity to touch or temperature changes
* Weakness or wasting of muscles in the affected limb

RSD can be difficult to diagnose, as it mimics other conditions such as nerve damage or infection. Treatment options for RSD include pain medication, physical therapy, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve symptoms.

While there is no cure for RSD, early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected. It is important for individuals with RSD to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for their specific needs.

Muscle spasticity can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Increased muscle tone, leading to stiffness and rigidity
* Spasms or sudden contractions of the affected muscles
* Difficulty moving the affected limbs
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal postures or movements

There are several potential causes of muscle spasticity, including:

* Neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injuries
* Stroke or other brain injuries
* Muscle damage or inflammation
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Metabolic disorders such as hypokalemia (low potassium levels) or hyperthyroidism

Treatment options for muscle spasticity include:

* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Medications such as baclofen, tizanidine, or dantrolene to reduce muscle spasms
* Injectable medications such as botulinum toxin or phenol to destroy excess nerve fibers
* Surgery to release or sever affected nerve fibers
* Electrical stimulation therapy to improve muscle function and reduce spasticity.

It is important to note that muscle spasticity can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, maintain independence, and engage in social and recreational activities. As such, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of muscle spasticity are present to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

The term cough is used to describe a wide range of symptoms that can be caused by various conditions affecting the respiratory system. Coughs can be classified as either dry or productive, depending on whether they produce mucus or not. Dry coughs are often described as hacking, barking, or non-productive, while productive coughs are those that bring up mucus or other substances from the lungs or airways.

Causes of Cough:

There are many potential causes of cough, including:

* Upper respiratory tract infections such as the common cold and influenza
* Lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia
* Allergies, including hay fever and allergic rhinitis
* Asthma and other chronic lung conditions
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which can cause coughing due to stomach acid flowing back up into the throat
* Environmental factors such as smoke, dust, and pollution
* Medications such as ACE inhibitors and beta blockers.

Symptoms of Cough:

In addition to the characteristic forceful expulsion of air from the lungs, coughs can be accompanied by a range of other symptoms that may include:

* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and exhaustion
* Headache
* Sore throat or hoarseness
* Coughing up mucus or other substances.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cough:

The diagnosis and treatment of cough will depend on the underlying cause. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious condition that requires medical attention, such as pneumonia or asthma. In other cases, a cough may be caused by a minor infection or allergy that can be treated with over-the-counter medications and self-care measures.

Some common treatments for cough include:

* Cough suppressants such as dextromethorphan or pholcodine to relieve the urge to cough
* Expectorants such as guaifenesin to help loosen and clear mucus from the airways
* Antihistamines to reduce the severity of allergic reactions and help relieve a cough.
* Antibiotics if the cough is caused by a bacterial infection
* Inhalers and nebulizers to deliver medication directly to the lungs.

It is important to note that while cough can be a symptom of a serious condition, it is not always necessary to see a doctor for a cough. However, if you experience any of the following, you should seek medical attention:

* A persistent and severe cough that lasts for more than a few days or weeks
* A cough that worsens at night or with exertion
* Coughing up blood or mucus that is thick and yellow or greenish in color
* Shortness of breath or chest pain
* Fever, chills, or body aches that are severe or persistent.

It is also important to note that while over-the-counter medications can provide relief from symptoms, they may not address the underlying cause of the cough. If you have a persistent or severe cough, it is important to see a doctor to determine the cause and receive proper treatment.

There are several possible causes of muscle rigidity, including:

1. Injury: Muscle rigidity can be a result of direct trauma to the muscle, such as a strain or sprain.
2. Infection: Certain infections, such as Lyme disease or endocarditis, can cause muscle rigidity as a symptom.
3. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and stroke can all cause muscle rigidity due to damage to the nervous system.
4. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as steroids and certain antidepressants, can cause muscle rigidity as a side effect.
5. Metabolic disorders: Conditions such as hypocalcemia (low calcium levels) and hyperthyroidism can cause muscle rigidity.
6. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as polymyositis and dermatomyositis can cause muscle rigidity due to inflammation of the muscles.

Symptoms of muscle rigidity may include:

* Stiffness or inflexibility in the affected muscles
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Limited range of motion in the affected joints
* Muscle spasms or cramps
* Fatigue or weakness

Treatment for muscle rigidity will depend on the underlying cause. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to relax the muscles and improve mobility. Physical therapy and exercise may also be helpful in improving range of motion and strength. In other cases, treatment may involve addressing the underlying condition or disorder that is causing the muscle rigidity.

* Heart block: A condition where the electrical signals that control the heart's rhythm are blocked or delayed, leading to a slow heart rate.
* Sinus node dysfunction: A condition where the sinus node, which is responsible for setting the heart's rhythm, is not functioning properly, leading to a slow heart rate.
* Medications: Certain medications, such as beta blockers, can slow down the heart rate.
* Heart failure: In severe cases of heart failure, the heart may become so weak that it cannot pump blood effectively, leading to a slow heart rate.
* Electrolyte imbalance: An imbalance of electrolytes, such as potassium or magnesium, can affect the heart's ability to function properly and cause a slow heart rate.
* Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) or anemia, can cause bradycardia.

Bradycardia can cause symptoms such as:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain or discomfort

In some cases, bradycardia may not cause any noticeable symptoms at all.

If you suspect you have bradycardia, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. They may perform tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) or stress test to determine the cause of your slow heart rate and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options for bradycardia may include:

* Medications: Such as atropine or digoxin, to increase the heart rate.
* Pacemakers: A small device that is implanted in the chest to help regulate the heart's rhythm and increase the heart rate.
* Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT): A procedure that involves implanting a device that helps both ventricles of the heart beat together, improving the heart's pumping function.

It is important to note that bradycardia can be a symptom of an underlying condition, so it is important to address the underlying cause in order to effectively treat the bradycardia.

Example sentences:

1. The patient experienced a spasm in their leg while running, causing them to stumble and fall.
2. The doctor diagnosed the patient with muscle spasms caused by dehydration and recommended increased fluids and stretching exercises.
3. The athlete suffered from frequent leg spasms during their training, which affected their performance and required regular massage therapy to relieve the discomfort.

There are several different types of spinal cord injuries that can occur, depending on the location and severity of the damage. These include:

1. Complete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is completely severed, resulting in a loss of all sensation and function below the level of the injury.
2. Incomplete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is only partially damaged, resulting in some remaining sensation and function below the level of the injury.
3. Brown-Sequard syndrome: This is a specific type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects one side of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.
4. Conus medullaris syndrome: This is a type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects the lower part of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis in the legs and bladder dysfunction.

The symptoms of spinal cord injuries can vary depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may include:

* Loss of sensation in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Weakness or paralysis in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Difficulty walking or standing
* Difficulty with bowel and bladder function
* Numbness or tingling sensations
* Pain or pressure in the neck or back

Treatment for spinal cord injuries typically involves a combination of medical and rehabilitative therapies. Medical treatments may include:

* Immobilization of the spine to prevent further injury
* Medications to manage pain and inflammation
* Surgery to relieve compression or stabilize the spine

Rehabilitative therapies may include:

* Physical therapy to improve strength and mobility
* Occupational therapy to learn new ways of performing daily activities
* Speech therapy to improve communication skills
* Psychological counseling to cope with the emotional effects of the injury.

Overall, the prognosis for spinal cord injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the age and overall health of the individual. While some individuals may experience significant recovery, others may experience long-term or permanent impairment. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a spinal cord injury are present.

Myoclonus can be classified into several types based on its duration, frequency, and distribution. Some common types of myoclonus include:

1. Generalized myoclonus: This type affects the entire body and is often seen in conditions such as epilepsy, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis.
2. Localized myoclonus: This type affects a specific area of the body, such as the arm or leg.
3. Progressive myoclonus: This type worsens over time and is often seen in conditions such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.
4. Periodic myoclonus: This type is characterized by recurring episodes of muscle contractions and releases, often triggered by specific stimuli such as noise or stress.
5. Task-specific myoclonus: This type is seen in individuals who perform repetitive tasks, such as typing or using a computer mouse.

Myoclonus can cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and difficulty with coordination and balance. In some cases, myoclonus can also lead to falls or injuries. Treatment for myoclonus depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as anticonvulsants, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications.

Myoclonus is a relatively rare condition, but it can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. It can affect their ability to perform daily activities, participate in social events, and maintain their independence. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with myoclonus, it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and manage the condition effectively.

There are several triggers that can cause sneezing, including:

1. Allergens: Allergic reactions to pollen, dust mites, mold and other substances can cause sneezing.
2. Cold and flu viruses: These viruses can cause inflammation in the nasal passages and sinuses, leading to sneezing.
3. Sinus infections: Bacterial or fungal infections of the sinuses can cause sneezing.
4. Irritants: Exposure to irritants such as smoke, dust, and strong odors can cause sneezing.
5. Hormonal changes: Changes in hormone levels during pregnancy or menstruation can lead to increased nasal secretions and sneezing.

Sneezing can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, and saline nasal sprays. If the sneezing is persistent or accompanied by other symptoms such as a fever, facial pain or swelling, it is important to see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

In some cases, sneezing can be a sign of a more serious condition such as a sinus infection, meningitis or encephalitis. If you experience any of the following symptoms along with sneezing, seek medical attention immediately:

1. Severe headache
2. Fever over 101°F (38.3°C)
3. Facial pain or swelling
4. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
5. Nasal discharge that is thick and yellow or greenish in color
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Change in mental status or confusion

In summary, sneezing during pregnancy can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal changes, allergies, and respiratory infections. If you experience persistent or severe sneezing during pregnancy, it is important to see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, if you experience any other symptoms along with sneezing, seek medical attention immediately as these could be signs of a more serious condition.

Palmomental reflex Moro reflex, also known as the startle reflex Palmar grasp reflex Rooting reflex Sucking reflex Symmetrical ... Photic sneeze reflex Scratch reflex Sneeze Startle reflex Withdrawal reflex Crossed extensor reflex Many of these reflexes are ... Triceps reflex (C6, C7, C8) Patellar reflex or knee-jerk reflex (L2, L3, L4) Ankle jerk reflex (Achilles reflex) (S1, S2) While ... Abdominal reflexes (T6-L1) Gastrocolic reflex Anocutaneous reflex (S2-S4) Baroreflex Cough reflex Cremasteric reflex (L1-L2) ...
"Ninja Reflex Review". Archived from the original on 2008-04-05. Bemis, Greg. "Ninja Reflex G4 Review". Archived from the ... "Ninja Reflex (Wii)". 2008-03-13. Archived from the original on 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2008-09-15. "Ninja Reflex Review ... "Ninja Reflex Review". IGN. 2008-03-11. Retrieved 2008-03-15. "Ninja Reflex Review". UGO. Archived from the original on 2008-04- ... The objective of Ninja Reflex is to test players' reflexes and reaction times and challenge friends in head-to-head competition ...
... auditory reflex, middle-ear-muscle reflex (MEM reflex, MEMR), attenuation reflex, cochleostapedial reflex or intra-aural reflex ... The acoustic reflex (also known as the stapedius reflex, stapedial reflex, ... The acoustic stapedius reflex can also be recorded by means of extratympanic manometry (ETM). The stapedial reflex can be ... The acoustic reflex mostly protects against low frequency sounds. When triggered by sounds 20 dB above the reflex threshold, ...
The intensity and rhythm of the reflex will vary depending on the intensity and speed of the stimulation. The scratch reflex ... For example, a majority of dogs will exhibit the reflex when scratched with fingernails, while only some with a stronger reflex ... One feature of the scratch reflex is that supraspinal structures are not necessary for the generation of the reflex. The ... This finding is supported by earlier observations on the scratch reflex, which indicate that the scratch reflex was ...
Leary states, "The reflex manner in which human beings react to others and train others to respond to them in selective ways is ... Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A ... p 96); "They are defined as the observable, expressive units of face-to-face social behavior." These reflexes are automatic and ... The systematic estimates of a patient's repertoire of interpersonal reflexes is a key factor in functional diagnosis" (p 97). ...
The pathway taken by the nerve impulse to accomplish a reflex action is called the reflex arc. When a reflex arc in an animal ... In the case of peripheral muscle reflexes (patellar reflex, achilles reflex), brief stimulation to the muscle spindle results ... and somatic reflex arc (affecting muscles). Autonomic reflexes sometimes involve the spinal cord and some somatic reflexes are ... A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the ...
A bass reflex system (also known as a ported, vented box or reflex port) is a type of loudspeaker enclosure that uses a port ( ... However it is possible to design a bass reflex system that mostly overcomes these drawbacks; and quality bass reflex designs ... A reflex port is the distinctive feature of this popular enclosure type. The design approach enhances the reproduction of the ... If such a peak in the bass response of a bass reflex enclosure coincides with one of the resonant modes of the room, a not ...
Official website Re-Flex at AllMusic Re-Flex discography at Discogs Re-Flex at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short ... "Re-Flex Connect - Html/Flash Portal". Retrieved 24 December 2012. Back to the 80s: Interview with Paul Fishman ... " - Discografie Re-flex". Retrieved 22 August 2010. " - Discography Re-flex". ... "Re-Flex". Official Charts. Retrieved 1 August 2019. Allmusic staff. "( Re-flex - Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles )". ...
... is a type of reflex blink where the eyelids involuntarily blink in response to a sudden bright light (glare). ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Eye, Reflexes, Superior colliculus, Visual system, ... Neurological pathways for the dazzle reflex involve subcortical pathways, such as the supraoptic nucleus and superior ...
... is a bradycardia (decrease in heart rate) in response to the baroreceptor reflex, one of the body's ... In the presence of high mean arterial pressure, the baroreceptor reflex produces a reflex bradycardia as a method of decreasing ... Stimuli causing reflex bradycardia include: Oculocardiac reflex Sympathetic response to intracranial hypertension Systemically ... Acetylcholine then binds to M2 muscarinic receptors, causing the decrease in heart rate that is referred to as reflex ...
... , or truncal incurvation reflex, is a newborn reflex, named after neurologist Johann Susmann Galant. It is ... Terms for anatomical location Anatomical terms of motion Primitive reflexes Galant's reflex - v t e v t e ( ... This is one of the reflexes tested in newborns to help rule out brain damage at birth. ... Reflexes, Neonatology, All stub articles, Medical sign stubs, Pediatrics stubs). ...
... is the extension of a hemiplegic flexed arm when a quadrupedal posture is assumed by a human subject. It was ... Encyclopædia Britannica v t e (Reflexes, All stub articles, Medical sign stubs). ...
The Reflex S is a French paramotor that was designed by Dominique Cholou and produced by Reflex Paramoteur of Chatou for ... Reflex aircraft, 2000s French ultralight aircraft, Single-engined pusher aircraft, Paramotors). ...
"We named our label Reflex Records because that was our reflex to being rejected.") The label was funded by a loan from Hüsker ... Reflex Records was an American independent record label formed by the members of hardcore punk band Hüsker Dü and Terry Katzman ... In 2008, Hart revived the Reflex name to issue a three-song live CD by Hüsker Dü recorded in 1982-83 featuring their friend ... 95-. ISBN 978-1-61673-979-9. Andrew Earles (15 November 2010). ""Appendix VIII: Reflex Records Discography"". Husker Du: The ...
The oculocardiac reflex, also known as Aschner phenomenon, Aschner reflex, or Aschner-Dagnini reflex, is a decrease in pulse ... Oculocardiac reflex can be profound during eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity. However, this reflex may also occur ... This reflex has been seen to occur during many pan facial trauma surgeries due to stimulation of any of the three branches of ... The reflex is mediated by nerve connections between the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal cranial nerve via the ciliary ...
... and since 1992 has most consistently credited himself as Tony Reflex. Active in music since 1980, he has fronted several bands ... with Brandenburg now using the name Tony Reflex. Agnew and Royer left following the group's 1992 debut album, but Brandenburg ...
... is a deep tendon reflex (spindle fibre) with a monosynaptic reflex pathway in Rexed lamina IX of the spinal ... Hoffmann's reflex is often erroneously confused with Babinski's. However the two reflexes are quite different, and should not ... On the other hand, the plantar reflex is more complicated and not a deep tendon reflex, and its pathway is both more ... Usually considered a pathological reflex in a clinical setting, the Hoffmann's reflex has also been used as a measure of spinal ...
The inflammatory reflex is a neural circuit that regulates the immune response to injury and invasion. All reflexes have an ... The Inflammatory reflex has a sensory afferent arc, which is activated by cytokines, and a motor or efferent arc, which ... The net effect of the reflex is to prevent the damage caused by excessive cytokine production. Evidence from experimental ... Tracey KJ (June 2009). "Reflex control of immunity". Nat Rev Immunol. 9 (6): 418-28. doi:10.1038/nri2566. PMC 4535331. PMID ...
... or Landau reaction refers to a reflex seen in infants when held horizontally in the air in the prone position. It ... An abnormal Landau reflex may indicate hypotonia or hypertonia and may indicate a motor development issue. Mitchell, Ross G. ( ... "Landau reflex". TheFreeDictionary. Retrieved 6 July 2013. "Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. (2009)". Retrieved 11 ... v t e (Reflexes, Pediatrics, All stub articles, Pediatrics stubs). ...
A reflex hammer is a medical instrument used by practitioners to test deep tendon reflexes. Testing for reflexes is an ... It is the reflex hammer of choice of the UK neurologist. The Babinski reflex hammer was designed by Joseph Babiński in 1912 and ... Reflex hammers can also be used for chest percussion. Prior to the development of specialized reflex hammers, hammers specific ... Other reflex hammer types include the Buck, Berliner and Stookey reflex hammers. There are numerous models available from ...
... the other two being the gastroileal reflex and the gastrocolic reflex. The enterogastric reflex is stimulated by duodenal ... The enterogastric reflex is one of the three extrinsic reflexes of the gastrointestinal tract, ... Upon initiation of the reflex, the release of gastrin by G-cells in the antrum of the stomach is shut off. This in turn ... Retrieved 27 October 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "Enterogastric Reflex". Retrieved 27 ...
"Reflex, the 80s Bar for Uptown Girls... and Boys". Reflex. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. "Reflex, the 80s Bar ... "Duran Duran - The Reflex" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 28 July 2013. "Duran Duran - The Reflex". Top 40 Singles. ... "The Reflex (Dance Mix)" - 6:35 As of October 2021 "The Reflex" is the fourth most streamed Duran Duran song in the UK. Cover ... "The Reflex" (The Dance Mix-Edited) - 4:25 The Dance Mix-Edited is the same version as the regular 7". "The Reflex" - 4:20 "Make ...
The Semmelweis reflex or "Semmelweis effect" is a metaphor for the reflex-like tendency to reject new evidence or new knowledge ... In Wilson's book The Game of Life, Timothy Leary provided the following polemical definition of the Semmelweis reflex: "Mob ... While there is uncertainty regarding its origin and generally accepted use, the expression "Semmelweis Reflex" had been used by ...
... , usually referred to as the Vojta method, is the technique for the treatment of physical and mental ... Based on studies of treatments for spastic children for muscular disorders in the 1950s, a number of reflex points were ... By applying pressure to the appropriate reflex points the major muscle groups in the body are activated, breathing becomes ...
A single-lens reflex camera typically uses a mirror and prism system (hence "reflex", from the mirror's reflection) to ... A reflex camera is a camera that permits the photographer to view the image that will be seen through the lens, and therefore ... The twin-lens reflex camera provides both a viewfinder image by reflecting the image onto ground glass and an image through ... single-lens reflex camera (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles lacking sources from ...
This ear-cough reflex is also known as Arnold's reflex. Weakness of the respiratory muscles, tracheostomy, or vocal cord ... Cough Reflex: Ganong WF, "Chapter 36. ... The reflex is impaired in the person whose abdominals and respiratory muscles are weak. This problem can be caused by disease ... The cough reflex can be tested by inhaling air with nebulized 200 μmol/L capsaicin. Cough Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall ...
Complications of reflex syncope include injury due to a fall. Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, ... Reflex syncope affects at least 1 in 1,000 people per year. It is the most common type of syncope, making up more than 50% of ... Reflex syncope is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure and/or a decrease in ... Reflex syncope can occur in otherwise healthy individuals, and has many possible causes, often trivial ones such as prolonged ...
... knee jerk reflex). "The primary difference between the H-reflex and the spinal stretch reflex is that the H-reflex bypasses the ... The H-reflex (or Hoffmann's reflex) is a reflectory reaction of muscles after electrical stimulation of sensory fibers (Ia ... "H-Reflex flexes its muscles!". Retrieved 12 January 2019. "Effects of Altered Gravity on Spinal Cord Excitability (H-Reflex)". ... H-reflex is analogous to the mechanically induced spinal stretch reflex (for example, ...
18 at the Wayback Machine Ford Reflex Press Kit Materials Sound Bites from Ford Reflex Press Release Material Ford Reflex ... The Reflex features 2+1 seating, with a center-mounted rear "love seat" for 2 children or one adult, that also includes a fold- ... The Reflex concept car is similar in size and general configuration as the Mazda Kabura concept, and if they are both ordered ... Reflex's energy is stored in a new-generation lithium-ion battery pack, using the same technology found in cell phones. Ford ...
Startle reflex -- RDoC Element. Type of Element: Physiology. The following construct(s)/subconstruct(s) refer to this element ... Home , Research , Research Funded by NIMH , Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) , Units of Analysis , Physiology , Startle reflex. ...
The Moro reflex is one of many reflexes that are seen at birth. It normally goes away after 3 or 4 months. ... A reflex is a type of involuntary (without trying) response to stimulation. ... A reflex is a type of involuntary (without trying) response to stimulation. The Moro reflex is one of many reflexes that are ... An abnormal Moro reflex is most often discovered by the provider. The provider will perform a physical exam and ask about the ...
Individuals with pure reflex epilepsy have seizures almost exclusively in response to specific stimuli and do not suffer ... Reflex epilepsy is a condition in which seizures can be provoked habitually by an external stimulus or, less commonly, internal ... spontaneous seizures; alternatively, reflex seizures may coexist with spontan... ... Reflex seizures may clinically manifest as partial or generalized seizures. [1] The most common triggers for reflex seizures ...
Reflexes include not only such simple acts as chewing, swallowing, blinking, the knee jerk, and the scratch reflex, but also ... Many reflexes of placental mammals appear to be innate. They are hereditary and are a common feature of the species and often ... Built up into complex patterns of many coordinated muscular actions, reflexes form the basis of much instinctive behaviour in ... reflex, in biology, an action consisting of comparatively simple segments of behaviour that usually occur as direct and ...
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Re: Reflex II Another interesting photograph - I had another look at Reflex from 8/10/2008 - cannot decide which one I prefer ...
Quick Reflex Quiz. Download Math Games: Quick Reflex Quiz and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. ... Math Games: Quick Reflex Quiz 4+ 2 Player Problem Practice App Ellies Games, LLC Designed for iPad * * 4.5 • 187 Ratings. ...
Reflex, Babinski. Filed under: Reflex*. Excitation.. (Thomas, 1963), by Georges Ungar (page images at HathiTrust; US access ... Filed under: Reflex, Babinski*. Forme inibitorie di guerra e isterismo. (Società editrice libraria ..., 1919), by Silvio Ricca ... Browsing subject area: Reflex (Exclude extended shelves). You can also browse an alphabetical list from this subject or from: ... Reflex. See also whats at your library, or elsewhere.. Narrower term:* ...
A training regimen to adjust the bodys motor reflexes may help improve mobility for some people with incomplete spinal cord ... "People tend to think of reflexes as fixed, but in reality, normal movement requires constant fine-tuning of reflexes by the ... Wolpaw said he views reflex training, also known as reflex conditioning, as a complement to current rehabilitation practices. ... After an incomplete injury, some reflexes may be weakened while others become exaggerated. These hyperactive reflexes can cause ...
It is a rapid and robust reflex system that usually operates synergistically with the slower visual following reflexes to ... VESTIBULAR REFLEXES DURING NATURAL MOTION NIH GUIDE, Volume 22, Number 11, March 19, 1993 PA NUMBER: PA-93-066 P.T. 34 Keywords ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is, at present, the most direct and accessible probe of vestibular function. This initiative ... The face validity of assessing the vestibular reflexes during locomotion with vision fixed or during combined eye and head ...
... security by providing greater visibility and control over virtualized environments and integrates with Reflex Securitys Reflex ... Reflex Security has released Reflex Virtual Security Center (VSC). The solution is intended to enhance ... CTO of Reflex Security, in a prepared statement. The combination of the new Reflex VSC and Reflex VSA provides unprecedented ... Reflex Security has released Reflex Virtual Security Center (VSC). The solution is intended to enhance security by providing ...
So theres some variety for how the information travels in reflexes, depending on the reflex. One of the simplest reflexes ... these reflexes were called Deep Tendon Reflexes, or DTRs. Is the term Deep Tendon Reflexes now considered obsolete, having ... Now, some reflexes, like the muscle stretch reflex that Im just about to describe happen on the same side so that the afferent ... And a reflex is a response to a stimulus that doesnt require the involvement of consciousness. All reflexes have two parts. ...
These reflexes also are precisely coordinated in relation to each other. When one of the two reflexes is impaired by age or ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex adjusts our eye position to offset head movements. Both reflexes are crucial to survival. These ... In their mouse model, disabling the vestibulo-ocular reflex increases the optokinetic reflex. They measure the increase by ... The optokinetic reflex causes eyes to drift horizontally from side-to-side- for example, as we watch the scenery through a ...
The inflammatory reflex--introduction. Andersson J. Andersson J. J Intern Med. 2005 Feb;257(2):122-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365- ... Vagal tone and the inflammatory reflex. Thayer JF. Thayer JF. Cleve Clin J Med. 2009 Apr;76 Suppl 2:S23-6. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.76 ... The vagus nerve and the inflammatory reflex: wandering on a new treatment paradigm for systemic inflammation and sepsis. Huston ...
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The Moro reflex can be startling to new parents. What does it mean, and when can caregivers expect it to go away? Experts ... Moro Reflex in Babies: What To Expect During the Newborn Stage. The Moro reflex can be startling to new parents. What does it ... Why Do Babies Have a Moro Reflex? The Moro reflex may look startling to new parents-no pun intended. But its actually a good ... What To Do if Moro Reflex Is Affecting a Babys Sleep. Even though the Moro reflex is normal, it may affect a babys sleep. ...
Sick has launched the WL27-3 reflex array photoelectric sensor for reliable leading edge detection of pallets and irregularly ... Operating in reflex (retroreflective) mode results in only having to mount and power a single device, reducing costs. An ... Designed for simple light grid applications, the reflex array provides low-cost area detection in a standard sensor platform. ... 23, 2010 - Sick has launched the WL27-3 reflex array photoelectric sensor for reliable leading edge detection of pallets and ...
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... Find the nerve root (or roots) for each tendon reflex. ...
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  • When I received my medical training, years ago, these reflexes were called Deep Tendon Reflexes, or DTR's. (
  • Is the term Deep Tendon Reflexes now considered obsolete, having been replaced by the term Muscle Stretch Reflexes? (
  • Deep tendon reflexes were decreased or absent in most patients, although cases of hyperreflexia has sometimes been seen. (
  • The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is, at present, the most direct and accessible probe of vestibular function. (
  • The vestibulo-ocular reflex adjusts our eye position to offset head movements. (
  • In their mouse model, disabling the vestibulo-ocular reflex increases the optokinetic reflex. (
  • No wonder the Moro reflex is often called the "startle reflex," according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) . (
  • Is the Startle Reflex a Potential Endophenotype for Anxiety Disorders? (
  • Potentiation of the startle reflex through various strategies to elevate emotional states has been a valuable tool to identify circuits underlying fear and anxiety states. (
  • The present study sought to investigate whether the startle reflex may comprise a biomarker of anxiety risk, as well as a potential endophenotype of anxiety disorders in humans. (
  • This Program Announcement (PA), Vestibular Reflexes During Natural Motion, is related to the priority area of physical activity fitness, unintentional injuries, occupational health and safety and clinical prevention services. (
  • Oscillopsia, the illusory movement of the stationary world caused by slippage of images on the retina during head movement, results from an inability of the vestibular gaze-stabilizing reflexes to compensate for head movement. (
  • The face validity of assessing the vestibular reflexes during locomotion with vision fixed or during combined eye and head movements is apparent, since the vestibular system stabilizes gaze during active movement of the head, eyes, and body. (
  • Scope This initiative seeks to establish the fundamental knowledge base that will ultimately lead to the development and expansion of much-needed clinical test protocols for assessing the image-stabilizing vestibular reflexes during locomotion and other volitional movements, such as gait transitions. (
  • Scanziani and his colleagues sought to understand the origins of this adaptive plasticity by studying the eye movements in mice before and after disabling their vestibular ocular reflex. (
  • Spinal reflexes - controlled by local circuits of nerve cells in the spinal cord - provide a way for the body to react and move quickly without a conscious decision from the brain. (
  • H-reflexes are routinely measured for diagnosing nerve disorders and injuries, but this is the first study to examine whether consciously modifying an H-reflex can help people with spinal cord injuries. (
  • The vagus nerve and the inflammatory reflex: wandering on a new treatment paradigm for systemic inflammation and sepsis. (
  • The spinal cord can generate the hip flexor nerve activity underlying leg withdrawal (flexion reflex) and the rhythmic, alternating hip flexor and extensor activities underlying locomotion and scratching, even in the absence of brain inputs and movement-related sensory feedback. (
  • Nerve damage from health conditions, such as multiple sclerosis , or from trauma, such as a spinal cord injury , are among the causes of reflex incontinence. (
  • Vagal tone and the inflammatory reflex. (
  • Neural pathways regulate immunity and inflammation via the inflammatory reflex and specific molecular targets can be modulated by stimulating neurons. (
  • Many reflexes of placental mammals appear to be innate . (
  • Humans also exhibit a variety of innate reflexes, which are involved with the adjustment of the musculature for optimum performance of the distance receptors (i.e., eye and ear), with the orientation of parts of the body in spatial relation to the head, and with the management of the complicated acts involved in ingesting food. (
  • It has been hypothesized that a common set of spinal interneurons mediates flexion reflex and the flexion components of locomotion and scratching. (
  • Therefore, leg flexion reflex circuits likely share key spinal interneurons with locomotion and scratching networks across limbed vertebrates generally. (
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The spinal cord can generate leg withdrawal (flexion reflex), locomotion, and scratching in limbed vertebrates. (
  • It has been hypothesized that there is a common set of spinal cord neurons that produce hip flexion during flexion reflex, locomotion, and scratching based on evidence from studies of cat and human walking and turtle scratching. (
  • Collectively, these studies suggest that spinal cord neuronal networks underlying flexion reflex, multiple forms of locomotion, and scratching share key components. (
  • Therefore, the extent of sharing of circuitry between flexion reflex and locomotion is still uncertain. (
  • Interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) can be provoked by particular stimuli in people with recurrent unprovoked seizures or reflex seizures, but if occurring spontaneously, they reflect susceptibility for unprovoked seizures. (
  • [ 4 ] Some authors have described cases of myoclonic seizures as a reflex response to sudden unexpected tactile or acoustic stimuli and this clinical entity has been proposed as a separate nosographic syndrome, referred to as reflex myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (RMEI). (
  • reflex , in biology, an action consisting of comparatively simple segments of behaviour that usually occur as direct and immediate responses to particular stimuli uniquely correlated with them. (
  • in addition, reflex responses to leg cutaneous stimuli can be modified during cat and human walking and turtle scratching. (
  • The Moro reflex is one of many reflexes that are seen at birth. (
  • To see the Moro reflex, the child will be placed face up on a soft, padded surface. (
  • Absence of the Moro reflex in an infant is abnormal. (
  • A Moro reflex in an older infant, child, or adult is abnormal. (
  • An abnormal Moro reflex is most often discovered by the provider. (
  • The Moro reflex can be startling to new parents. (
  • So what exactly is the Moro reflex, and why do babies have it? (
  • Also, does the Moro reflex ever indicate a problem with development? (
  • The Moro reflex is an involuntary protective motor response that you'll see in newborns. (
  • When the Moro reflex is triggered, 'the newborn will instinctively throw their head back, stretch the arms and legs outwards, and may even let out a cry,' says Hubbard. (
  • For the visual learners, a nurse, who posts as @RegisteredNurseRN to more than 2 million YouTube subscribers, shared a video of a baby displaying the Moro reflex. (
  • Why Do Babies Have a Moro Reflex? (
  • The Moro reflex may look startling to new parents-no pun intended. (
  • The presence of a Moro reflex at birth indicates the baby's nervous system is functioning and maturing correctly,' explains Hubbard. (
  • The Moro reflex will gradually fade as the infant grows and develops more control over their muscles and movements. (
  • What Age Does the Moro Reflex Start? (
  • Expectant parents don't know it, but the baby actually develops the Moro reflex during pregnancy. (
  • The Moro reflex starts to develop in infants around 25 to 28 weeks gestation ," says Hubbard. (
  • Even though the Moro reflex is normal, it may affect a baby's sleep. (
  • Swaddling your baby can limit their movement and prevent the Moro reflex from occurring," says Ashley Elmer, DC, CACCP, a perinatal and pediatric chiropractor and doula. (
  • By gently placing your baby down and slowly lowering their body while keeping their head supported, you are reducing the sensation of falling or losing support, which can help prevent the Moro reflex," explains Elmer. (
  • The Moro reflex usually disappears on its own as your baby grows and develops, so be patient and give your baby time to outgrow this reflex," says Elmer. (
  • When Should the Moro Reflex Go Away? (
  • Eventually, your baby will outgrow the Moro reflex. (
  • It can be a red flag if a baby never has the Moro reflex or it disappears before two months. (
  • It could affect the baby's nervous system and consequently impact the Moro reflex,' says Hubbard. (
  • Weakness in the muscles or issues with the nerves responsible for the Moro reflex might result in a diminished or absent response,' says Hubbard. (
  • If the reflex is absent or abnormal, further tests may need to be done to examine the child's muscles and nerves. (
  • These hyperactive reflexes can cause spasticity (muscle stiffness) and abnormal patterns of muscle use during movement. (
  • The goal was to determine if these individuals could gain mobility by learning to suppress a spinal H-reflex, which is elicited by electrical stimulation rather than by a tendon stretch. (
  • This video explains the muscle stretch reflex. (
  • Another, reason the test was not done properly (you were not relaxed or physician did not stimulated the muscle spindle to cause the stretch reflex. (
  • The muscle spindle and the accompanying muscle stretch reflex seem like odd things to be present in our bodies. (
  • Built up into complex patterns of many coordinated muscular actions, reflexes form the basis of much instinctive behaviour in animals. (
  • A reflex is a type of involuntary (without trying) response to stimulation. (
  • Reflex epilepsy can only be diagnosed in people whose seizures occur only in the presence of particular triggers. (
  • The two reflexes occur automatically as a result of signals from the brainstem, an evolutionarily older part of the brain. (
  • Red reflex screening test is important in the early diagnosis of vision- and life-threatening eye disorders in Southeast Turkey where consanguinity is common. (
  • A control group of four participants received the stimulation but no feedback about their reflexes. (
  • A man with an incomplete spinal cord injury learns to adjust his spinal reflexes, with help from Dr. Aiko Thompson. (
  • A training regimen to adjust the body's motor reflexes may help improve mobility for some people with incomplete spinal cord injuries, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health. (
  • Those who were able to calm hyperactive reflexes - a common effect of spinal cord injuries - saw improvements in their walking. (
  • The findings offer hope that reflex conditioning can produce meaningful improvements for some patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries. (
  • These two phase-dependent effects of flexion reflex on the swim rhythm and vice versa together demonstrate that the flexion reflex spinal circuit shares key components with or has strong interactions with the swimming spinal network, as has been shown previously for cat walking and turtle scratching. (
  • We show here that flexion reflex and swimming also share key spinal cord components based on evidence from turtles. (
  • Many spinal cord interneurons are activated during the forward swimming rhythm, scratching rhythms, and flexion reflex motor patterns in turtles, consistent with shared circuitry for these three behaviors ( Berkowitz, 2010 ). (
  • Other turtle spinal interneurons, however, are activated selectively during flexion reflex motor patterns and are inhibited during both swimming and scratching rhythms ( Berkowitz, 2007 ). (
  • alternatively, reflex seizures may coexist with spontaneously occurring seizures. (
  • The fading of this reflex also indicates that the baby's nervous system is continuing to mature. (
  • Mother / infant autonomic learning starts in the uterine environment via functional Pavlovian co-conditioning that is stored as conditional reflexes within the dyad's autonomic nervous systems . (
  • The first two weeks of the study involved baseline measurements of the resulting reflex. (
  • Such findings suggest that the neural projections are the anatomical structures by which the visual cortex adjusts the plasticity of the optokinetic reflex, Scanziani said. (
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics published a policy statement in 2016 and recommended red reflex screening in infants aged 0-6 months on every visit to their general practitioner (GP) and once at age 6-12 months, 1-3 years, 4-5 years and ≥ 6 years (2). (
  • To test the visual cortex's role in the plasticity of these reflexes, the researchers applied a technique called optogenetics, which uses light to turn target cells on or off. (
  • Next, the researchers sought to learn more about how the visual cortex modulates the reflexes. (
  • Visibility and security go hand-in-hand, and today's regulatory and threat environment make that link increasingly crucial,' said Hezi Moore, CTO of Reflex Security, in a prepared statement. (
  • Both reflexes are crucial to survival. (
  • The brain can gradually enhance or suppress reflexes as needed," he said. (
  • EA wants everyone to limber up and test their Ninja Reflexes in the amusingly named "Ninja Reflex" coming next spring. (
  • Ninja Reflex uses a series of martial arts challenges to test gamers' reflexes and measure their reaction times with millisecond precision. (
  • Red reflex screening is the primary but unheeded test for the detection of vision- and life-threatening eye conditions. (
  • The red reflex test was first described by Bruckner in 1962 and has proven to be effective for detecting vision- and life-threatening ocular conditions of children and adults (1). (
  • These data highlight the additional importance of performing red reflex screening test in Turkey. (
  • Data from serum surplus testing with a second anti-HCV screening assay (sometimes referred to as reflex testing), performed to evaluate potential new HCV testing algorithms for NHANES specimens collected after the 2011-2012 cycle, are reported in this file, along with initial anti-HCV screening test and RIBA results. (
  • As the reflex ends, the infant draws its arms back to the body, elbows flexed, and then relaxes. (
  • These reflexes are preserved transnatally as autonomic socioemotional reflexes (ASRs), which can be used to monitor mother - infant relational health . (
  • More forceful eye movements indicate an increase in optokinetic reflex activity. (
  • Your baby's health care provider will check for this reflex right after birth and during well-child visits. (
  • When I was at the doctor's office, they were very confused because I had absolutely no reflex to getting hit with the mallet, and I was wondering why there was no reaction? (
  • This seemingly random reflex looked like a mix of a strange dance move combined with a surprised reaction. (
  • In addition to visually induced seizures, reflex seizures are also triggered by the activation of other primary sensory cortices, such as the primary auditory, or somatosensory cortices, but also by activation of premotor, pericingulate (SMA), and parietal lobe association cortices. (
  • Auditory difference levels as an inhibitor of driver-motor reflex time and cognition. (
  • During training, the participants were instructed to suppress a knee jerk-like reflex elicited by a small shock to the leg. (
  • To evaluate the red reflex of newborns, percentage of ocular diseases resulting in red reflex abnormality, and their relation with consanguinity in Southeast Turkey. (
  • People tend to think of reflexes as fixed, but in reality, normal movement requires constant fine-tuning of reflexes by the brain. (
  • Although the mechanism of the myotatic reflex is well known, the utility of this reflex response in identifying deficits of posture and movement remains elusive. (
  • As we rotate our heads and as the world around us moves, two ocular reflexes kick in to offset this movement and stabilize images projected onto our retinas, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of our eyes. (
  • Analysis of the clinical practice Focused on the Person, specifically the therapeutic technique of the reflex answer questioning the concept of the technique and the role of the theory, aiming at the reconfiguration of the dialectic between both. (
  • The REELL Reflex Easy Pants offer you a proven fit with comfortable cotton blend fabric. (
  • Its textile work can be seen as a breath of fresh air in the home accessories industry with standout, minimal products like the Reflex cushion made from a wool and viscose blend. (
  • How babies learn: The autonomic socioemotional reflex. (
  • These reflexes also are precisely coordinated in relation to each other. (
  • In contrast, reflex seizures represent a reproducible and time-dependent response to a specific stimulus. (
  • The combination of the new Reflex VSC and Reflex VSA provides unprecedented visibility and control over the virtual network, enabling faster, more efficient response, and easier compliance with the numerous regulatory standards that are increasingly demanding insight into virtual environments. (
  • Their motor skills and muscle tone are still developing, making the reflex response less noticeable. (
  • The functional Pavlovian co-conditioning mechanism can be exploited to change the physiological/behavioral reflex response. (
  • Any transmission block at any part of the optical pathway results in reflex abnormality that includes its absence, asymmetry, leukocoria, or nonhomogeneous reflex (1,4). (
  • It is a rapid and robust reflex system that usually operates synergistically with the slower visual following reflexes to maintain a stable image on the retina over the broad range of trajectories, velocities and frequencies of head motion performed during daily living. (
  • Reflex VSC is administered through a single visual interface and provides automation of routine activities, including security deployments, policy configuration, and event correlation, among others. (
  • Silencing the visual cortex led to a significant reduction in the activity of the optokinetic reflex, suggesting that it is the visual cortex that is involved in mediating the plasticity between the optokinetic and the vestibulo-ocular reflexes. (
  • A normal red reflex requires transparency of the tear film, cornea, aqueous humour, crystalline lens and vitreous humour. (
  • Operating in reflex (retroreflective) mode results in only having to mount and power a single device, reducing costs. (
  • Israel is the only country in the Middle East that has reported red reflex screening results, although association with consanguinity has not been reported (3). (
  • Photosensitive epilepsy is the most common type of reflex epilepsy. (
  • These improvements in speed and symmetry were not seen in three participants who were unable to suppress their reflexes, or in the control group. (
  • About 85 percent of these comments came from people who were able to control their reflexes after several weeks of training. (
  • The solution is intended to enhance security by providing greater visibility and control over virtualized environments and integrates with Reflex Security's Reflex Virtual Security Appliance (VSA), as well as with VMware's VirtualCenter. (
  • If you've ever noticed how people in an audience tend to cough after a solo musical performance ends, you've seen this ability to modify reflexes in action. (
  • A study of the temporary reflex. (
  • In our study, consanguineous marriage was found to have a significant association with red reflex abnormality (P = 0.017). (
  • The "reflex answer" it is an excellent way to show the reality of the subject to himself, of respecting his interior as something trustworthy, of value. (