An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.
Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
The position or attitude of the body.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Sudden occurrence of BRADYCARDIA or HEART ARREST induced by manipulations of the MAXILLARY NERVE AND MANDIBULAR NERVE during a craniomaxillofacial or oral surgery. It is the maxillary and mandibular variants of OCULOCARDIAC REFLEX.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.

Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (1/3371)

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (2/3371)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex of monkeys using a precision grip. III. Responses to altered friction perturbations. (3/3371)

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the activity changes in single units of the somatosensory cortex in response to lubricating and adhesive coatings applied to a hand-held object. Three monkeys were trained to grasp an object between the thumb and index fingers and to lift and hold it stationary within a narrow position window for 1 s before release. Grip forces normal to the skin surface, load forces tangential to the skin surface, and the displacement of the object were measured on each trial. Adhesive (rosin) and lubricant (petroleum jelly) coatings were applied to the smooth metal surface of the object to alter the friction against the skin. In addition, neuronal activity evoked by force pulse-perturbations generating shear forces and slip on the skin were compared with the patterns of activity elicited by grasping and lifting the coated surfaces. Following changes in surface coatings, both monkeys modulated the rate at which grip forces normal to the skin surface and load forces tangential to the skin surface were applied during the lifting phase of the task. As a result, the ratio of the rates of change of the two forces was proportionately scaled to the surface coating properties with the more slippery surfaces, having higher ratios. This precise control of normal and tangential forces enabled the monkeys to generate adequate grip forces and prevent slip of the object. From a total of 386 single neurons recorded in the hand area of the somatosensory cortex, 92 were tested with at least 1 coating. Cell discharge changed significantly with changes in surface coating in 62 (67%) of these cells. Of these coating-related cells, 51 were tested with both an adhesive and lubricating coating, and 45 showed significant differences in activity between the untreated metal surface and either the lubricant or the adhesive coating. These cells were divided into three main groups on the basis of their response patterns. In the first group (group A), the peak discharge increased significantly when the grasped surface was covered with lubricant. These cells appeared to be selectively sensitive to slip of the object on the skin. The second group (group B) was less activated by the adhesive surface compared with either the untreated metal or the lubricated surface, and they responded mainly to variations in the force normal to the skin surface. These cells provide useful feedback for the control of grip force. The third group (group C) responded to both slips and to changes in forces tangential to the skin. Most of these cells responded with a biphasic pattern reflecting the bidirectional changes in load force as the object was first accelerated and then decelerated. One hundred sixty-eight of the 386 isolated neurons were tested with brief perturbations during the task. Of these, 147 (88%) responded to the perturbation with a significant change in activity. In most of the cells, the response to the perturbation was shorter than 100 ms with a mean latency of 44.1 +/- 16.3 (SD) ms. For each of the cell groups, the activity patterns triggered by the perturbations were consistent with the activity patterns generated during the grasping and lifting of the coated object.  (+info)

Mechanisms of capsaicin- and lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog. (4/3371)

1. Capsaicin activation of the pulmonary C fibre vanilloid receptor (VR1) evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex and reflex bronchoconstriction. Among potential endogenous ligands of C fibre afferents, lactic acid has been suggested as a promising candidate. We tested the hypotheses that (a) lactic acid behaves as a stimulant of C fibre receptors in the newborn dog to cause reflex bronchoconstriction, and (b) lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction via the same pulmonary C fibre receptor mechanism as capsaicin using the competitive capsaicin/VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. 2. Right heart injection of lactic acid caused a significant increase (47 +/- 8.0 %) in lung resistance (RL) that was atropine sensitive (reduced by 75 %; P < 0.05), consistent with reflex activation of muscarinic efferents by stimulation of C fibre afferents. 3. Infusion of the competitive capsaicin antagonist capsazepine caused an 80 % reduction (P < 0.01) in the control bronchoconstrictor response (41 +/- 8.5 % increase in RL) to right heart injections of capsaicin. The effects of capsazepine are consistent with reversible blockade of the VR1 receptor to abolish C fibre-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. 4. Lactic acid-evoked increases in RL were unaffected by VR1 blockade with capsazepine, consistent with a separate lactic acid-induced reflex mechanism. 5. We conclude that (a) putative stimulation of C fibres with lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog, (b) capsazepine reversibly antagonizes reflex bronchoconstriction elicited by right heart injection of capsaicin, presumably by attenuating capsaicin-induced activation of the C fibre 'capsaicin' receptor (VR1), and (c) capsazepine resistance of lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction indicates that lactic acid evokes reflex bronchoconstriction by a separate mechanism, possibly via the acid-sensing ionic channel.  (+info)

Modulation of the thermoregulatory sweating response to mild hyperthermia during activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. (5/3371)

1. To investigate the effect of the muscle metaboreflex on the thermoregulatory sweating response in humans, eight healthy male subjects performed sustained isometric handgrip exercise in an environmental chamber (35 C and 50 % relative humidity) at 30 or 45 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), at the end of which the blood circulation to the forearm was occluded for 120 s. The environmental conditions were such as to produce sweating by increase in skin temperature without a marked change in oesophageal temperature. 2. During circulatory occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 120 s or at 45 % MVC for 60 s, the sweating rate (SR) on the chest and forearm (hairy regions), and the mean arterial blood pressure were significantly above baseline values (P < 0.05). There were no changes from baseline values in the oesophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, or SR on the palm (hairless regions). 3. During the occlusion after handgrip exercise at 30 % MVC for 60 s and during the occlusion alone, none of the measured parameters differed from baseline values. 4. It is concluded that, under mildly hyperthermic conditions, the thermoregulatory sweating response on the hairy regions is modulated by afferent signals from muscle metaboreceptors.  (+info)

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (6/3371)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Selective potentiation of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea. (7/3371)

BACKGROUND: The chemoreflexes are an important mechanism for regulation of both breathing and autonomic cardiovascular function. Abnormalities in chemoreflex mechanisms may be implicated in increased cardiovascular stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis that chemoreflex function is altered in patients with OSA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared ventilatory, sympathetic, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and the cold pressor test in 16 untreated normotensive patients with OSA and 12 normal control subjects matched for age and body mass index. Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was higher in the patients with OSA than in the control subjects (43+/-4 versus 21+/-3 bursts per minute; P<0. 001). During hypoxia, patients with OSA had greater increases in minute ventilation (5.8+/-0.8 versus 3.2+/-0.7 L/min; P=0.02), heart rate (10+/-1 versus 7+/-1 bpm; P=0.03), and mean arterial pressure (7+/-2 versus 0+/-2 mm Hg; P=0.001) than control subjects. Despite higher ventilation and blood pressure (both of which inhibit sympathetic activity) in OSA patients, the MSNA increase during hypoxia was similar in OSA patients and control subjects. When the sympathetic-inhibitory influence of breathing was eliminated by apnea during hypoxia, the increase in MSNA in OSA patients (106+/-20%) was greater than in control subjects (52+/-23%; P=0.04). Prolongation of R-R interval with apnea during hypoxia was also greater in OSA patients (24+/-6%) than in control subjects (7+/-5%) (P=0.04). Autonomic, ventilatory, and blood pressure responses to hypercapnia and the cold pressor test in OSA patients were not different from those observed in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is associated with a selective potentiation of autonomic, hemodynamic, and ventilatory responses to peripheral chemoreceptor activation by hypoxia.  (+info)

Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation. (8/3371)

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain. The reflex is then an automatic response to a stimulus that does not receive or need conscious thought. Myotatic reflexes The myotatic reflexes (also known as deep tendon reflexes), provide information on the integrity of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Generally, decreased reflexes indicate a peripheral problem, and lively or exaggerated reflexes a central one.[citation needed] A stretch reflex is the contraction of a muscle in response to its lengthwise stretch. Biceps reflex (C5, C6) Brachioradialis reflex (C5, C6, C7) Extensor digitorum reflex (C6, C7) Triceps reflex (C6, C7, C8) Patellar reflex or knee-jerk reflex (L2, L3, L4) Ankle jerk reflex (Achilles reflex) (S1, S2) While the reflexes above are stimulated mechanically, the ...
The object of this research is to compare the reflex contractions of the cruralis muscle in the decerebrate and spinal frog in response to a single break induction shock, applied to the ipsilateral sciatic nerve. Sherrington (5) studied the limb reflexes in the decerebrate and spinal cat. He showed that in the decerebrate preparation the reflex contraction of an extensor muscle was accompanied by an autogenous tonic reflex which prolonged the contraction. This autogenous tonic reflex was absent from the reflex contractions of the flexors in the decerebrate, and from the extensors in the decapitate, preparations. Sherrington (5) and Sherrington and Sowton (6) showed that in the spinal cat the reflex contraction of the tibialis anticus muscle was higher and had a more rapid ascent than in the decerebrate cat. Sherrington concluded that the mid-brain exercises an inhibitory influence over the flexor limb centres in the cord. Head (2) arrived at similar conclusions in stating that, on removal of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous angiotensin within the rostral ventrolateral medulla facilitates the somatosympathetic reflex. AU - Hirooka, Yoshitaka. AU - Dampney, Roger A.L.. PY - 1995/7. Y1 - 1995/7. N2 - Objective: To determine whether endogenous angiotensin modifies the synaptic excitation of sympatho-excitatory neurons in the rostral part of the ventrolateral medulla. Design and methods: Experiments were performed on anaesthetized rabbits with denervated arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. Arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured. The average sympatho-excitatory reflex response evoked by short-train stimulation of the sciatic nerve was measured before and at various times after micro-injection of the non-specific angiotensin receptor antagonist [Sar1, Thr8]-angiotensin II (80pmol) into the contralateral rostral ventrolateral medulla. Because the central pathway mediating this somatosympathetic reflex includes a synapse within the contralateral ...
The present study appears to be the first to simultaneously record changes in respiratory variables and endoscopic images of the larynx during various airway reflex responses to laryngeal stimulation. Detailed analysis of laryngeal behavior revealed several characteristics of laryngeal behavior during the airway reflex responses. First, although the glottis opened during inspiration and during the succeeding forceful expiration of the cough reflex, the opening of the glottis during the expiration was much wider than the opening during the inspiration. Second, although the rapid openings and closings of the glottis were repeated during spasmodic panting, there was always a rapid closure of the glottis before the expiration, and the expiration was immediately followed by a short duration of the laryngeal opening. These responses were quite similar to those observed during elicitation of the expiration reflex, except for the constant presence of a short inspiration during the laryngeal opening. It ...
P Anand, G P McGregor, S R Bloom; Capsaicin Pre-Treatment Inhibits Axon Reflex Vasodilatation Caused by Somatostatin and VIP in Human Skin. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1983; 64 (2): 21P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs064021Pa. Download citation file:. ...
The menace response is one of three forms of blink reflex. It is the reflex blinking that occurs in response to the rapid approach of an object. The reflex comprises blinking of the eyelids, in order to protect the eyes from potential damage, but may also including turning of the head, neck, or even the trunk away from the optical stimulus that triggers the reflex. Stimulating the menace reflex is used as a diagnostic procedure in veterinary medicine, in order to determine whether an animals visual system, in particular the cortical nerve, has suffered from nerve damage. Cortical damage, particularly cerebral lesions, can cause loss of the menace reflex while leaving the other blink reflexes, such as the dazzle reflex, unaffected. The presence or absence of the menace reflex, in combination with other reflexes, indicates a locus of damage. For example, an animal with polioencephalomalacia will lack the menace reflex, but will still have the pupillary light reflex. Polioencephalomacia damages ...
Study of reflex inhibition has been prosecuted more with extensor centres than with flexor. In the case of these latter, the experimental examination of the inhibition is of necessity somewhat differently circumstanced than in the case of the extensors. For both there is requisite a suitable background of reflex excitement against which inhibition may be evident. With the extensors this reflex background of excitement can be provided by postural tonus, and such tonus is readily obtained by use of the decerebrate preparation. With the flexors there is at present no procedure available for providing such tonic preparations. Recourse has to be taken to theproduction of reflex excitation of the centres by artificial stimuli applied to some appropriate afferent channel. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flexion reflex elicited by ventral root afferents in the cat. AU - Shin, Hong Kee. AU - Kim, Jun. AU - Chung, Jin. PY - 1985/12/18. Y1 - 1985/12/18. N2 - To investigate the physiological role of ventral root afferent fibers, the ventral root was stimulated in spinal cats in an attempt to clicit the flexion reflex, a common nociceptive spinal reflex. The flexion reflex was elicited by stimulating the distal stump of the cut L7 or S1 ventral root and recorded from the proximal stump of the cut S1 ventral root. In 12 of the 14 cats studied, the flexion reflex was recorded as a compound action potential. The finding was confirmed by recording single-unit activity from 5 units in two cats. These results suggest that the ventral root afferent fibers exert a variety of physiological effects that include eliciting such spinal reflexes as the flexion reflex. The responsible fibers in the ventral root travel distally towards the dorsal root ganglion to enter the spinal cord through the ...
Synonyms for Afferent limb in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Afferent limb. 2 synonyms for afferent nerve: afferent, sensory nerve. What are synonyms for Afferent limb?
1. Reflexes evoked in bladder parasympathetic neurones by electrical stimulation of bladder C afferent fibres were studied in cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. The responses were compared with the ordinary micturition reflex evoked by low-threshold Adelta afferents from bladder mechanoreceptors and mediated by a spino-ponto-spinal reflex pathway. 2. The bladder was catheterized for fluid instillations and pressure recordings. Efferent reflex discharges were recorded from the cut central end of a small distal bladder branch of the pelvic nerve. The remaining bladder pelvic nerve branches were stimulated electrically close to the bladder. 3. Stimulation at C afferent intensity evoked a late reflex discharge in bladder pelvic efferents in all animals. The response was centrally mediated, had a latency of 150-250 ms, and was much weaker after stimulation on the contralateral nerve. 4. The bladder C fibre reflex differed in several functional aspects from the ordinary Adelta micturition ...
Definition of Withdrawal reflex in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Withdrawal reflex? Meaning of Withdrawal reflex as a legal term. What does Withdrawal reflex mean in law?
Recent results in spinal research are challenging the historical view that the spinal reflexes are mostly hardwired and fixed behaviours. In previous work we have shown that three of the simplest spinal reflexes could be self-organised in an agonist-antagonist pair of muscles. The simplicity of these reflexes is given from the fact that they entail at most one interneuron mediating the connectivity between afferent inputs and efferent outputs. These reflexes are: the Myotatic, the Reciprocal Inibition and the Reverse Myotatic reflexes. In this paper we apply our framework to a simulated 2D leg model actuated by six muscles (mono- and bi-articular). Our results show that the framework is successful in learning most of the spinal reflex circuitry as well as the corresponding behaviour in the more complicated muscle arrangement.. ...
Selective reduction in or augmentation of intrasplenic NO caused a respective increase or decrease in systemic blood pressure. The same doses of pharmacological agents were without effect when administered systemically. The increase in MAP in response to intrasplenic L-NMMA was abolished by interrupting either the splenic or the renal nerves. It was also inhibited by administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril. On the basis of these results, we propose that the spleen participates in the regulation of blood pressure through a reflex pathway, whereby changes in splenic afferent nerve activity reflexly alter renal sympathetic control of renin release. The subsequent rise in circulating angiotensin II levels would act directly on the vasculature to raise total peripheral resistance. Angiotensin II could also alter central control of blood pressure by accessing the brain at the circumventricular organs.8. There is both structural and functional evidence to support the existence of such a reflex ...
I have brisk reflexes; 3 ++. I asked my neurologist if I should be concerned. He said my reflexes were symmetrical and it was not a problem. Also, had my reflexes tested several months later and they were rated as just 3, not brisk. Anxiety plays a huge roll in how we react at an exam. Please do not worry about your reflexes, I did for several months and regret all of the time and energy I spent concerning my reflexes. I use to sit at the edge of the bed and test my reflexes all day long. I even tested my wife’s reflexes comparing them to mine. Please don’t dwell on your reflexes, like I did, your fine. Take care, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Time-Frequency Analysis of the Pudendo-to-Pudendal Nerve and Pelvic-to-Pudendal Nerve Reflexes in Anesthetized Intact Rats. AU - Chang, Hui Yi. AU - Peng, Chi Wei. AU - Chen, Jia Jin Janson. AU - Cheng, Chen Li. AU - DeGroat, William C.. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Two main functions of lower urinary tract, storage and periodic elimination of urine, are regulated by a complex neural control system located in the brain and spinal cord which coordinates the activity of the reservoir (urinary bladder) and the outlet (bladder neck, urethra and urethral sphincter). These organs are regulated by three sets of peripheral nerves: sacral parasympathetic (pelvic nerves), thoracolumber sympathetic nerves (hypogastric nerves) which innervate the bladder trigone and prostate, and sacral somatic nerves (pudendal nerves) which innervate external urethral sphincter (EUS). The relationship between the bladder and EUS is controlled by reflex pathways in the lumbosacral spinal cord that are ...
Compared with control subjects, baroreceptor stimulation and deactivation were virtually devoid of any reflex effect on HR and sympathetic nerve traffic in patients with severe CHF. Both reflex responses, however, also were clearly reduced in patients with mild CHF, providing the first direct evidence that in the initial stage of CHF the baroreflex also is impaired. Because the degree of this impairment was correlated with the degree of sympathetic activation, it is possible that the former and the latter phenomena are linked by a cause-effect relation, ie, that the sympathetic activation is due to a reduction of reflex sympathetic restraint. The impairment of the baroreflex in patients with CHF deserves further comments. First, this impairment involved to a similar extent the baroreceptor ability to modulate HR and sympathetic nerve traffic. Because baroreceptor modulation of HR depends largely on the vagus,17 39 we can conclude that reflex control of both autonomic divisions is similarly ...
In situations where there is a danger to the body, reflex actions can save precious fractions of a second. This is achieved through what is termed a reflex arc. A reflex arc begins with a receptor. This passes a signal to a sensory neuron that connects to the spinal cord. In the spinal cord, a relay neuron sends the signal directly to a motor neuron. The motor neuron connects to an effector which is generally a muscle so that the body can respond. The relay neuron also sends a signal to the brain so that you are aware of what is happening.. Two common examples of reflex actions are taking your hand away from something sharp and the iris of an eye changing the size of the pupil. In the first example, receptors detect the sharp object cutting into the skin. The signal travels rapidly through a reflex arc and the part of the body touching the sharp object (e.g. your hand if you accidentally get hold of a rose bush or bramble) rapidly releases the object or moves the body away. Fractions of a second ...
The nociceptive flexion reflex and the crossed extension reflex are produced by the spinal cord to protect a limb from a source of nociception and potential tissue damage. Thus, nociceptive inputs activate flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles of the affected limb while producing the opposite effect on the contralateral flexor and extensor muscles. This constitutes the general rule observable for the reflex movements evoked from the limbs by stimulation of their peripheral afferents. As described by Brown and Sherrington in 1912, there are some exceptions to this rule, observable in the decerebrate or spinal cat, where ipsilateral extension or contralateral flexion can be elicited. However, no evidence of these exceptions has been described in man. In this study, the nociceptive flexion reflex was produced by stimulation of the right sural nerve using transcutaneous electrical stimulation. The stimulus intensity was adjusted individually at 120 % of the reflex threshold. To examine the ...
Define gag (2) reflex. gag (2) reflex synonyms, gag (2) reflex pronunciation, gag (2) reflex translation, English dictionary definition of gag (2) reflex. abbr. glycosaminoglycan n. 1. Something forced into or put over the mouth to prevent speaking or crying out. 2. An obstacle to or a censoring of free...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long latency postural reflexes are under supraspinal dopaminergic control. AU - Bloem, B. R.. AU - Beckley, D. J.. AU - Van Vugt, J. P P. AU - Van Dijk, J. G.. AU - Remler, M. P.. AU - Langston, J. W.. AU - Roos, R. A C. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Scaling of posturally stabilizing long latency (LL) reflexes in tibialis anterior muscles induced by toe-up rotational perturbations is abnormal in standing patients with Parkinsons disease. To investigate the contribution of dopaminergic pathways to abnormal scaling, we studied LL reflexes in 22 patients with selective hypodopaminergic syndromes: 10 psychiatric patients taking chronic neuroleptic medication (7 with mild parkinsonism), 8 patients with young-onset Parkinsons disease, and 4 patients with MPTP-induced parkinsonism. Results were compared with those of 10 healthy controls. Stimuli consisted of (a) 10 serial (predictable) perturbations of 4° amplitude, (b) 10 serial (predictable) perturbations of 10° amplitude, and (c) ...
Fig. 69. Changes in the intracardiac haemodynamics in mitral incompetence. ^-normal heart; 2-heart with mitral incompetence (the hypertrophied chambers are printed in red; normal
Much of your babys activity in her first weeks of life is reflexive. For instance, when you put your finger in her mouth, she doesnt think about what to do, but sucks by reflex. When confronted by a bright light, she will tightly shut her eyes, because thats what her reflexes make her do. Shes born with many of these automatic responses, some of which remain with her for months, while others vanish in weeks. In some cases, reflexes change into voluntary behavior. For example, your baby is born with a rooting reflex that prompts her to turn her head toward your hand if you stroke her cheek or mouth. This helps her find the nipple at feeding time. At first shell root from side to side, turning her head toward the nipple and then away in decreasing arcs. But by about three weeks shell simply turn her head and move her mouth into position to suck. Sucking is another survival reflex present even before birth. If you had an ultrasound test done during pregnancy, you may have seen your baby ...
Synonyms for deep reflex: jerk in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for deep reflex: jerk. 26 synonyms for reflex: automatic, spontaneous, instinctive, involuntary, impulsive, knee-jerk, unthinking, automatic, impulsive, instinctive, involuntary.... What are synonyms for deep reflex: jerk?
Download Reflexes apps for Android. Reviews, screenshots and comments about Reflexes apps like Zero Reflex, Reflexes, Reflex Test and more Android apps.
ITC-UK: We have Reflexs Acorn spares stocks. Published: 1st Nov 2001, 20:44:41 , Permalink , Printable. Picking up from where Reflex Electronics left off, drobe.co.uk speaks with repairers ITC-UK. Reflex Electronics were best known to RISC OS users for their popular repairsnspares services. For many years, Reflex had been lifesavers for RISC OS users with poorly machines. Unfortunately, earlier this year (as reported by iconbar.com), Reflex Electronics closed its doors, creating fears of users being unable to repair or source spares for existing RISC OS machines ...
How to Install Reflex Wiper Blades from Canadian Tire. Download Reflex ice wiper blades installation guide: Instructions for use. Key points: 1. Wash your hands with antibacterial soap before handling your feeding, 2012-11-03В В· Try a brand of wiper blade that uses silicone as the material rather than natural rubber. I had mixed results on my old car,. Order Chevrolet Traverse Wiper Blade (Windshield) online today. Free Same Day Store Pickup. Check out free battery charging and engine diagnostic testing while you Editors dig through best wiper blade reviews to determine the we did not write a separate Trico wiper blades review and reflex hybrid wiper review you may take a. How To Change 2010 Ford Flex Wiper Blades. Step by step guide for replacing and installing Trico wiper blades for 2010 Ford Flex with Instructional Videos. Drive safe. Reflex Wiper Blades Removal Reflex All Season Wiper Blade features an aerodynamic, using these easy step by step instructions. Change engine oil and ...
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Definition of Snellen reflex in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Snellen reflex? Meaning of Snellen reflex as a legal term. What does Snellen reflex mean in law?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spinal estrogen attenuates the exercise pressor reflex but has little effect on the expression of genes regulating neurotransmitters in the dorsal root ganglia. AU - Schmitt, Petra M.. AU - Gohil, Kishorchandra. AU - Kaufman, Marc P.. PY - 2006/3/1. Y1 - 2006/3/1. N2 - Previously, our laboratory showed that estrogen, topically applied to the spinal cord, attenuated the exercise pressor reflex in female cats (Schmitt PM and Kaufman MP. J Appl Physiol 95: 1418-1424, 2003; 98: 633-639, 2005). The attenuation was gender specific and was in part opioid dependent. Our finding that the μ- and δ-opioid antagonist naloxone was only able to partially restore estrogens attenuating effect on the pressor response to static contraction suggested that estrogen affected an additional pathway, involving the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Estrogen has been described to stimulate transcription within 10 min of its application to the DRG, raising the possibility that rapid genomic effects on ...
The oculocephalic reflex and the cold caloric (oculovestibular) reflex are used to test brainstem function in profoundly comatose patients. An intact reflex basically confirms that the brainstem is intact. Involved are all the oculomotor nerves (provided you move the head up and down, not only left and right) as well as the 8th nerve. Of course, one cannot perform this test if one has a ruptured eardrum, or if the ear canal is completely clogged with macerated brain tissue (as is often the case in these base of skull fracture situations). A demonstration of a normal oculocephalic reflex was held for Question 25.4 from the first paper of 2011 - the candidates were expected to explain how this helps in the diagnosis of coma.
Although generally the phase-dependent modulation of reflexes was maintained in PD, an additional effect appeared in three of them since the amplitude of the cBF reflex responses was selectively increased during the contralateral swing phase. In such cases the crossed responses were considerably larger than the amplitude of the responses in the iBF. In patient 4 (illustrated in Fig. 5) the amplitude of the subtracted responses were often larger than fourfold the maximum background activation encountered during gait. In control subjects the contralateral medium-latency cutaneous reflex responses are normally smaller than the corresponding ipsilateral responses during gait (Van Wezel et al. 1997) and during nonlocomotor tasks (Burke et al. 1991). Furthermore, in our laboratory such high amplitudes of contralateral reflex responses were never observed in healthy subjects during normal gait (Duysens et al. 1990, 1991; Van Wezel et al. 1997).. In principle these large responses could have been due to ...
This reflex is linked with the Moro Reflex. The TLR begins around 12 weeks in utero. It is mostly involved with balance perception and body in space awareness. It aids in maintaining foetal position within the womb and also assists the baby during the birthing process. It allows the infant with a primitive method of responding to gravity. There are two parts to this reflex - forwards and backwards. Head flexion or down will cause the limbs to fold and is mostly integrated by 4 months. Head extension or backwards will lead to extension or straightening of the limbs and is integrated gradually from 6 weeks up to 3 years.. Retention of this reflex will produce:. ...
HOT - Reflex DB10 Desert Buggy from Team Associated. Team Associateds Reflex DB10 is a Ready-To-Run RC electric desert buggy based on the 9-time R.O.A.R. Short Course National Championship-winning truck. The Reflex DB10 is both all show and all go! It features some major upgrades not normally found in RTRs: a water-resistant high-power Reedy brushless speed control and 3300kV brushless motor, a 2.4GHz 2-channel radio system as well as our ALL NEW DVC (Dynamic Vehicle Control) receiver unit with built-in adjustable digital gyro which allows vehicle stability to be adjusted to flow with the terrain. A Reedy metal-gear digital high-torque servo and LED lights front and rear round out the Reflex DB10!. ...
Looking for dazzle reflex? Find out information about dazzle reflex. see nervous system nervous system, network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment.... Explanation of dazzle reflex
Looking for hypogastric reflex? Find out information about hypogastric reflex. see nervous system nervous system, network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment.... Explanation of hypogastric reflex
Aaron Stubbe is one talented Art Director (he works at Clark Creative Group in Omaha). Also, in editing this show, I found the man has a voice for radio. Besides being our guest on The Reflex Blue show, his vocal skills have to be helpful at presenting work to clients, right? I hope so, because thats what were talking about this time around.. The real question though? How do we even cover anything worthwhile in our short show format with a topic this big? Simply put - we cant - so we dont even try. This episode is merely the first of two parts. Well cover part two in the next episode. Until then, enjoy.. Download The Reflex Blue Show, Season 3 Episode 17 or, click here to subscribe to The Reflex Blue Show from the iTunes Music Store.. The Reflex Blue Show. ...
The quality is a full step above everything else Ive reviewed in the price range. 5 Grendel 4150 CMV 1-8T. The Ozark Armament Rhino red dot sight is one of the most popular models currently available on the market, and its easy to see why. Ozark Armament Reflex Sight - Rail Mount Co-Witness with Large Sun Shade - Multiple Reticle System $ 110. Total Ratings 8, 4 Red & Green Dot 30mm Sight Scope With. Quick Disconnect Sling Adapter. Tacticon Armament - Incredibly easy to sight-in. Ozark Armament Flip Up Sights for Railed Rifles - Picatinny Mount BUIS Ozark Armament Flip $34. Those features are always nice, but whats even better is its wide 32mm×24mm open lens. Dagger Defense DDHB Red Dot Reflex Sight avalible in Both red and green dot, four position reticles. Reflex sights are any sight where you have a mirror-like sheet, like a lens on the end of a sight (without having a colored LED optic point in the center). ADE RD3 006B Green Dot Micro Reflex Sight For Canik TP9SF Elite TP9 SFX Pistol ...
REFLEX is raising funds for Reflex: Bringing back the analogue SLR camera on Kickstarter! Reflex is the first update on a manual 35mm SLR camera system in over 25 years
REFLEX is raising funds for Reflex: Bringing back the analogue SLR camera on Kickstarter! Reflex is the first update on a manual 35mm SLR camera system in over 25 years
Type is one of those elements that I use it every day, I could not do my job without, and yet as much as I know about it, there is even more that I do not know. Thats why I find it such a great opportunity to speak with guests like Allan Haley of Monotype Imaging. Allan knows more about letters than I ever will, so it was great to have him on this episode of The Reflex Blue Show.. Joined by co-host Ben Lueders, we talk about Monotype Imaging, web fonts, how to become a type designer and the hardest letter in the English alphabet to design.. We also speak a bit about his 2012 HOW Conference presentation (Allan is one of the speakers) coming this June in Boston.. Well be back in two weeks recapping the ads from some football game. See you then!. Download The Reflex Blue Show, Season 5 Episode 2 or, click here to subscribe to The Reflex Blue Show from the iTunes Music Store.. The Reflex Blue Show. ...
In order to access RHB Reflex Login page, the users have to do the registration as well as the first time login. The login credenials they need are User ID and Corporate ID. When they create the RHB account for the first time, they will receive One Time Password to access their account on the mobile phone. The first time login can activate the Reflex User ID.. What if You Forgot RHB reflex Password. It is not a big problem if you forget your RHB Reflex password. You still can retrieve your password by doing this easy steps.. ...
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ReFLEX CES takes over PLDA Groups hardware business: Paris, France - February 10, 2015 - ReFLEX CES, a provider of Modified-Off-The-Shelf (MOTS) solutions and turnkey embedded systems, has added the hardware businesses of its sister companies in the PLDA Group, PLDA andAccelize. Effective from January 1st 2015, FPGA-based boards and the SOM (System-on-Module) product lines have been transferred to the ReFLEX CES portfolio. The move is part of the ReFLEX CES strategy …
MODEL RELEASED. Reflex test. Hospital doctor using a hammer to test the reflexes of a 15-year-old girl. He is tapping her elbow at a particular point where a tendon runs above the joint. If the sensory nerves in her tendons and muscles are functioning, this should prompt a reflex (automatic) reaction and her lower arm should then twitch upwards as the arm muscles contract. - Stock Image M540/0356
Looking for online definition of reflex inhibition in the Medical Dictionary? reflex inhibition explanation free. What is reflex inhibition? Meaning of reflex inhibition medical term. What does reflex inhibition mean?
The Primitive Reflexes are a group of motor reflexes found in new-born babies. They develop in utero and share the characteristics of being present at birth in a full-term, healthy baby and are mediated or arise from the brainstem.. Primitive Reflexes are the first part of the brain to develop and should only remain active for the first few months of life. In typical development, these reflexes naturally inhibit in sequential order during the first year, and replacement reflexes, called postural reflexes, emerge. Postural reflexes are more mature patterns of response that control balance, coordination and sensory motor development.. Retained primitive reflexes can lead to developmental delays related to disorders like ADHD, sensory processing disorder, autism, and learning disabilities. The persistence of primitive reflexes contribute to issues such as coordination and balance difficulties, sensory perceptions, fine motor skills, sleep, immunity, energy levels, impulse control, concentration and ...
Primitive Reflex Integration. Reflex integration is a process to help a neurological arc that has both a specific stimulus and a predictable response or responses work more efficiently. Primitive reflexes lay the foundation for the nervous system and continue to work in concert with it throughout our lives. They first appear to orchestrate the development of our nervous system and are present for our survival. Once they have played their part, ideally they step back and wait until they are needed for a quick response, often for ones safety. Reflex Integration means the reflex arc is connected and communicating; it works to meet the nervous systems requests. When there is an incomplete or weak connection, we call the reflex unintegrated, active, or retained. Thus the reflex may play constantly, disrupting communication coming into the brainstem and blocking some information from reaching the prefrontal lobes. Reflex Integration can be accomplished in several ways, Quantum Reflex Integration ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cortical facilitation of cutaneous reflexes in leg muscles during human gait. AU - Pijnappels, M.. AU - Van Wezel, B. M H. AU - Colombo, Gery. AU - Dietz, V.. AU - Duysens, J.. PY - 1998/3/16. Y1 - 1998/3/16. N2 - During human gait, cortical convergence on sural nerve reflex pathways was investigated by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the cortex in five phases of the step cycle during human walking on a treadmill. Muscular responses to paired electrical and magnetic stimulation were compared with the linear summation of the individual stimuli. For both the tibialis anterior (TA) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles, the averaged data of four subjects showed a significant facilitation mainly in the swing phase of the step cycle. It is suggested that facilitation of corticospinal input onto cutaneous reflex pathways is enhanced specifically in these periods of the step cycle.. AB - During human gait, cortical convergence on sural nerve reflex pathways was ...
Reflex::Eg(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Reflex::Eg(3) NAME Reflex::Eg - Reflex examples namespace VERSION This document describes version 0.100, released on April 02, 2017. EXAMPLES Index of examples using this namespace: o Reflex::Eg::Inheritance::Moose o Reflex::Eg::Inheritance::Plain SEE ALSO Please see those modules/websites for more information related to this module. o Reflex BUGS AND LIMITATIONS You can make new bug reports, and view existing ones, through the web interface at ,http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Reflex,. AUTHOR Rocco Caputo ,[email protected], COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE This software is copyright (c) 2017 by Rocco Caputo. This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself. AVAILABILITY The latest version of this module is available from the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN). Visit ,http://www.perl.com/CPAN/, to find a CPAN site near you, or see ...
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Please Take Over This Page and Apply to be Editor-In-Chief for this topic: There can be one or more than one Editor-In-Chief. You may also apply to be an Associate Editor-In-Chief of one of the subtopics below. Please mail us [2] to indicate your interest in serving either as an Editor-In-Chief of the entire topic or as an Associate Editor-In-Chief for a subtopic. Please be sure to attach your CV and or biographical sketch. Primitive reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes disappear or are inhibited by the frontal lobes as a child moves through normal child development.[1] These primitive reflexes are also called infantile, infant or newborn reflexes. Older children and adults with atypical neurology (for instance, people with cerebral palsy) may retain these reflexes and primitive reflexes ...
baroreceptor reflex pathway. this image shows the pathway of the baroreceptor reflex the reflex that shares in the control of normal blood pressure showing: 1. aortic baroreceptor 2. aortic body 3. carotid sinus 4. carotid baroreceptor 5. inferior ganglion of vagus nerve for th
The red reflex test is used to screen for abnormalities of the back of the eye (posterior segment) and opacities in the visual axis, such as a cataract or corneal opacity. An ophthalmoscope held close to the examiners eye and focused on the pupil is used to view the eyes from 12 to 18 inches away from the subjects eyes. To be considered normal, the red reflex of the 2 eyes should be symmetrical. Dark spots in the red reflex, a blunted red reflex on 1 side, lack of a red reflex, or the presence of a white reflex (retinal reflection) are all indications for referral to an ophthalmologist.. Concern has been expressed recently that diagnosis of serious ocular conditions, including retinoblastoma and congenital cataract, in which early treatment is essential for future ocular and systemic health, often is not made sufficiently early to minimize potential consequences of those conditions. This concern has led to consideration of legislation in several statesa mandating early pupil-dilated red reflex ...
We examined the role of central mu- and delta-opioids on both neurohormonal responses and baroreceptor reflex in conscious rabbits. Both intracerebroventricular [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin, a mu-selective agonist, and [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin, a delta-selective agonist, caused dose-related increases in arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, whereas intravenous injection of the same maximum dose of these peptides as that used in the intracerebroventricular experiment did not cause any cardiovascular and neuronal responses. On the other hand, increases in plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucose levels induced by intracerebroventricular [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin were significantly greater than those by [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin. Both enkephalins did not cause any responses in plasma renin activity, plasma vasopressin, and serum sodium and potassium concentrations. The sensitivity of the baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity ...
The current study provides insight into the neural interaction between hip proprioceptive feedback and electrical stimulation of distal nerves of the leg. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of paralyzed muscles in people with spinal cord injury has been used to restore lost muscle strength. However the same type of stimulation can result in reflex activation of muscles that could disrupt control of movement. Hip afferents and plantar cutaneous mechanoreceptors can also trigger reflex activity that modulates locomotion. Activation of these afferent pathways using FES can be used to provide feedback to spinal locomotor networks. The flexion reflex response to electrical stimulation was tested in all 20 subjects using two protocols. In the first 10 subjects the flexion reflex response to tibial nerve stimulation was measured in two hip postures and when stimulation was applied during imposed hip flexion and hip extension movements. In the second protocol (second set of 10 subjects), three stimulus
Twelve healthy men received placebo, low-dose (loading 3 µg kg-1 h-1 for 10 min; maintenance 0.2 µg kg-1 h-1 for 60 min), and moderate-dose (loading 6 µg kg-1 h-1 for 10 min; maintenance 0.4 µg kg-1 h-1 for 60 min) dexmedetomidine infusions in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. After 70 min of drug infusion, systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and HR responses after thigh cuff deflation were evaluated as indices of cardiovascular reflex.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Afferent and Efferent Pathways of the Recto-colonic Reflex in the Dog. AU - Fukuda, Hiroyuki. AU - Fukai, Kiyoko. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The nature of the afferent and efferent pathways of the recto-colonic reflex was studied electrophysiologically in the dog. A compound action potential consisting of many peaks was evoked on a sacral dorsal rootlet by a stimulus to the ipsilateral rectal strands of the pelvic nerve. Conduction velocities of the peaks indicate that Aδ and C afferent fibers innervate the colon and rectum. When the stimuli were subthreshold for C fibers, the reflex discharges of contralateral parasympathetic post-ganglionic fibers in the rectal strands and the reflex contraction of the colon were smaller than those caused by stronger stimuli. As the intensity of the stimulus to the sacral ventral roots was weakened, response peaks of preganglionic B fibers in the rectal branch, post-ganglionic C fibers in the rectal strands and a bladder branch of ...
It is the third game in the MX vs. ATV Reflex Achievements. ATV Reflex Cheats For Playstation 3. ATV Reflex. Cheats for reflex MX vs atv PS3. Skullcap - открыть все шлемы. Игра: MX vs. ATV Reflex на PS4 PS3.Поэтому вы можете найти у нас на сайте абсолютно любую информацию по игре MX vs. Cheats » Playstation 3 Cheats » MX vs. ps3.cheatfreak.comCheats - MX vs. Tutorial: How to Do a DOUBLE BACKFLIP!! , MX vs ATV Reflex. ATV Reflex Cheats.Help out other MX vs. Next. CheatCodes.com has all you need to win every game you play!MX vs. some cheat codes for u guys this is on PS3 but it also workes on Xbox aswell its the same cheat codes for the same things. В качестве чита введите нижеприведенные символы: allai - открыть всех гонщиков couches - открыть все внедорожники kicks - открыть все ботинки gearedup - открыть ...
What do I expect out of Reflex in another year? Im not sure to be honest. With Overwatch looming and many other great games to play Im beginning to lose hope in Reflex. Things are just taking too long and the gameplay is not advancing. Even players who Ive played dozens of hours with in Reflex seem to share my sentiment. If I go to the Reflex Steam store page the top two positive reviews I see are people I have friended on Steam. Ive bought copies of Reflex for friends and spent ~200 hours playing it. When I ran a Reflex TDM league I got to know various players and from time to time, often in the early morning, people will PM me on Steam and well chat. Most remain hopeful but it is hard not to see reality and wonder if Reflex isnt the savior we thought it was. ...
by PWeekly , Sep 2, 2016. Evidence suggests that electronic cigarette (e-cig) use has grown rapidly in recent years. There seems to be a perception among the public-and perhaps even some physicians-that e-cigs are a benign substance because users are essentially inhaling water vapor, says Peter V. Dicpinigaitis, MD. However, few studies have assessed how e-cig use affects the respiratory tract or pulmonary function. Previous studies have shown that otherwise healthy smokers of tobacco cigarettes experience decreased cough reflex sensitivity when compared with non-smokers. Dr. Dicpinigaitis is one of few researchers worldwide with the ability to measure the effects of an external influence on cough reflex sensitivity in the laboratory using capsaicin, which has been shown in previous research to induce cough in a safe, dose-dependent, and reproducible manner. With this background, he and his colleagues sought to determine the effects of a single exposure to e-cig vapor on cough reflex ...
Static muscular contraction in anesthetized animals has been firmly established to reflexly increase arterial pressure. Although group III and IV muscle afferents are known to be responsible for this reflex pressor response, there is no evidence that the stimulation of muscle mechanoreceptors, many of which are supplied by group III fibers, plays a role in causing this contraction-induced reflex effect. To provide this evidence, we recorded renal sympathetic nerve activity in chloralose-anesthetized cats while contracting the triceps surae muscles. We found that static contraction tripled renal nerve activity within three seconds of its onset, an increase that was abolished by cutting the L6 and S2 dorsal roots. On average, the contraction-induced increase in renal nerve activity was observed 0.8 +/- 0.1 seconds after the onset of this maneuver. In addition, intermittent tetanic contractions synchronized renal nerve discharge so that a burst of activity was evoked by each contraction. A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuating effects of intrathecal clonidine on the exercise pressor reflex. AU - Hill, J. M.. AU - Kaufman, Marc P. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - We tested the hypothesis that intrathecal injection of clonidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist, attenuated the reflex cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to static muscular contraction in cats. Before clonidine (1 μg in 0.2 ml), contraction-induced reflex increases (n = 10) in mean arterial pressure and ventilation averaged 25 ± 3 mmHg and 359 ± 105 ml/min, respectively, whereas after clonidine these increases averaged 8 ± 4 mmHg and 200 ± 114 ml/min, respectively (P , 0.05). Clonidine had no effect on the heart rate response to contraction. Intrathecal injection of yohimbine (10 μg; n = 5), an α2-adrenergic antagonist, but not prazosin (10 μg; n = 3), an α1-adrenergic antagonist, prevented the attenuating effects of clonidine on the reflex pressor and ventilatory responses to contraction. Our findings were not due to the ...
Hinweis: Bitte bestätigen Sie vor der Bestellung die Ersatzteilnummer, das genaue Jahr und das genaue Modell Ihres Motorrads. I just bought a 2004 RED Honda Reflex at an estate sale. Durable steel frame is lightweight yet strong, providing an optimum combination of rigidity and flexibility for superb road handling. The Honda NSS250 or Reflex (US), Forza (International) is a 249 cc (15.2 cu in) Honda maxi-scooter produced between 2001 and 2008. mfd1719 said: ↑ On a side note these things are a pain in the ass to take apart and I will assume to put back together. Authorized Seller. eBay; eBay Motors; Parts & Accessories; Scooter Parts; Scooter Parts & Accessories for 2006 Honda Reflex 250 ; Skip to page navigation. Welcome to the 02 Honda NSS 250 Reflex discussion group. I am new to scooters but I have had several cycles over the years. p 46; HONDA REFLEX (NSS250) External links. View and Download Honda NSS250/A service manual online. 2003 Honda Reflex Owners Manual - Between thousands of ...
This A Stretch Reflex and a Crossed Extensor Reflex Model Lesson Plan is suitable for 10th - 12th Grade. Students make moving models of a stretch reflex and of a crossed extensor reflex (using common materials found a hardware or craft store) to allolw them a better understanding of how relexes work.
A training regimen to adjust the bodys motor reflexes may help improve mobility for some people with incomplete spinal cord injuries, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health.. The study involved 13 people who were still able to walk after incomplete spinal cord injuries that had occurred from 8 months to 50 years prior to the study. All had spasticity and an impaired ability to walk. The goal was to determine if these individuals could gain mobility by learning to suppress a spinal H-reflex, which is elicited by electrical stimulation rather than by a tendon stretch.. Participants in the study received electrical stimulation to the soleus of their weaker leg while standing with support. The first 2 weeks of the study involved baseline measurements of the resulting reflex. During the next 10 weeks, 9 participants underwent 3 training sessions per week, during which they viewed the size of their reflexes on a monitor and were encouraged to suppress it. A control group ...
A training regimen to adjust the bodys motor reflexes may help improve mobility for some people with incomplete spinal cord injuries, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health.. The study involved 13 people who were still able to walk after incomplete spinal cord injuries that had occurred from 8 months to 50 years prior to the study. All had spasticity and an impaired ability to walk. The goal was to determine if these individuals could gain mobility by learning to suppress a spinal H-reflex, which is elicited by electrical stimulation rather than by a tendon stretch.. Participants in the study received electrical stimulation to the soleus of their weaker leg while standing with support. The first 2 weeks of the study involved baseline measurements of the resulting reflex. During the next 10 weeks, 9 participants underwent 3 training sessions per week, during which they viewed the size of their reflexes on a monitor and were encouraged to suppress it. A control group ...
Babinski reflex is one of the normal reflexes in infants. Reflexes are responses that occur when the body receives a certain stimulus. The Babinski reflex occurs after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked. The big toe then moves upward or toward the top surface of the foot. The other toes fan out. This reflex is normal in children up to...
The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) were one of the first militaries to understand the importance of an optic equipped rifle for every infantryman. The standard reflex sight of the IDF is the Meprolight M21, but a select few in each unit are issued a specialized reflex sight with a built-in laser designator. The first in this new class of sights was the MARS (Multi-purpose Aiming Reflex Sight). The MARS integrated an AA battery-powered red reflex sight, dual laser designators and a tethered pressure switch for activation in a single unit.. A small number of MARS sights were acquired by the US military during the early days of the War on Terrorism and the US Marines used it in the furious close-quarter fights during the Battle of Fallujah. However, the MARS sight was quickly withdrawn from US service due to some severe design drawbacks. The MARS has a ruggedly built cast aluminum housing but this makes it a bit heavy at almost 16 ounces. The field of view is narrow for a reflex sight due to its ...
Description of disease Babinskis reflex. Treatment Babinskis reflex. Symptoms and causes Babinskis reflex Prophylaxis Babinskis reflex
Patterns of facilitation and inhibition of spinal reflexes were obtained and compared in decerebrate spinalized, decerebrate non-spinal, and Alfaxan- anaesthetized rats by applying mustard oil to sixteen different body locations including sites on the ipsilateral and contralateral hindlimbs as well as other off limb areas such as the snout and tail. It was found that in decerebrate spinalized animals, MO application to ipsilateral hindlimb sites enhanced but never inhibited reflex responses in the limb, whilst MO treatment to off limb sites was without effect. In contrast in anaesthetized animals the prevalent effect of MO was inhibition from treatment sites distributed across the entire animal. Reflexes in animals with an intact spinal cord (decerebrate or anaesthetized) were facilitated or inhibited by MO application to ipsilateral hindlimb sites in a way that resembled the modular organization of reflexes per se and previous sensitization studies in the rabbit. However clear differences were ...
Stretch reflex[edit]. When a muscle is stretched, primary type Ia sensory fibers of the muscle spindle respond to both changes ... After stroke or spinal cord injury in humans, spastic hypertonia (spastic paralysis) often develops, whereby the stretch reflex ... Innervated muscle structure involved in reflex actions and proprioception. For the class of neurons characterized by a large ... Pearson, Keir G; Gordon, James E (2013). "35 - Spinal Reflexes". In Kandel, Eric R; Schwartz, James H; Jessell, Thomas M; ...
Muscle spindles and the stretch reflex[edit]. The knee jerk is the popularly known stretch reflex (involuntary kick of the ...
The reflex design scheme is the primary difference between a DSLR and other digital cameras. In the reflex design scheme, the ... The reflex design scheme is the primary difference between a DSLR and other digital cameras. In the reflex design, light ... A digital single-lens reflex camera (digital SLR or DSLR) is a digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a ... Depending on the viewing position of the reflex mirror (down or up), the light from the scene can only reach either the ...
... dazzle reflex,[10] or menace reflex) or auditory stimuli (e.g., menace reflex) ... Reflex blink[edit]. A reflex blink occurs in response to an external stimulus, such as contact with the cornea or objects that ... A reflex blink is not necessarily a conscious blink either; however it does happen faster than a spontaneous blink.[1] Reflex ... Voluntary blink is larger amplitude than Reflex blink, with the use of all 3 divisions of the orbicularis oculi muscle. ...
... is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure.[2] Before the person ... Reflex syncope occurs in response to a trigger due to dysfunction of the heart rate and blood pressure regulating mechanism. ... Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus.[2] Vasovagal syncope is typically ... Treatment for reflex syncope focuses on avoidance of triggers, restoring blood flow to the brain during an impending episode, ...
Reflex arcs[edit]. A reflex arc is a neural circuit that creates a more or less automatic link between a sensory input and a ... The singular example of a monosynaptic reflex is the patellar reflex. The next simplest reflex arc is a three-element chain, ... Reflex circuits vary in complexity-the simplest spinal reflexes are mediated by a two-element chain, of which in the human body ... Some reflex responses, such as withdrawing the hand after touching a hot surface, are protective, but others, such as the ...
Escape, playing dead, reflex bleeding. Many lizards attempt to escape from danger by running to a place of safety;[46][b] for ... Lizards make use of a variety of antipredator adaptations, including venom, camouflage, reflex bleeding, and the ability to ...
Reflex or convulsion[edit]. Generally, if, during an uncontrollable flailing caused by a sudden paroxysmal episode, such as ... If X, during a grand mal seizure, by a reflex action kicks out and hits Y, then it is most unlikely there will be criminal ...
Righting reflex[edit]. The righting reflex is another type of reflex. This reflex positions the head or body back into its " ... These reflexes can be further broken down by timing into a dynamic reflex, static reflex or tonic reflex. It can also be ... Tonic labyrinthine reflex[edit]. The tonic labyrinthine reflex (TLR) is a reflex that is present in newborn babies directly ... These reflexes are important in the maintenance of homeostasis.[8] Example of vestibulospinal reflex[edit]. *The head is tilted ...
Gag reflex[edit]. Should food or liquid enter the windpipe due to the epiglottis failing to close properly, the gag reflex is ... The gag reflex is variable in people from a limited to a hypersensitive response.) The superior laryngeal branch of the vagus ... Gag reflex can be managed by behaviour therapy , cognitive behaviour therapy, herbal remedies, acupressure, acupuncture, ... The glossopharyngeal nerve sends fibers to the upper epiglottis that contribute to the afferent limb of the gag reflex. ( ...
Reflexes[edit]. Main article: Indo-European sound laws. Some of the changes undergone by the PIE consonants in daughter ... Reflexes[edit]. Main article: Indo-European sound laws. Ancient Greek reflects the original PIE vowel system most faithfully, ... A separate reflex of the original *o or *a is, however, argued to have been retained in some environments as a lengthened vowel ... The reflexes of the labiovelars are generally indistinguishable from those of the plain velars in satem languages, but there ...
Vestibular stimuli activate primitive reflexes in human infants, such as the asymmetric tonic neck reflex, Moro reflex, and ... The fencing response designation arises from the similarity to the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex in infants. Like the reflex, ... The neuromotor manifestation of the fencing response resembles reflexes initiated by vestibular stimuli. ... parachute reflex, which are likely mediated by vestibular nuclei in the brainstem. The lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN; ...
"Poslední z Aporveru - megalomanský český film - nedokončený, přesto je nejdražší v historii". Reflex.cz. REFLEX. Retrieved ...
"Convention postale entre la Belgique et la Russie, signée à Saint-Petersbourg le 1 juin et 13 juin 1872". refLex. Council of ... "Convention d'extradition entre la Belgique et la Russie, signée à Saint-Petersbourg le 23 août et 4 septembre 1872". refLex. ... refLex. Council of State (Belgium). 23 October 1872. "Convention entre la Belgique et le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg pour assurer ... refLex. Council of State (Belgium). 11 July 1872. Ministry of Public Works, Chemin de fer de l'état. Postes - Télégraphes. ...
"RefleX". Reflex.gforge.inria.fr. Retrieved 2012-11-12. "RefleX". Reflex.gforge.inria.fr. Retrieved 2012-11-12. "vauto - ... ". "reflex-unit - Unit testing framework for Flex 2/3 - Google Project Hosting". Retrieved 2012-11-12. "astuce - a JUnit clone ...
Just, Vladimír (4 February 2004). "Werner Schwab". Reflex. Retrieved 2 November 2009. (Prezidentky, dříve než režisér s nimi ... Reslová, Marie (20 June 2002). "Petr Lébl" (in Czech). Reflex. Retrieved 28 October 2009. Velemanová, Věra (28 February 2005 ... Petrová, Pavla (17 September 2009). "Kdo je největší divadelní osobností?" (in Czech). Reflex. Retrieved 28 October 2009. "Petr ... Lébl was voted the most significant Czech theatre personality of the 1989-2009 period in the poll of the Czech magazine Reflex ...
A smála se" (in Czech). Reflex. Retrieved 8 January 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Jiřina Jirásková at IMDb ...
Reflex. Retrieved 11 January 2013. Czech National Council (16 December 1992). "Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ...
"Convention postale entre la Belgique et l'office du Prince de la Tour et Taxis, signée à Bruxelles". refLex. Council of State ( ...
"Reflex". Foster, Andy (2005). Birmingham: Pevsner Architectural Guides. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300107319. ...
This orienting reflex seems to be present early in development, as babies will turn their head toward an environmental change ( ... The phenomenon was first described by Russian physiologist Ivan Sechenov in his 1863 book Reflexes of the Brain, and the term ... The orienting response (OR), also called orienting reflex, is an organism's immediate response to a change in its environment, ... reflex. The orienting response is a reaction to novel or significant stimuli. In the 1950s the orienting response was studied ...
Život ukončila skokem pod vlak" (in Czech). Reflex. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014. "Pop star Iveta Bartošová dies". ...
"Loi du 18 juillet 1860 portant abolition des octrois communaux". refLex. Council of State (Belgium). 18 July 1860. Olivier Keun ...
"Odpojit? Neodpojit?" (in Czech). Reflex. Retrieved 7 June 2009. "Zemřel kreslíř Kája Saudek" (in Czech). novinky.cz. 26 June ... Reflex) (in Czech) Kniha o Saudkovi se rodila v bolestech, neochotná byla rodina i sběratelé (iDnes) (in Czech) Kája Saudek byl ...
"Politika v Česku v roce 2014: Jmenování vlády a troje volby" (in Czech). Reflex. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. ...
... refLex. Council of State (Belgium). 8 October 1848. "Convention postale entre la Belgique et la Grande-Bretagne". refLex. ... refLex. Council of State (Belgium). 24 February 1848. "Convention entre la Belgique, la France et la Prusse (Zollverein), ...
... refLex. Council of State (Belgium). 27 May 1836. On Google Books On Internet Archive On Google Books. On Google Books vol. 10, ...
... website Aštar Šeran (Reflex 2003) Řídí Daniela Landu mimozemšťané? (Reflex 2005) Ještírci napadli web ... Vojtíšek (2004), p. 282 Blumfeld, S. M. "Aštar Šeran" (in Czech). Reflex. Retrieved 2009-12-08. Vojtíšek (2004), p. 280 The ...
"Jsem pozitivní panic, říká herec Kryštof Hádek". Reflex. Retrieved 23 June 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Český ...
Gregor, Marek (9 February 2018). "Kristián Mensa: Český kluk, který hravými kresbami mění svět". reflex.cz. Reflex. Retrieved 1 ... Český tanečník Kristián Mensa boduje svým uměním ve světě". reflex.cz. Reflex. 1 November 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2020. ...
Galant reflex, or truncal incurvation reflex, is a newborn reflex, named after neurologist Johann Susmann Galant. It is ... This is one of the reflexes tested in newborns to help rule out brain damage at birth. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Galant_reflex&oldid=866025822" ... Accommodation reflex. pons/medulla: Jaw jerk reflex. *Corneal reflex. *Caloric reflex test/Vestibulo-ocular reflex/ ...
Reflex syncope is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure.[2] Before the person ... Reflex syncope occurs in response to a trigger due to dysfunction of the heart rate and blood pressure regulating mechanism. ... Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus.[2] Vasovagal syncope is typically ... Treatment for reflex syncope focuses on avoidance of triggers, restoring blood flow to the brain during an impending episode, ...
Summary : Gag reflex is of psychogenic in origin. The hyperactive gag reflex produces lots of clinical difficulties for the ... Schote (1959) related the gag reflex to the vomiting reflex and describe that the vomiting center lies in the dorsal portion of ... Gag reflex * 1. Introduction In day to day practice prosthodontists and general dentists frequently come across patients who ... When the gag reflex consitently failed to occur, the patient inserted the upper denture. He signals when gagging seems imminent ...
... User Contributed Perl Documentation Reflex::Eg(3) NAME Reflex::Eg - Reflex examples namespace VERSION This ... EXAMPLES Index of examples using this namespace: o Reflex::Eg::Inheritance::Moose o Reflex::Eg::Inheritance::Plain SEE ALSO ... perl v5.32.0 2017-04-02 Reflex::Eg(3) NAME , VERSION , EXAMPLES , SEE ALSO , BUGS AND LIMITATIONS , AUTHOR , COPYRIGHT AND ... Reflex,. AUTHOR Rocco Caputo ,[email protected], COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE This software is copyright (c) 2017 by Rocco Caputo. This ...
reflexes* The term reflex was first used to describe an automatic, almost immediate movement in response to a stimulus, ... See conditioned reflex, Moro reflex, patellar reflex, plantar (reflex), pupillary reflex, rooting reflex. r. arc the nervous ... Inborn reflexes in adults include the knee-jerk reflex and various skin reflexes to heat or pressure . Other reflexes include ... Such reflexes are known as monosynaptic spinal reflexes; an example is the stretch reflex. Other spinal reflexes involve more ...
Reversi Reflex is a compact classical reversi game featuring brilliant visual designs and an original artificial intelligence ... Reversi Reflex is a compact classical reversi game featuring brilliant visual designs and an original artificial intelligence ...
Definition Reflex tests [2] are simple physical tests of nervous system [3] function. Purpose A reflex is a simple nerve ... Deep tendon reflexes are responses to muscle stretch. The familiar "knee-jerk" reflex is an example of a reflex. This tests the ... Deep tendon reflexes are responses to muscle stretch. The familiar knee-jerk reflex is an example; this reflex tests the ... Deep tendon reflexes are responses to muscle stretch. The familiar "knee-jerk" reflex is an example; this reflex tests the ...
The flexor and extensor reflexes are only two examples of the sequential ordering of muscular contraction and relaxation. ... Other articles where Extensor reflex is discussed: human nervous system: Reciprocal innervation: ... The flexor and extensor reflexes are only two examples of the sequential ordering of muscular contraction and relaxation. ...
o Reflex o Reflex o Reflex::Role::Connecting o Reflex::Acceptor o Reflex::Connector o "ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS" in Reflex o " ... in Reflex o "BUGS" in Reflex o "CONTRIBUTORS" in Reflex o "COPYRIGHT" in Reflex o "LICENSE" in Reflex o "TODO" in Reflex BUGS ... Reflex::Role::AcceptinUser Contributed Perl DocumentReflex::Role::Accepting(3) NAME Reflex::Role::Accepting - add connection ... SYNOPSIS package Reflex::Acceptor; use Moose; extends Reflex::Base; has listener =, ( is =, rw, isa =, FileHandle, ...
NeurologicalNeurologic ExaminationReflexReflex, Abnormal. All MeSH CategoriesAnalytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques ... Reflex, Abnormal. An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the ... All MeSH CategoriesDiseases CategoryNervous System DiseasesNeurologic ManifestationsReflex, Abnormal ... and Equipment CategoryDiagnosisDiagnostic Techniques and ProceduresPhysical ExaminationNeurologic ExaminationReflexReflex, ...
Reflex::POE::Wheel::Run - Adapt POE::Wheel::Run by wrapping it in a Reflex class. *Object Collections *Reflex::Collection - ... Reflex::Signal - A non-blocking signal watcher. *Timers *Reflex::Interval - A non-blocking periodic interval timer. *Reflex:: ... Reflex - Youre reading it!. Reflex::Base - A base class for reactive (aka, event driven) objects.. Reflex::Role - Define a new ... Reflex::POE::Wheel - A generic POE::Wheel adapter to use them in Reflex.. Reflex::POE::Wheel::Run - Adapt POE::Wheel::Run by ...
Reflexes that involve sucking and turning toward stimuli are intended to maintain sustenance, while those involving eye-closing ... Other articles where Grasp reflex is discussed: human behaviour: The newborn infant: He will grasp a finger or other object ... Reflexes that involve sucking and turning toward stimuli are intended to maintain sustenance, while those involving eye-closing ... Some reflexes involving the limbs or digits… ... inherited reflex. Palmar grasp reflex in a newborn.. © Tony ...
... , which is based in Laval, Canada, designs and manufactures reliable optical inserts and production molds for ... DBM Reflex needed to reduce CAD design and capture its sophisticated optical intellectual property to optimize reuse. ... CATIA Knowledgeware and CAA Extended Development allow DBM Reflex to shorten lead times, reduce costs, control pricing, raise ... The company has been delivering specialty technologies, including reflex electroform inserts and the latest in automotive LED ...
encoded search term (What is the continence reflex?) and What is the continence reflex? What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... What is the continence reflex?. Updated: Dec 06, 2018 * Author: Bradley C Gill, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Edward David Kim, MD, ...
The Moro reflex is one of many reflexes that are seen at birth. It normally goes away after 3 or 4 months. ... A reflex is a type of involuntary (without trying) response to stimulation. ... A reflex is a type of involuntary (without trying) response to stimulation. The Moro reflex is one of many reflexes that are ... An abnormal Moro reflex is most often discovered by the provider. The provider will perform a physical exam and ask about the ...
Report abuse for Reflex Math (Unofficial). Use this form only if you feel this item violates the Chrome Web Store Content ... AppsEducationReflex Math (Unofficial)Report Abuse. ...
usr/bin/env perl use warnings; use strict; use Reflex::Timeout; my $to = Reflex::Timeout-,new( delay =, 1, on_done =, \&handle_ ... timeout, ); Reflex-,run_all(); exit; sub handle_timeout { print got timeout\n; $to-,reset(); }. DESCRIPTION Reflex::Timeout ... Module Version: 0.099 Source Latest Release: Reflex-0.100 *NAME *VERSION *SYNOPSIS *DESCRIPTION *Public Attributes *delay * ... TODO in Reflex. BUGS AND LIMITATIONS You can make new bug reports, and view existing ones, through the web interface at http ...
This app is a kiosk app for students to quickly access their reflex account without having to completely login into a ... This app is a kiosk app for students to quickly access their reflex account without having to completely login into a ... This app is a kiosk app for students to quickly access their reflex account without having to completely login into a ...
Lucky Rabbit Reflex! sees our seventeen-year old heroine beginning her first and final year at a new school. Will she find ... An otome dating simulation game, Lucky Rabbit Reflex! sees our seventeen-year old heroine beginning her first and final year at ... "Packed with humour, charm, and some genuine heart, Lucky Rabbit Reflex! is a warm, engaging, and blissfully drama-free ... An otome (Girl pursues Boy) dating simulation game, Lucky Rabbit Reflex! sees our seventeen-year old heroine beginning her ...
1. light reflex, pupillary reflex, miosis, myosis, reflex, reflex response, reflex action, instinctive reflex, innate reflex, ... inborn reflex, unconditioned reflex, physiological reaction. usage: reflex contraction of the sphincter muscle of the iris in ...
Reflexes are responses that occur when the body receives a certain stimulus. ... Babinski reflex is one of the normal reflexes in infants. ... Babinski reflex is one of the normal reflexes in infants. ... When the Babinski reflex is present in a child older than 2 years or in an adult, it is often a sign of a central nervous ... The Babinski reflex occurs after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked. The big toe then moves upward or toward the top ...
Unlock five new events in the exclusive Reflex Special Series. Expand your racing career and earn in-game credits to purchase ... Unlock five new events in the exclusive Reflex Special Series. Expand your racing career and earn in-game credits to purchase ... http://marketplace.xbox.com/en-us/Product/Reflex-Special-Series/00000000-0000-400c-80cf-000354510829?cid=SLink Click to create ...
The reflex was an interesting radio receiver circuit that had a certain vogue amongst constructors of the 1920s and 1930s, ... Mammalian Diving Reflex. vapor. I Dont Like Mondays. bracket. Learning from experience. BrevityQuest09. dolls eye reflex. ... Moro Reflex. Palmar Grasp. Eye Blink. Withdrawal. Rooting. Sucking. Swimming. Tonic Neck. Stepping. Babinski Reflex. (Have ... An involuntary movement produced by reflex action.. Patellar reflex. See Knee jerk, under Knee. © Webster 1913. Re*flex" (r?*fl ...
Zero Reflex (Zero Reflex is a psychedelic evader. Do you have what it takes?) and many other apps. For Free. ... Zero Reflex 1.1.3 Zero Reflex is a psychedelic evader. Do you have what it takes? ... A reflex game for Android with 3D effects. … Turn the ball to get past obstacles to reach the end of each level of the game. ... ATV Reflex 2016 A racing game where you get to compete using motorcycles and ATVs ...
Lean your rider to take tighter turns and higher jumps as you power your bike independently. Avoid catastrophic wrecks with separate controls for the rider and vehicle. Dual controls let you tear it up with death-defying tricks and high-flying freestyle action. Fight for traction while you dig up the track to force the competition to carve new race lines. Grip tight and hang on, youre in control!
This review elucidates the nomenclature and pathophysiology of various forms of reflex syncope, including vasovagal syncope, ... In reflex syncope, the fall in cerebral blood flow (CBF) occurs when the normal reflexes regulating BP and heart rate go awry. ... "Reflex syncope" is the preferred term for syncope due to a failure of normal reflex control of BP. ... Specific Pathophysiologic Features of Reflex Syncope As previously noted, reflex syncope includes: VVS, carotid ...
ATV Reflex, MX vs. ATV Supercross Encore, MX vs. ATV Unleashed, MX vs. ATV Supercross Encore - Supercross Track Pack 1, MX vs. ... ATV Reflex. Genre: Racing. Developer: Double Helix Games, Rainbow Studios, THQ Nordic ... ATV Reflex and their respective logos are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of THQ Nordic AB. All rights reserved. All ... Test Your Reflexes. *Dual controls allow you to control your rider as you power your vehicle independently.. ...
Change your life Watch it Kim Fox Andy Tran gag reflex Austin improv funny humor sketch motivational speaker comedy golf bomb ...
Small reflex finders for many telescopes... Description:. Similar to other small reflex finders on the market. They are ... Reflex NOTS. - hard to use in light-polluted backyards as you are limited to naked-eye stars (which, by the way, are dimmed by ... Using Reflex Finders. Im a straight-through finder addict. So my view of the hots and nots of these new things might have a ... Reflex HOTS. - to locate naked-eye visible objects or objects you know by heart (when like me you have looked at M13 every ...
Reflex™ Defensive Rider Systems is a new collection of technology designed to match motorcycle performance to available ... Reflex™ Defensive Rider Systems (RDRS) is a new collection of technology designed to match motorcycle performance to available ... Watch the animations below and learn about the advanced Reflex™ Defensive Rider Systems (RDRS) technologies. NOTE: The red ...
  • Ninja Reflex, as its name suggests is essentially a collection of six casual mini-games where you get to test your reflexes. (play-asia.com)
  • This module (which has recently been updated) will test your reflexes to sight and sound input. (csun.edu)
  • The flexibility of the adjustable chrome-plated brass disk provides greater effectiveness in eliciting myotatic reflex involving ankle, knee, abdomen, forearm, biceps, and triceps. (aan.com)
  • The myotatic or muscle stretch reflexes (sometimes known as deep tendon reflexes) provide information on the integrity of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deep tendon reflexes are responses to muscle stretch. (encyclopedia.com)
  • List of reflexes (alphabetical) All-or-none law Automatic behavior Conditioned reflex Instinct Jumping Frenchmen of Maine Preflexes Voluntary action parveen (November 11, 2020). (wikipedia.org)
  • a tap to the patellar tendon (just below the front of the knee) causes a reflex twitch in the quadriceps muscles (the muscle mass on the front of the thigh). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The flexor and extensor reflexes are only two examples of the sequential ordering of muscular contraction and relaxation. (britannica.com)
  • What Is Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (RSD)? (medicinenet.com)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also called reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome , is a chronic pain condition in which high levels of nerve impulses are sent to an affected site. (webmd.com)
  • A stretch reflex is the contraction of a muscle in response to its lengthwise stretch. (wikipedia.org)
  • A good example of reflex modulation is the stretch reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a muscle is stretched at rest, the stretch reflex leads to contraction of the muscle, thereby opposing stretch (resistance reflex). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagram of spinal column numbered and color coded to indicate areas responsible for muscle stretch reflexes and cutaneous reflexes. (smartdraw.com)
  • Although it was most always a minor annoyance, this hyper startle reflex thing became UNBEARABLE 2 years ago and lasted about 8 months. (dailystrength.org)
  • Without it, the individual still shows the pupillary reflex to light, but has no sensations of sight. (dictionary.com)
  • Generally, decreased reflexes indicate a peripheral problem, and lively or exaggerated reflexes a central one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The testing of these reflexes, together with a knowledge of the different levels of the spinal cord responsible for each of them, provides a clinical method of examining the integrity of a reflex arc involving particular peripheral nerves and segments of the spinal cord. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Is your Sony SAL500F80 Camera 500mm F8 Reflex Lens letting you down? (tradebit.com)
  • Just on a lark, since I had a little sunshine, today, I decided to use my Vivitar 500mm f /8 Reflex (Mirror) lens on my SONY A100, just to see what 'Super SteadyShot' could do with it. (dcresource.com)
  • Heck, I figure this would make a great backpacking combo, as the Vivitar 500mm f/8 Reflex is not much larger than the TA m RO n SP AF17-50mm f/2.8 XR Di-II LD and weighs about the same. (dcresource.com)
  • In biology, a reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary, unplanned, sequence of action and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reflex is a type of involuntary (without trying) response to stimulation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although the diving reflex is involuntary, a 2000 study by Erika Schagatay , then at Lund University in Sweden, and her colleagues found that with experience, human divers could significantly increase the magnitude of some of these changes and delay the point at which they have to take a breath. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is an involuntary internal anal sphincter relaxation in response to rectal distention. (healthline.com)
  • The Moro reflex is one of many reflexes that are seen at birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To see the Moro reflex, the child will be placed face up on a soft, padded surface. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Absence of the Moro reflex in an infant is abnormal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A Moro reflex in an older infant, child, or adult is abnormal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An abnormal Moro reflex is most often discovered by the provider. (medlineplus.gov)
  • reflexes The term 'reflex' was first used to describe an automatic, almost immediate movement in response to a stimulus, involving a nerve circuit that traverses the spinal cord . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The study by Sherrington and colleagues of the spinal reflex provided an understanding of the basis of the simplest neural circuits in the central nervous system , an understanding on which subsequent advances in neuroscience relied. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although simple manifestations of activity of the central nervous system , spinal reflexes are meaningful, in that each reflex subserves an obvious function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The study of spinal reflexes allowed early workers to deduce properties of transmission of information from the sensory nerve fibres to the motor nerve cells within the spinal cord. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Reflex tests are performed as part of a neurological exam, either a mini-exam done to quickly confirm integrity of the spinal cord or a more complete exam performed to diagnose the presence and location of spinal cord injury or neuromuscular disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • this reflex tests the integrity of the spinal cord in the lower back region. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tendon reflexes for predicting movement recovery after acute spinal cord injury in humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Multipurpose Aiming Reflex Sight (MARS) is used as a standard sight on the IDF Tavor assault rifle. (defense-update.com)
  • ITL also introduced the Raptor, a small form factor, low-silhouette mini-reflex sight. (defense-update.com)
  • Reflex syncope occurs in response to a trigger due to dysfunction of the heart rate and blood pressure regulating mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Babinski reflex occurs after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked. (medlineplus.gov)
  • convergence reflex) a reflex that occurs when an individual focuses on a near object, in which the crystalline lens becomes more convex, the pupils constrict, and the eyes turn inwards. (oxfordreference.com)
  • The defecation reflex occurs when the internal anal sphincter relaxes and the external anal sphincter contracts. (healthline.com)
  • When this occurs, the urge to go to the bathroom may not be as strong as when both reflexes are working. (healthline.com)
  • The reflex is then an automatic response to a stimulus that does not receive or need conscious thought. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reflex requires sensory receptors that detect the stimulus, sensory nerve fibres that conduct the information to the central nervous system (CNS), neurons in the CNS itself, nerve fibres conducting the command away from the CNS, and the effector . (encyclopedia.com)
  • In animal experiments, Sherrington showed that the adequate stimulus for this reflex was a mere 0.01 mm elongation of the quadriceps muscle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Reflexes can be difficult to elicit if the person is paying too much attention to the stimulus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Reflexes are responses that occur when the body receives a certain stimulus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Jul 7, 2003, Joseph Palenchar ReFLEX White Paper at the Wayback Machine (archived 6 December 2016) Two Way Paging Article Article "ReFLEX Rules: The Role of Pervasive Low-Cost Networks and Devices in the Future of Mobile Data Messaging whitepaper" (pdf). (wikipedia.org)
  • Newborn babies have a number of other reflexes which are not seen in adults, referred to as primitive reflexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galant reflex , or truncal incurvation reflex , is a newborn reflex , named after neurologist Johann Susmann Galant . (wikipedia.org)
  • Newborn babies have a particular set of reflexes not present in older babies, children, and adults. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Palmar grasp reflex in a newborn. (britannica.com)
  • This is a normal reflex present in newborn infants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You can make new bug reports, and view existing ones, through the web interface at http://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Reflex . (cpan.org)
  • 2001-2007 Honda NSS250 NSS250S NSS250A NSS250AS Reflex Service Repair Workshop Manual This is the COMPLETE official workshop Service and Repair Manual for Honda NSS250 NSS250S NSS250A NSS250AS Reflex Motorcycle. (tradebit.com)
  • This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes. (nih.gov)
  • If the reflex is absent or abnormal, further tests may need to be done to examine the child's muscles and nerves. (medlineplus.gov)
  • He was brain dead with Glasgow Coma Score of 3 and absent corneal reflexes . (tripdatabase.com)
  • Reflexes that involve sucking and turning toward stimuli are intended to maintain sustenance, while those involving eye-closing or muscle withdrawal are intended to ward off danger. (britannica.com)
  • The resulting CR, the Cartesian reflex, resembles eyeblink CRs observed with more conventional `unconditioned stimuli' such as an air puff ( humans ) or electric shock ( rabbits ). (umass.edu)
  • During voluntary movements, however, the intensity (gain) of the reflex is reduced or its sign is even reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This prevents resistance reflexes from impeding movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Created by Nunchuck Games and developed by Sanzaru Games Inc. exclusively for the Nintendo Wii and DS, Ninja Reflex helps players hone their reaction times, twitch skills and reflexes with martial arts movements that take full advantage of the Wii Remote™ and DS stylus. (play-asia.com)
  • Like conditioned eyeblink responses, Cartesian reflexes are eyelid movements that anticipate a feared or expected event. (umass.edu)
  • Parents should only be concerned when they are told of abnormal reflex test results. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Reflex error callbacks include three standard values. (freebsd.org)
  • Reflex provides adapters for nearly every kind of callback that exists, including condvar-like promises that allow Reflex objects to be used inline without callbacks at all. (cpan.org)
  • The defecation reflex triggers the two main sphincters around the anal canal. (healthline.com)
  • Reflex syncope is a brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reflex syncope is divided into three types: vasovagal, situational, and carotid sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Reflex syncope affects at least 1 per 1,000 people a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • As previously noted, reflex syncope includes: VVS, carotid hypersensitivity syncope, as well as several, so-called, "situational" syncope syndromes ( Table 1 ). (medscape.com)
  • Also, while the afferent limb may differ among the various forms of reflex syncope, the efferent limb is seemingly relatively similar. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, the term "vasodepressor" implies an in-depth knowledge of the syncope mechanism and should not be used as a synonym for reflex syncope or a descriptor of VVS unless that additional insight into the mechanism of syncope is known. (medscape.com)
  • In the majority of cases, reflex syncope is accompanied by a marked or relative decrease in heart rate. (medscape.com)
  • Since CO is the product of SV and HR, even if HR is maintained a fall in SV will result in a fall in CO. Recent work suggests that the primary cause of hypotension in reflex syncope is not, in fact, a fall in SVR, but rather a fall in CO due to a reduction in SV resulting from an increase in venous capacitance. (medscape.com)
  • The highly variable nature of the cardioinhibitory feature of reflex syncope led to the belief that TLOC was primarily a vasodepressor, and in particular a diminution of SVR event. (medscape.com)
  • an extremely weak gag reflex , and no corneal reflex . (tripdatabase.com)
  • Mention is also made of the corneal reflex , eyelid closure and the pupillary response. (tripdatabase.com)
  • By photographing the corneal reflex in two positions of gaze and measuring the radius of curvature of the cornea it is possible to calculate the radius of rotation of the eye. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The Cartesian Reflex Project seeks to reestablish human eyelid conditioning as a paradigm for research and teaching. (umass.edu)
  • Der adäquate Reiz des akustischen Pupillenreflexes (Sphincter-Reflex sowie Dilatator-Reflex) sind plötzliche Schallreize von 1000 bis 2000 Hz 100 phon in dunklen sowie auch im hellen Zimmer. (springer.com)
  • In the reflex arc, information entered the cord along sensory nerve fibres to elicit activity leaving the cord in motor nerve fibres but, because of the special properties of the synapse, information could not flow in the opposite direction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Reflex has a selection of custom overrides but most notable for the featured content component, where it has a left aligned, and side column-styled date and article info icons , such as print, to provide distinct visuals as compared to the standard Joomla layout. (rockettheme.com)
  • Founded in 2002, Reflex Photonics is an advanced developer of rugged high-speed optical transceiver modules and parallel embedded optics products for space, aerospace, defense, avionics, telecom, data centers and industrial applications. (prweb.com)
  • Another type of reflex test is called the Babinski test, which involves gently stroking the sole of the foot to assess proper development of the spine and cerebral cortex . (encyclopedia.com)
  • When performing the Babinski reflex test, the doctor will gently stroke the outer soles of the person's feet with the mallet while checking to see whether the big toe extends out as a result. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A normal response to the Babinski reflex test depends upon the age of the person being examined. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Babinski reflex is one of the normal reflexes in infants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the Babinski reflex is present in a child older than 2 years or in an adult, it is often a sign of a central nervous system disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Second, the diving reflex makes capillaries in the skin and limbs constrict, redirecting blood away from the body's surface and toward the vital organs. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The present invention is concerned with an improved type of this class of reflex reflectors, and aims to provide a reflex reflector of high brilliancy especially adapted to the making of highway signs, markers, and advertising displays, which will be visible at night at great distances to the occupants of approaching vehicles, but without undue sacrifice of other necessary characteristics. (google.ca)
  • As will hereinafter be pointed out in some detail, there are various characteristics which should be present in a good reflex reflector, and we have discovered that there is such an advantageous combination of properties when the index of refraction is within the critical range that the high brilliancy is not secured at the sacrifice of other necessary or desirable properties. (google.ca)
  • With the above objects in view the invention includes a reflex camera, a reflector which is movable from a viewing position where it reflects an image through the viewfinder and where it intersects the optical axis to an exposure position where it is spaced from the optical axis while an exposureis made. (google.com)
  • Other work in "Lens Reflex," curated by artist Steven Baldi at Thomas Duncan Gallery, tries to turn smooth stylishness on its head, too. (laweekly.com)
  • Lens info here applies to all Angenieux 17-68mm Reflex Zooms. (tradebit.com)
  • Reflex housing for Leica M39 screw-mount cameras, lens front not complete. (liveauctioneers.com)
  • TLR Twin-lens reflex. (swpp.co.uk)
  • A camera with two lenses the upper one is the viewfinder lens that has a mirror reflex view and the bottom one is the taking lens. (swpp.co.uk)
  • probability of success providing the presence of at least two operating airway functions.A simplified clinical pragmatic score assessing cough, deglutition, gag reflex , and neurologic status was developed in a preliminary prospective cohort of brain-injured patients and was internally validated (bootstrapping). (tripdatabase.com)
  • Seizures in this type of reflex epilepsy are usually focal seizures. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • Eg - Reflex examples namespace VERSION This document describes version 0.100, released on April 02, 2017. (freebsd.org)
  • The explanation, many say, is partly rooted in an evolved physiological response that helps seals, whales, otters and other aquatic mammals stay underwater for half an hour or more at a time: the diving reflex. (scientificamerican.com)