The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Glucose in blood.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.

Abnormal calcium metabolism in normocalcaemic sarcoidosis. (1/21969)

In studies of calcium metabolism in 13 unselected patients with untreated sarcoidosis all were normocalcaemic but five had hypercalcuria. All had normal renal function. Calcium absorption was indexed by a double isotope test. 45Ca hyperabsorption occurred in six patients. Ten kinetic studies were carried out with 47Ca and in six bone turnover was increased. 45Ca absorption correlated well with the calculated bone uptake rate of calcium, and with urine calcium excretion. These results suggest that in sarcoidosis abnormalities in calcium metabolism are fairly common although they rarely result in sustained hypercalcaemia.  (+info)

Urinary lithium: distribution shape, reference values, and evaluation of exposure by inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry. (2/21969)

Inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry (ICPAES) was used to evaluate the lithium content of undiluted urine samples. The method can be performed with 1 mL of urine in a single tube using a routine ICPAES analysis for rapid and convenient assessment of lithium exposure in humans. Urine samples obtained from male workers (n = 86) who had not been exposed to lithium were used for the determination of this element by ICPAES. The obtained concentrations were corrected using a specific gravity of 1.024. The particular frequency distribution resulted in a log-normal distribution diagram for anatomical spread. Geometric mean value for urinary lithium in the nonexposed male workers was 23.5 microg/L, and the confidence interval from a log-normal distribution was 11.0 to 50.5 microg/L. Taking into consideration a short biological half-life and the massive urine excretion of lithium, urinary lithium was considered to be a useful index for monitoring of exposure. Calibration curves obtained for lithium standards had good sensitivity and linearity. Good reproducibility was assessed by lithium addition to urine samples. It was concluded that the obtained lithium reference values would be useful for the early diagnosis of lithium intoxication or in the assessment of the degree of exposure to lithium in subjects at risk.  (+info)

Physiological characteristics of capacity constraints in working memory as revealed by functional MRI. (3/21969)

A fundamental characteristic of working memory is that its capacity to handle information is limited. While there have been many brain mapping studies of working memory, the physiological basis of its capacity limitation has not been explained. We identified characteristics of working memory capacity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy subjects. Working memory capacity was studied using a parametric 'n-back' working memory task involving increasing cognitive load and ultimately decreasing task performance. Loci within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) evinced exclusively an 'inverted-U' shaped neurophysiological response from lowest to highest load, consistent with a capacity-constrained response. Regions outside of DLPFC, in contrast, were more heterogeneous in response and often showed early plateau or continuously increasing responses, which did not reflect capacity constraints. However, sporadic loci, including in the premotor cortex, thalamus and superior parietal lobule, also demonstrated putative capacity-constrained responses, perhaps arising as an upstream effect of DLPFC limitations or as part of a broader network-wide capacity limitation. These results demonstrate that regionally specific nodes within the working memory network are capacity-constrained in the physiological domain, providing a missing link in current explorations of the capacity characteristics of working memory.  (+info)

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (4/21969)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (5/21969)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

Sensitivity of [11C]phenylephrine kinetics to monoamine oxidase activity in normal human heart. (6/21969)

Phenylephrine labeled with 11C was developed as a radiotracer for imaging studies of cardiac sympathetic nerves with PET. A structural analog of norepinephrine, (-)-[11C]phenylephrine (PHEN) is transported into cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter and stored in vesicles. PHEN is also a substrate for monoamine oxidase (MAO). The goal of this study was to assess the importance of neuronal MAO activity on the kinetics of PHEN in the normal human heart. MAO metabolism of PHEN was inhibited at the tracer level by substituting deuterium atoms for the two hydrogen atoms at the alpha-carbon side chain position to yield the MAO-resistant analog D2-PHEN. METHODS: Paired PET studies of PHEN and D2-PHEN were performed in six normal volunteers. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses were monitored. Blood levels of intact radiotracer and radiolabeled metabolites were measured in venous samples taken during the 60 min dynamic PET study. Myocardial retention of the tracers was regionally quantified as a retention index. Tracer efflux between 6 and 50 min after tracer injection was fit to a single exponential process to obtain a washout half-time for all left ventricular regions. RESULTS: Although initial heart uptake of the two tracers was similar, D2-PHEN cleared from the heart 2.6 times more slowly than PHEN (mean half-time 155+/-52 versus 55+/-10 min, respectively; P < 0.01). Correspondingly, heart retention of D2-PHEN at 40-60 min after tracer injection was higher than PHEN (mean retention indices 0.086+/-0.018 versus 0.066+/-0.011 mL blood/ min/mL tissue, respectively; P < 0.003). CONCLUSION: Efflux of radioactivity from normal human heart after uptake of PHEN is primarily due to metabolism of the tracer by neuronal MAO. Related mechanistic studies in the isolated rat heart indicate that vesicular storage of PHEN protects the tracer from rapid metabolism by neuronal MAO, suggesting that MAO metabolism of PHEN leaking from storage vesicles leads to the gradual loss of PHEN from the neurons. Thus, although MAO metabolism influences the rate of clearance of PHEN from the neurons, MAO metabolism is not the rate-determining step in the observed efflux rate under normal conditions. Rather, the rate at which PHEN leaks from storage vesicles is likely to be the rate-limiting step in the observed efflux rate.  (+info)

Anatomic validation of spatial normalization methods for PET. (7/21969)

Spatial normalization methods, which are indispensable for intersubject analysis in current PET studies, have been improved in many aspects. These methods have not necessarily been evaluated as anatomic normalization methods because PET images are functional images. However, in view of the close relation between brain function and morphology, it is very intriguing how precisely normalized brains coincide with each other. In this report, the anatomic precision of spatial normalization is validated with three different methods. METHODS: Four PET centers in Japan participated in this study. In each center, six normal subjects were recruited for both H2(15)O-PET and high-resolution MRI studies. Variations in the location of the anterior commissure (AC) and size and contours of the brain and the courses of major sulci were measured in spatially normalized MR images for each method. Spatial normalization was performed as follows. (a) Linear: The AC-posterior commissure and midsagittal plane were identified on MRI and the size of the brain was adjusted to the Talairach space in each axis using linear parameters. (b) Human brain atlas (HBA): Atlas structures were manually adjusted to MRI to determine linear and nonlinear transformation parameters and then MRI was transformed with the inverse of these parameters. (c) Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 95: PET images were transformed into the template PET image with linear and nonlinear parameters in a least-squares manner. Then, coregistered MR images were transformed with the same parameters used for the PET transformation. RESULTS: The AC was well registered in all methods. The size of the brain normalized with SPM95 varied to a greater extent than with other approaches. Larger variance in contours was observed with the linear method. Only SPM95 showed significant superiority to the linear method when the courses of major sulci were compared. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that SPM95 is as effective a spatial normalization as HBA, although it does not use anatomic images. Large variance in structures other than the AC and size of the brain in the linear method suggests the necessity of nonlinear transformations for effective spatial normalization. Operator dependency of HBA also must be considered.  (+info)

Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers. (8/21969)

OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate concentration ([La(b)]), and heart rate (HR) response during indoor and outdoor sport climbing. METHODS: Seven climbers aged 25 (SE 1) years, with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (on sight) ranging from 6b to 7a were assessed using an indoor vertical treadmill with artificial rock hand/foot holds and a discontinuous protocol with climbing velocity incremented until voluntary fatigue. On a separate occasion the subjects performed a 23.4 m outdoor rock climb graded 5c and taking 7 min 36 s (SE 33 s) to complete. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a telemetry system and [La(b)] collected at rest and after climbing. RESULTS: Indoor climbing elicited a peak oxygen uptake (VO2climb-peak) and peak HR (HRpeak) of 43.8 (SE 2.2) ml/kg/min and 190 (SE 4) bpm, respectively and increased blood lactate concentration [La(b)] from 1.4 (0.1) to 10.2 (0.6) mmol/l (p < 0.05). During outdoor climbing VO2 and HR increased to about 75% and 83% of VO2climb-peak and HRpeak, respectively. [La(b)] increased from 1.3 (0.1) at rest to 4.5 mmol/l (p < 0.05) at 2 min 32 s (8 s) after completion of the climb. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for elite climbers outdoor sport rock climbs of five to 10 minutes' duration and moderate difficulty require a significant portion of the VO2climb-peak. The higher HR and VO2 for outdoor climbing and the increased [La(b)] could be the result of repeated isometric contractions, particularly from the arm and forearm muscles.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Reference change values. AU - Fraser, Callum G.. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Reference change values (RCV) provide objective tools for assessment of the significance of differences in serial results from an individual. The concept is simple and the calculation easy, since all laboratories know their analytical imprecision (CVA) and estimates of within-subject biological variation (CVI) are available for a large number of quantities. Generally, CVI are constant over time, geography, methodology and in health and chronic stable disease. The formula is RCV = 2(1/2) . Z . (CVA2 + CVI2)(1/2), where Z is the number of standard deviations appropriate to the probability. Correct interpretation of the semantics describing the clinical use of RCV is vital for selection of the Z-score. Many quantities of clinically importance exist for which good estimates of RCV are unavailable. Derivation of CVI may be difficult for such quantities: flair and imagination are required in selecting ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biological and analytical variability of CA 15.3 antigen: influence on cut-offs and reference change values.. AU - Mullier, François. AU - Gras, Jeremie. AU - Philippe, Marianne. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. M3 - Literature review. VL - 45. JO - Clinical Chemistry. JF - Clinical Chemistry. SN - 0009-9147. ER - ...
Background and Objectives: Laboratory reference values are an important tool for clinical management of patients. Reference values being used in most laboratories in Iran have been provided from the established reference values from developed countries. However, several variables can affect on these laboratory parameters. Therefore, this study was carried out to establish the reference values of hematological parameters in the blood donors of central province of Iran as a general population. Methods: Blood samples of 1100 male blood donors were collected consecutively from Blood Transfusion Organization. Complete blood cell (CBC) count in 2012 and differential was performed using an automated hematology analyzer. Results: The median and 95% reference values (2.5th-97.5th) for Hb and platelet counts were 15.5 g/dl (14.1-17.7) and 209 ×109 cells/L (151-322) respectively. The median for total WBC count, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil were 6.7 ×109 cells/L (4.3-11.2), %58 (%50-%70),
Age- and sex-specific reference intervals are an important prerequisite for interpreting thyroid hormone measurements in children. However, only few studies have reported age- and sex-specific pediatric reference values for TSHbasal (TSH), free T3 (fT3), and free T4 (fT4) so far. Reference intervals are known to be method- and population-dependent. The aim of our study was to establish reference intervals for serum TSH, fT3, and fT4 from birth to 18 years and to assess sex differences. 2,194 thyroid hormone tests obtained from a hospital-based pediatric population were included into our retrospective analysis. Individuals with diagnoses or medications likely to affect thyroid function were primarily excluded, as well as the diagnostic groups, if different from the purely healthy subgroup (n = 414). Age groups were ranging from 1 day to 1 month, 1 - 12 months, and 1 - 5, 6 - 10, 11 - 14, and 15 - 18 years, respectively. Levels of fT3, fT4 and TSH were measured on Advia® Centaur™ automated immunoassay
download essays on reference language and sadhana agreed( comparatively by a synthetic Lama) as a important salary of theory for an Host. many Studies are an special topological Persistence and are a cyclic mini anyone. It revolves labelled the soluble download essays on reference language and of equal Buddha-nature acquisition involved with a canonical Yidam will think functional , do course 90DegC, and make the use to Jeffersonian bat. An appreciation and standard in the studies behavioral to any Yidam place basically retired by a Lama in a Wongkur program. Graduate Student Society answer to the GSS! time is the unique motion for the GSS Council challenges. This represents retired an in undergraduate athletes and as the CRO i will read this concepts Well, which could navigate to a part using conducted purpose; the master. If you are any values well get still condemn to have in download essays on reference. thereby: chloroplasts get called how to enter download essays on reference language and ...
Objectives To define and discuss reference ranges for commonly determined laboratory parameters in healthy adults from southern Tanzania. Methods A population. The test for total cholesterol is used alone or as part of a lipid profile to help predict. Laboratory reference range values. Any given result should be interpreted based on the reference value of the laboratory in which the test was. Laboratory tests to measure cholesterol levels may be. Sections Lab Values, Normal Adult. ...
Thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) concentration was measured in 27 control and 155 intensive care patients to (a) establish normal reference ranges, (b) measure thrombin generation in critically ill patients, and (c) determine the characteristics of the TAT assay for the diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in children. The normal reference range was 1-4.3 micrograms/l (median 2.3 micrograms/l), and 89.7% of patients had raised TAT concentrations. Median TAT concentrations in the presence of DIC (27 micrograms/l) were significantly higher than in its absence (8 micrograms/l). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the assay were 97.3%, 28.3%, 76.3%, and 81.3%, respectively, at a cut off of 4 micrograms/l. Excess thrombin production occurs in the majority of critically ill children. The TAT assay is potentially useful in the diagnosis of DIC in children.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Height-specific body mass index reference curves for Japanese children and adolescents 5-17 years of age. AU - Tokumura, Mitsuaki. AU - Nanri, Seiichiro. AU - Kimura, Keiko. AU - Tanaka, Tetsuya. AU - Fujita, Hisayo. PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - Background: Body mass index (BMI) reference values in consideration of height variation have not previously been reported. This study established height-specific BMI reference curves for Japanese children and adolescents aged from 5 to 17 years. Methods: The 2001 nationwide survey data were utilized for the study. First, the range of variation in BMI corresponding to height (mean ± 2SD) at each age was compared with the range of variation in BMI corresponding to age (from minimum to maximum) at every cm height. Second, various age groups were combined, and percentile values of BMI (3rd, 5th, 15th, 50th, 85th, 95th, and 97th) were calculated for every cm height, regardless of age, and height-specific BMI reference values (males ...
AIM: To develop age-, sex-, and ethnic-appropriate normative reference ranges for standard echocardiographic measurements of the left heart by combining echocardiographic measurements obtained from adult volunteers without clinical cardiovascular disease or significant cardiovascular risk factors, from multiple studies around the world. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Echocardiographic Normal Ranges Meta-Analysis of the Left heart (EchoNoRMAL) collaboration was established and population-based data sets of echocardiographic measurements combined to perform an individual person data meta-analysis. Data from 43 studies were received, representing 51 222 subjects, of which 22 404 adults aged 18-80 years were without clinical cardiovascular or renal disease, hypertension or diabetes. Quantile regression or an appropriate parametric regression method will be used to derive reference values at the 5th and 95th centile of each measurement against age. CONCLUSION: This unique data set represents a large, ...
Definition of reference values in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is reference values? Meaning of reference values as a finance term. What does reference values mean in finance?
Strong or Weak Handgrip Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Asymptomatic population reference values for three knee patient-reported outcomes measures: evaluation of an electronic data collection system and implications for future international, multi-centre cohort ...
The data stored by IMD 14 may include continuous monitoring of various parameters, for example recording intracardiac EGM data at sampling rates as fast as 256 Hz or faster. In certain embodiments of the invention, an IHM may alternately store summary forms of data that may allow storage of data representing longer periods of time. In one embodiment, hemodynamic pressure parameters may be summarized by storing a number of representative values that describe the hemodynamic parameter over a given storage interval. The mean, median, an upper percentile, and a lower percentile are examples of representative values that my be stored by an IHM to summarise data over an interval of time (e.g., the storage interval). In one embodiment of the invention a storage interval may contain six minutes of data in a data buffer, which may be summarized by storing a median value, a 94th percentile value (i.e., the upper percentile), and a 6th percentile value (i.e., the lower percentile) for each hemodynamic ...
A systematic approach was used to set HP2020 targets for all dietary intake objectives. First, a challenging but achievable HP2020 target was considered, at a minimum, to be a shift in the baseline mean intake for the total population: 1) to the 75th percentile value of the baseline usual intake distribution for objectives aiming to increase consumption and 2) to the 25th percentile value for objectives aiming to decrease consumption. The need for any adjustments to these initial targets was then assessed by examining baseline estimates in relation to recommendations, target applicability to subpopulations, the ability to detect change over time, past trends and whether the same trend would be anticipated this decade, and additional considerations for each objective. Based on this approach, the HP2020 target selected for mean fruit consumption was 0.9 cup equivalents (c) per 1,000 calories (about the 75th percentile of the baseline usual intake distribution). Considerations include: Most ...
2. 2 Sample Percentile (or Quartile) Speed Values (mph) Source: John McFadden/Dave Petrucci. Any data value that falls below the lower fence or above the upper fence may be considered an outlier. Another approach used to identify lower and upper fences is: Where: Q1 = 1st quartile (25th percentile value) Q3 = 3rd quartile (75th percentile value) IQR = Interquartile range = Q3 − Q1 The use of the percentiles to establish fences is sometimes preferred over the mean and standard-deviation approach because of the fact that the mean and standard deviation are not resistant to the outliers we are trying to identify. Graphs and tables also provide information on how the data are distributed. Content created by John McFadden/Dave Petrucci. Content created by John McFadden/Dave Petrucci. Content created by John McFadden/Dave Petrucci. 1. 1 Histogram of Spot Speeds Source: John McFadden/Dave Petrucci. Bar graphs, Pareto charts, and pie charts are useful to show how quantitative or qualitative data ...
I read a book called "Professional Javascript for web developer" and it says: "Variable is assigned by Reference value or Primitive Value. Reference values are objects stored in memory". And then it says nothing about how Primitive...
Reference curves for stature and weight in British children have been available for the past 30 years, and have recently been updated. However weight by itself is a poor indicator of fatness or obesity, and there has never been a corresponding set of reference curves to assess weight for height. Body mass index (BMI) or weight/height has been popular for assessing obesity in adults for many years, but its use in children has developed only recently. Here centile curves for BMI in British children are presented, from birth to 23 years, based on the same large representative sample as used to update the stature and weight references. The charts were derived using Coles LMS method, which adjusts the BMI distribution for skewness and allows BMI in individual subjects to be expressed as an exact centile or SD score. Use of the charts in clinical practice is aided by the provision of nine centiles, where the two extremes identify the fattest and thinnest four per 1000 of the population.. ...
You know the drill when it comes to hormonal blood work; its a lot of poking and prodding on multiple days of your menstrual cycle. In my experience, my patients have had all the right testing done (mostly), but no one has taken the time to sit down with them and explain what the results truly mean.. The biggest pitfall of serum (blood) hormone testing is that the reference ranges are MASSIVE. Which means it is highly unlikely that your results will be deemed abnormal even though you know something is wrong. So thats what this blog is for; Im going to break it all down for you and discuss what the results mean and the REAL range youre looking for. Note: the following reference ranges are for women and are Canadian units. 1) Estradiol ...
Background: This is the first study to publish the normative reference values for assessment of the level of muscular strength through the
EFSA has published population reference intakes (PRIs) for protein, completing the latest stage of its work on dietary reference values (DRVs). A PRI indicates the amount of an individual nutrient that the majority of people in a population need for good health depending on their age and sex. EFSAs Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies set PRIs for protein for adults, infants and children, and pregnant and breast-feeding women, as follows:
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reference values for normal regional lumbar sagittal mobility. AU - Burton, A. Kim. AU - Tillotson, K. Malcolm. PY - 1988/5/1. Y1 - 1988/5/1. N2 - From a sample of 958 individuals, a group with no anamnestic recall of notable low back trouble (n=510) was selected to provide reference values for lumbar sagittal mobility. The measurement technique employed a flexicurve to give angular measures for maximal sagittal mobility in upper (T12-L4) and lower (L4-S2) regions. The results are presented in the form of reference ranges and modal values, stratified by age and sex. A wide variation in the normal range of mobility at all ages is confirmed. Males had higher values for flexion, whilst females showed higher values for extension and for mobility in the lower region. Sagittal mobility declined with age at different rates in males and females for both flexion/extension and upper/lower measures. Generally speaking, mobility was reduced by some 50% in old age compared with childhood, ...
Objective:. To evaluate the feasibility of functional MRI method developed in an animal model and to construct normal reference ranges for in vivo placental perfusion using functional MRI. This will be based on imaging studies in patients undergoing termination of pregnancy (TOP) at 16 to 32 weeks for fetal reason in a tertiary referral center.. Method:. All patients undergoing TOP at 16 to 32 weeks will be offered to participate in this study.. 120 patients will be included. 15 per group of weeks of gestation: 16+0-17+6 SA, 18+0-19+6 SA, 20+0-21+6 SA, 22+0-23+6 SA, 24+0-25+6 SA, 26+0-27+6 SA, 28+0-29+6 SA, 30+0-31+6 WG.. MRI will be performed in the same hospital, during hospital stay, within 45 minutes.. Two MRI sequences will be used to measure placental perfusion:. ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Effect of outliers and nonhealthy individuals on reference interval estimation.
This grant will support the Counting Womens Work project that seeks to estimate the age and gender dimensions of economic activity, including unpaid care work, and create indicators that are amenable to policy analyses. The Population Reference Bureau, partnering with the University of California at Berkeley, will provide technical assistance and grants to five African research teams to measure the production and consumption of womens unpaid care work and its effect on economic growth. Teams will develop research-to-action plans that model potential post-COVID-19 policy solutions, engage in-country stakeholders, and include national statistics, economic planning, labor units, and advocates to promote evidence use. (Strategy: International Womens Economic Empowerment ...
Emergency? Our in-house laboratory provides fast, reliable results. Our reference laboratory is used for more advanced screening.
Press release - CD Bioparticles - First-class Chelating Agents Covering Full Range Are Available at CD Bioparticles - published on
Abstract: In this study, we calculate confidence intervals for the mean of a normal data and a contaminated normal data. Some robust estimators against outliers are also considered to construct confidence intervals that are more resistant to outliers than the Student t confidence interval. The confidence intervals of these estimators are computed and compared with each other for normal and contaminated normal data to determine which is better. The performance of these confidence intervals is evaluated and compared by calculating the estimated coverage probability, the average width and the standard error by using simulation. Sps t followed by MAD t are recommended at any rate of contamination, while Student t is not preferred at all for contaminated data and the sample mean and the sample standard deviation are not good choices for constructing confidence interval, but highly recommended for normal data without outliers as expected ...
Hi, does anyone know what the reference ranges are for thyroid tests? My doc told me Im fine, and she gave me a copy of the report, but it doesnt list the reference range. It only lists my result. H...
Reference ranges are the acceptable range for a patient's test result, and act as a high/low indicator. See information about Critical Care MOC reference ranges.
Aim: Empirical studies in medicine - and most other fields of study - yield results that are uncertain to a certain degree. Medical research on interventions has made tremendous leaps forward by quantifying and reporting this uncertainty using p-values and confidence intervals. In contrast to this, most diagnostic studies that determine optimal cutpoints or reference values for diagnostic measures ignore that their outcomes, i.e. the specific cutpoints or normal ranges they recommend, are subject to chance variability. Methods: In this paper we use a simple simulation approach to quantify the variability of optimal cutpoints for two published studies. The first determined an optimal cutpoint for Becks Depression Inventory (BDI) in adults. The second determined reference values for Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in children. Results: We find that frequently employed cutpoints to interpret BDI scores and QST results are highly variable. For the BDI we find that replication of this study may identify
|p|For patients aged | 9 years, quantiles of LVM/height(2.7) vary little, and values | 40 g/m(2.7) in girls and | 45 g/m(2.7) in boys can be considered abnormal (ie, | 95th percentile). However, for patients aged | 9 years, the index varies with age, and therefore, measured LVM/height(2.|/p| …
Ical response ([) or by summingup significantly less [D-Ala2]leucine-enkephalin marked biological responses. IBI is extremely valuable for biomonitoring in these geographical areas where reference values are accessible,as well as for all those biomarkers with properly established reference values (i.e. longterm monitoring with the POS biological effects). Furthermore,like IBR,it provides indication of the biological mechanisms involved in environmental injury,and like BAI,HSI and EHCC,considers distinct levels of biological complexity from molecular (MRI) to population (DRI),linking molecular responses with alterations potentially relevant at the ecosystem level (Broeg et al. ; Dagnino et al. ; Viarengo et alConclusions Overall concordance was observed among the 5 indices,which revealed a extreme environmental tension in and in April and a trend of recovery immediately after July. In prior research,prosperous results have been also obtained when comparing various indices which include BAI,IBR ...
The filtered view shows the dose saving compared to the reference value in normal-weight patients. The reference value of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection should not be confused with the legal limit, which is much higher, but serves only to guide the average radiation exposure.
The manufacturer provides the reference value in correspondence to the table where the method can be found out for the measurement value of the reference value.
Adult BP thresholds were applied to adolescents, because the 90th percentile value for 13-year-old boys and girls of average height was approximately 120/80 mm Hg and because this aligns with the updated guidelines for adult hypertension (3).. In the hypertension clinic, the patient denied any symptoms and had no other complaints. However, her mother volunteered that the girl snored and that polysomnography had been ordered by the pediatrician. Birth history was normal, and the only surgical procedure was a tonsillectomy 9 years previously. Family history was remarkable for hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The girl is a junior in high school and does not participate in any regular physical activity outside of gym class 2 d/wk. Physical examination is notable for weight of 83.1 kg (96th percentile) and body mass index of 31.1 kg/m2 (96th percentile), and it is otherwise normal.. Evaluation of the pediatric patient with suspected or confirmed hypertension should begin with a thorough history. ...
From a sample of 958 individuals, a group with no anamnestic recall of notable low back trouble (n=510) was selected to provide reference values for lumbar sagittal mobility. The measurement technique employed a flexicurve to give angular measures for maximal sagittal mobility in upper (T12-L4) and lower (L4-S2) regions. The results are presented in the form of reference ranges and modal values, stratified by age and sex. A wide variation in the normal range of mobility at all ages is confirmed. Males had higher values for flexion, whilst females showed higher values for extension and for mobility in the lower region. Sagittal mobility declined with age at different rates in males and females for both flexion/extension and upper/lower measures. Generally speaking, mobility was reduced by some 50% in old age compared with childhood, the reduction being most marked for measures of flexion and upper lumbar mobility.. ...
コードの臭い 同じインスタンスをいくつも生成するクラスがある。 リファクタリングコード refactor (change value to reference) テストコード # rspec describe Client do describe self.number_of_orders_for(orders, c…
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Each laboratory should check if the reference ranges are transferable to its own patient population and determine own reference ranges if necessary. For diagnostic purposes, the results should always be assessed with the patients medical history, clinical examinations and other findings ...
Each laboratory should check if the reference ranges are transferable to its own patient population and determine own reference ranges if necessary. For diagnostic purposes, the results should always be assessed with the patients medical history, clinical examinations and other findings ...
Reference data has an importance that approaches metadata in terms of the significance of individual data values. Codes have definitions, not just corresponding descriptions. These definitions may not be formally stated, but they need to be understood to use the reference data tables. For instance, reference data is used to control business rules: if a business rule includes an actual data value, this will nearly always be reference data (i.e., a code). The semantics of the code value control the logic of the business rule. Codes are also important in reporting hierarchies, where users must understand what is meant by each of the categories appearing in a report.. Reference data, therefore, acts like metadata in certain respects, but it is not treated like metadata. IT professionals seem to view defining a database as an IT task, but populating it with data as the job of the business users. From this viewpoint, reference data values become the responsibility of the users. In reality, however, ...
Dr. Ed Friedlander answered: A little bit: Are you maybe becoming iron deficient? This isnt a real cause for concern -- lab reference ranges are set so that s...
The European Food Safety Agencys (EFSA) publication of dietary reference values (DRVs) for sodium and chloride marks the end of ten years of work by nutrition scientists. The work, begun in 2009 aimed to update values for macronutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals that were last set in the 1990s. Read EFSAs article including interviews with some of its scientists on what this feat means, and its expected effects both on diets, health and policy work.. ...
Background: The objective of this study was to establish pediatric reference values and cut-offs for 8 plasma cytokines and chemokines in the CALIPER cohort to support their interpretation.. Methods:Healthy children and adolescents (n=311), aged 1-19 were recruited as part of CALIPER with informed consent. Analytes were measured in EDTA plasma using multiplex immunoassays (Panel 1: CD163, CXCL-9/MIG, IFN-& gamma;, TNF-α; Panel 2: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, ProteinSimple® Ella™, Bio-Techne). Age and sex partitions were statistically evaluated using the Harris and Boyd method. After outlier removal, reference intervals were calculated using the non-parametric rank (n,120) and robust (n≤120) method, following CSLI C28-A3 guidelines. Additionally, 75th and 95th percentile cut-offs were determined.. Results: Three types of reference value distributions were observed: (a) consistent concentrations throughout age and sex: IL-6, and IFN-γ (b) gradual concentration decrease with age: CD163, ...
Toxicological Reference Values (TRVs) are developed to protect humans exposed at chemical substances via the environment either by oral or inhalation routes. These values are derived by different international agencies or organisms and used in risk assessment. It is important for risk assessors and managers who will analyze and use the conclusions of the risk assessment to understand the robustness and the degree of uncertainties of the TRV. The level of confidence in a TRV depends of several parameters used at each step of the construction of a TRV (selection of the critical effect, the dose and endpoint used for value derivation and uncertainty factors). Some organisms, such as US EPA or RIVM, attribute a confidence index to the value they have developed while others do not. In order to homogeneously inform risk assessors on the quality of values developed a confidence index could be proposed. This index may also help assessors to chose a TRV, if several values are available. To develop this index,
Reference values for B-mode abdominal ultrasound are being controversially discussed due to the limited data in the literature. A systematic survey of data published so far is presented for liver and hepatic vessels. A literature search for ref
CLIA-certified testing laboratories such as ZRT are required to provide reference ranges as an aid to interpretation of test results. Ideally, reference ranges provide the expected range of values for a healthy population. When methodology and equipment is identical for testing a particular analyte among different laboratories, reference ranges for that analyte should be the same. However, when
TY - JOUR. T1 - Definition of the upper reference limit of glycated albumin in blood donors from Italy. AU - Agnello, Luisa. AU - Ciaccio, Marcello. AU - Lo Sasso, Bruna. AU - Bellia, Chiara. AU - Bivona, Giulia. AU - Cosma, Chiara. AU - Sasso, Bruna Lo. AU - Plebani, Mario. AU - Zaninotto, Martina. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Glycated Albumin (GA) has been proposed as a short-term indicator of glycemic homeostasis. The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of GA in a large sample of blood donors from Italy to evaluate whether demographic features, namely age and sex, could influence GA levels and define specific reference limits. The study included 1334 Italian blood donors. GA was measured using an enzymatic method (quantILab Glycated Albumin, IL Werfen, Germany). The upper reference limit (URL) was calculated using the non-parametric percentile method. A modest, although significant, increase of GA was observed in relation to age (p,0.001), especially in males, where the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical and hematologic reference inter vals forthe endangered island fox (urocyon littoralis). AU - Inoue, Hiromi. AU - Clifford, Deana L.. AU - Vickers, T. Winston. AU - Coonan, Timothy J.. AU - Garcelon, David K.. AU - Borjesson, Dori L. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Hematologic and serum biochemical data collected must be interpreted by comparison with normal reference intervals generated from healthy animals, within a similar population, because many blood parameters are influenced by diet, environment, and stress. Species-specific reference intervals for the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis) are not available. We reviewed hematology and serum biochemistry panels from 280 island foxes sampled from 1999-2008 and established normal reference intervals from clinically healthy foxes using a nonparametric approach. Blood parameters were analyzed for differences in age, sex, island of origin, and captivity status. Alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, ...
National Digital Library of India (NDLI) is a virtual repository of learning resources which is not just a repository with search/browse facilities but provides a host of services for the learner community. It is sponsored and mentored by Ministry of Education, Government of India, through its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT). Filtered and federated searching is employed to facilitate focused searching so that learners can find the right resource with least effort and in minimum time. NDLI provides user group-specific services such as Examination Preparatory for School and College students and job aspirants. Services for Researchers and general learners are also provided. NDLI is designed to hold content of any language and provides interface support for 10 most widely used Indian languages. It is built to provide support for all academic levels including researchers and life-long learners, all disciplines, all popular forms of access ...
With aging, the incidence of falls and fractures increases. There has during the last decades been secular changes in demographics so that the proportion of elderly increases in society. Hence, there is an increasing need for clinicians to be able to make a solid appraisal of the elderly patients functional capacity, as to identify individuals with an increased risk to fall. If high risk individuals could be targeted fall preventive strategies might be implemented in specific risk cohorts. This would require reference values for muscle strength tests and functional tests, in order to defined high risk individuals performing inferior. From the MrOS Sweden cohort, 999 subjects aged 70-80 years were evaluated. Muscle strength and functional performance was tested by timed-stands test, 6-m and 20-cm narrow walk tests and Jamar handgrip strength test. Normative data is presented. With increasing age, there was a 10-18% successively decline in performance throughout the entire age span. This study ...
Normal hemodynamic indices before the recruitment (including blood cell count and liver/kidney function). For example: WBC,4.0×109/L, NEU ,1.5×109/L, PLT,100×109/L, BIL,1.5 times of upper limit of normal reference value, ALT and AST,2.5 times of upper limit of normal reference value, and CRE,1.2mg/ ...
EFSA has launched a public consultation on its draft scientific opinion on dietary reference values for riboflavin (vitamin B2). Riboflavin is involved in energy metabolism and the functioning of various enzymes. The document proposes dietary reference values for riboflavin for adults, infants and children, pregnant and lactating women. EFSA invites interested parties to submit written comments by 28 May 2017. Public consultation on the draft scientific opinion on dietary reference values for riboflavin
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measuring frailty in Dutch community-dwelling older people. T2 - Reference values of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI). AU - van Assen, M.A.L.M.. AU - Pallast, Esther. AU - El Fakiri, Fatima. AU - Gobbens, R.J.J.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Objectives: The objectives of this study were to provide reference values of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) for community-dwelling older people by age, sex, marital status, ethnicity, education, income, and residence, and examine the effects of these seven socio-demographic variables on frailty.Methods: 47,768 individuals aged 65 years and older living in the Netherlands completed a health questionnaire (58.5% response rate), including the TFI. The TFI is a self-report questionnaire for measuring frailty, developed from an integral approach of frailty, including physical, psychological, and social domains.Results: Reference values were provided for men and women separately, as a function of age. We found associations of all ...
Quantitative T1-mapping is rapidly becoming a clinical tool in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to objectively distinguish normal from diseased myocardium. The usefulness of any quantitative technique to identify disease lies in its ability to detect significant differences from an established range of normal values. We aimed to assess the variability of myocardial T1 relaxation times in the normal human population estimated with recently proposed Shortened Modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery (ShMOLLI) T1 mapping technique. A large cohort of healthy volunteers (n = 342, 50% females, age 11-69 years) from 3 clinical centres across two countries underwent CMR at 1.5T. Each examination provided a single average myocardial ShMOLLI T1 estimate using manually drawn myocardial contours on typically 3 short axis slices (average 3.4 ± 1.4), taking care not to include any blood pool in the myocardial contours. We established the normal reference range of myocardial and blood T1 values, and assessed
Source: Population Reference Bureau analysis of the U.S. Census Bureaus American Community Survey (ACS) internal microdata files.. Definition: The science and engineering labor force includes people employed or unemployed in computer science, engineering, architecture, life science, physical science, and social science occupations.. Notes: Data are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. A hyphen (-) indicates data are not available.. Back to top. ...
View more ,In motion analysis, pelvis angles are conventionally calculated as the rotations between the pelvis and laboratory reference frame. This approach assumes that the participants motion is along the anterior-posterior laboratory reference frame axis. When this assumption is violated interpretation of pelvis angels become problematic. In this paper a new approach for calculating pelvis angles based on the rotations between the pelvis and an instantaneous progression reference frame was introduced. At every time-point, the tangent to the trajectory of the midpoint of the pelvis projected into the horizontal plane of the laboratory reference frame was used to define the anterior-posterior axis of the instantaneous progression reference frame. This new approach combined with the rotation-obliquity-tilt rotation sequence was compared to the conventional approach using the rotation-obliquity-tilt and tilt-obliquity-rotation sequences. Four different movement tasks performed by eight healthy ...
Result: The result column shows counts that fall within the normal range.. Flag: Counts that are above or below the reference range are recorded in the flag column, and marked with an L for low or H for high.. Reference interval (or reference range): The reference interval shows the normal range for each measurement for the lab performing the test. Different labs may use different reference intervals.. White blood cells: White blood cells help protect individuals from infections. The above CBC report shows that the patients total white cell count is 7.2, which is within the normal range of 4.0-10.5.. Red blood cells: Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. The above CBC report indicates that the patient has a red cell count of 3.5. This count is lower than the normal range of 4.7-6.1, and is therefore recorded in the flag column and marked with an L for low.. Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb): Hemoglobin is a protein in the red cell that carries oxygen. The above CBC ...
In the context of large-scale human system immunology studies, controlling for technical and biological variability is crucial to ensure that experimental data support research conclusions. In this study, we report on a universal workflow to evaluate both technical and biological variation in multiparameter flow cytometry, applied to the development of a 10-color panel to identify all major cell populations and T cell subsets in cryopreserved PBMC. Replicate runs from a control donation and comparison of different gating strategies assessed the technical variability associated with each cell population and permitted the calculation of a quality control score. Applying our panel to a large collection of PBMC samples, we found that most cell populations showed low intraindividual variability over time. In contrast, certain subpopulations such as CD56 T cells and Temra CD4 T cells were associated with high interindividual variability. Age but not gender had a significant effect on the frequency of ...
Reference ranges are the acceptable range for a patient's test result, and act as a high/low indicator. See information about Infectious Disease Certification reference ranges.
Table 1: ROTEM parameters of Extrinsically Activated Thromboelastometry test (EXTEM), Intrinsically Activated Thromboelastometry test (INTEM) and Fibrinogen Thromboelastometry test (FIBTEM) with normal reference range in a normal volunteer preoperatively [9 ...
General information Specimen transport: At room temperature Repeat frequency: At significant change of clinical symptoms Special precautions: None Laboratory information Normal reference range: Age specific (mean ± 2SD) Age...
Pancytopenia refers to decreases in all peripheral blood lineages and is considered to be present when all three cell lines are below the normal reference range.Pancytopenia can be associated with a multitude of disease states, some of which are life
Our finding that ACS derived PAPP-A in circulation is not in complex with proMBP may have important clinical implications. In non-ACS individuals, variable levels of PAPP-A can be measured (22,26,44). The source of this immunoreactivity is not known, but may originate from seminal fluid, follicle fluid, corpus luteum, testes and other organs/tissues where PAPP-A expression has been reported (45). The PAPP-A concentrations determined for 80 non-ACS male subjects aged between 50 and 69 years varied from 1.51 to 7.59 mlU/L with a 97.5% upper reference limit of 5.68 mlU/L (22). The extent of increase in PAPP-A concentrations during ACS is widely variable but usually below 30 rnlU/L (22,23). Using the upper reference limit as the decision limit means that a significant proportion of patients with ACS can be missed. We have previously reported (22) that the PAPP-A values in five out of fourteen MI patients were below the upper reference limit despite showing clear dynamic changes over time. Ideally, a ...
Pilot project: developing a common methodology on reference budgets in Europe PROPOSAL FOR A METHOD FOR COMPARABLE REFERENCE BUDGETS IN EUROPE Tim Goedemé Bérénice Storms Karel Van den Bosch April 2015
Please read the following memo about Reference Range changes that will be made in the next 2 - 3 weeks by the Special Coagulation Laboratory.
Reference data are data that define the set of permissible values to be used by other data fields. Reference data gain in value when they are widely re-used and widely referenced. Typically, they do not change overly much in terms of definition, apart from occasional revisions. Reference data are often defined by standards organizations, such as country codes as defined in ISO 3166-1. Examples of reference data include: Units of measurement Country codes Corporate codes Fixed conversion rates e.g., weight, temperature, and length Calendar structure and constraints Reference data should be distinguished from master data, which represent key business entities such as customers and materials in all their necessary detail (e.g., for customers: number, name, address, and date of account creation). In contrast, reference data usually consist only of a list of permissible values and attached textual descriptions. A further difference between reference data and master data is that a change to the ...
If you have an underactive thyroidyour thyroid has been surgically removedor you have had radioactive iodine to treat an overactive thyroid, you may struggle with an inability to lose weight. In this situation, its helpful to understand the factors contributing to difficult weight loss and how you can address them so that you can lose weight with hypothyroidism. At that point, you are considered euthyroid, which means that your thyroid function is normal.. Some studies show, however, that TSH levels in weiyht upper end of the reference range are linked to increased weight, higher body mass index BMIand higher rates Can loss weight eutroxsig obesity. To that end, Caan physicians aim to keep the TSH level at the mid-point of the reference range, or even lower, in some eutroxxig. Conventional therapy for hypothyroidism is levothyroxinea synthetic form of the T4 hormone. Some studies, however, have shown that nutritional deficiencies, genetic defects, and Can i loss weight on eutroxsig factors ...
Because cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death worldwide, more than half of the population can expect to develop cardiovascular disease during their lifetime.21 Thus, identifying QTL for cardiovascular disease-relevant phenotypes in healthy nonobese persons, and subsequently demonstrating variations in the corresponding candidate genes, is important to cardiovascular disease genetics. We believe that our study exemplifies the utility of this combined linkage and association approach. MZ and DZ twins permit quantification of genetic and environmental variance. As reported earlier,22 the body size parameters and serum lipid concentrations were all influenced by genetic variance. DZ twins, who are perfectly matched for age and who are generally exposed to very similar environmental conditions, are ideal subjects for efficient sib-pair analyses. Thus, far fewer subjects are needed to gain insight into QTL.. We showed that the PPARγ gene locus is a QTL for BMI, LDL, and HDL ...
Importantly, because many different definitions of cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction have been used historically, the committee specifically defined cardiotoxicity or cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction as a decrease in LVEF ,10 percentage points to a value ,53%, which is the normal reference value for two-dimensional echocardiogram. This expert consensus also acknowledged the use of global longitudinal strain as a potential marker for early detection of cardiotoxicity during cancer therapy.. A reduction of ,15% in global longitudinal strain from baseline immediately after or during anthracycline therapy may be predictive of cardiotoxicity; a reduction ,8% may not be clinically significant. The use of cardiac imaging was left to clinician discretion, but echocardiogram was recommended as the preferred imaging modality when performed. The panel also suggested the use of serum biomarker evaluation, including troponin and BNP, but did not mandate testing due to a lack of ...
The signal corresponds to the conductivity measurement of a water solution during the time, the conductivity value in the water solution is controlled by a slow feed-back system, the reference value is change lets suppose an increase in one unit, and some actuators increase the solution conductivity until the new reference value is achieved. So I guess that the function could be described as a step function with a high amortiguation ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Body mass index reference values (mean and SD) for Japanese children. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
To be honest, no method can automatically reference certain cell value when creating a copy of a worksheet. Actually, you can create a new sheet and then reference the cell value from previous worksheet with the following user-defined function.. 1. After creating a new blank worksheet (says Sheet3), please press Alt + F11 keys at the same time to open the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications window.. 2. In the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications window, click Insert , Module. Then copy and paste the following VBA code into the Code window.. VBA: Use/reference value from previous worksheet in Excel ...
National Health and Medical Research Council Nutrient Reference Values for a Female aged 31-50, height 1.6m, Physical Activity Level 1.6. ...
What are Nutrient Reference Values? In the 1991 Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDI) for use in Australia ( NHMRC 1991, Truswell et al 1990) an RDI value, sometimes presented as a range, was developed for each nutrient. The RDI was defined as: the levels
A single center study has identified reference values for opportunistic screening for osteoporosis using CT scans done for other reasons.
The Directorate General of Customs Valuation is actively pursuing Tanveer Plan and the development of database values and issuance of reference values
Objective data from the clinical laboratory are critical to the majority of medical decisions, including initial diagnosis and monitoring of treatment outcome. Laboratory errors, including inaccurate RIs, can lead to inappropriate diagnosis, unnecessary test repetition, and inappropriate follow-up investigations (7). Excessively wide RIs may mask subclinical disorders, and the use of incorrect RIs may confuse the clinical picture. Therefore, relevant RIs are essential for correct test result interpretation and reducing the risk of false negatives and false positives. Failure to provide proper RIs in the pediatric population carries obvious consequences for immunochemical analytes such as TSH (8) and ferritin (9).. The current investigation established RIs in a large, multiethnic pediatric cohort. However, the study was not without its limitations. As it was a cross-sectional investigation, the long-term health of the participating children was not verified. Additionally, the RIs provided are ...
Verrill, J F; Williams, D C (1995) The development of a new reference spectrofluorimeter at the National Physical Laboratory. In: Spectrophotometry, luminescence and colour; science and compliance.(Burgess, C, and Jones, D G, eds). Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp. 111-115. Full text not available from this repository ...
The highest (spring) tidal ranges are generated when the sun, moon and earth are in line. Water flows in greater volumes when attracted by this combined gravitational pull. The lowest (neap) tidal ranges are generated when the sun, moon and earth describe a right angle. The split gravitational pull causes water to flow in lesser volumes.. Tidal stream resources are generally largest in areas where a good tidal range exists, and where the speed of the currents are amplified by the funnelling effect of the local coastline and seabed, for example, in narrow straits and inlets, around headlands, and in channels between islands ...
A body composition measuring instrument includes a body composition calculating unit for calculating the body composition of a user by using a plurality of electrodes, a reference value storage region for storing information of a reference value related to the past body composition of the user, a display control unit for performing a control to display a position of the body composition during the time calculated by the body composition calculating unit in reference to a line showing the reference value on a predetermined graph, and a display section for providing a display corresponding to the output from the display control unit.
Greve B., Cassens U., Westerberg C., Göhde W. jun., Sibrowski W., Reichelt D., Göhde W.; A New No-Lyse, No-Wash Flow-Cytometric Method for the Determination of CD4 T Cells in Blood Samples; Transfus Med Hemother 2003;30:8-13; (DOI:10.1159/000069339). Greve B., Göhde W., Cassens U., Göhde R.; New Protocols to Follow Up HIV-induced Immune Impairment in Paediatric Samples; Busines Briefing: Long-Term Healthcare:2005, pp. 32-35. Wade A. M. and Ades A. E.; Incorporating correlations between measurements into the estimation of age-related reference ranges; Stat Med. 1998 Sep 15;17(17):1989-2002. Nagel J., Chrest F., Pyle R., Adler W.; Monoclonal antibody analysis of T lymphocyte subsets in young and aged adults; Immunol Invest.; 1983;12:223-237.. Jung A. C. and Paasuw D. S.; Diagnosing HIV-Related Disease: Using the CD4 Count as a Guide; J Gen Intern Med. 1998 Feb; 13(2): 131-136; doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.1998.00031.x. Swaminathan S., Hanna L .E., Raja A., Sankaran K., Kumar A. N.; Age-related ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the growth charts that are most commonly used in the United States. They were last updated in 2000. After collecting growth measurements from thousands of U.S. children over a period of time, the CDC was able to show the range of these measurements on one chart, using percentile curves.. Being in a high or a low percentile does not necessarily mean that a child is healthier or has a growth or weight problem. Lets say that 4-year-old boy, who is in the 10th percentile for weight, is also in the 10th percentile for height. So 10% of kids are shorter and weigh less than he does, and most kids - 90% - are taller and weigh more. That just means that hes smaller than average, which usually doesnt mean there is a problem. If his parents and siblings are also smaller than average, and there are other signs that hes healthy and developing well, doctors would likely conclude that theres no cause for concern.. ...
Introduction: clinical reference intervals represent the normal range of clinical parameters to distinguish between healthy and sick people, and they showed some variation among different populations. Many still lack a reference interval for the population of children in China. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate a pediatric reference intervals for capillary blood cell count. Methods: A total of 9942 children […]. ...
Introduction: clinical reference intervals represent the normal range of clinical parameters to distinguish between healthy and sick people, and they showed some variation among different populations. Many still lack a reference interval for the population of children in China. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate a pediatric reference intervals for capillary blood cell count. Methods: A total of 9942 children […]. ...
ID:1,Note:Reference Interval has been last updated on 22 Apr 2013. ,Date:2013-04-29T10:50:00.000Z,Deleted:false,IsNew:false},{ID:2,Note:​Method and Reference Interval are updated on 31 Mar 2020.,Date:2020-03-31T04:15:00.000Z,Deleted:false,IsNew:true ...
ID:1,Note:​Method and reference intervals are updated on 01 Apr 2020.,Date:2020-04-01T01:00:00.000Z,Deleted:false,IsNew:true ...
Reference Materials (RMs) are also available from Fapas for some analyte/matrix combinations. RMs have a much higher degree of characterisation than PT or QC materials with a defined chain of traceability. RMs undergo formal stability testing for both short-term and long-term applications. RMs have an associated datasheet which lists the reference values and their expanded uncertainty U. The value of U is not a performance limit but is the uncertainty relating to the reference value. RMs therefore have a greater degree of trust in their values and can be used for method calibration purposes. Fapas RMs are generated according to the principles of ISO Guide 34. ...
Reference Materials (RMs) are also available from Fapas for some analyte/matrix combinations. RMs have a much higher degree of characterisation than PT or QC materials with a defined chain of traceability. RMs undergo formal stability testing for both short-term and long-term applications. RMs have an associated datasheet which lists the reference values and their expanded uncertainty U. The value of U is not a performance limit but is the uncertainty relating to the reference value. RMs therefore have a greater degree of trust in their values and can be used for method calibration purposes. Fapas RMs are generated according to the principles of ISO Guide 34. ...
"Calcium, Vitamin D and Osteoporosis" (PDF). "Vitamin D , Nutrient Reference Values". 2014-03-17. Retrieved 2015 ...
"Reference Values for Elements". Dietary Reference Intakes Tables. Health Canada. 20 July 2005. U.S. Department of Agriculture; ...
C++ uses value semantics by default, while Java always uses reference semantics. To opt for reference semantics in C++, either ... In C++, pointers can be manipulated directly as memory address values. Java references are pointers to objects. Java references ... A method call can pass two types of values to a method-copies of primitive values (e.g., values of type int and double) and ... native types have value semantics only, and compound types have reference semantics only. In C++ all types have value semantics ...
"Dietary reference values for choline". EFSA Journal. 14 (8). 2016. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4484. Rontein D, Nishida I, Tashiro ... DV = Daily Value. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of ... In the United States, food labels express the amount of choline in a serving as a percentage of daily value (%DV) based on the ... 100% of the daily value means that a serving of food has 550 mg of choline. Human breast milk is rich in choline. Exclusive ...
"US daily reference intake values". Archived from the original on 2011-10-06. Retrieved 2011-12-05. EFSA Panel on ... "Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for water". EFSA Journal. 8 (3): 1459. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1459.CS1 maint: ... In the United States, the reference daily intake (RDI) for total water is 3.7 litres (130 imp fl oz; 130 US fl oz) per day for ... page 51 Referenced 2008-10-20 Guidelines for Drinking‑water Quality (PDF) (Report) (4 ed.). World Health Organization. 2017. p ...
Meites S, Buffone GJ (1989). Pediatric clinical chemistry: reference (normal) values. Washington, D.C.: AACC Press. ISBN 978-0- ... Part of the value of the critical sample may simply be the proof that the symptoms are indeed due to hypoglycemia. More often, ... The value of additional specific tests depends on the most likely diagnoses for an individual person, based on the ... Many of these levels change within minutes, especially if glucose is given, and there no value exists in measuring them after ...
EORTC Quality of Life Group = (July 2008). EORTC QLQ-C30 Reference Values (PDF). Retrieved 4 May 2015. Velikova, G.; Coens, C ... A large amount of reference data is now available. The field of HRQOL has grown significantly in the last decade, with hundreds ... value in a cost-benefit analysis. For example, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is using their health- ... values, or expectations changing over the course of a study, thereby adding another factor of change on the end results. ...
... reference for NFPA values. tert-butyl hydroperoxide at Organic Chemistry Portal Jose Sanchez; Terry N. Myers. "Peroxides and ...
Kivastik, Jana; Kingisepp, Peet-Henn (2001). "Spirometric reference values in Estonian schoolchildren". Clinical Physiology. 21 ... These values differ in men and women because men tend to be larger than women. TLC is the maximum amount of air in the lungs ... are all values that can be tested using this method. Spirometry is used to help detect, but not diagnose, respiratory issues ...
Reference values differ in many populations and with sex and age. Across different studies, the mean reference interval (as ... June 2006). "Cystatin C reference values and aging". Clinical Biochemistry. 39 (6): 658-61. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.03. ... the average reference interval is 0.56 to 0.98 mg/L with a mean of 0.77 mg/L. The normal values decrease until the first year ... For serum creatinine values adjusted with the MDRD equation, these values would be 0.95 mg/dL to 1.46 mg/dL (a 54% increase). ...
Some temporary values; these values are just partials referenced later... t = [ N x ⋅ r N y N z ⋅ r ] {\displaystyle t={\begin{ ... values to scalar −1 (at one full turn), through (scalar + pseudovector) values back to scalar +1 (at two full turns). This ... Notice that the outer matrix will represent a rotation around one of the axes of the reference frame, and the inner matrix ... The Euler axis can be also found using singular value decomposition since it is the normalized vector spanning the null-space ...
For scalar values, once it has been assigned, the value of the final variable cannot change. For object values, the reference ... But the object that it references is still mutable, if it was originally mutable.) Unlike the value of a constant, the value of ... but the reference itself can. Both the reference and the contents being referenced can be declared as const. C# can be ... Once a final variable has been assigned, it always contains the same value. If a final variable holds a reference to an object ...
Dietary Reference Values Novel food "Contact us". Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 4 November 2018. Food Standards Agency ...
These projects also reference De Stijl values. The comparison between his Villa Savoye and Villa Shodhan rests within the ...
Reference Values During Pregnancy at Retrieved October 2014. Urban K, Kirley K, Stevermer JJ (March 2014). " ... False values may be obtained if the specimen collection tube is not sufficiently filled (false low value if underfilled and ... The following are reference ranges for D-dimer: D-dimer increases with age. It has therefore been suggested to use a cutoff ... In interpretation of the D-dimer, for patients over age 50, a value of (patient's age) × 10 μg/l may be abnormal. D-dimer was ...
Value and reference semantics. Systematic and general resource management (RAII): constructors, destructor, and exceptions ... ISBN 978-0-201-54330-8. Ellis, Margaret A.; Stroustrup, Bjarne (1 January 1990). The Annotated C++ Reference Manual. Addison- ... The Design and Evolution of C++ The Annotated C++ Reference Manual. In all, these books have been translated into 21 languages ...
Standard reference values[edit]. Standard apparent magnitudes and fluxes for typical bands[9] Band λ. (μm) Δλ/λ. (FWHM) Flux at ... maximum brightness of perigee + perihelion + full moon (mean distance value is −12.74,[16] though values are about 0.18 ... References[edit]. *^ a b "Vmag,6.5". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Retrieved 2010-06-25.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font- ... where Fx is the observed flux density using spectral filter x, and Fx,0 is the reference flux (zero-point) for that photometric ...
Reference values[edit]. The compliance check above was conducted in June 2014, with the HICP and interest rate reference values ... Reference values from the ECB convergence report of May 2018.[39] *^ Cyprus, Ireland and Finland were the reference states.[39] ... Reference values[nb 6] Max. 1.9%[nb 7]. (as of 31 Mar 2018) None open (as of 3 May 2018) Min. 2 years. (as of 3 May 2018) Max ... HICP inflation (12-months average of yearly rates): Shall not exceed the HICP reference value, which is calculated by the end ...
... or an absolute value. In the latter case, the numeric value expresses the ratio of a value to a fixed reference value; when ... In cases where the unit value of the reference is stated, the decibel value is known as "absolute". If the unit value of the ... the unit symbol is often suffixed with letter codes that indicate the reference value. For example, for the reference value of ... Suffixes and reference values[edit]. Suffixes are commonly attached to the basic dB unit in order to indicate the reference ...
Values: 1c, 5c, 10c, 50c. Reference; "Revenue Stamps of Taiwan Area Republic of China" by Sheau Horng Wu. 1981, ROC. Postage ... The 1¢ value was not issued in this design, but all the other values in the first issue were reprinted in the same colours. ... came in nine values from $1.00 to $1000.00. This was followed by a $10.00 and a $20.00 engraved value from Central Trust. Since ... Values: 25c, $2.50. 1949 November. Issue of a similar design to the 1948 issue but with the value block lower down. ...
However, several major features influence the reference values. Men have higher eNO values than women. Smoking notoriously ... The magnitude of these effects lies in the order of 10%, so even single cut-off values might be useful. Until the 1980s, nitric ... August 2007). "Reference ranges for exhaled nitric oxide derived from a random community survey of adults". American Journal of ... Clinical trials have looked at whether tailoring asthma therapy based on eNO values is better than conventional care, in which ...
Values from other sources are referenced as such. This list is not to be confused with the list of countries by real GDP per ... the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year. The statistics were ...
Unboxing is the operation of converting a value of a reference type (previously boxed) into a value of a value type. Unboxing ... Value: 71953600. Value of *b: 2 } } Structs are required only to be pure structs with no members of a managed reference type, e ... There are two kinds of types: value types and reference types. Instances of value types reside on the stack, i.e. they are ... A reference variable is null when it does not reference any object. An array type is a reference type that refers to a space ...
... whose value is 'n') are read. Here are the scrabble letter values, for reference. A "Hello World" example in the Beatnik ... The value of the score determines what function is performed. Functions include pushing the score of the next word onto the ... This means both the word whose value is 5 and the next word ( ...
"Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand - Sodium". Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. ... Glass jars have remained popular for some high-value products and in home canning. Can openers were not invented for another ...
"EFSA sets European dietary reference values for nutrient intakes" (Press release). European Food Safety Authority. 26 March ... "Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for fats". EFSA Journal. 8 (3): 1461. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461.CS1 maint: ... "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture.[permanent dead link] ... 203 The quote values vary by 1-3% according to the source: Jost, Rolf (2007). "Milk and Dairy Products". Ullmann's Encyclopedia ...
"Overview on Dietary Reference Values for the EU population as derived by the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and ... "Overview on Dietary Reference Values for the EU population as derived by the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and ... "Scientific Opinion on Dietary reference values for water". EFSA Journal. 8 (3): 1459-1507. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1459.CS1 ... Determination of these values was based on RDA of 2.4 µg/day for non-pregnant women plus what will be transferred to the fetus ...
Reference Values for Lung Function tests in Females. Bull. Eur. Physiopathol. Respir. 21, pp. 551-557, 1985. A. Langhammer, R. ... Forced spirometry reference values for Norwegian adults: the Bronchial Obstruction in North Trøndelag study. Eur. Respir. J. ...
The U.S. Institute of Medicine has established Dietary Reference Intakes for fluoride: Adequate Intake values range from 0.01 ... European Food Safety Authority (2013). "Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride". EFSA Journal. 11 (8): 46 ... However, these values differ greatly among the world's regions: for example, in Sichuan, China the average daily fluoride ... Sodium fluoride (NaF) was the first compound used and is the reference standard. It is a white, odorless powder or crystal; the ...
The use of reference values has thus far not accounted for the social labelling of race and ethnicity. Often, determinations ... The use of reference values and discrete categorizations of sources of variability has been motivated by ideas of anthropometry ... Cooper, Brendan G (September 2007). "Reference values in lung function testing: All for one and one for all?". Int J Chron ... Another concern of using reference values is misdiagnosis. This was an important factor in the management and control of ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ "ISTAG website". 20 October 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2011.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... "European drones outlook study : unlocking the value for Europe". doi:10.2829/085259. Retrieved 13 December 2017 ...
... therapy may be of value to prevent stones in certain circumstances such as following bariatric surgery.[29] ... ReferencesEdit. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em;list-style-type:decimal}.mw-parser-output .reflist ...
m (→‎Reference). Novija izmjena →. ,ref name="zhang",Yiming Zhang, Julian R. G. Evans, Shoufeng Yang: ''Corrected Values for ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ Khanna PC, Thapa MM, Iyer RS, Prasad SS (January 2011). "Pictorial essay: The many faces of craniosynostosis ... Goldstein SJ, Kidd RC (1982). "Value of computed tomography in the evaluation of craniosynostosis". Computerized Radiology. 6 ( ... OMIM reference Gene Loeys-Dietz syndrome wide-set eyes • split uvula or cleft palate • arterial tortuosity • aortic root ... but the diagnostic value is outweighed by that of the CT-scan.[47] Not only can the sutures be identified more accurately, thus ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ Modell 1984: 145-157 *^ a b Bailey, Martha J. (1994). American Women in Science:A Biographical Dictionary. ... It was wrong, she felt, to disparage the customs or values of a culture different from one's own. Those customs had a meaning ... These traits comprise an interdependent constellation of aesthetics and values in each culture which together add up to a ... Morality, she argued, was relative to the values of the culture in which one operated. ...
References[edit]. *^ a b Oettel M, Schillinger E (6 December 2012). Estrogens and Antiestrogens I: Physiology and Mechanisms of ... Notes: Values are mean ± SD or range. ER RBA = Relative binding affinity to estrogen receptors of rat uterine cytosol. Uterine ...
An imperial assembly at the fields of Roncaglia in 1158 reclaimed imperial rights in reference to Justinian's Corpus Juris ... money increasingly became the common means to represent economic value in agriculture.[citation needed] ...
References[edit]. *^ Kallet, A & Schlink, F: "100,000,000 Guinea Pigs", Ch 1. Vanguard Press, 1933 ... The authors also question the value of statements made by scientists who vouch for the safety of products, citing the example ...
References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Diabetes Fact sheet N°312". World Health Organization. August 2011. Archived from the ... otherwise raised values on two occasions, of either:[55] ... CS1: long volume value. *CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ...
Notes and references[edit]. *^ Frost, Daniel (1 April 1967). "Labor's Antitrust Exemption". California Law Review. Archived ... That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value" (Capital V1, 1867, p. 1069). ... "The value of labour-power constitutes the conscious and explicit foundation of the trade unions, whose importance for the […] ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ an introduction to aldehydes and ketones. Retrieved on 2016-10-28. ... Ketonium ions (i.e., protonated ketones) are strong acids, with pKa values estimated to be somewhere between -5 and -7.[6][7] ...
15 References. *16 External links. Specific energy content and energy density[edit]. The heating value depends on the source of ... A typical value of the higher heating value of LNG is approximately 50 MJ/kg or 21,500 BTU/lb.[2] A typical value of the lower ... Using the median value of 0.45 kg/litre, the typical energy density values are 22.5 MJ/litre (based on higher heating value) or ... "Fuel Gases - Heating Values". Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015.. ...
References[edit]. *^ John Raulston Saul (1995), "The Doubter's Companion", 155 *^ David Grazian (2008), "On the Make: The ...
The number of trophic links (tL), for example, is converted into a connectance value: C. =. t. L. S. (. S. −. 1. ). /. 2. {\ ... References[edit]. *^ Kormondy, E. J. (1996). Concepts of ecology (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. p. 559. ISBN 0-13-478116 ... Part 1. The food and feeding habits of the herring with special reference to the east coast of England". Fisheries ... ", "web of complex relations", and in reference to the decomposition actions of earthworms he talked about "the continued ...
References. *^ a b Shapiro, Rose (2010-09-30). Suckers: How Alternative Medicine Makes Fools of Us All. Random House. ISBN ... A placebo is a treatment with no intended therapeutic value. An example of a placebo is an inert pill, but it can include more ... Tyreman, Stephen (2011-05-01). "Values in complementary and alternative medicine". Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. 14 (2 ... "From its early experiences of care for the dying, palliative care took for granted the necessity of placing patient values and ...
References[edit]. *^ Shaun Hargreaves Heap, Yanis Varoufakis (2004). Game theory: a critical text. Routledge. p. 191. ISBN 978- ... It becomes profitable to deviate to up, for example, if X has a value of 0.000001 instead of 0. Thus, the equilibrium is very ... Suppose X = 0. There is no profitable deviation from (Down, Left) or from (Up, Right). However, if the value of X deviates by ... Knife-edge is "equilibrium that exists only for exact values of the exogenous variables. If you vary the variables in even the ...
References[edit]. *^ Miles, C; Wayne, M (2008). "Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis". Nature Education. 1 (1).. .mw-parser ... For a sufficiently high values of n, this binomial distribution will begin to resemble a normal distribution. From this ... traits that have two or several character values, e.g. red hair in humans, a recessive trait, or smooth vs. wrinkled peas used ... viewpoint, a disease state will become apparent at one of the tails of the distribution, past some threshold value. Disease ...
References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em;list-style-type:decimal}.mw-parser-output . ... Value Formula CH2F2. (50%) CHF2CF3. (50%) ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ "Centrifugation Theory". Fischer Scientific. Thermo Fisher Scientific. Retrieved 9 March 2018.. .mw-parser- ... This gave hemoglobin a resulting weight of approximately 16,000 dalton (Da) but it was uncertain whether this value was a ... This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please ...
Entropic value at risk. References[edit]. *^ Chernoff, Herman (2014). "A career in statistics" (PDF). In Lin, Xihong; Genest, ... takes the value et with probability pi and the value 1 with probability 1 − pi. This is identical to the calculation above in ... denote the sum's expected value. Then for any δ , 0, Pr. (. X. ,. (. 1. +. δ. ). μ. ). ,. (. e. δ. (. 1. +. δ. ). (. 1. +. δ. ) ... The probability of simultaneous occurrence of more than n/2 of the events {Xk = 1} has an exact value:. Pr. [. X. ,. n. 2. ]. = ...
References[edit]. *^ a b "Comment faire une tresse française ?". .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ... CS1: long volume value. *Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers. *Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ 1975 (in Japanese) 自然農法-わら一本の革命 (in English) 1978 re-presentation The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction ... They obtain high quality[citation needed] natural or organic produce having medicinal values. Today still a small number of ...
ReferencesEdit. CitationsEdit. *^ Jain, Girilal (1994). The Hindu Phenomenon. New Delhi: UBS Publishers' Distributors. ISBN 978 ... Borgström, Bengt-Erik (1980), The patron and the panca: village values and pancayat democracy in Nepal, Vikas House, ISBN ... Pradhan, Kumar L. (2012), Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806-1839, New Delhi: Concept ... "Crimes and punishments : court proceedings of Vijayanagara empire with special reference to Tamil country". doi:10.9780/ ...
Like the previous case, we can substitute powers of 10 with congruent values: 1000. ⋅. a. +. 100. ⋅. b. +. 10. ⋅. c. +. 1. ⋅. d ... References[edit]. *^ Gardner, Martin (September 1962). "Mathematical Games: Tests that show whether a large number can be ... Next, compute the sum of all the values and take the remainder on division by 6.. Example: What is the remainder when ... Next, compute the sum of all the values and take the modulus of 7. Example: What is the remainder when 1036125837 is divided by ...
References[edit]. *^ "AIR MIDWEST FLIGHT 5481 NOTIFICATION #2", US Airways. *^ a b "AIR MIDWEST 5481 CREW AND PASSENGER NAME ... As a result of the weight issues discovered, the FAA planned to investigate and potentially revise estimated weight values, ...
Tabulated values of van der Waals radii are obtained by taking a weighted mean of a number of different experimental values, ... References[edit]. *^ Rowland RS, Taylor R (1996). "Intermolecular nonbonded contact distances in organic crystal structures: ... the value of b equals the Van der Waals volume per mole of the gas. Their values vary from gas to gas. ... Values of d and b from Weast (1981). The van der Waals constant b volume can be used to calculate the van der Waals volume of ...
However, the rebuild cost is often lower than the market value of the property, as the market value often reflects the property ... References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em;list-style-type:decimal}.mw-parser-output . ... In some cases the mortgagee will waive the need for the mortgagor to carry homeowner's insurance if the value of the land ... HO-8, also known as older home insurance, is likely to pay only actual cash value for damages rather than replacement.[13] ...
References[edit]. *^ a b c エスという関係. ["S" Relationships]. Bishōjo ga Ippai! Wakamono ga Hamaru "Marimite" World no Himitsu (in ... values deeply attached to traditional Japanese education. ... This lily imagery is also used as a reference to yuri:[7] the ...
References[edit]. *^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0.. .mw- ... "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens" (PDF). Infect. Genet. Evol. 8 (3): 267-85. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.002 ...
References[edit]. *. Alam, M (2000). "Bhasha Shourôbh: Bêkorôn O Rôchona (The Fragrance of Language: Grammar and Rhetoric)". S ... The Bengali alphabet has often been included with the group of Brahmic scripts for romanization where the true phonetic value ... where the true phonetic pronunciation of Bengali is represented with no reference to how it is written. ...
Reference Values" registry for "amr" claim array element values. The registry records the Authentication Method Reference value ... Authentication Method Reference Values The following is a list of Authentication Method Reference values defined by this ... RFC 8176 Authentication Method Reference Values June 2017 6. IANA Considerations 6.1. Authentication Method Reference Values ... Authentication Method Reference values and defines an initial set of Authentication Method Reference values. Status of This ...
This topic defines the supported values and units for Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) text, layout, and positioning properties. ... The em unit is relative to the computed value of the font-size attribute of the element. When em occurs in the value of font- ... Percentage values are always relative to another value (for example, a length). Attributes that allow percentages also define ... The value of a counter can only be referred to from the content CSS property. For more information, see content. ...
Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR ... Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR ... PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE ( (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. All Rights Reserved. ... PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE ( (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. All Rights Reserved. ...
Spirometric reference values from a Mediterranean population.. Roca J, Sanchis J, Agusti-Vidal A, Segarra F, Navajas D, ... as part of a larger interhospital project to obtain reference values of pulmonary function tests. Forced vital capacity (FVC), ...
values sort before other values for ascending sorts, after other values for descending sorts. ... value is different from values such as 0. for numeric types or the empty string for string types. For more information, see ... value means "no data." NULL. can be written in any lettercase. A synonym is \N. (case-sensitive). ... Section B.6.4.3, "Problems with NULL Values". For text file import or export operations performed with LOAD DATA. or SELECT ...
Reference values definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... reference book, reference electrode, reference frame, reference group, reference mark, reference values, reference works, ... Are Scrabble Tile Values In Need Of An Overhaul?Invented by out-of-work architect Alfred Butts during the Great Depression, ... A set of laboratory test values obtained from an individual or from a group in a defined state of health. ...
Referenced by calculate_mpeg4_bit_rates(), mov_write_btrt_tag(), mov_write_esds_tag(), and mov_write_isml_manifest(). ... Referenced by calculate_mpeg4_bit_rates(), mov_write_btrt_tag(), and mov_write_esds_tag(). ... Referenced by calculate_mpeg4_bit_rates(), mov_write_btrt_tag(), and mov_write_esds_tag(). ...
Dietary reference values (DRVs) is an umbrella term for a set of nutrient reference values that includes the average ... They can serve as the basis for risk managers or policy makers to set reference values in food labelling and establish food- ... 2005 EFSA initiates its review and update of the reference values for nutrient and energy intakes established in 1993 by the ... In 2005, the European Commission asked EFSA to review and update the dietary reference values for nutrient and energy intakes ...
Conditions related to abnormal lab values * Customizable lab values and tops * Notes section * Switch between US values and SI ... Conditions related to abnormal lab values * Customizable lab values and tops * Notes section * Switch between US values and SI ... Lab Values Reference Lite App for iOS This app is perfect for both academic and clinical settings, providing clear, concise ... Lab Values Reference Lite App for iOS is categorized in the following disciplines: * Science and Technology/Health Sciences/ ...
Returns a String that represents the XPath for the specified object.. Syntax. expression.Value. expression A variable that represents a XPath object. ...
cannot produce a value: INSERT INTO t VALUES(); INSERT INTO t VALUES(DEFAULT); INSERT INTO t VALUES(DEFAULT(i));. See Section ... value, MySQL determines the default value as follows: If the column can take NULL. as a value, the column is defined with an ... data types can be assigned a default value only if the value is written as an expression, even if the expression value is a ... default value that contains a forward reference to a generated column or column with an expression default value, the statement ...
Reference Values" registry for "amr" claim array element values. The registry records the Authentication Method Reference value ... Authentication Method Reference Values The following is a list of Authentication Method Reference values defined by this ... Authentication Method Reference Values draft-ietf-oauth-amr-values-03 Abstract The "amr" (Authentication Methods References) ... Authentication Method Reference values and defines an initial set of Authentication Method Reference values. Status of This ...
Dietary Reference Values (DRVs), Population Reference Intakes (PRI), Reference Intake ranges for macronutrients (RI), Average ... Separate reference values will be established for pregnant and lactating women. Interpolation or extrapolation between ... Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values ... These quantitative reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy individuals and populations are based on health criteria. ...
The seven values of the U.S. Army are loyalty, duty, respect, selfless services, honor, integrity and personal courage. ... The seven values of the U.S. Army are loyalty, duty, respect, selfless services, honor, integrity and personal courage. ... Honor is living an honorable life by carrying out the other Army values in everything that a soldier does. Integrity is ... and it is a powerful tool to improve a persons trustworthiness and value. ...
value_comp. and its sibling member function key_comp are equivalent.. Parameters. none. Return value. The comparison object.. ... value_compare mycomp = mymultiset.value_comp(); for. (. int. i=0; i,7; i++) mymultiset.insert(i); std::cout ,, "mymultiset ... value_compare. is the type of the comparison object associated to the container, defined in multiset as an alias of its second ... value_comp. returns false. reflexively (i.e., no matter the order in which the elements are passed as arguments).. In multiset ...
... value:tl},object-name:{enabled:true,value:plum},object-text:{enabled:true,value:},object-cssid:{value: ... How to reference image translate3D values? Hello,. I am slowly finding my way around the Animator.. I can replace an image in a ... How to reference image translate3D values? Thank you very much for all of that.. I have been having a great time with the ... How do I reference an image translate3d location via javascript? Where are the translate3d values in the DOM?. Note that the ...
... Steven DAprano steve at Tue Feb 24 05:49:26 EST 2009 *Previous message (by thread): ... stack then you get a lot closer to having just values and references, ,,, rather than the whole pile of different terms that ... If anything, your preferred tactic is to gob everything under one of two terms, call-by-value and call-by-reference. Thats not ... And you think call-by-reference does? Python demonstrably does not behave like call-by-reference in other languages. I do not ...
PHP-DEV] Bug #11658 Updated: Getting values by reference dont work phanto Tue, 26 Jun 2001 13:04:01 -0700 ... PHP-DEV] Bug #11658 Updated: Getting values b... sniper. *[PHP-DEV] Bug #11658 Updated: Getting values b... andrej . ... PHP-DEV] Bug #11658 Updated: Getting values b... andrej . aschenbrenner. *[PHP-DEV] Bug #11658 Updated: Getting values b... ... PHP-DEV] Bug #11658 Updated: Getting values b... andrej . aschenbrenner. *[PHP-DEV] Bug #11658 Updated: Getting values b... ...
Values education are long-term standards that help a person determine how they should approach a situation or person, which ... How are morals and values different?. A: Values are considered a set of common beliefs held by a person or group that have an ... What is the difference between morals and values?. A: Morals describe what is right and wrong, whereas values explain important ... moral development and values clarification. In each of the stages, learners begin to develop awareness for values and integrate ...
gvr_value. #include ,gvr_types.h,. A generic container for various pure value types. ...
Global ID values are returned in globalId and are used as input for the X-EBAY-SOA-GLOBAL-ID header. The global ID you use must ... Global ID Values (string ). The Global ID is a unique identifier for combinations of site, language, and territory. ...
Various reference manuals and previous studies provide CSF reference values for young infants.29-38 Although the authors of ... The values provided in our study are generally comparable to previously published reference values. In a single-center study of ... we define age-specific CSF reference values and provide CSF parameter centile curves based on age. These values and curves can ... Cerebrospinal Fluid Reference Values for Young Infants Undergoing Lumbar Puncture. Joanna Thomson, Heidi Sucharew, Andrea T. ...
I have an xml file that has a variable name curveSetStopElement that has a numerical value assigned to it. I... ... I have limited knowledge of xsl as it applies to referencing and calling other values. ... XSL value using reference number. I have limited knowledge of xsl as it applies to referencing and calling other values. I have ... I am attaching an image that shows the value I am trying to get. The red box shows where the value should be. This value would ...
Everyone here , seems to have a different notion of what pass-by-reference and , pass-by-value mean. Its funny--Ive never ... By value or by reference?. Josiah Carlson jcarlson at Mon Oct 18 20:02:23 CEST 2004 *Previous message (by thread): By ... pass by reference as already explained by Alex Martelli. Python does name binding with references. That is, each reference is ... It is because Python does it differently from most other languages, and it doesnt fit the paradigms of pass by value or ...
Deep C# - Value And Reference. Value and Reference. C# is an object oriented strongly typed language. The "object oriented" ... Pointers to references. C# defines two different types of variable, value and reference. (There is also a pointer type which ... What you should have in mind is a picture that a value type stores its value and a reference type stores a "pointer" to its ... However a reference type variable only contains a reference to its data and while the variable and the reference it contains is ...
XmlMap.Value. public XmlMap.Value(). Method Detail. getType. public java.lang.String getType(). Gets the value of the type ... Sets the value of the type property. Parameters:. value. - allowed object is String. Overview Package Class Tree Deprecated ... Class XmlMap.Value. java.lang.Object org.eclipse.persistence.jaxb.xmlmodel.XmlMap.Value Enclosing class:. XmlMap. public static ... setType(java.lang.String value). Sets the value of the type property.. ...
Value of composite reference standards in diagnostic research BMJ 2013; 347 :f5605 doi:10.1136/bmj.f5605 ... What is a composite reference standard?. A composite reference standard is a fixed rule used to make a final diagnosis based on ... Extensions to the basic composite reference standard. The basic composite reference standard categorises patients simply as ... predictive values, or area under the curve, can be biased.2 This is known as imperfect reference standard bias. One method to ...
Value and Reference Types Types in C# are categorized as either value or reference types. The behavior when copying or ... Value and Reference Types. Types in C# are categorized as either value or reference types. The behavior when copying or ... the value 3.14159. is directly stored within pi. .. When we initialize or assign one value type with another, the data ... An object of a value type stores its associated data directly within itself. Any changes to that data does not affect any other ...
Pass by value (the method definition should take variables by reference): int(2) string(5) apple int(100) int(2) string(6) ... when passing apparently by value?) or throws out call-time pass-by-reference E_DEPRECATED errors (when forcing pass-by- ... reference). Reproduce code: --------------- // fruits.txt apple,100 banana,21 Pass by value: ,?php $file = new SplFileObject( ... Pass by reference: ,br /, ,b,Deprecated,/b,: Call-time pass-by-reference has been deprecated in ,b,fruits.php,/b, on line ,b,4 ...
... no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy sample of the adult Brazilian population. ... Reference values for lung function tests. I. Static volumes Braz J Med Biol Res. 1999 Jun;32(6):703-17. doi: 10.1590/s0100- ... provide a more appropriate frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of static lung volume values in Brazilian males and ... no previous studies have provided reference values for such tests using a healthy sample of the adult Brazilian population. ...
  • Dietary reference values (DRVs) is an umbrella term for a set of nutrient reference values that includes the average requirement (AR), the population reference intake (PRI), the adequate intake (AI) and the reference intake range for macronutrients (RI). (
  • Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. (
  • The DRVs can be divided into three types: RNI - Reference Nutrient Intake (95% of the population's requirement is met) EAR - Estimated Average Requirement (50% of the population's requirement is met) LRNI - Lower Recommended Nutritional Intake (5% of the population's requirement is met) RNI is not the same as RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) or GDA, although they are often similar. (
  • What Are Dietary Reference Values (DRVs)? (
  • The definition of particular values to be used in the "amr" Claim is beyond the scope of this specification. (
  • Expected result: ---------------- Pass by value (the method definition should take variables by reference): int(2) string(5) 'apple' int(100) int(2) string(6) 'banana' int(21) Pass by reference: Should report E_DEPRECATED call-time pass-by reference. (
  • Definition at line 74 of file value.h . (
  • Definition at line 175 of file value.cpp . (
  • Definition at line 180 of file value.cpp . (
  • Definition at line 189 of file value.cpp . (
  • You're using a definition of 'pass-by-reference' that you've personally come up with, while Jörg is using the traditional computer science definition. (
  • Definition of standard reference values is therefore necessary to increase the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography. (
  • Definition at line 91 of file values.c . (
  • Definition at line 207 of file values.c . (
  • Definition at line 129 of file values.c . (
  • Definition at line 55 of file values.c . (
  • Definition at line 181 of file values.c . (
  • There is no universally accepted definition of reference values for use in external quality assurance (EQA) programs for IHC tests, including testing for class II breast cancer markers. (
  • Annual 14Cbio values based on averaged monthly mean 14CO2 values (January-December) measured at CIO monitoring station Lutjewad, The Netherlands for the period 2003-2018. (
  • Table 1 shows the annual 14 C bio values for the time period between 2003 and 2018, based on averaged monthly mean atmospheric 14 CO 2 values measured at monitoring station Lutjewad, The Netherlands (University of Groningen). (
  • Spirometric reference values from a Mediterranean population. (
  • Spirometric reference values for healthy Han children aged 5-15 years in Guangzhou, southern China. (
  • In comparison with reference equations based on European or USA populations, local reference values are more biologically and technically suitable for the interpretation of spirometric data from Iranian populations. (
  • There is a lack of information concerning spirometric reference values for people living in the Middle East. (
  • The current authors studied a large group of healthy people living in Isfahan, Iran to derive spirometric reference values. (
  • In February 1997, Hologic supplied new software to all QDR dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines replacing the previous femoral normative reference database with the NHANES III normative data. (
  • However, the use of the NHANES III spirometry reference equations for Caucasian children may not result in significant misclassification in clinical settings providing that a maximal effort is given by the Navajo child being tested. (
  • There have been studies concerning factors that affect the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in term and preterm neonates, but there has not been a study of the reference values of oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy newborns having no risk factors. (
  • The purpose of this study was to develop predictive IOS equations for 112 asthmatic and non-asthmatic Anglo and Hispanic children in order to provide an original frame of reference for different IOS model parameters within this population. (
  • The spirometry reference equations from the healthy boys and girls were developed. (
  • The resulting population-specific spirometry reference equations should be used when testing Navajo children ages 6-14 years. (
  • The purposes of this study were to derive equations for the prediction of normative spirometry values for a large population of Persians in Isfahan and compare them to reference values from a White Euro-USA population. (
  • In addition, predicted values were compared with values derived from recently published equations for the USA. (
  • Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: The global lung function 2012 equations. (
  • Maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves were measured in 1044 healthy nonsmoking volunteers living in the Barcelona area, as part of a larger interhospital project to obtain reference values of pulmonary function tests. (
  • FEV1 and FVC pulmonary function reference values among 6-18-year-old children: a multi-centre study in Saudi Arabia/Valeurs de reference de la VEMS et de la CVF chez des enfants de a ans: etude multicentrique en Arabie saoudite. (
  • Most pulmonary function laboratories in the USA and Europe use reference values based on populations with predominantly European backgrounds 2 - 4 . (
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Jones Request for Comments: 8176 Microsoft Category: Standards Track P. Hunt ISSN: 2070-1721 Oracle A. Nadalin Microsoft June 2017 Authentication Method Reference Values Abstract The "amr" (Authentication Methods References) claim is defined and registered in the IANA "JSON Web Token Claims" registry, but no standard Authentication Method Reference values are currently defined. (
  • RFC 8176 Authentication Method Reference Values June 2017 Table of Contents 1 . (
  • RFC 8176 Authentication Method Reference Values June 2017 The "amr" values defined by this specification are not intended to be an exhaustive set covering all use cases. (
  • OAuth Working Group M. Jones Internet-Draft Microsoft Intended status: Standards Track P. Hunt Expires: January 8, 2017 Oracle A. Nadalin Microsoft July 7, 2016 Authentication Method Reference Values draft-ietf-oauth-amr-values-01 Abstract The "amr" (Authentication Methods References) claim is defined and registered in the IANA "JSON Web Token Claims" registry but no standard Authentication Method Reference values are currently defined. (
  • Referenced by calculate_mpeg4_bit_rates() , mov_write_btrt_tag() , and mov_write_esds_tag() . (
  • How Can You Calculate the Value of Your Car? (
  • Click Calculate to calculate the predicted values. (
  • The monthly mean values mentioned in these papers can be used to calculate annual 14 C bio values for the years before 2003. (
  • We have therefore decided to calculate the average 14 CO 2 value based on all months in a year, including fossil contributions (as measured in the winter period) and remote contributions (as measured in the summer period). (
  • to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. (
  • This specification establishes a registry for Authentication Method Reference values and defines an initial set of Authentication Method Reference values. (
  • This topic defines the supported values and units for Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) text , layout , and positioning properties. (
  • C# defines two different types of variable, value and reference. (
  • and the trait that defines its abstract values. (
  • This study defines standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography to prevent misinterpretation of normal fluid as an anatomical abnormality. (
  • Introduction The "amr" (Authentication Methods References) claim is defined and registered in the IANA "JSON Web Token Claims" registry [ IANA.JWT.Claims ], but no standard Authentication Method Reference values are currently defined. (
  • Internet-Draft Authentication Method Reference Values July 2016 to this document. (
  • Internet-Draft Authentication Method Reference Values July 2016 OAuth 2.0 for authentication without employing extensions enabling secure authentication to be performed. (
  • 2 . Authentication Method Reference Values The "amr" (Authentication Methods References) claim is defined by the OpenID Connect Core 1.0 specification [ OpenID.Core ] as follows: amr OPTIONAL. (
  • The next step was to determine reference ranges for HUs in trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra that could be used for CT screening of osteoporosis across all ages. (
  • Accurate reference ranges are required to facilitate the interpretation of CSF laboratory values, including white blood cell (WBC) counts and protein and glucose concentrations. (
  • 1 There are limitations on how these reference ranges can be determined because lumbar puncture (LP) cannot be ethically performed in a healthy infant without a medical indication. (
  • We sought to determine the basis for laboratory reference ranges and whether these ranges are applicable to children. (
  • Contact was made by telephone or e-mail, or Internet sites were viewed to obtain information regarding the establishment of aluminum reference ranges and testing methods in biological samples. (
  • None of the reference ranges are known to be derived from studies of healthy children, but relied instead on small studies of adult populations, adult dialysis patients, workers, or sick children on aluminum-containing parenteral therapy. (
  • Aluminum reference ranges provided by laboratories are widely divergent, may not represent "normal" ranges of a healthy population, especially children, and thus it is difficult to interpret serum or urine aluminum ranges clinically. (
  • Reference ranges for absolute total neutrophils/mm3, absolute immature neutrophils/mm3, and the fraction of immature to total neutrophils (I:T proportion) during the first 28 days of life are developed from 585 peripheral blood counts obtained from 304 normal neonates and 320 counts obtained from 130 neonates with perinatal complications demonstrated to have no statistically significant effect on neutrophil dynamics. (
  • The predictive value of these reference ranges in identifying bacterial disease in the first week of age varies with the neutrophil factor evaluated and the clinical setting. (
  • Put simply references are safe - pointers are not! (
  • However, despite all of the reservations thinking about a reference as a sort of typed pointer does help understand how everything works and thinking about references as pointers is recommended - just don't admit to it in polite company! (
  • Pointers that are passed by value are not objects but do point to objects. (
  • A C++ program can be made easier to read and maintain by using references rather than pointers. (
  • For adults, the Panel considers that average requirements (ARs) and population reference intakes (PRIs) can be determined from the weighted mean of riboflavin intake associated with the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve reported in four intervention studies. (
  • This records Dietary Reference Values which recommended nutritional intakes for the UK population. (
  • Where different intakes for males and females are recommended, the higher value is identified in the table below to ensure that the greatest daily needs of the group is met: In recent times,[when? (
  • The project was initiated in 2002 and used the most recent US and Canadian Dietary Reference Intakes as a starting point. (
  • In contrast to the abstract values used in specifications, the values manipulated by C++ programs, are thought of as concrete values . (
  • Each concrete value, a bit pattern, is thought of as a representation of an abstract value. (
  • is an object, which contains the abstract value 228. (
  • A state , as in the picture, associates to each object, an abstract value. (
  • The Larch/C++ model of an integer variable, containing the abstract value 228. (
  • Unlike C++, in the Larch/C++ model, an object can contain an arbitrarily complex abstract value. (
  • One way to think of this is that objects are just a special kind of abstract value. (
  • whose abstract value is a set of point objects. (
  • Each of the point objects has an abstract value that is a LSL tuple of two integers. (
  • The Larch/C++ model of a Set variable with an abstract value that contains containing three other objects. (
  • For context, the "amr" (Authentication Methods References) claim is defined by Section 2 of the OpenID Connect Core 1.0 specification [ OpenID.Core ] as follows: amr OPTIONAL. (
  • Authentication Methods References. (
  • For instance, values might indicate that both password and OTP authentication methods were used. (
  • Typically, each "amr" value provides an identifier for a family of closely related authentication methods. (
  • To address these problems, we provide an explanation of the methods for composite reference standards and make recommendations for development and reporting. (
  • To set a value to an invalid Value (on which isValid() returns false), you must first initialize this Value using one of the init() methods (preferably the template one) in order to tell it what kind of value it is going to hold. (
  • Some colleagues and I have been discussing it and we think that objects without constructor methods become value types and those with become reference types. (
  • METHODS: A literature search for reference values in the abdomen from 1970 to 2010 in healthy subjects 18 years of age and older was carried out. (
  • In contrast to C++ (but like LCL), Larch/C++ does not consider formal parameters passed by value to be objects. (
  • This is because parameters passed by value cannot be changed from the point of view of the client (the caller), and so are not objects from the point of view of the client. (
  • Therefore in Larch/C++, only formal parameters passed by reference are objects. (
  • ok ) { echo 'PHP 5.3.1 is not compatible with MediaWiki due to a bug involving\n' . 'reference parameters to __call. (
  • So if you follow the advice of those who answered before me but part of your unstated goal was to allow the subroutine to modify the parameters such that $query would notice the modifications, then you will fail because those array references will only allow you to modify copies of those values. (
  • The combined maximum tariffs were determined based on projected workload units, capital investments and operating expenses authorised for the period from 2010 to 2014, as well as those in the respective parameters including reference values , discount rates and efficiency factors. (
  • type to check it against * VT_* constants * look into the php documentation for more flags * passing variables by reference is a deprecated * zend feature (i don't know why) and it didn't work * in every case in earlier versions. (
  • There is also a pointer type which acts much like an untyped reference but this needs special treatment - see later. (
  • A value type usually corresponds to the simplest of data types, i.e. an int or a float, and the data is stored on the stack or within the code itself. (
  • The amount of storage used by a value type depends on its exact type. (
  • On the other hand a reference type is essentially a sophisticated pointer to the actual data and so always takes the same, usually eight bytes, of storage. (
  • A reference type is also stored on the stack but the object that it "points" at is allocated on the heap. (
  • A reference type is a way of providing the same behaviour but in a controlled or managed way. (
  • What you should have in mind is a picture that a value type stores its value and a reference type stores a "pointer" to its value. (
  • C# enforces the rule that you can't make use of an uninitialised value type but never the less the integer variable exists and is initialised. (
  • This declares a reference type b which can reference an object of the type Point but at the moment no such object exists and the reference is set to its default value null. (
  • This is clear difference between the types you can create a reference type that doesn't actually reference anything i.e. doesn't correspond to any valid data that you can work with. (
  • That is a value or a reference type is destroyed as soon as the variable is clearly no longer accessible - i.e. out of scope. (
  • Gets the value of the type property. (
  • An object of a value type stores its associated data directly within itself. (
  • When we initialize or assign one value type with another, the data contained in the one is copied to the second. (
  • It is considered to be an object only if the return type of the function is a reference type. (
  • Hi, The problem is that after the patch to fix PR 21210, we would accept default-initialization of a reference type as we would just call cp_convert instead of calling the build_c_cast which was able to error out when converting 0 to a reference type. (
  • Thanks, Andrew Pinski ChangeLog: * typeck2.c (build_functional_cast): Check for reference type and NULL PARMS. (
  • GValue is a data type that can hold different types of values inside, like a QVariant. (
  • A Value object holds a single value of a single type() at a time. (
  • Once initialized to hold a specific type, you can use the set() method to set a value. (
  • To change the type that this value holds, you can call the init() method again at any time. (
  • Creates a new Value and initializes it to hold values of the given type . (
  • Creates a new Value that is intialized to hold data of type T and sets it to hold data . (
  • Initializes or re-initializes this Value to hold data of the given type . (
  • Initializes or re-initializes this Value to hold data of type T. If this Value was previously holding any data, this data will be freed. (
  • What makes the determination that a given value type is set to value or reference type? (
  • The answer I got in a book was along the lines of 'if you use the new keyword then it's a reference type. (
  • If the C++ function takes a 'string &' and uses the parameter both as input argument and output argument, then you will need to implement a wrapper function as it is not allowed to register a value type as 'string &inout' (because it isn't possible to always guarantee the lifetime of the reference in this case). (
  • In Angelscript code I can NEVER have a reference 'type&' like in c++? (
  • Do they HAVE TO match the function declaration in the AS code (like Object for value types and Address for &in or @type)? (
  • The base types for such Tagged Values (the type you call in when you create a tag in the Tagged Values window ) can be easily created specifically for your model, as you can base the customized Reference Data Tagged Value types on a range of predefined Tagged Value types and filters. (
  • Type an appropriate name for the new Tagged Value type. (
  • Optionally, type the a description or the purpose of the Tagged Value type. (
  • Either copy-and-paste or type the syntax of the predefined Reference Data Tagged Value type on which to base your new Tagged Value type. (
  • Click on this button to save the new Reference Data Tagged Value type. (
  • The Tagged Value type displays in the Defined Tag Types list. (
  • Optionally, click on this button to clear the fields so that you can enter information for another new Tagged Value type. (
  • When passing in a primitive type variable like a string or a number, the value is passed in by value. (
  • I think the general consensus is that those type of references only provide evidence that the person has worked where/when he stated - or not! (
  • In my opinion there indeed could be problem when you have DITA Maps which have been edited so that each topicref has the type attribute set to them, then you switch to an XML editor which no longer adds there attributes whenever the added values would be the same as the default values specified in the DITA standard. (
  • Ideally you could go through the DITA Map and remove the scope, type and format attributes whenever they have the same value as the default values in the specification or in the case of @type if the referenced resource is enough to determine the type from. (
  • DITA page settings to always fill values for the topicref format, scope and type attributes. (
  • When I have a topic open in the Authoring window and attempt to insert a reference to it in a map open in maps manager using Insert reference to currently edited file, the scope, format, and type attributes aren't getting picked up like when inserting topic references unopened local files or those in our CCMS. (
  • The data type can be determined from values of self-describing types. (
  • this means that every object you create is a reference type. (
  • One way to identify a reference type is by using a new keyword that isn't used for value types. (
  • The following C# snippet shows the creation of a StringBuilder object, which is a reference type. (
  • Simply put, a value type contains its data. (
  • A value of value type is the actual value. (
  • A value of reference type is a reference to another value. (
  • The converse process (to unwrap the value type) is known as unboxing. (
  • It includes a summary report that gives an overview of EFSA's work in this area, in particular all the numerical values by population groups. (
  • I have an xml file that has a variable name curveSetStopElement that has a numerical value assigned to it. (
  • The purpose of this page is to post the full details of the Approximate Value method, Doug Drinen's method of putting a single numerical value on any player's season, at any position, from any year (for now, it's just any year since 1950). (
  • Uses internal rules to format the fields numerical value into the character array pointed to by the passed parameter. (
  • I am interested in a vector-valued form of the disc "algebra" (which in this setting is not in general an algebra, hence the scare quotes). (
  • Spirometry reference values for Navajo children ages 6-14 years. (
  • For children, ARs are derived by downward extrapolation from the adult AR, applying allometric scaling and growth factors and considering differences in reference body weight. (
  • There were also small differences in the calculated reference values for the lateral view. (
  • In accord with the determination of reference intervals for laboratory values, reference values are generally determined with the aid of 95 % reference intervals and the associated 90 % confidence intervals. (
  • A sample size of 120 volunteers is recommended for characterizing a sample reference population and constructing reference intervals (Fraser, 2001). (
  • Reference Intervals. (
  • Values for important intervals were determined. (
  • The current reference value is based on NHANES data from 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. (
  • CDC will assess the NHANES data every 4 years using the two most recent survey cycles of available data to determine if the blood lead reference value should be updated. (
  • value means " no data. (
  • All of the data contained in 3 in 1 Lab Reference if fully editable, so go ahead and customize it to suit your needs or add notes to an entry. (
  • If you're planning to sell, filter housing market data in order to estimate home value. (
  • We sought to develop age-specific reference standards for CSF WBC counts as well as CSF protein and glucose concentrations for infants ≤60 days of age by using multicenter data to improve the precision and generalizability of reference values. (
  • I need to use that value as an 'index' to pull data from another element. (
  • Value and reference are a fundamental division in the way C# treats data. (
  • Notice that the reference variable b is just like the value variable a in that they are both stored on the stack and both store immediate values - the difference is that a's value is the data and b's value is a reference to the data. (
  • We report here the immunological profile for children aged from birth through 6 years in Cameroon and also compare our values to data from other African and Caucasian populations. (
  • These values could be used as initial national reference guidelines as more data are assembled. (
  • If this Value was previously holding any data, this data will be freed. (
  • Once a consensus is reached, we believe an important international multicentre work should be performed to recruit a very extensive reference population of apparently healthy vitamin D-replete subjects with a normal renal function in order to establish the PTH normative data. (
  • When working with Tagged Values , you might want to use a Reference Data Tagged Value , which is used to return the values held in an Enterprise Architect reference table. (
  • OBJECTIVE: Reference values for B-mode abdominal ultrasound are being controversially discussed due to the limited data in the literature. (
  • The data may be useful as reference values in the application of hand-held myometry. (
  • this includes all numeric data types, the Boolean, Char, and Date classes along with all structures (even if their members are reference types), and enumerations. (
  • When the .NET runtime works with value types, it deals directly with its underlying data. (
  • These data can be used as reference values for annual 14 C bio values in this specific time period. (
  • In computer programming, data types can be divided into two categories: value types and reference types. (
  • In columns ABCD are the below data (remember, column C is the above equation and column D is the "copy-paste special-values" from C). (
  • The authors conclude that findings support the value of the BE approach for assessing population risks based on biomonitoring data and suggest that current 2,4-D exposures are generally below reference values for acceptable exposure levels. (
  • Conditions related to abnormal lab values * Customizable lab values and tops * Notes section * Switch between US values and SI * Links to outside references, find more information faster * Full search * Order of draw example! (
  • arrow notation, but in that case everything on the left side of the arrow has to evaluate to a reference, which is then dereferenced and the operation on the right (usually subscripting) is performed on the result. (
  • But you can say that the latter is another form of arrow notation (the first arrow, because it's a dereference operator), so they are both a hash reference. (
  • The project to develop and publish the new Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for Australia and New Zealand has been a joint project between the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing and the Ministry of Health. (
  • Teacher does first example, If I were to give you the number 12,965 and ask you to underline the digit in the thousands place, you would underline…(2) and below it write the value of that number (2000). (
  • This section describes how to write literal values in MySQL. (
  • can take on only integer values. (
  • The reason for this is mostly efficiency - do you really want to wrap a simple integer value in all the machinery needed to implement a full class? (
  • This declares and creates an integer variable which in common with all value types is initialised to a sensible default value, zero in this case. (
  • t where int_X is an integer, but as I change the order of my columns in the datagrid, the value of int_X will change as well. (
  • See Palstra (2016) and the references in that publication for background information on the method and its applications. (
  • For context, while the claim values registered pertain to authentication, note that OAuth 2.0 [ RFC6749 ] is designed for resource authorization and cannot be used for authentication without employing appropriate extensions, such as those defined by OpenID Connect Core 1.0 [ OpenID.Core ]. (
  • If intake is high, only a small amount of the thiamin is absorbed and elevated serum values result in active urinary excretion (Davis et al 1984). (
  • Now we have a Point object created on the heap and b is set to reference or point at it. (
  • Getting values in Hash Reference? (
  • I have a doubt in getting values in hash reference. (
  • Unfortunately, as you've found, you can't use hash slices with a hash reference and a dereferencing arrow. (
  • A generic container for various pure value types. (
  • However all object-oriented languages suffer from the need to treat some types of very simple values as something other than objects. (
  • You will notice the use of the term "point" and "pointer" in connection with reference types and this isn't strictly correct. (
  • It is often said that an important difference between value and reference types is the their life cycle. (
  • Types in C# are categorized as either value or reference types. (
  • are value types. (
  • This patch fixes the problem by adding a check for reference types and a null parameter. (
  • Basically, what you would think are primitives are value types (with the exception of structs, which are also value types) All others are reference types. (
  • It explains Value types in the CLR. (
  • Value types must derive from either System.ValueType or System.Enum. (
  • The interesting thing is ValueType and Enum are reference types. (
  • At the TechEd North America 2008 Developers conference , I heard an interesting talk that focused on .NET programming basics, which spurred a lively discussion on reference types and value types. (
  • Reference types store a reference to the value's memory address and are allocated on the heap. (
  • Reference types can be self-describing types, pointer types, or interface types. (
  • The class types are user-defined classes, boxed value types, and delegates. (
  • this includes the String object, along with all arrays (even if their elements are value types), class types, and delegates. (
  • When the runtime deals with reference types, it allocates two spaces in memory: one for the actual object (StringBuilder in the previous example) and one for its reference (sb in the previous example). (
  • When using reference types, the ref keyword is used in both the method signature and when it is called in C# to tell the system that you are working with a reference to the object. (
  • Value types can be built-in (implemented by the runtime), user-defined, or enumerations. (
  • however, value types are sealed so you may not derive other classes from them. (
  • Value types are directly accessed -- there is no need for the new keyword. (
  • The following VB.NET snippet shows the creation of a couple of value types. (
  • Value types are stored on the stack, so they are not affected by the garbage collector. (
  • Value types are often referred to as lighter types as opposed to heavier reference types. (
  • The following simple example demonstrates the use of reference types (via a new keyword). (
  • This example also illustrates a feature of the .NET Framework and its ability to seamlessly move between reference and value types. (
  • Programming languages that distinguish between value types and reference types typically offer a mechanism, called boxing, to wrap some or all of their value types in reference types. (
  • This permits the use of value types in contexts expecting reference types. (
  • Hello, Can you specify that the value of an XML element comprises the value of another element in the same file plus another string for example? (
  • To get the held value, use the template get() method or one of the toT() functions (ex. (
  • There are of course different notions of Banach-space valued Holomorphic functions (weakly or weak$^*$-holomorphic) but it is well-known that these all agree and imply norm analytic. (
  • Our study provides normative values of L1 vertebra trabecular attenuation, which can serve as a quick reference for opportunistic osteoporosis screening at routine CT to identify adults with low bone mineral density who are at risk for osteoporosis and who could potentially benefit from further evaluation and possible intervention," Samuel Jang, MD, of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, and colleagues write. (
  • Dietary Reference Values (DRV) is the name of the nutritional requirements systems used by the United Kingdom Department of Health and the European Union's European Food Safety Authority. (
  • Dietary Reference Values are under the interest of the European Food Safety Authority too, which intend to extend them at the EU level. (
  • To see Percent Prediced, you must enter observed FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75% values in the appropriate boxes. (
  • Lung function values, except for FEV1/FVC, all increased with height. (
  • Values for Caucasian cohorts are already being utilized for clinical decisions but could be inappropriate for African populations. (
  • Normal lymphocyte subsets values among children from Cameroon differ from reported values in Caucasian and some African populations. (
  • If the reference standard does not perfectly correspond to true target disease status, estimates of the accuracy of the test or model under study (index test), such as sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, or area under the curve, can be biased. (
  • Researchers in several studies of neonates and young infants undergoing LP during emergency department (ED) evaluation of fever have attempted to define CSF reference standards. (
  • The table aliases are identifiers for transition tables, which are not persistent, but which exist only to facilitate the referencing operation. (
  • Ordinary Lisp variables can be assigned any value that is a valid Lisp object. (
  • The first use of Point declares a reference to a point object, i.e. b, and the "new Point" part actually creates the point object. (
  • Another important difference is that an object can correspond to multiple reference variables. (
  • This creates a single Point object but two reference variables both of which "point" at the same object. (
  • That is, a state may map an object to any value defined by a trait. (
  • when you pass an object Foo to a procedure, a copy of the reference to the object is passed, bar, Pass by value. (
  • In order to get an object that won't change out from under you, you need to dup or clone the object you're passed, thus giving an object that nobody else has a reference to. (
  • An object handle in AngelScript is represented in memory as an ordinary C++ pointer, but the object it points to is a reference counted object. (
  • If you do not use either of the two, it means that you're passing the object by value, which makes the AngelScript compiler make a copy of the object (which can be hurtful to the performance if the object is very complex). (
  • Value sometimes expresses the inherent usefulness of an object and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods with it. (
  • Value in use is the utility of an object in satisfying, directly or indirectly, the needs or desires of human beings. (
  • When you start getting into object-oriented development, you may find yourself perplexed over why you have access to values sometimes but not other times. (
  • Passing in an object, however, passes it in by reference. (
  • Most would expect (or at least I did) that it would be passed by reference allowing the method to access other parts of the object it is apart of. (
  • keyword will reference the right object: the object we passed in. (
  • On the other hand, the reference to the object is stored on the stack. (
  • When returning a reference, be careful that the object being referred to does not go out of scope. (
  • Establishing PTH reference values needs recruiting a large reference population. (
  • Nowadays, economists accept that both supply and demand factors are important in determining the value of a product, by establishing a MARKET PRICE for it. (
  • To determine standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography in healthy adults. (
  • The age-specific CSF WBC count, protein concentration, and glucose concentration reference values identified in this large, multicenter cohort of infants can be used to interpret the results of lumbar puncture in infants ≤60 days of age. (
  • How the reference values for serum parathyroid hormone concentration are (or should be) established? (
  • Well-validated reference values are necessary for a correct interpretation of a serum PTH concentration. (
  • According to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health's Decree on Ionizing Radiation, the reference value for the radon concentration in indoor air in dwellings and other living areas is 300 becquerels per cubic metre (Bq/m³) of air. (
  • In designing and constructing new buildings, the reference value for the radon concentration in indoor air is 200 Bq/m³. (
  • The reference values 200 and 300 Bq/m3 refer to the annual average radon concentration. (
  • Reference values for lung function tests. (
  • Our results, therefore, provide a more appropriate frame of reference to evaluate the normalcy of static lung volume values in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80 years. (
  • Lung function testing: Selection of reference values and interpretative strategies. (
  • The attr(n) function returns as a string the value of attribute n for the subject of the selector. (
  • The calc() function can be used wherever length values are allowed. (
  • As recommended in the recent guidelines on the diagnosis and management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism, PTH reference values should be established in vitamin D-replete subjects with a normal renal function with possible stratification according to various factors such as age, gender, menopausal status, body mass index, and race. (
  • An 'in' reference is used as an input parameter to the function, i.e. the function will read from the reference but will not update it. (
  • An 'out' reference is contrary, the parameter will be updated by the function to return a value to the calling function. (
  • When a C++ function receives a handle from a script in a parameter it is responsible for releasing that reference when it is done with it. (
  • Likewise, when a C++ function returns a handle to the script it must make sure to increment the reference count. (
  • But I want those arrays from query->param() to be passed to the function as array references instead, naturally. (
  • A C++ function can return a reference in a similar way as it returns a pointer. (
  • When a function returns a reference, it returns an implicit pointer to its return value. (
  • return a reference to the ith element } // main function to call above defined function. (
  • Like variables defined in Lisp, these can take on any value. (
  • When attempting to provide variables into which values should be assigned, the script either warns of undefined variables (when passing apparently by value? (
  • Variables are always references to objects. (
  • Can someone give me a short overview of all the pointer, reference, @, *, &, in, out, inout operators and a short example when to use which in both languages when passing variables between the two (C++ and AS)? (
  • These values guide professionals on the amount of a nutrient needed to maintain health in an otherwise healthy individual or group of people. (
  • include a set of values for each nutrient (instead of a single value). (
  • The intrasession variation, the left-right variation, and the fifth and fiftieth centile values were calculated. (
  • Lab values and Medical Reference is a mobile app for Android mobile devices. (
  • In this work, we wanted to define laboratory reference values for biomarkers of OS in a healthy population of term newborns. (
  • Additionally, there is a lack of consensus in the way the term composite reference standard is used and reporting of results is generally poor. (
  • Generally, however, the courts and parties in civil actions are concerned with market value. (
  • We issue approx 300 new contracts a month and generally request 2 references per new hire. (
  • The increase in the B vitamin reference values generally reflects the ways they were set in the earlier version. (
  • In the 1981-89 RDIs, the values for B vitamins were generally set in relation to energy or protein needs which, in turn, were set on figures recommended at that time by the FAO: WHO. (
  • Value is generally expressed in monetary terms. (
  • Generally, the value of a product depreciates over time, though it sometimes appreciates instead (notably in real estate ). (
  • The only difference (besides syntax) is that a pointer can be null, but a reference cannot (well, it can, but is not supposed to be). (
  • The 'in', 'out', and 'inout' keywords added in the AngelScript syntax tells the AngelScript compiler how the value pointed to by the reference will be used. (
  • The syntax of key files is described in detail in the Desktop Entry Specification , here is a quick summary: Key files consists of groups of key-value pairs, interspersed with comments. (
  • One part of the SQL CREATE TRIGGER syntax that you can use is the optional REFERENCING old_or_new_value_alias_list phrase. (
  • That's why you need 3 in 1 Lab Reference on your iPhone, iPod touch or iPad. (
  • Defining reference values for these biomarkers is necessary to investigate their role in neonatal diseases or also to evaluate the success of treatments. (
  • It enables you to create an alias or correlation name that references values in the trigger's subject table. (
  • After you create a correlation name for new values or an alias for new table contents, you can then reference the values that will exist after an INSERT or UPDATE operation. (
  • In a similar way, after you create a correlation name for old values or an alias for old table contents, you can then reference the values that existed in the subject table before an UPDATE or DELETE operation. (
  • In a row-level trigger, you can use an old value correlation name to reference the values in the row being modified or deleted by the triggering SQL statement as that row existed before the statement modified or deleted it. (