Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Nitrate Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 126.96.36.199.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Nitrate Reductase (NAD(P)H): An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate: A vasodilator with general properties similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a more prolonged duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1025)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitrate Reductase (NADPH): An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 184.108.40.206 and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H).Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Chlorella: Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Tungsten Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Paracoccus denitrificans: A species of bacteria isolated from soil.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Formate Dehydrogenases: Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 220.127.116.11.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Methemoglobinemia: The presence of methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis. A small amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood normally, but injury or toxic agents convert a larger proportion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier. Methemoglobinemia may be due to a defect in the enzyme NADH methemoglobin reductase (an autosomal recessive trait) or to an abnormality in hemoglobin M (an autosomal dominant trait). (Dorland, 27th ed)Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Nitroso CompoundsWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Selenic Acid: A strong dibasic acid with the molecular formula H2SeO4. Included under this heading is the acid form, and inorganic salts of dihydrogen selenium tetraoxide.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Paracoccus: Gram-negative non-motile bacteria found in soil or brines.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Nitrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that oxidizes nitrites to nitrates. Its organisms occur in aerobic environments where organic matter is being mineralized, including soil, fresh water, and sea water.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Nicorandil: A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ammonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.NebraskaAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.S-Nitrosothiols: A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.Benzyl Viologen: 1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.Nitrosation: Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Pseudomonas stutzeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.Spirillum: A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Beggiatoa: A genus of colorless, filamentous bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE whose cells contain inclusions of sulfur granules. When found in decaying seaweed beds and polluted water, its presence signals environmental degradation.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rhodocyclaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Rhodocyclales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. It includes many genera previously assigned to the family PSEUDOMONADACEAE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Epsilonproteobacteria: A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.AcetyleneProteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)MethemoglobinBioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 22.214.171.124.Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Anabaena: A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chemoautotrophic Growth: Growth of organisms using AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES for obtaining nutrients and chemotrophic processes for obtaining a primary energy supply. Chemotrophic processes are involved in deriving a primary energy supply from exogenous chemical sources. Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs. Most chemoautotrophs live in hostile environments, such as deep sea vents. They are mostly BACTERIA and ARCHAEA, and are the primary producers for those ecosystems.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Vaccinium: A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE known for species with edible fruits.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amyl Nitrite: A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Isosorbide: 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Bradyrhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Xanthine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Hydroxyquinolines: The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Haloferax mediterranei: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
"73426 (Fluka) Nitrate Reduction Test". Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 15 April 2010. ... N,N-Dimethyl-1-naphthylamine is used in the nitrate reductase test to form a red precipitate of Prontosil by reacting with a ...
Zumft WG, Paneque A, Aparicio PJ, Losada M (1969). "Mechanism of nitrate reduction in Chlorella". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ...
... larsenii undergoes assimilatory nitrate reduction to nitrite to ammonia. This process differs from nitrate reduction because it ... Guerrero, M. G. "Assimilatory nitrate reduction." (1985): 170-171. Kanekar et al. "Exploration of a haloarchaeon, ...
Negative for nitrate reduction, isonicotinamidase, and citrate utilisation. Does not grow in the presence of hydroxylamine HCl ...
Cabello P; Roldán MD; Moreno-Vivián C (November 2004). "Nitrate reduction and the nitrogen cycle in archaea". Microbiology. 150 ... They produce nitrite, which other microbes then oxidize to nitrate. Plants and other organisms consume the latter. In the ... This includes both reactions that remove nitrogen from ecosystems (such as nitrate-based respiration and denitrification) as ... deeply branched sediment archaeal phylum with pathways for acetogenesis and sulfur reduction". ISME Journal. 10 (7): 1696-1705 ...
Some organisms (e.g. E. coli) only produce nitrate reductase and therefore can accomplish only the first reduction leading to ... reduction to selenite (SeO2− 3) and selenite reduction to inorganic selenium (Se0) Arsenate (AsO3− 4) reduction to arsenite ( ... Denitrification involves the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrite (NO− 2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N 2O), and ... Cabello P, Roldán MD, Moreno-Vivián C (November 2004). "Nitrate reduction and the nitrogen cycle in archaea". Microbiology. 150 ...
Nitrates undergo chemical reduction, likely mediated by enzymes. Molsidomine and nitroprusside already contain nitrogen in the ... groups necessary for the reduction of nitrates. While this theory would fit the fact that molsidomine (which is not reduced) ... Nitrates mainly differ in speed and duration of their action. Glyceryl trinitrate acts fast and short (10 to 30 minutes), while ... The nitrates are used for the treatment and prevention of angina and acute myocardial infarction, while molsidomine acts too ...
Doel, J. J.; Benjamin, N. .; Hector, M. P.; Rogers, M. .; Allaker, R. P. (2005). "Evaluation of bacterial nitrate reduction in ... Rothia dentocariosa, like several other species of oral bacteria, is able to reduce nitrate to nitrite, and one study found it ... in 3% of isolates of nitrate-reducing bacteria from the mouth. R. dentocariosa Parte, A.C. "Rothia". www.bacterio.net. Ricaurte ...
Nitrate reduction test shows a weak reaction. Does not hydrolyse Tween 80 within 10 days. Mineralizes phenanthrene, ...
It should test negative for nitrate reduction, urease, and H2S production. C. canimorsus can be distinguished from other Gram- ...
Chloroplast targeting of cyanobacterial nitrate reducase was achieved in order to link nitrate reduction to photosynthetic ... Physiologia Plantarum 66: 169-176 Kumar et al., 1988, Glycine supports in vivo reduction of nitrate in barley leaves. Plant ... Integration of a cyanobacterial protein involved in nitrate reduction into isolated Synechococcus but not into pea thylakoid ... He discovered that nitrate reductase enzyme derives its reducing power from photorespiration, considered a wasteful process by ...
The silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical reduction of silver nitrate. The reducing reagent used for the synthesis ... A typical process was carried out in a sealed chemical bath containing an equimolar solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and ... gold nanoparticles in aqueous solutions are synthesized by the reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4). To prevent the ...
... can be obtained by the reduction of potassium nitrate. The production of potassium nitrite by absorption of ... He heated potassium nitrate at red heat for half an hour and obtained what he recognized as a new "salt." The two compounds ( ... From 650° to 750°, as the case of decomposition of potassium nitrate is, the system attains equilibrium. At 790°, a rapid ... As a treatment for angina, the reduction of circulating blood by venesection was inconvenient. Therefore, he decided to try the ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Cabello P, Roldán MD, Moreno-Vivián C (November 2004). "Nitrate reduction and ...
Stenotrophomonas is the only genus capable of nitrate reduction within the Xanthomonadales. The Xanthomonadales consist of 28 ...
H. thermophilus also contains the necessary genes for nitrate reduction and assimilation. Hydrogenobacter thermophilus has ... Nitrogen sources are Ammonium and Nitrate salts. This bacterium utilizes a special form of the reductive tricyclic acid cycle ( ...
The microbe is strictly aerobe (no reduction of nitrate) and oxidase-positive. The bacterium grows at temperatures between 4 °C ...
Nitrate reduction Mycobacteria containing nitroreductase catalyze the reduction from nitrate to nitrite. The presence of ... If nitrate is present, red diazonium dye is formed. Photoreactivity of mycobacteria; Some mycobacteria produce carotenoid ...
Also, potassium nitrate can be applied topically in an aqueous solution or an adhesive gel. Oxalate products are also used ... They are thought to act by producing a transient reduction in action potential in C-fibers in the pulp, but Aδ-fibers are not ... Low, Samuel B.; Allen, Edward P.; Kontogiorgos, Elias D. (27 February 2015). "Reduction in Dental Hypersensitivity with Nano- ... Desensitizing toothpastes containing potassium nitrate have been used since the 1980s while toothpastes with potassium chloride ...
... using genes for nitrate reduction that have been laterally transferred from a bacterial donor. This was also the first complete ... "Anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to nitrate reduction in a novel archaeal lineage". Nature. 500 (7464): 567-70. doi: ... is able to perform nitrate-driven AOM without a partner organism via reverse methanogenesis with nitrate as the terminal ... In 2010, omics analysis showed that nitrite reduction can be coupled to methane oxidation by a single bacterial species, NC10, ...
Produces a low level of heatstable catalase and is negative for reduction of nitrates. Differential characteristics The 16S ...
In this plant the reduction is done using either hydrazine or HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate). The plant releases gaseous emissions ...
... nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas via nitrite and ammonium". Environmental Microbiology. 9 (3): 635-42. doi:10.1111/j.1462- ... Aerobic bacteria such as the nitrifying bacteria, Nitrobacter, utilize oxygen to oxidize nitrite to nitrate. Some lithotrophs ...
For the body to generate nitric oxide through the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway, the reduction of nitrate to nitrite ... elevates nitric oxide through the sequential reduction of dietary nitrate derived from plant-based foods. Nitrate-rich ... Reduction of inorganic nitrate may also serve to make nitric oxide. The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels uses nitric ... Nitrous oxide in biological systems can be formed by an enzymatic or non-enzymatic reduction of nitric oxide. In vitro studies ...
For the body to generate nitric oxide through the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway, the reduction of nitrate to nitrite (by ... elevates nitric oxide through the sequential reduction of dietary nitrate derived from plant-based foods. Nitrate-rich ... Reduction of inorganic nitrate may also serve to make nitric oxide. The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels uses nitric ... Nitrate is cleared from the plasma by the kidney at rates approaching the rate of glomerular filtration. As a result of its ...
Reaction 1) is known as Birch reduction. Other reductions that can be carried by these solutions are: S8 + 2e− → S82-. Fe( ... Potassium hydroxide is a very strong base, and is used to control the pH of various substances. Potassium nitrate and ... Dimerization and Reduction of Rhodocene". Inorg. Chem. 18 (6): 1443-1446. doi:10.1021/ic50196a007.. ... Titanium is produced industrially by the reduction of titanium tetrachloride with Na at 4000C (van Arkel process). ...
... with both PETN and nitrate degrading simultaneously. However, the rate of nitrate reduction was much faster than PETN ... Nitrate was not detected during the experiment, suggesting that hydrolysis was not involved in PETN degradation. Furthermore, ... Over 74 days, very little consistent reduction of PETN was found in the iron treatment, which was also due to iron passivation ... A utilization sequence by bacteria in the order of nitrate, PETN, PETriN, PEDN and sulfate was clearly observed. The study in ...
The direct reduction of nitrate to ammonium via dissimilatory nitrate reduction, coupled with the direct conversion of ammonium ... Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), also known as nitrate/nitrite ammonification, is the result of anaerobic ... dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium conserves nitrogen within the system. Since DNRA takes nitrate and converts it into ... the first step of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is usually mediated by a periplasmic nitrate reductase. The ...
... shrubs to take up the nitrates before it hits waterways. ... A new nitrate reduction practice called saturated buffers ... A new nitrate reduction practice called saturated buffers. A new nitrate reduction practice called saturated buffers diverts ... A new nitrate reduction practice called saturated buffers A new nitrate reduction practice called saturated buffers diverts ... A new nitrate reduction practice called saturated buffers diverts water from drainage tiles, then relies on trees, shrubs to ...
... was investigated for simultaneous removal of nitrate and Cr(VI). In the absence of Cr(VI), almost complete denitrification of ... Long M, Zhou C, Xia S, Guadiea A (2017) Concomitant Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(III) precipitation with nitrate in a methane/oxygen ... Peng L, Liu Y, Gao S, Chen X, Ni B (2015) Evaluating simultaneous chromate and nitrate reduction during microbial ... A dicyclic-type electrode-based biofilm reactor for simultaneous nitrate and Cr(VI) reduction. ...
University of Minnesota study shows wetlands provide landscape-scale reduction in nitrate pollution. ... within a watershed are extremely effective at reducing harmful nitrate in rivers and streams. Full Story ...
This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine ... This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine ... that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in ... suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article ...
The nonlinear-optical properties of metal Ag colloidal solutions, which were prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate, were ... Nonlinear-Optical and Fluorescent Properties of Ag Aqueous Colloid Prepared by Silver Nitrate Reduction. Xiaoqiang Zhang, ... Colloidal Ag nanoparticles were prepared in an aqueous solution by the reduction of silver nitrate with sodium citrate ... which was prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate, have been investigated under the irradiation of 38 ps laser pulse at 532 ...
... nitrate reduction is preceded by nitrate transport into the cells (Fig. 2). In most bacterial Nas systems, nitrate seems to be ... Four types of nitrate reductases catalyze the two-electron reduction of nitrate to nitrite: the eukaryotic assimilatory nitrate ... Nitrate reduction can be performed with three different purposes: the utilization of nitrate as a nitrogen source for growth ( ... Prokaryotic Nitrate Reduction: Molecular Properties and Functional Distinction among Bacterial Nitrate Reductases. Conrado ...
3B shows how the GEOS-Chem nitrate particle fraction (. ϵ. (. N. O. 3. -. ). =. [. N. O. 3. -. ]. [. H. N. O. 3. ]. +. [. N. O ... Chemical feedbacks weaken the wintertime response of particulate sulfate and nitrate to emissions reductions over the eastern ... Chemical feedbacks weaken the wintertime response of particulate sulfate and nitrate to emissions reductions over the eastern ... Chemical feedbacks weaken the wintertime response of particulate sulfate and nitrate to emissions reductions over the eastern ...
Total Hydrogenation of Furfural over a Silica-Supported Nickel Catalyst Prepared by the Reduction of a Nickel Nitrate Precursor ... which is prepared by the reduction of supported nickel nitrate. The maximum yield is 94 %. The conversion of furfural to the ... Nandan S. Date, Narayan S. Biradar, Rajeev C. Chikate, Chandrashekhar V. Rode, Effect of Reduction Protocol of Pd Catalysts on ...
... an in situ experiment is being carried out to examine the fate of nitrate leaching from nitrate-containing bituminized ... microbial reduction of nitrate would either lead to the generation of nitrite [by dissimilative nitrate reduction to nitrite ( ... The observed nitrate reduction rates in these preliminary tests are summarized in Table 3. In these tests, nitrate was reduced ... The slow nitrate reactivity is in agreement with the results of previously reported lab tests during which nitrate reduction ...
More information: Electrochemical reduction of nitrate to ammonia via direct eight-electron transfer using a copper-molecular ... A new strategy for the electrochemical reduction of nitrate to ammonia. by Ingrid Fadelli , Phys.org ... Citation: A new strategy for the electrochemical reduction of nitrate to ammonia (2020, August 31) retrieved 28 September 2020 ... but most of them tend to produce N2 via five-electron reduction of NO3- rather than the desired eight-electron reduction." ...
Iridium Nanotubes as Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution and Nitrate Reduction Reactions. ACS Appl Mater ... Iridium Nanotubes as Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution and Nitrate Reduction Reactions. ... and nitrate reduction reactions (NO3-RR) in an acidic electrolyte. The unique 1D and porous structure endow Ir NTs with big ... Bromates Bromides Carbonates Chlorides Chromates Fluorides Hydrides Hydroxides Iodates Iodides Lactates Molybdates Nitrates ...
Role of narK2X and narGHJI in Hypoxic Upregulation of Nitrate Reduction by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Charles D. Sohaskey, ... Role of narK2X and narGHJI in Hypoxic Upregulation of Nitrate Reduction by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Role of narK2X and narGHJI in Hypoxic Upregulation of Nitrate Reduction by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Role of narK2X and narGHJI in Hypoxic Upregulation of Nitrate Reduction by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...
This work describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrate in alkaline solutions. Conditions which maximize the current ... Electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite in concentrated sodium hydroxide at platinum and nickel electrodes ... Hu Lin Li; Robertson, D.H.; Chambers, J.Q. & Hobbs, D.T. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite in concentrated ... This work describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrate in alkaline solutions. Conditions which maximize the current ...
Comparison of Community and Function of Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium (DNRA) Bacteria in Chinese Shallow Lakes ... The authors conducted molecular biological tools for investigating the community abundance of DNRA bacteria and its reduction ... The authors conducted molecular biological tools for investigating the community abundance of DNRA bacteria and its reduction ...
... but two nitrate reduction processes were noted .. In an attempt to enhance the efficiency of nitrate reduction, the Cu-Pd ... the nitrate reduction was observed. On the other hand, nitrate reduction wave at potential corresponding to the Cu/Pd phase ... The best nitrate response was verified to depend on the deposition time of Cu/Pd composite, where the reduction peak current ... M. C. P. M. da Cunha, J. P. I. De Souza, and F. C. Nart, "Reaction pathways for reduction of nitrate ions on platinum, rhodium ...
Chemical filtration media for the reduction of Nitrate in the water. It is designed to remove unwanted dissolved waste in the ... Chemical filtration media for the reduction of Nitrate in the water.. It is designed to remove unwanted dissolved waste in the ...
Nitrate concentration and in vivo nitrate reductase activity assay: For nitrate determinations, roots and leaves were dried at ... The effects of salt stress on growth, nitrate reduction and proline and glycinebetaine accumulation in Prosopis alba ... In vivo nitrate NRA was considerably greater in leaves than in roots. As for nitrate concentration, NRA did not change with the ... The nitrate concentration in roots and leaves was not influenced by 300 mmol.L-1 NaCl. At 600 mmol.L-1 NaCl, nitrate ...
No nitrate reduction was observed with non-irradiated PVC powder, although irradiated powder supported minor nitrate reduction ... No nitrate reduction was observed with non-irradiated PVC powder, although irradiated powder supported minor nitrate reduction ... Plasticised PVC supported near-complete nitrate reduction, whether irradiated or not, although irradiated PVC sheet supported ... Plasticised PVC supported near-complete nitrate reduction, whether irradiated or not, although irradiated PVC sheet supported ...
Enhancement of Nitrite and Nitrate Electrocatalytic Reduction through the Employment of Self-Assembled Layers of Nickel- and ... Finally, the electrocatalytic performance of obtained films with respect to nitrite and nitrate electrocatalytic reduction has ... Nickel atoms trapped inside HPA exhibited a higher specific activity for reduction. ...
On the basis of the characteristics of mutants unable to dissimilate or assimilate nitrate to nitrite, it was revealed that two ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to both assimilate and dissimilate nitrate. ... Snr, new genetic loci common to the nitrate reduction systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Curr Microbiol. 1997 Jul;35(1):9- ... The snr loci, which represent a unique and hitherto uninvestigated set of genes for nitrate reduction, were mapped on the P. ...
Strategies for meeting targets for ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching reduction for Welsh beef and sheep farms at Bangor ... KESS2 Scholarship: Strategies for meeting targets for ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching reduction for Welsh beef and sheep ... KESS2 Scholarship: Strategies for meeting targets for ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching reduction for Welsh beef and sheep ... KESS2 Scholarship: Strategies for meeting targets for ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching reduction for Welsh beef and sheep ...
B A Haddock, M W Kendall-Tobias; Functional anaerobic electron transport linked to the reduction of nitrate and fumarate in ... Functional anaerobic electron transport linked to the reduction of nitrate and fumarate in membranes from Escherichia coli as ... particles prepared from Escherichia coli grown anaerobically with glycerol as carbon source in the presence of either nitrate ... be used to study the functional organization of the anaerobic proton-translocating electron-transport chains that use nitrate ...
Strategies for meeting targets for ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching reduction for Welsh beef and sheep farms at Bangor ... KESS 2 East Scholarship: Strategies for meeting targets for ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching reduction for Welsh beef and ... KESS 2 East Scholarship: Strategies for meeting targets for ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching reduction for Welsh beef and ... KESS 2 East Scholarship: Strategies for meeting targets for ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching reduction for Welsh beef and ...
BacteriaHydrolysisMicrobialEnrichmentWidelyAcetateApparentlyDenitrificationDissimilatoryLevels of nitrateAmmoniaContaminationGroundwaterReductasesSilver nitrateDrinking waterRemove nitratesTerminal electronPlasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductaseReductase activityInfantsReduced to nitritePathwayPresence of nitrateConcentrations of nitrateConversion of nitrate to nitriteFertilizersAssimilatory nitrate reductionMethemoglobinemiaWastewaterPathwaysIntracellularElectrochemicalAnaerobic growthExcessReducing nitrate to nitriteDirect reduction of nitrateMicrobial nitrate reductionStore nitrate intracellularlyZero-valent ironNaturally occurrinNitrites or nitratesGenes for nitrate reductionBacterialAccumulationAbstractEnzymeRespirationMicroorganismsElectron donorsSodiumSoilReactionAqueousRate of nitrateOrganismElectrocatalytic ReductionToxicityHighest nitrate removalHigh nitrate concentrationsPeriplasmicDissimilationINCUBATIONReagents
- Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is similar to the process of denitrification, though NO2− is reduced farther to NH4+ rather than to N2, transferring eight electrons. (wikipedia.org)
- Despite the redox potential of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium being lower than denitrification and producing less Gibbs free energy, energy yield of denitrification may not be efficiently conserved in its series of enzymatic reactions and nitrate ammonifiers may achieve higher growth rates and outcompete denitrifiers. (wikipedia.org)
- this DNRA-Anammox coupling by DNRA and Anammox bacteria can account for nitrate loss in areas with no detectable denitrification, such as in OMZs off the coast of Chile, Peru, and Namibia, as well as OMZs over the Omani Shelf in the Arabian Sea. (wikipedia.org)
- In the coexistent system of nitrate and Cr(VI), nitrate removal was the result of the cooperation of hydrogenotrophic denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification. (springer.com)
- Peng L, Liu Y, Gao S, Chen X, Ni B (2015) Evaluating simultaneous chromate and nitrate reduction during microbial denitrification processes. (springer.com)
- The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. (frontiersin.org)
- The reduction of nitrate in the clay could have an impact on the redox conditions in the pore-water and might also lead to a gas-related perturbation of the host rock, depending on the electron donor used during denitrification. (springer.com)
- The methods which are often used for the reduction of nitrate are biological denitrification and ion exchange. (hindawi.com)
- The first obvious product of reduction to look for is reduction to N 2 gas, called denitrification , within the Durhm tube. (libretexts.org)
- How do the definitions of nitrate reduction and denitrification differ? (libretexts.org)
- We found that spatially variable denitrification rates arise from the intersection of nitrate rich water with reactive zones defined by the abundance of electron donors (primarily pyrite). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- Denitrification Nitrate Reduction and Denitrification nitrite reductase nitrate reductase Some bacteria only produce nitrate reductase, other bacteria also produce nitrite reductase Day 1: Materials needed per table: Three pure cultures needed Nitrate broth tubes (4) per table: Alcaligenes faecalis 1 sterile Q-tip (negative) Proteus vulgaris (positive for nitrite) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (denitrifier) Each student takes responsibility to inoculate one of the nitrate broth tubes Reagents and Steps 1. (slidegur.com)
- NO3− is dissimilated within intertidal sediments by microbial processes, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium (NH4+) oxidation (anammox) and dissimilatory NO3− reduction to NH4+ (DNRA). (grousehavenkennels.com)
- Reduction of nitrate to nitrite, the first step in the denitrification pathway, is catalyzed by dissimilatory nitrate reductase (DNR). (springer.com)
- Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), also known as nitrate/nitrite ammonification, is the result of anaerobic respiration by chemoorganoheterotrophic microbes using nitrate (NO3−) as an electron acceptor for respiration. (wikipedia.org)
- Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is more common in prokaryotes but may also occur in eukaryotic microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
- Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is a two step process, reducing NO3− to NO2− then NO2− to NH4+, though the reaction may begin with NO2− directly. (wikipedia.org)
- Each step is mediated by a different enzyme, the first step of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is usually mediated by a periplasmic nitrate reductase. (wikipedia.org)
- As dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is an anaerobic respiration process, marine microorganisms capable of performing DNRA are most commonly found in environments low in O2, such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the water column, or sediments with steep O2 gradients. (wikipedia.org)
- While dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is more commonly associated with prokaryotes, recent research has found increasing evidence of DNRA in various eukaryotic microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
- More recently, it has been discovered that using intracellular nitrate stores, diatoms can carry out dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, likely for short-term survival or for entering resting stages, thereby allowing them to persist in dark and anoxic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
- Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. (frontiersin.org)
- This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. (frontiersin.org)
- Dissimilatory nitrate reduction is a process for energy conservation, in which nitrate is used as an electron acceptor in the (near) absence of oxygen (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
- Dissimilatory nitrate reduction and nitrate storage in particular are physiological life traits that provide microbes with environmental flexibility (i.e., metabolic activity under both oxic and anoxic conditions) and resource independence (i.e., anaerobic metabolism without immediate nitrate supply), respectively. (frontiersin.org)
- ICNO 3 ) and pathways of dissimilatory nitrate reduction (DNR) are given for taxonomic groups tested positive for either trait. (frontiersin.org)
- Four types of nitrate reductases catalyze the two-electron reduction of nitrate to nitrite: the eukaryotic assimilatory nitrate reductases and three distinct bacterial enzymes, comprising the cytoplasmic assimilatory (Nas), membrane-bound respiratory (Nar), and periplasmic dissimilatory (Nap) nitrate reductases. (asm.org)
- M . tuberculosis has two sets of genes, narGHJI and narX of the narK2X operon, that exhibit some degree of homology to prokaryotic dissimilatory nitrate reductases. (asm.org)
- N-15 tracer experiments showed that nitrate was mainly reduced to ammonium by the dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) pathway. (ugent.be)
- Vermeiren J, Van de Wiele T, Verstraete W, Boeckx P, Boon N. Nitric oxide production by the human intestinal microbiota by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. (ugent.be)
- Evidence is accumulating that some of these eukaryotes survive anoxia by employing dissimilatory nitrate reduction, a strategy that otherwise is widespread in prokaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Axenic incubations of An-4 in the presence and absence of oxygen and nitrate revealed that this fungal isolate is capable of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium under anoxic conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
- The products of dissimilatory nitrate reduction were ammonium (83%), nitrous oxide (15.5%), and nitrite (1.5%), while dinitrogen production was not observed. (biomedcentral.com)
- The process led to substantial cellular ATP production and biomass growth and also occurred when ammonium was added to suppress nitrate assimilation, stressing the dissimilatory nature of nitrate reduction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Interestingly, An-4 used intracellular nitrate stores (up to 6-8 μmol NO 3 - g -1 protein) for dissimilatory nitrate reduction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our findings expand the short list of microbial eukaryotes that store nitrate intracellularly and carry out dissimilatory nitrate reduction when oxygen is absent. (biomedcentral.com)
- One of the activities induced in M.tuberculosis by hypoxia is the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which serves to provide energy as the bacteria adapt to anaerobiosis. (uniprot.org)
- This pattern suggests that tidal pumping may sustain dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal zones. (grousehavenkennels.com)
- Thus, the balance of these dissimilatory NO3−-reduction processes, relating to geochemical and physical factors, has great biogeochemical consequences for N retention, plant growth and the climate9. (grousehavenkennels.com)
- Parallel studies with the dissimilatory Fe(III)-, U(VI)- and nitrate-reducing microorganism, Geobacter metallireducens, demonstrated that nitrate inhibited reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) in cell suspensions of cells that had been grown with nitrate as the electron acceptor, but not in Fe(III)-grown cells. (nih.gov)
- A knockout of the putative nitrite transporter narK2 gene produced a strain that had aerobic levels of nitrate reductase activity but failed to show hypoxic upregulation. (asm.org)
- These levels of nitrate can also lead to algae blooms, and when nutrients become limiting (such as potassium, phosphate or nitrate) then eutrophication can occur. (evolutionhealth.com)
- The dosing of NO3:PO4-X is therefore regulated by measured levels of nitrate. (liveaquaria.com)
- To accomplish nitrate reduction and eliminate the levels of nitrate that build-up in closed saltwater systems, you can buy a commercial denitrator unit that costs big bucks, is difficult to adjust, and requires feeding and monitoring to maintain proper operation. (thespruce.com)
- High levels of nitrate contamination can lead to such health concerns as "blue baby syndrome," or infant methemoglobiemia. (watertechonline.com)
- Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Researchers at South China University of Technology and Argonne National Laboratory have recently devised a new electrochemical strategy to produce ammonia through the reduction of nitrate. (phys.org)
- Applications are invited for a three-year research PhD studentship that focuses on strategies for reducing ammonia emissions and nitrate leaching for Welsh beef and sheep farms. (findaphd.com)
- Catalytic hydrogenation over Pd-based catalysts has emerged as an effective treatment approach for nitrate (NO3-) removal, but its full-scale application for direct treatment of drinking water or ion exchange regenerant brines requires improved selectivity for the end-product dinitrogen (N2) over toxic ammonia species (NH4+, NH3). (illinois.edu)
- The nitrate may have been reduced to nitrite which has then been completely reduced to ammonia. (libretexts.org)
- The results presented herein unambiguously demonstrate that neither nanoparticulate carbon-supported gold, nor bismuth powder are active catalysts for the electrocatalytic dinitrogen reduction, but both can efficiently catalyze the electroreduction of NO2-, NO3-, NO, and NO2 to ammonia in an aqueous electrolyte solution. (monash.edu)
- if too much Zn is added, the large amount of hydrogen gas produced may reduce the nitrite (formed from unreduced nitrate) to ammonia (NH 3 ) that could result in a false negative reaction or just a fleeting color reaction. (com.pk)
- Yup, that's what they are designed to do, convert ammonia ultimately into nitrates! (thespruce.com)
- Alternatively, the rapid determination of both nitrate and ammonium ions can be estimated using an ammonia field test kit (LaMotte, Chestertown, MD). (environmental-expert.com)
- The water supplies most vulnerable to nitrate contamination are in agricultural areas and in well waters having a close or hydraulic relationship to septic tanks. (adedgetech.com)
- If well water used to dilute formula is implicated in the cyanosis, what are some possible causes of its nitrate contamination? (cdc.gov)
- Contamination of nitrate in water resources has become a severe environmental problem. (iwaponline.com)
- The goal of the proposal is to ensure that more Minnesota residents have clean, safe, and reliable drinking water without nitrate contamination. (cureriver.org)
- Although nitrates and nitrites may still contaminate consumers' drinking water supplies after they have been municipally treated, domestic wells are at a higher risk of contamination as they are not federally regulated to monitor nitrate levels. (watertechonline.com)
- A national map, found at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/nutrients/pubs/est_v36_no10/est_v36_no10.html , shows the likelihood of nitrate contamination of shallow groundwater. (watertechonline.com)
- In some of California's fastest growing regions, such as Los Angeles and the San Joaquin Valley, one in every three domestic wells has nitrate contamination in levels that far exceed public health limits," says Jessen, adding that this has led to strict standards requiring municipal water systems to be responsive to the need for increased testing and treatment. (watertechonline.com)
- According to Jessen, this trend should be no surprise given that the number one source of nitrate contamination has been agricultural activity. (watertechonline.com)
- Various point-of-use (POU) and point-of-entry (POE) technologies are available that can treat nitrate contamination. (watertechonline.com)
- These studies demonstrate that although the presence of nitrate is not likely to be an impediment to the bioremediation of uranium contamination with microbial U(VI) reduction, it is necessary to reduce nitrate before U(VI) can be reduced. (nih.gov)
- Ground water tests indicated that nitrates had exceeded the maximum contamination level for the area. (k-state.edu)
- Many areas of the United States are at risk of contamination of drinking water by nitrates and nitrites due to overuse of agricultural fertilizers. (phys.org)
- However, there is worldwide concern over the excessive use of fertilizers in agricultural activities, leading to nitrate accumulation in groundwater. (asm.org)
- Nitrate in groundwater originates primarily from fertilizers, septic systems, and manure storage or spreading operations. (evolutionhealth.com)
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has found nitrate in excess of 10 mg/L in over 800 small, rural groundwater systems. (adedgetech.com)
- Only 10 percent of the wells surveyed in a recent U.S. EPA groundwater study , however, had nitrate levels above 20 mg/L. High nitrate is the most frequent reason for shutting down wells in the United States. (adedgetech.com)
- Untitled Document Estimating the concentrations of nitrate and ammonium ions in groundwater from reclaimed water is extremely important. (environmental-expert.com)
- Here, we use isotope-tracing and molecular approaches simultaneously to show that both nitrate-reduction activities and associated functional bacterial abundances are enhanced at the sediment-tidal water interface and at the tide-induced groundwater fluctuating layer. (grousehavenkennels.com)
- This week Governor Mark Dayton's office and Minnesota Agriculture Commissioner Dave Frederickson released a new proposal for a groundwater protection measure that aims to reduce elevated nitrate levels in drinking water. (cureriver.org)
- Nitrates are a common contaminant in Minnesota groundwater. (cureriver.org)
- These new procedures for fertilizer application would reduce the movement of nitrates through the soil into groundwater supplies. (cureriver.org)
- Public Water Supply Areas - The proposed groundwater protection measure also would restrict the application of fertilizer during the fall in Drinking Water Supply Management Areas where the nitrate concentration exceeds 5.4 mg/L. (cureriver.org)
- Nitrates and nitrites are most often found in groundwater. (watertechonline.com)
- Nitrate from soil can also be washed into groundwater through rainfall, which means that it can ultimately be found in drinking water too. (bund.de)
- Microbiological reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) has been proposed as a remediation strategy for uranium-contaminated groundwater. (nih.gov)
- The aim of this minireview is to summarize recent advances in the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of prokaryotic nitrate reduction, emphasizing the different molecular characteristics of the bacterial nitrate reductases. (asm.org)
- All eukaryotic and bacterial nitrate reductases contain a molybdenum cofactor at their active sites. (asm.org)
- By contrast, the cofactor found in bacterial nitrate reductases and some molybdoenzymes is the bis -molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (MGD) form ( 7 , 24 , 69 , 100 ). (asm.org)
- The sequence analysis of these genes and the biochemical properties of the purified nitrate, nitrite and hydroxylamine reductases are reviewed. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- 10,11 In humans, after absorption through the stomach wall, ≈25% of consumed nitrate enters the enterosalivary circulation where it is reduced to nitrite (NO 2 − ) by bacterial nitrate reductases from facultative anaerobes on the dorsal surface of the tongue. (ahajournals.org)
- The trace element molybdenum is essential for nearly all organisms and forms the catalytic centre of a large variety of enzymes such as nitrogenase, nitrate reductases, sulphite oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductases. (nature.com)
- The nonlinear-optical properties of metal Ag colloidal solutions, which were prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate, were investigated using Z-scan method. (hindawi.com)
- To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the optical properties colloidal Ag particles prepared by using the silver-nitrate reduction method. (hindawi.com)
- Colloidal Ag nanoparticles were prepared in an aqueous solution by the reduction of silver nitrate with sodium citrate following the method reported by Lee and Meisel [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Silver nitrate is a chemical compound, salt of nitric acid and silver metal. (omggmowtf.info)
- Disclaimer and references, silver nitrate's chemical formula is AgNO3.If some gets in your eyes, flush with water for ten minutes.Wash thoroughly if some gets on your skin.If you drop it on your skin, you would get a white stain.It is also used as a stain in scanning electron microscopy.Show the class the small piece of copper (about 2 cm2). (omggmowtf.info)
- Silver nitrate (0.5 mmol, 0.085 g) and 2-phenylimidazole (0.5 mmol, 0.041 g) in water (20 mmol) was heated at 435 K for 2 d. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Exposure to light will cause the silver nitrate tip to turn black, but will not affect the product's potency. (drugs.com)
- Alexandria, VA, USA - At the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Dental Research (AADR), held in conjunction with the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research (CADR), Hailey Taylor, University of California, San Francisco, presented an oral session titled "Oral Microbiome and Anthropometry Changes Following Caries Arrest Using Silver-Nitrate/Fluoride-Varnish. (eurekalert.org)
- This is a summary of oral session #0150 titled "Oral Microbiome and Anthropometry Changes Following Caries Arrest Using Silver-Nitrate/Fluoride-Varnish" presented by Hailey Taylor on Thursday, March 22, 2018, at 8 a.m. in Floridian B/C of the Greater Fort Lauderdale/Broward County Convention Center in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., USA. (eurekalert.org)
- Methemoglobinemia is the most significant health problem associated with nitrate in drinking water. (evolutionhealth.com)
- How do I remove nitrate from my drinking water? (evolutionhealth.com)
- The level of nitrate is regulated in drinking water because high nitrate levels are known to cause Methemoglobinemia, a disease that prevents blood from collecting and carrying oxygen efficiently. (elsevier.com)
- 6 It is estimated that 2 million families drink water from private wells that fail to meet the federal drinking-water standard for nitrate, and 40000 infants younger than 6 months live in homes that have nitrate-contaminated water supplies. (aappublications.org)
- This Drinking Water nitrate removal water filter will effectively remove nitrate toxicity from the drinking water to provide safer water for the whole family. (premierwatersystems.net)
- Level One and Two - In areas where the public water supply has nitrate concentrations in excess of 5.4 mg/L. Drinking Water Supply Management Areas would be encouraged to voluntarily implement best management practices to reduce nitrate levels. (cureriver.org)
- Level Three - If after three years under Level Two nitrate concentrations continue to increase, then the Drinking Water Supply Management Area would be given a Level Three designation. (cureriver.org)
- Nitrates are often found in drinking water sources, especially in smaller public water supplies and private water wells. (watertechonline.com)
- The nitrate levels in ground and drinking water can be considerable, depending on the predominant form of land use. (bund.de)
- Nitrates in drinking water are a concern as levels as little as 10 milligrams per liter of water can cause methemoglobinemia, a blood disorder frequently called 'blue baby syndrome' which affects children especially under the age of five. (k-state.edu)
- Rice University's indium-palladium nanoparticle catalysts clean nitrates from drinking water by converting the toxic molecules into air and water. (phys.org)
- Engineers at Rice University's Nanotechnology Enabled Water Treatment (NEWT) Center have found a catalyst that cleans toxic nitrates from drinking water by converting them into air and water. (phys.org)
- Both nitrates and nitrites are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, which sets allowable limits for safe drinking water. (phys.org)
- In communities with polluted wells and lakes, that typically means pretreating drinking water with ion-exchange resins that trap and remove nitrates and nitrites without destroying them. (phys.org)
- However, to remove nitrates before reaching the ionizer, pre-filtration is recommended. (evolutionhealth.com)
- It uses strong base anion exchange resins which are supplied in the chloride form as moist, tough, uniform spherical beads, and are designed specifically to remove nitrates preferentially in the presence of sulfates and other divalent ions. (premierwatersystems.net)
- It is concluded that this technique can be used to study the functional organization of the anaerobic proton-translocating electron-transport chains that use nitrate or fumarate as terminal electron acceptor. (portlandpress.com)
- Metagenomic, single-cell genomic and metatranscriptomic analyses combined with bioreactor performance and (13)C- and (15)N-labelling experiments show that ANME-2d is capable of independent AOM through reverse methanogenesis using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. (nih.gov)
- The narG mutant showed no nitrate reductase activity in whole culture or in cell-free assays, while the narX mutant showed wild-type levels in both assays. (asm.org)
- This indicates that nitrate reductase activity in M . tuberculosis is due to the narGHJI locus with no detectable contribution from narX and that the hypoxic upregulation of activity is associated with the induction of the nitrate and nitrite transport gene narK2 . (asm.org)
- Leaf relative water content, nitrate content and nitrate reductase activity in leaves and roots were also decreased. (scielo.br)
- What factors make infants younger than 4 months of age more susceptible to developing methemoglobinemia when exposed to nitrates? (cdc.gov)
- Gastroenteritis with vomiting and diarrhea can exacerbate nitrite formation in infants and has been reported to be a major contributor to methemoglobinemia risk in infants independent of nitrate/nitrite ingestion [Lebby et al. (cdc.gov)
- This has been reported as a major contributor to MetHb risk in infants independent of nitrate/nitrite ingestion [Lebby et al. (cdc.gov)
- Infants for whom formula may be prepared with well water remain a high-risk group for nitrate poisoning. (aappublications.org)
- However, reports of nitrate poisoning from home-prepared vegetable foods for infants continue to occur. (aappublications.org)
- Nitrate poisoning resulting in methemoglobinemia continues to be a problem in infants in the United States. (aappublications.org)
- There have been occasional cases of nitrate poisoning in infants from ingestion of plant nitrates, 8 - 13 only one of which was reported from the United States. (aappublications.org)
- 14 , 17 The gastric pH of infants is higher than that in older children and adults, with resultant proliferation of intestinal flora that can reduce the ingested nitrate to nitrite. (aappublications.org)
- However, the greatest risks to infants from nitrate exposure occur when both microbial contaminants and nitrate are present in water. (watertechonline.com)
- The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake. (biomedsearch.com)
- Nitrates are toxic to infants and pregnant women and may also be carcinogenic. (phys.org)
- These results are important because they yield mechanistic insights into the NO3- reduction pathway and information on how catalytic reduction processes can be optimized to maximize N2 production over NH4+. (illinois.edu)
- Is nitrate reduction an aerobic pathway or an anaerobic pathway? (libretexts.org)
- A critical step in this pathway is the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by the oral microbiota. (oup.com)
- Interruption of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway through the use of antibacterial mouthwash was paralleled by a small elevation of systolic blood pressure in treated hypertensive men and women. (oup.com)
- Insights into the respiratory electron transfer pathway from the structure of nitrate reductase A. (nature.com)
- The stomach of adults is typically too acidic to allow for significant bacterial growth and the resulting conversion of nitrate to nitrite. (cdc.gov)
- Interruption of the enterosalivary conversion of nitrate to nitrite (facilitated by bacterial anaerobes situated on the surface of the tongue) prevented the rise in plasma nitrite, blocked the decrease in BP, and abolished the inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, confirming that these vasoprotective effects were attributable to the activity of nitrite converted from the ingested nitrate. (ahajournals.org)
- 9 Nitrates are natural constituents of plant material, and the effect of commercial nitrate-containing fertilizers on the nitrate content of vegetables is inconsistent. (aappublications.org)
- Sodium nitrate is also used as an ingredient in fertilizers, pyrotechnics, as a food preservative, and as a solid rocket propellant, as well as in glass and pottery enamels, and has been mined extensively for those purposes. (supermarketguru.com)
- Nitrate pollution is common in agricultural communities, especially in the U.S. Corn Belt and California's Central Valley, where fertilizers are heavily used, and some studies have shown that nitrate pollution is on the rise due to changing land-use patterns. (phys.org)
- Miao Y, Liao R, Zhang X, Wang Y, Wang Z, Shi P, Liu B, Li A (2015) Metagenomic insights into Cr(VI) effect on microbial communities and functional genes of an expanded granular sludge bed reactor treating high-nitrate wastewater. (springer.com)
- In this research, the novel diatomite-supported palladium-copper catalyst (Pd-Cu/diatomite) with zero-valent iron (Fe 0 ) was tried to use for catalytic reduction of nitrate in wastewater. (iwaponline.com)
- Secondly, the selected optimal conditions were further employed for nitrate elimination of real effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China. (iwaponline.com)
- On the basis of the characteristics of mutants unable to dissimilate or assimilate nitrate to nitrite, it was revealed that two different sets of genes (represented by Class I and Class II mutants) were shared between the nitrate-to-nitrite reduction steps of both pathways. (nih.gov)
- A key to improving N2 versus NH4+ production is to elucidate nitrate reduction pathways and identify the key intermediate(s) that determine selectivity. (illinois.edu)
- However, the relative dominance of these NO3−-reduction pathways and the underlying sustaining mechanisms are not yet defined in intertidal marshes. (grousehavenkennels.com)
- The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. (frontiersin.org)
- A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. (frontiersin.org)
- Maximum intracellular nitrate concentrations (max. (frontiersin.org)
- Barrera-Díaz CE, Lugo-Lugo V, Bilyeu B (2012) A review of chemical, electrochemical and biological methods for aqueous Cr(VI) reduction. (springer.com)
- This work describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrate in alkaline solutions. (unt.edu)
- The Cu/Pd bimetallic system electrodeposited on boron-doped diamond (BDD) films for application, as electrode material in the electrochemical reduction of nitrate was studied. (hindawi.com)
- Electrochemical measurements showed that composites with higher Cu content displayed the best electrocatalytic activity for nitrate reduction, and the Cu/Pd phase in the bimetallic system served to improve the Cu adherence on BDD electrode. (hindawi.com)
- The majority of papers which deal with the electrochemical reduction of nitrate demonstrate the reaction efficiency of the single metal electrode [ 3 - 6 ], while some papers show the viability of the boron-doped diamond (BDD) films as an electrode material, for the electrochemical reduction of nitrate [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Supports anaerobic growth of E.coli on glycerol in an E.coli mutant lacking endogenous nitrate reductase. (uniprot.org)
- Reduction of either nitrate or nitrite substrates provides energy for P. aeruginosa anaerobic growth, with nitrate reduction to nitrite via nitrate reductase contributing more significantly to proton motive force and hence energy production ( 4 , 68 ). (asm.org)
- In most cases of excess nitrate concentrations in water supplies, the primary source is surface runoff from agricultural or landscaped areas which have received excess nitrate fertilizer. (evolutionhealth.com)
- Excess nitrate in water can cause water pollution (such as river eutrophication and water quality deterioration). (iwaponline.com)
- Excess quantities of nitrate are stored, with food plants having different nitrate storage capacities. (bund.de)
- In this paper, in situ microbial nitrate reduction in the Opalinus Clay is discussed, in the presence or absence of additional electron donors relevant for the disposal concept and likely to be released from nitrate-containing bituminized radioactive waste: acetate (simulating bitumen degradation products) and H 2 (originating from radiolysis and corrosion in the repository). (springer.com)
- The results of these tests indicate that-in case microorganisms would be active in the repository or the surrounding clay-microbial nitrate reduction can occur using electron donors naturally present in the clay (e.g. pyrite, dissolved organic matter). (springer.com)
- For example, the nitrate plume could affect the redox conditions (initially reducing) of the host rock in the vicinity of the repository due to microbial nitrate reduction using clay components (e.g. organic matter, pyrite or other Fe(II)-containing minerals) as electron donor (Hauck et al. (springer.com)
- 14 Because the intake of naturally occurring nitrates from foods such as green beans, carrots, squash, spinach, and beets can be as high as or higher than that from well water, these foods should be avoided before 3 months of age, although there is no nutritional indication to add complementary foods to the diet of the healthy term infant before 4 to 6 months of age. (aappublications.org)
- The effects of naturally occurring nitrates in fruits and vegetables have not been extensively studied, but the recent evaluation of the DASH diet reveals the possibility of positive health benefits. (supermarketguru.com)
- In addition, the pregnant woman and her fetus might be more sensitive to toxicity from nitrites or nitrates at or near the 30th week of pregnancy [Gitto et al. (cdc.gov)
- Inorganic nitrogenous compounds from our tap or well water also enter our aquarium, often as Nitrites or Nitrates. (americanaquariumproducts.com)
- The snr loci, which represent a unique and hitherto uninvestigated set of genes for nitrate reduction, were mapped on the P. aeruginosa chromosome by linkage analysis with sex factor FP2. (nih.gov)
- Comparative analyses reveal that the genes for nitrate reduction were transferred laterally from a bacterial donor, suggesting selection for this novel process within ANME-2d. (nih.gov)
- Inoculate the nitrate broths with your bacterial unknown. (libretexts.org)
- The correlation between change in BMI-for-age and decay reduction was weak but statistically significant, and the bacterial ribosomal gene sequencing showed minimal differences in microbial abundances between children treated and not treated with SNFV, except children whose decay continued after treatment had significantly higher levels of S. mutans and Propionibacterium. (eurekalert.org)
- At birth, NADH-dependent methemoglobin reductase (also called cytochrome-b5 reductase), the major enzyme responsible for reduction of induced methemoglobin back to normal hemoglobin, has only about half the activity it has in adults [Hjelt et al. (cdc.gov)
- 5.4 Test Method D7781 uses a nitrate reductase enzyme for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. (astm.org)
- 21,22 This cytoprotective effect has been attributed to reduction of nitrite to NO during ischemia or hypoxemia (conditions that inactivate endothelial NOS, the enzyme responsible for endothelial NO synthesis), facilitated by xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), 23 deoxyhaemoglobin, 21 deoxymyoglobin, 24 or via chemical acidification. (ahajournals.org)
- Reduction of nitrate is generally an anaerobic respiration in which an organism derives its oxygen from nitrate. (libretexts.org)
- There are various ways that a bacterium can utilize nitrate as the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration. (libretexts.org)
- 17: Nitrate Respiration (Nitrate Reduction Test) Objectives? (slidegur.com)
- The AZ-NO3 (Absolute Zero - NitratesTM) product works entirely by aerobic Cellular Respiration on the target Nitrate molecule, which is then removed by the Protein Skimmer. (marinedepot.com)
- For treating and removing nitrate from water, AdEdge offers a line of packaged, pre-engineered APU systems using ion exchange or the biottta® process, which leverages naturally occurring microorganisms for wellhead treatment of contaminants like nitrate. (adedgetech.com)
- Many microorganisms have the capacity to use nitrate as a respiratory electron acceptor. (bio-protocol.org)
- For this reason, spinach which has been cooked once should not be re-heated because the microorganisms in this nitrate-rich vegetable contribute towards the increased production of nitrite. (bund.de)
- For the assay, 500 μl of the spore suspension was added to 500 μl of buffer (100 mM MOPS-NaOH, pH 7.0, 10 mM sodium nitrate) in gas-tight Hungate vials. (bio-protocol.org)
- This report studies the global Sodium Nitrate market status and forecast, categorizes the global Sodium Nitrate market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. (reportsnreports.com)
- The global Sodium Nitrate market is valued at million US$ in 2017 and will reach million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of during 2018-2025. (reportsnreports.com)
- Focuses on the key Sodium Nitrate players, to study the sales, value, market share and development plans in future. (reportsnreports.com)
- Regional and country-level analysis of the Sodium Nitrate market, by end-use. (reportsnreports.com)
- Sodium nitrate is also used as a color fixative in cured meat and poultry products. (supermarketguru.com)
- Anaerobic biodegradation of 4-alkylphenols in a paddy soil microcosm supplemented with nitrate. (biomedsearch.com)
- Anaerobic degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-n-propylphenol (n-PP), 4-i-propylphenol (i-PP), 4-n-butylphenol (n-BP) and 4-sec-butylphenol (sec-BP) was observed in a paddy soil supplemented with nitrate. (biomedsearch.com)
- Cawse, P.A. (1967) The determination of nitrate in soil solutions by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. (springer.com)
- Nitrate is extracted from the soil by the roots and distributed throughout the plant where it is converted into high-energy protein compounds by means of photosynthesis. (bund.de)
- The students chose to plant native grasses like big and little bluestem and cottonwood trees to reduce nitrate levels and water movement within the soil. (k-state.edu)
- N2O reduction alone also yielded only N2, verifying that N2O reduction occurs after the reaction step controlling final N2/NH4+ product distribution. (illinois.edu)
- At a defined time after starting the incubation the nitrate reduction reaction in these samples was terminated by heating the vials with the spores at 80 °C for 10 min. (bio-protocol.org)
- Furthermore, based on observed reaction rates of the sequential reduction of oxygen and nitrate, we present a general framework to estimate the location and intensity of the reactive zone in aquifers. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
- When performing the nitrate reduction test using α-naphthylamine, the color produced in a positive reaction may fade quickly. (com.pk)
- Firstly, specific operational conditions (such as mass ratio of Pd:Cu, catalyst amounts, reaction time and pH of solution) were optimized for nitrate reduction in artificial solution. (iwaponline.com)
- Results showed that 67% of nitrate removal and 62% of N 2 selectivity could be obtained under the following conditions: 5 g/L Fe 0 , 3:1 mass ratio (Pd:Cu), 4 g/L catalyst, 2 h reaction time and pH 4.3. (iwaponline.com)
- To address this challenge, aqueous reduction experiments with an Al2O3-supported Pd/In bimetallic catalyst were conducted using isotope-labeled nitrite (15NO2-), the first reduction intermediate of NO3-, alone and in combination with unlabeled proposed reduction intermediates (N2O, NO), and using N2O and NO alone, each as a starting reactant. (illinois.edu)
- the test is negative (nitrate is present and is not reduced by the organism but zinc has reduced it to nitrite). (com.pk)
- If no color develops, the test is positive (the organism was able to reduce all the nitrate to nitrite and further to N 2 which escaped from the tube). (com.pk)
- A strong nitrate-reducing organism may exhibit a brown precipitate immediately after the addition of the reagents. (com.pk)
- 16 Furthermore, the predominant organism in the gastrointestinal tract ( Lactobacillus species) of the breastfed infant does not reduce nitrate to nitrite (see following section). (aappublications.org)