Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 126.96.36.199.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)TriglyceridesCholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 188.8.131.52.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 184.108.40.206.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Mevalonic AcidHyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.AzetidinesSterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.StigmasterolSteroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.SqualeneLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Mice, Inbred C57BLLecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.TritiumOrganosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 220.127.116.11.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Colestipol: Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.EstersOleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)FluorobenzenesDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
Consumption of ME-3 indeed results in a reduction of oxidized LDL cholesterol, which is a major contributor to atherosclerosis ... ME-3 is commercialized in the USA, in Europe and in Asia in dietary supplement products for cardiovascular health, immune ... fermentum may remove cholesterol through in vivo is by the absorption of cholesterol, which as a result accelerates cholesterol ... One of the ways in which Lactobacillus fermentum has been seen as a probiotic is by its ability to reduce cholesterol levels. ...
... published a scientific opinion on isolated soy proteins and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. EFSA concluded ... foods to replace foods high in animal protein that contain saturated fat and cholesterol may confer benefits to cardiovascular ... LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol did not change. Although there is ... and effect relationship was not established between the consumption of soy protein and a reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol ...
Although canagliflozin produces beneficial effects on HDL cholesterol, it has also been shown to increase LDL cholesterol to ... Secondary efficacy endpoints of higher reductions in weight and blood pressure (versus sitagliptin and glimiperide) were also ... It is unclear whether or not it has any unique cardiovascular benefits beyond lowering blood suger. ... canagliflozin also provides significant cardiovascular protection in type 2 diabetics, reducing the risk of heart attacks and ...
Deep ocean minerals
... and it was found that reduction of the LDL cholesterol level and enhancement of (GPx) activity were involved in these effects. ... "Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters". Food Chemistry. 127 (3): 1146- ... cholesterol (LDL-C) was also decreased by DOM. Further, total cholesterol levels of subjects in the DOM group were ... The plasma LDL cholesterol level was lower in the DOW group than in the surface seawater group. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) ...
... which was not significant after LDL cholesterol levels were taken into consideration. However, the authors concluded that ... One small study showed no significant side effects after 15 weeks other than a slight reduction in vitamin E levels, ... 2012). "Plant sterols and cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis". European Heart Journal. 33 (4): 444- ... The campesterol molecules are thought to compete with cholesterol, thus reducing the absorption of cholesterol in the human ...
Medicine found that patients with low-to-normal LDL cholesterol receiving rosuvastatin had a lower rate of major cardiovascular ... Compared to patients taking a placebo, patients given rosuvastatin had reductions in LDL and CRP levels, and a reduction of 0.2 ... Because half of all vascular events occur in patients with normal or low levels of LDL cholesterol, JUPITER was designed to ... The trial focused on patients with normal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels but increased levels of high- ...
Drugs in this class substantially increase HDL ("good cholesterol"), lower LDL ("bad cholesterol"), and reverse the transport ... In patients with the rs1967309 'AA' genotype, there was a significant reduction in the rate of cardiovascular events in the ... which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). ... "Pharmacogenomic determinants of the cardiovascular effects of dalcetrapib". Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. 8 (2): 372- ...
Studies have shown greater LDL and total cholesterol reductions in the short-acting simvastatin taken at night rather than the ... High cholesterol levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease. There are various forms of statins, some of which ... If higher LDL reduction goal. 40 mg if ,45%. 40 mg if ,25%. 20 mg if ,20%. -. 20 mg if LDL ,190 mg/dL (4.87 mmol/L). 40 mg if , ... When the liver can no longer produce cholesterol, levels of cholesterol in the blood will fall. Cholesterol synthesis appears ...
... the test is mainly concerned with high LDL, or "bad cholesterol" levels). So, while a high total cholesterol level may help ... "Pediatric Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Guidelines - NHLBI, NIH". Archived from the original on 2012-11-16. Sidhu, D.; Naugler ... Total lipids Serum total cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio Serum triglycerides serum ... someone's total cholesterol may be high, but this may be due to very high HDL ("good cholesterol") cholesterol levels,-which ...
... simvastatin reduced overall mortality in people with existing cardiovascular disease and high LDL cholesterol by 30% and ... reduction in coronary death, a 34% reduction in major coronary events, and a 37% reduction in revascularization procedures. ... provided the first unequivocal evidence that lowering LDL cholesterol via statin treatment reduces cardiovascular events and ... Evidence against benefits beyond LDL-cholesterol lowering". American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs. 10 Suppl 1: 10-7. doi: ...
... is approved in the United States for the treatment of high LDL cholesterol (dyslipidemia), total cholesterol ( ... the claim was that it offers high potency and improved cholesterol reduction compared to rivals in the class. The main ... and weight-loss to treat high cholesterol and related conditions, and to prevent cardiovascular disease. It was developed by ... The effects of rosuvastatin on LDL cholesterol are dose-related. Higher doses were more efficacious in improving the lipid ...
... maintenance of normal blood LDL cholesterol concentrations (ID 1135, 1704a, 3093a), reduction of vasomotor symptoms associated ... AHA concluded that "many soy products should be beneficial to cardiovascular and overall health because of their high content ... Soy protein, cholesterol and heart diseasesEdit. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the following health claim for ... December 2010). "Soy Protein Reduces Serum Cholesterol by Both Intrinsic and Food Displacement Mechanisms". The Journal of ...
Studies have indicated that consumption of about 2-3 grams per day provides a reduction in LDL cholesterol of about 10-15%. The ... Cardiovascular Research. 90 (3): 484-92. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvr020. PMC 3096304 . PMID 21257611. Benecol Katan, MB; Grundy, SM; ... Doggrell, SA (2011). "Lowering LDL cholesterol with margarine containing plant stanol/sterol esters: Is it still relevant in ... reduces both the amount of cholesterol the body absorbs from food and the reabsorption of the cholesterol component of bile. ...
... and for the contribution to the maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol levels by replacing saturated fats in the diet with ... Epidemiological studies indicate that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet may be linked with a reduction in ... cardiovascular events and stroke, while monounsaturated fatty acids of mixed animal and plant origin showed no significant ... "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to olive oil and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol ...
... and/or increase in HDL cholesterol levels in statin-treated patients results in a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular ... It is used in addition to diet to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides ( ... It is mainly used to reduce cholesterol levels in people at risk of cardiovascular disease. Like other fibrates, it reduces ... "2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report ...
... selective sPLA2 inhibition as well as statistically significant anti-inflammatory responses and reductions in LDL cholesterol ... Increased levels of sPLA2 have been observed in patients with cardiovascular disease, and may lead to both acute and chronic ... This remodeling can lead to increased deposition of LDL and cholesterol in the artery wall. In combination with chronic ... found significant decreases in sPLA2 and LDL cholesterol levels, as well as C-reactive proteins (CRP) and other inflammatory ...
Reduction of platelet aggregation may result in reduction of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. It is now known that ... In the early 1980s, it was noted that people in the Mediterranean had lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Since garlic is ... Studies have been done measuring the use of garlic for controlling serum cholesterol levels. Analysis of these studies show ... Nishimura H, Higuchi O, Tateshita K. Antioxidative activity of sulfur-containing compounds in Allium species for human LDL ...
Alcohol and cardiovascular disease
A. It increases HDL ("good") cholesterol. B. It decreases LDL ("bad") cholesterol. C. It improves cholesterol (both HDL and LDL ... Consumption of one or two drinks per day is associated with a reduction in risk of approximately 30% to 50%". Heart disease is ... The observation of a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in France despite a diet rich in saturated fat was labeled the ... A multicenter randomized diet study published in 2013 included over 7000 persons at risk to develop cardiovascular disease, and ...
"Reduction of LDL cholesterol by 25% to 60% in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia by atorvastatin, a new HMG-CoA ... Cardiovascular disease. *Primary prevention of heart attack, stroke, and need for revascularization procedures in ... LDL receptors) on hepatocytes. This increases LDL uptake by the hepatocytes, decreasing the amount of LDL-cholesterol in the ... Over the dose range of 10 to 80 mg/day total cholesterol was reduced by 27.0% to 37.9%, LDL cholesterol by 37.1% to 51.7% and ...
In clinical studies, saroglitazar has demonstrated reduction of triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, non-HDL ... No major serious adverse events have been reported; however, long-term cardiovascular safety has not been established. "Zydus ... cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol a characteristic hallmark of atherogenic diabetic dyslipidemia (ADD). It has ... helps in controlling blood glucose and Lipid parameters especially high triglycerides and high non HDL-Cholesterol. Lipaglyn ...
... high total and LDL cholesterol, and low HDL cholesterol, and electrocardiographic changes in tobacco users, chewing or smoking ... Asplund, Kjell (2003). "Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular disease". Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 45 (5): 383-94. doi ... There is a substantial body of informed and independent opinion that sees the value of harm reduction strategies based on ... Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality because of snuff]. Läkartidningen (in Swedish). 94 (42): 3725-31. PMID ...
Plant stanol ester
LDL. After correcting for cholesterol levels, only the reduction in the β-carotene level remained. It is important, however, ... Cardiovascular Research. 90 (3): 484-92. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvr020. PMC 3096304 . PMID 21257611. Plat, J; Van Onselen, EN; Van ... LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. Despite a well documented cholesterol lowering effect, there are no data available ... Like cholesterol, carotenoids and tocopherols are transported by lipoproteins. Since the number of LDL particles in circulation ...
It was found that the treatment group had lower insulin resistance, lower levels of LDL cholesterol, lower body temperature and ... Louis, Missouri). It is hoped that caloric restriction reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer and leads to ... calorie reduction over a 6-month period. ...
Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes
... lower LDL cholesterol. Additional studies have looked at the benefits of plant stanols and sterols on lowering LDL cholesterol ... The National Institutes of Health created the National Cholesterol Education Program in 1985 to reduce cardiovascular disease ... from saturated fat Less than 200 mg a day of cholesterol 25-35 percent of daily calories from total fat Weight reduction if ... The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends checking the LDL cholesterol response to the changes; if the LDL ...
A wide range of pathologic stimuli induce endothelial oxidative stress such as oxidized LDL-cholesterol, inflammatory cytokines ... Homocysteine (a putative cardiovascular risk factor) mounts an oxidative attack on DDAH to form a mixed disulfide, inactivating ... In this animal, the activity of DDAH is increased, and plasma ADMA levels are reduced by 50%. The reduction in plasma ADMA is ... The increase in NOS activity translates into a 15mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure in the transgenic mouse. This study ...
Short-term benefits in LDL cholesterol levels from dark chocolate consumption have been found. The addition of whole milk to ... the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2006 found a 50 percent reduction in cardiovascular mortality and a 47 percent reduction ... Prolonged intake of flavanol-rich cocoa has been linked to cardiovascular health benefits, though this refers to raw cocoa and ... Ding, Eric L.; Hutfless, Susan M.; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket (2006). "Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A ...
His work has led to several rewards for both accuracy and, even more importantly, for great reductions in the cost to patients ... LDL & HDL had long remained too expensive for routine use in clinical medicine. This issue was (and is) complicated by the ... not cholesterol per-se) played in the usual progression of atherosclerotic disease, Dr. Otvos began novel research work in ... extensive research on the roles of the various lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease and lead the company, LipoScience, which ...
"The genetic variation in the tenomodulin gene is associated with serum total and LDL cholesterol in a body size-dependent ... Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research. 4 (6): 727-40. doi:10.1007/s12265-011-9317-8. PMID 21866383. Wang W, Li Z, ... "Weight reduction modulates expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix and cell death: the GENOBIN study". ...
... beyond LDL cholesterol lowering". Cardiovascular Research. 112: 429-42. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvw194. PMC 5031950 . PMID 27496869. ... Vaccination was associated with significant reductions in total cholesterol, free cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides ... "PCSK9 LNA antisense oligonucleotides induce sustained reduction of LDL cholesterol in nonhuman primates". Mol. Ther. 20 (2): ... LDL) receptor and LDL cholesterol". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (47): 48865-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M409699200. PMID 15358785. Lalanne F, ...
Obesity is associated with increased LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and lowered HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol). Obesity ... cardiovascular anomalies, including septal anomalies, cleft lip and palate, anorectal malformation, limb reduction anomalies, ... The result is reduction of the testis' production of testosterone and a further increase in adipokine levels. This then feeds ... According to NIH, obesity causes the amount of cholesterol in bile to rise, in turn the formation of stone can occur Due to its ...
肥胖症 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
"The effect of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for CVD risk reduction: A systematic review and ... oat fiber β-glucan decreases blood levels of LDL cholesterol and so may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. β- ... and rye have been studied for their effects on cholesterol levels in people with normal cholesterol levels and in those with ... A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981. ...
කොලෙස්ටරෝල් - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
This measures total cholesterol, LDL (bad) cholesterol, HDL (good) cholesterol and triglycerides. It is recommended to have ... none of the large statin trials has shown a reduction in overall mortality or in cardiovascular end points. ... Avoiding animal products may decrease the cholesterol levels in the body not through dietary cholesterol reduction alone, but ... Since higher blood LDL, especially higher LDL particle concentrations and smaller LDL particle size, contribute to this process ...
LDL, "bad cholesterol"), in the blood and early cardiovascular disease. Since the underlying body biochemistry is slightly ... "Reduction in cholesterol and low density lipoprotein synthesis after portacaval shunt surgery in a patient with homozygous ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ... who require additional lowering of LDL cholesterol.. Homozygous FHEdit. Homozygous FH is harder to treat. The LDL receptors ...
Hypertensive kidney disease
Weight reduction, exercise, reducing salt intake can be done to manage hypertensive nephropathy. ... is a non-specific finding in patients with vascular disease that is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. ... Cholesterol. *LDL. *Oxycholesterol. *Trans fat. Stenosis. *Carotid artery stenosis. *Renal artery stenosis ... studies show that anything higher or lower than this can increase cardiovascular risk. According to the African American Study ...
... in triglyceride and HDL cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in LDL and total cholesterol ... "Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases. 24 (4): 337-43. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2013.12.008. PMC 4351995. PMID ... "A critique of low-carbohydrate ketogenic weight reduction regimens. A review of Dr. Atkins' diet revolution". JAMA. 224 (10): ... though such diets can cause high LDL cholesterol levels, which carry a risk of atherosclerosis in the long term. Potential ...
Excessive reduction in blood pressure can precipitate coronary, cerebral, or renal ischemia and, possibly, infarction. ... Cardiovascular system damage can include myocardial ischemia/infarction, acute left ventricular dysfunction, acute pulmonary ... Cholesterol. *LDL. *Oxycholesterol. *Trans fat. Stenosis. *Carotid artery stenosis. *Renal artery stenosis ... Acute end-organ damage may occur, affecting the neurological, cardiovascular, renal, or other organ systems. Some examples of ...
Dance and health
As an aerobic exercise abridged levels of total blood cholesterol, especially in LDL cholesterol, acknowledged as bad and helps ... Its aims are the enhancement of performance, the reduction of injury, and the improvement of well-being and health. Dance ... Most forms of dance may be considered an aerobic exercise and as such reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, help weight ... Another gain of dancing is for those who have high cholesterol, plus drugs and adequate food, dancing can draw. ...
... cholesterol-containing particle) and reduces LDL levels (the "bad" cholesterol).[vague] ... Torcetrapib has not been found to reduce either cardiovascular disease or risk of death in those already taking a statin drugs. ... The benzyl carbamate function on nitrogen at the 4 position is next removed by reduction with ammonium formate over palladium ... which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). ...
Escher G (April 2009). "Hyperaldosteronism in pregnancy". Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. 3 (2): 123-32. doi: ... thereby giving the body enough time to adjust to reduction in dose. Medications commonly associated with rebound hypertension ... Cholesterol. *LDL. *Oxycholesterol. *Trans fat. Stenosis. *Carotid artery stenosis. *Renal artery stenosis ... Mounier-Vehier C, Delsart P (April 2009). "[Pregnancy-related hypertension: a cardiovascular risk situation]". Presse Médicale ...
LDL, "bad" cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good" cholesterol) cholesterol are all associated with ... Hooper L, Martin N, Abdelhamid A, Davey Smith G (2015). "Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease". ... "Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors". Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved ... Cardiovascular disease. Main article: Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease. There are strong, consistent, and graded ...
Growth hormone deficiency
Lipid abnormalities, particularly raised LDL cholesterol. *Increased levels of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor ... Physicians therefore distinguish between the natural reduction in GH levels which comes with age, and the much lower levels of ... Although adults with hypopituitarism have been shown to have a reduced life expectancy, and a cardiovascular mortality rate ... high cholesterol levels, or poor bone density. ... Low blood sugar, high cholesterol levels, poor bone density[ ...
This causes the fibrosis of the arterial wall, with reduction of number of smooth muscle cells, abnormal collagen synthesis, ... Cardiovascular disease (vessels) (I70-I99, 440-456). Arteries, arterioles. and capillaries. Inflammation. *Arteritis *Aortitis ... Cholesterol. *LDL. *Oxycholesterol. *Trans fat. Stenosis. *Carotid artery stenosis. *Renal artery stenosis ...
"The rabbit 15-lipoxygenase preferentially oxygenates LDL cholesterol esters, and this reaction does not require vitamin E". The ... Lindstrom, Terry D; Aust, Steven D (1984). "Studies on cytochrome P-450-dependent lipid hydroperoxide reduction". Archives of ... cardiovascular disease-related atheroma plaques, neurodegenerative disease, etc. (see oxidative stress). ... Indeed, Statins, which are known to suppress cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting an enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway ...
Health effects of tobacco
Free radicals and pro-oxidants in cigarettes damage blood vessels and oxidize LDL cholesterol. Only oxidized LDL ... "Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. 8 (7): 917-32. doi:10.1586/erc.10.56. PMC 2928253. PMID 20602553.. ... After a ban on smoking in all enclosed public places was introduced in Scotland in March 2006, there was a 17 percent reduction ... Furthermore, the ratio of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, also known as the "good" cholesterol) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL ...
Development of torcetrapib, a drug that increases production of HDL, or "good cholesterol", which reduces LDL thought to be ... clinical trials showed that atorvastatin caused a more dramatic reduction in LDL-C than the other statin drugs. From 1996 to ... The space will house Pfizer's Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Endocrine Disease Research Unit and its Neuroscience Research Unit ... Its products include the blockbuster drug Lipitor (atorvastatin), used to lower LDL blood cholesterol; Lyrica (pregabalin) for ...
Health effects of tea
A 2013 Cochrane review concluded that long-term black tea consumption lowers the blood concentration of LDL cholesterol by 0.43 ... Cardiovascular disease. In preliminary long-term clinical studies, black tea consumption showed evidence for providing a ... Though there is some positive evidence for risk reduction of breast, prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancers with green tea ... "Green and black tea for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic Review and ...
Portal vein thrombosis affects the hepatic portal vein, which can lead to portal hypertension and reduction of the blood supply ... Cardiovascular disease (vessels) (I70-I99, 440-456). Arteries, arterioles. and capillaries. Inflammation. *Arteritis *Aortitis ... Cholesterol. *LDL. *Oxycholesterol. *Trans fat. Stenosis. *Carotid artery stenosis. *Renal artery stenosis ...
... in which dramatic reductions in LDL cholesterol were observed, with very few adverse effects. After the additional animal ... to treat high blood cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. It use is recommended together with lifestyle ... reduction of cholesterol absorption and increase of plasma cholesterol removal". Z Ernahrungswiss. 33 (1): 44-50. doi:10.1007/ ... and taken into clinical development as potential drugs for lowering LDL cholesterol. ...
However treatment with local anaesthetic endovenous techniques suggests a reduction of this high recurrence rate is possible.[ ... Cardiovascular disease (vessels) (I70-I99, 440-456). Arteries, arterioles. and capillaries. Inflammation. *Arteritis *Aortitis ... Cholesterol. *LDL. *Oxycholesterol. *Trans fat. Stenosis. *Carotid artery stenosis. *Renal artery stenosis ...
... in a diet may help lower blood pressure and reduce LDL cholesterol levels, though there is a concern about the quality of the ... "Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review ... pulses contain no cholesterol and little fat or sodium. ...
I. Reduction in mortality of persons with high blood pressure, including mild hypertension. Hypertension Detection and Follow- ... of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials found the lowest diastolic blood pressure for which cardiovascular ... Cholesterol. *LDL. *Oxycholesterol. *Trans fat. Stenosis. *Carotid artery stenosis. *Renal artery stenosis ...
NO is a potent vasodilator and also inhibits formation of plaque promoting LDLs (i.e. "bad cholesterol") oxidized form. ... Meta-analysis has shown probiotics to cause a statistically significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetics.[ ... A review of the UKPDS, ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes), ADVANCE and VADT (Veterans Affairs Diabetes ... Loose heme can cause oxidation of endothelial and LDL proteins which results in plaques. ...
"Psyllium-enriched cereals lower blood total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but not HDL cholesterol, in hypercholesterolemic ... Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 28 (1): 3-13. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2017.09.007. ISSN 0939-4753. PMID 29153856.. ... Use of psyllium for a month or longer produces a small reduction in systolic blood pressure. ... fiber on LDL cholesterol and alternative lipid targets, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B: a systematic review and meta- ...
Coronary artery disease
LDL) over time. It also increases HDL cholesterol which is considered as "good cholesterol". Separate to the question ... "Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. 25 (2): 140-151. doi:10.1016/j.tcm.2014.10.005. PMC 4336825 . PMID 25453985.. ... The underlying mechanism involves reduction of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle due to atherosclerosis of the arteries ... High levels of lipoprotein(a), a compound formed when LDL cholesterol combines with a protein known as ...
Lowers total and LDL cholesterol, which may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease ... It is therefore unlikely that the reduction in body cholesterol is due to adsorption to this fermented fiber in the colon. ... suppress cholesterol synthesis by the liver and reduce blood levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides responsible for ... this in turn lowers cholesterol levels in the blood from the actions of cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of cholesterol. ...
New Novartis Analyses for Investigational Inclisiran Demonstrate Consistently Effective and Sustained LDL-C Reduction at Month...
... inclisiran was well-tolerated and provided effective and sustained reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ... About Novartis in cardiovascular-renal-metabolism. Bending the curve of life requires addressing some of societys biggest ... inclisiran delivered placebo-adjusted LDL-C reductions of 50% (P,.001) at 17 months and demonstrated time-adjusted LDL-C ... Two phase 3 trials of inclisiran in patients with elevated LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1507-1519. doi:10.1056/ ...
Beyond LDL Cholesterol Reduction | Circulation
New aspects of cardiovascular risk factors including small, dense LDL, homocysteinemia, and Lp(a). Curr Opin Cardiol.. 1995;10: ... Success of LDL-C Reduction. Within the past decade, clinical trials of LDL-C reduction have convincingly demonstrated that LDL- ... Failure of LDL-C Reduction. Despite the success of LDL-C reduction, close examination of the trial results reveals that a ... there was a significant reduction in small LDL counterbalanced by a significant increase in large LDL, whereas LDL pattern A ...
LDL Cholesterol | LabCorp
... focusing on a percentage reduction in LDL-C rather than target values to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular ... LDL cholesterol, LDL-C) is one type of lipoprotein that carries cholesterol in the blood. LDL-C consists mostly of cholesterol ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name:. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests:. Cholesterol; HDL Cholesterol; Triglycerides; Lipid ... see the article on Direct LDL Cholesterol).. Of all the forms of cholesterol in the blood, the LDL-C is considered the most ...
Practice Guidelines: ACC/AHA Release Updated Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce ASCVD Risk - American...
... issued an updated evidence-based guideline in 2013 that addresses the use of fixed doses of cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins ... The Blood Cholesterol Expert Panel from the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) ... LDL-C reduction. When maximum intensity of statin therapy is reached, a nonstatin may be added to further reduce LDL-C levels. ... Other factors may be considered‡: LDL-C ≥ 160 mg per dL (4.14 mmol per L), family history of premature cardiovascular disease, ...
Heart Health Glossary - Cardiovascular Health Center - EverydayHealth.com
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL): Molecules of fat and protein that take cholesterol from the liver and into the tissues; its ... Ischemia: Reduction in blood flow leading to reduced amounts of oxygen reaching tissues. ... Trans fats lower "good" cholesterol, raise "bad" cholesterol, and are implicated in increased risk of cardiovascular disease. ... High levels increase cardiovascular disease risk.. Troponin: Protein found in the heart muscle, which, if elevated on a blood ...
Exercise and Cardiovascular Health | Circulation
Reduction in bad (LDL and total) cholesterol. * Increase in good (HDL) cholesterol ... LDL] level), as well as total cholesterol, and can raise the "good" cholesterol (the high-density lipoprotein level [HDL]). In ... In fact, researchers estimate that as much as a 30% to 40% reduction in cardiovascular events is possible if most Americans ... For example, exercise promotes weight reduction and can help reduce blood pressure. Exercise can reduce "bad" cholesterol ...
What to Eat to Lower LDL Cholesterol Quickly | Livestrong.com
... there are plenty of delicious foods that lower cholesterol fast. Include them in your diet to keep your heart healthy. ... MDPI: Marine Drugs: Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components From Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction ... Therefore, a low-cholesterol diet wont necessarily reduce total cholesterol and LDL levels. What you need to do is to replace ... Research suggests that the fats in fish have little or no effect on total cholesterol but affect HDL and LDL cholesterol. ...
Phase 2a Data Of DIO-902 Improved Glycemic Control And Significant Reductions Of LDL-Cholesterol | EmaxHealth
... cholesterol. Mean levels of C-reactive protein (a marker of cardiovascular inflammation) were also significantly reduced in a ... Phase 2a Data Of DIO-902 Improved Glycemic Control And Significant Reductions Of LDL-Cholesterol. ... showed early indications of potential to reduce the risk of heart disease through the significant reduction of LDL-cholesterol ... as well as significant dose-dependent reductions in total and LDL- ...
Evaluating a Web-Based Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Reduction Program Among American Indians - Full Text View -...
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) [ Time Frame: Measured at Year 3 ]. *BMI [ Time Frame: Measured at Year 3 ]. *Smoking ... Evaluating a Web-Based Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Reduction Program Among American Indians. The safety and scientific ... Cardiovascular Diseases Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Hypertension Obesity Tobacco Use Cessation Behavioral: Chronic disease ... Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among American Indians. Significant risk factors for CVD within the ...
Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Apheresis Using H.E.L.P. Therapy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Laboratory assessments will be made to document low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and any effects on other ... Occurrence of Cardiovascular Events and Interventions [ Time Frame: Participants were followed for one (1) year following ... disposables which can selectively and continuously remove LDL-cholesterol from plasma by precipitating the LDL-cholesterol with ... Precipitation of LDL as a complex with heparin.. *Removing the LDL-heparin precipitate by continuous circulation through a ...
How Low Should LDL Cholesterol Go with Statin Therapy? | Disabled World
... safely results in additional lowering of risk of cardiovascular events ... achieving ultra-low LDL cholesterol levels, down to <10 mg/dL, ... had a 20 percent reduction in the risk of cardiovascular death ... Reference Title: "How Low Should LDL Cholesterol Go with Statin Therapy?", Source: How Low Should LDL Cholesterol Go with ... examined the efficacy and safety of very low levels of LDL cholesterol among 25,982 patients per the degree of LDL-C reduction ...
Hagai Tavori - Publications - Oregon Health & Science University
Alirocumab: PCSK9 inhibitor for LDL cholesterol reduction. Tavori, H., Melone, M. & Rashid, S., Oct 1 2014, In : Expert Review ... Norata, G. D., Tavori, H., Pirillo, A., Fazio, S. & Catapano, A. L., Oct 1 2016, In : Cardiovascular Research. 112, 1, p. 429- ... Correction to: Alirocumab: PCSK9 inhibitor for LDL cholesterol reduction. Tavori, H., Melone, M. & Rashid, S., Dec 1 2014, In ... PCSK9, a novel target for lowering LDL cholesterol: Promise and progress. Tavori, H., Fazio, S. & Linton, M. F., Dec 2012, In ...
Healthcare Watch May 2014 - PM360
Therapeutic Talk: Phase III Studies Show Reduction in LDL Cholesterol. More good news in the field of cardiovascular medicine ... LDL), between 37-39%, compared to another medication, ezetimibe, in patients with high cholesterol who cant tolerate statin ... U.S. Veterans with Decreased Renal Function Shown to Be at Higher Risk for Adverse Cardiovascular Events if They Have ... Evolocumab inhibits protein convertase subtilisin, which reduces the livers ability to remove LDL from the blood. In both ...
New lipid-lowering drugs help patients reduce LDL cholesterol
... that adding new therapies called anti-PCSK9 antibodies to other lipid-lowering treatments can help patients lower their LDL ... most of whom were taking statins but still had elevated cholesterol. All studies demonstrated a reduction in LDL cholesterol ... "Both anti-PSCK9 antibodies have cardiovascular outcome studies ongoing with results expected in 2017. We are looking forward to ... PCSK9 causes elevated blood levels of LDL cholesterol because it binds to the LDL receptor. Two anti-PCSK9 antibodies have ...
Garden of Life Vitamins & Supplements Order Page - Winning Edge
Extra Virgin coconut oil helps maintain healthy HDL and LDL cholesterol ratios and support healthy thyroid function. ... Prevention of cardiovascular disease & Reduction of the incidence of coronary heart disease ... Improve cardiovascular health. •Support blood sugar management. •Promote healthy muscle functions. READ LOTS MORE ABOUT IT BY ... Healthy blood cholesterol profile. Thyroid support & Hashimotos. Reduces Inflammation in the body. Mood support (more ...
Vitamin Code Targeted Nutrients Vegan Gluten Free Dairy Free GMO Free
Prevention of cardiovascular disease & Reduction of the incidence of coronary heart disease ... Resveratrol lowers LDL "Bad" Cholesterol. *Stopping the proliferation of bad bacteria in the digestive tract ... Improve cardiovascular health. •Support blood sugar management. •Promote healthy muscle functions. READ LOTS MORE ABOUT IT BY ... cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular diseases, osteoarthritis, diabetes, and other autoimmune diseases.". How Can We Help ...
Cholesterol | Jeremy E. Kaslow, MD | DrKaslow.com
The use of niacin for managing lipid markers for cardiovascular disease is well established:. . * Reducing LDL and Total ... In Denmark, testosterone has been used as a cholesterol-lowering agent for decades. They report the average reduction in serum ... the LDL cholesterol, which is composed of two general sub-types; a large LDL and a smaller, denser LDL. Even if the total LDL ... the HDL cholesterol (often termed the "good" cholesterol) and LDL cholesterol (often mis-named the "bad" one. A more precise ...
Meta-analysis suggests PCSK9 inhibitors do not increase short-term risk of type 2 diabetes | EurekAlert! Science News
LDL cholesterol reduction with statins and PCSK9 inhibitors dramatically reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Similarly ... was a trend towards an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in patients who experienced more intense LDL cholesterol reduction ( ... cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol), potentially reducing it by 50-60%. These monoclonal antibodies have been considered ... a genetic disorder characterised by high levels of LDL cholesterol.. ...
Prediction of LDL cholesterol response to statin using transcriptomic and genetic variation | Genome Biology | Full Text
There is, however, substantial inter-individual variation in the magnitude of statin-induced LDLC reduction. To date, analysis ... Using expression array data from immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 372 participants of the Cholesterol and ... of the variance in the tails of a separate subset of the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics population. Furthermore, using a ... and suggest that this may provide a framework for identifying novel pathways that influence cholesterol metabolism. ...
Has anyone ever been on Questran ? - Heart & Cardiovascular Disease
Small doses of sequestrants can produce useful reductions in LDL-cholesterol. Bile acid sequestrants are sometimes prescribed ... When these two drugs are combined, their effects are added together to lower LDL-cholesterol by over 40 percent. Cholestyramine ... The usual effect of bile acid sequestrants is to lower LDL-cholesterol by about 10 to 20 percent. ... It lowers ldl, which is more harmful than triglycerides, to a certain extent. High tris can cause pancreatitis. I may well ...
Abstract 330: Ezetimibe Prevents Atherogenesis Through Increased Catabolism and Fecal Excretion of LDL-cholesterol and Reduced...
We investigated the mechanisms by which EZE could contribute to cardiovascular events reduction in apolipoprotein E knock-out ( ... Conclusion: EZE promotes anti-atherosclerotic effects through increased LDL-cholesterol catabolism and LDL-derived cholesterol ... Similar trends were observed for hepatic cholesterol levels and fecal cholesterol mass excretion, with a 75% reduction and 99% ... To evaluate the effects of EZE on LDL-cholesterol metabolism and excretion, a first set of mice was injected intravenously with ...
Exercise for the management of type 2 diabetes: a review of the evidence | SpringerLink
There were no differences in other cardiovascular risk factors such HDL, LDL and total cholesterol levels. The control group ... the reduction in HbA1c was confirmed in conjunction with a statistically significant reduction of about 5% for LDL-C, whereas ... Additionally, fasting blood glucose, LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly reduced while HDL cholesterol was ... However, resistance training significantly lowered LDL cholesterol and reduced fasting triglycerides levels compared with the ...
Future Lipid-Altering Therapeutic Options Targeting Residual Cardiovascular Risk | SpringerLink
... and reduction of LDL cholesterol with a statin is a cornerstone in prevention of cardiovascular disease.... ... LDL) play a causal role in the development of atherosclerosis, ... PCSK9 inhibition in LDL cholesterol reduction: genetics and ... Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) play a causal role in the development of atherosclerosis, and reduction of LDL cholesterol with ... LDL cholesterol Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins HDL metabolism PCSK9 inhibitors Cardiovascular risk Antisense oligonucleotide ...
Genzyme Announces Results of Clinical Trials Investigating Powder,Form of Sevelamer Carbonate ( CAMBRIDGE Mass. June 18 2007 ...
Renagel provides the added benefit of significant LDL cholesterol reduction (32 percent). ... Elevated serum phosphorus levels are common in dialysis patients and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality ... calcium-phosphorus product and LDL cholesterol in hyperphosphatemic patients with chronic kidney disease wh o are not on ... "Results of the once- per-day trial were greatly influenced by the strong phosphorus reduction seen in the Renagel arm, which ...
Health: Is lowering cholesterol the key to reducing heart attacks? | HELLO!
So it could be a combination of actions that leads to the reduction of cardiovascular events. Or it could be the mechanism by ... This is prescribed as an add-on to statins when statins alone arent reducing bad LDL cholesterol sufficiently, or when the ... But the results of a two-year US trial have made some experts wonder if its their cholesterol-lowering benefits that are the ... But in the Enhance trial, while the LDL was reduced, thickening of the arteries remained the same in the group on a statin ...
Omega-3 fatty (linolenic) acid Archives - Page 3 of 6 - Rainbow Grocery
SFAs raise both total and LDL cholesterol. This article is about what to use to replace SFAs for energy. Substitution of SFAs ... Saturated Fatty Acid and Cardiovascular Disease in 2010.. Posted on January 29, 2011. by Dr. Gary Pack ... with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) results in a reduction of risk of CVD to […] ... Conditions: Cardiovascular disease, Coronary heart disease, Obesity. *Supplements: Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) oil, ...
Palm kernel oil
SFAs raise both total and LDL cholesterol. This article is about what to use to replace SFAs for energy. Substitution of SFAs ... Saturated Fatty Acid and Cardiovascular Disease in 2010.. Posted on January 29, 2011. by Dr. Gary Pack ... with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) results in a reduction of risk of CVD to […] ... Conditions: Cardiovascular disease, Coronary heart disease, Obesity. *Supplements: Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) oil, ...
Cost-effectiveness of using high sensitivity C-reactive protein to identify intermediate and low cardiovascular risk...
Total cholesterol: 186 mg/dL. LDL cholesterol: 108 mg/dL. Statin cost: $1.10 per day. No increased risk of diabetes from statin ... 1% reduction in quality of life - healthy individuals on a statin have 1% lower quality of life ... cost effective policy for hs-CRP screening and statin therapy in intermediate and low risk adults with an LDL cholesterol less ... 3% reduction in quality of life - healthy individuals on a statin have 3% lower quality of life ...
... especially HDL cholesterol suppression or reduction. It can also include increases in LDL cholesterol. Primos affect on ... 3] Cardiovascular:. Primobolan should have little to no affect on blood pressure in most healthy adults unless an underlying ... Healthy cholesterol levels can be maintained with this steroid, but its important that you give it a little effort. Ensure ... Primobolan is not metabolized by the 5-alpha reductase enzyme, there is no reduction to inhibit, its already DHT causing ...
Norwalk Reflector: Study finds LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs more effective when combined
Two drugs used to lower LDL cholesterol have been proven to be even more effective when combined in a fixed dosage. Bempedoic ... Treatment with the combination pill led to a reduction in LDL cholesterol of 38 percent compared to placebo. ... or multiple cardiovascular risk factors which can included diabetes, smoking, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, or a coronary ... Study finds LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs more effective when combined. • Jun 17, 2019 at 7:00 PM Two drugs used to lower LDL ...
DiseasesOutcomesDensity lipoproteinGreater reductions in LDL cholesterolMmolReceptorsMajor cardiovascular eventsMyocardialSerumPlaceboASCVDLipidTotal cholesterol and LDL cholesterolBlood levels of LDL cholesterolAdultsSignificantlyLipoproteinsConcentrationsTargetsTherapiesEvolocumabDiabetesStatin therapy aloneTarget LDL cholesterolAlirocumabHigh risk for cardiovascularHeart attacks
- Further studies are underway to evaluate how this treatment specifically affects cardiovascular disease outcomes. (norwalkreflector.com)
- Both Amgen and Sanofi/Regeneron do not expect definitive data on cardiovascular outcomes for their drugs until larger trials conclude in 2017. (reuters.com)
- Considering the past track record with other cholesterol-lowering drugs and heart disease, I think it is only reasonable that the FDA should wait until a real clinical trial looking at real clinical outcomes on these new drugs is completed in 2017 to see if these drugs really work. (zonediet.com)
- As Trials Report Cardiovascular Outcomes Data, What About Microvascular Results? (ajmc.com)
- The link between diabetes and cardiovascular risk is well known, and this is central to the FDA's 2008 requirement that sponsors of all new glucose-lowering therapies conduct cardiovascular outcomes trials to ensure that these drugs do not cause heart attacks or strokes. (ajmc.com)
- The approval of the extended label recognizes the positive findings from the 27,564-patient Repatha cardiovascular outcomes study (FOURIER). (prnewswire.com)
- The IMPROVE-IT trial (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) aims at comparing ezetimibe/simvastatin combination therapy with simvastatin alone in high-risk patients with severe coronary syndromes. (medindia.net)
- BEDMINSTER, N.J. and DUBLIN, March 18, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Amarin Corporation plc (NASDAQ: AMRN), presented new data from its landmark cardiovascular outcomes study of its prescription therapy, Vascepa® (icosapent ethyl), the REDUCE-IT™ study, showing that Vascepa provided a statistically significant 30% risk reduction in total (first and subsequent) cardiovascular events compared to placebo in the statin-treated patient population studied in REDUCE-IT. (pharmiweb.com)
- No therapy is currently approved to treat such residual cardiovascular risk in the population studied in REDUCE-IT and, prior to the successful results of Vascepa demonstrated in the study, no other therapy had demonstrated a 25% risk reduction compared to placebo on top of statin therapy in a major cardiovascular outcomes trial within the primary endpoint of any patient population. (pharmiweb.com)
- Few trials assessing cardiovascular outcomes have recruited many people older than 80 years yet the important effect of age on CVD risk suggests that all people in this group should be offered statin therapy. (nice.org.uk)
- Long‑term glycaemic control is associated with better outcomes but no trial has investigated the efficacy of statin therapy or other LDL‑cholesterol‑lowering therapies exclusively in people with type 1 diabetes. (nice.org.uk)
- The applications were based on data from the IMPROVE-IT (IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) that evaluated the effect of ezetimibe combined with simvastatin, as compared with that of simvastatin alone, in stable patients who had had an acute coronary syndrome and whose LDL cholesterol values were within guideline recommendations (n=18,144). (empr.com)
- Overall, study data showed ezetimibe, when added to statin therapy, led to an incremental lowering of LDL cholesterol and improved cardiovascular outcomes. (empr.com)
- More data regarding clinically relevant outcomes are needed before alirocumab should be used routinely as adjunctive therapy for the prevention of cardiovascular events. (aafp.org)
- FOURIER was designed to evaluate the impact of evolocumab on cardiovascular outcomes in patients on statin therapy, and found that evolocumab significantly reduced cardiovascular events, with a larger effect the longer patients were treated. (medindia.net)
- Outcomes included all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal CHD, CVD and stroke events, combined endpoints (fatal and non-fatal CHD, CVD and stroke events), revascularisation, change in total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, adverse events, quality of life and costs. (nih.gov)
- The long-awaited results from the IMPROVE-IT cardiovascular outcomes trial have been hailed as opening the gates for next-generation cholesterol drugs to gain approval on the basis of LDL reductions alone. (biocentury.com)
- Data from the IMPROVE-IT trial of Merck & Co. Inc. 's Zetia ezetimibe presented at the American Heart Association meeting last week confirmed that a non-statin that lowers LDL, when added to statin therapy, can further improve cardiovascular outcomes. (biocentury.com)
- So yes, eating more cholesterol is linked to worse outcomes. (debrasnaturalgourmet.com)
- By the way, this differs greatly from outcomes associated with the use of statin drugs in otherwise healthy individuals with high cholesterol. (glutenfreeliving.com)
- The LDL (low-density lipoprotein) version builds up on the artery walls and narrows the blood vessels. (livestrong.com)
- At the opposite end, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol seems to not be causally associated with cardiovascular risk, and thus far, trials designed to reduce cardiovascular risk by mainly raising HDL cholesterol levels have been disappointing. (springer.com)
- MAASTRICHT, The Netherlands - Results of a Mendelian randomization analysis suggest lifetime exposure to lower levels of lipoprotein(a) is associated with lower cardiovascular risk, an effect that was not modified by lower levels of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, gender, or the presence of genetic variants that mimic the effects of antiplatelet therapy. (medscape.com)
- As they explained, these decreased levels of HDL cholesterol are especially relevant clinically for those at high cardiometabolic risk, and this may justify aggressively treating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels as well. (ajmc.com)
- A diet rich in legumes lowered low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, according to a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (medpagetoday.com)
- The researchers found no effect on apolipoprotein B and nonhigh-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol. (medpagetoday.com)
- HeFH is an inherited condition that causes high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. (drugs.com)
- Background Higher intake of monounsaturated fat may raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol without raising low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. (cmaj.ca)
- 1 , 2 Such dietary combinations (known as dietary portfolios) have resulted in substantial reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 3 and its apolipoprotein (apolipoprotein B), but the beneficial effects on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its apolipoprotein (apolipoprotein AI) have been less apparent. (cmaj.ca)
- The intensity of a statin is defined based on the percentage reduction in low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol it can produce. (nice.org.uk)
- Interventions Participants received either extended release niacin (1500 mg daily) or placebo in addition to statin therapy to reach their National Cholesterol Education Program-defined low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol target. (bmj.com)
- 1 Current guidelines centre on reduction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as the cornerstone of risk reduction. (bmj.com)
- High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and therapies that raise it have been a focus of attempts to close this gap. (bmj.com)
Greater reductions in LDL cholesterol2
- Such findings suggest that optimal risk reduction may require greater reductions in LDL cholesterol than are currently being achieved. (diva-portal.org)
- With ezetimibe, greater reductions in LDL cholesterol paradoxically were associated with more arterial buildup, a result opposite to that expected. (bio-medicine.org)
- The risk for cardiovascular events (including cardiovascular death, heart attack, and stroke) over 2.2 years progressively declined as LDL cholesterol levels decreased to below 20 mg/dL (0.5 mmol/L). (disabled-world.com)
- Participants who achieved an LDL-C of less than 10 mg/dL (0.26 mmol/L) had a more than 40 percent lower risk of cardiovascular events than those with an LDL cholesterol equal to or greater than 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L). (disabled-world.com)
- Among high-risk patients, achieving a LDL cholesterol level far below the most common treatment target of 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) can further reduce the risk for an adverse cardiovascular event, with no major safety concerns," said Robert P. Giugliano, MD, a senior investigator in the TIMI Study Group at Brigham and Women's Hospital and a cardiovascular physician who presented the data at ESC. (disabled-world.com)
- However, it is not clear how much lipoprotein(a) has to be lowered to reduced cardiovascular risk to the same degree as a 1 mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol, and whether their effects on cardiovascular risk are independent. (medscape.com)
- Reducing LDL cholesterol concentration by 1 mmol/L for about 5 years is consistently associated with a 23%-25% lowered risk of major cardiovascular events, with statin and nonstatin therapies alike, irrespective of baseline LDL cholesterol concentration. (ajmc.com)
- People whose diets included a median intake of 130 g/d of "pulses" -- such as beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas -- had lower LDL cholesterol levels than those on a control diet (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.09), according to the study published online in CMAJ . (medpagetoday.com)
- A meta-analysis conducted with more than 90,000 participants in 14 randomized statin trials, Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaborators (CTTC) reported that on an average, a reduction of 1 mmol per liter in LDL cholesterol levels cuts the risk of adverse cardiac events by 23% over a period of 5 years. (medindia.net)
- The Valio scientists, collaborating with researchers from Doctagon Oy, Medcare Oy, and the University of Helsinki, recruited 62 people with hypertension (systolic BP at least 140 mmHg and diastolic BP between 85 and 99 mmHg) and with elevated LDL cholesterol levels (between 3.5 and 5.5 mmol/l) to take part in the randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. (nutraingredients.com)
- Furthermore, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol decreased by 0.33 and 0.27 mmol/l in the spread group, respectively, but did not change in the placebo group. (nutraingredients.com)
- The desirable total cholesterol level (TCL) should be less than 5.0 mmol/l but your doctor will also be interested in the ratio of HLD to TCL. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
- By blocking PCSK9's ability to work, more receptors are available to get rid of LDL cholesterol from the blood and, as a result, lower LDL cholesterol levels. (drugs.com)
- 1 It is one of two inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK-9), a protein that binds LDL-receptors on hepatocytes, leading to enhanced clearing of serum LDL by free LDL receptors. (aafp.org)
Major cardiovascular events3
- All of these RCTs demonstrated a reduction in major cardiovascular events. (aafp.org)
- March brought the first results from the FOURIER trial, presented at the American College of Cardiology Scientific Sessions, which found that Amgen's evolocumab, sold as Repatha, reduced major cardiovascular events- first heart attacks, strokes, and cardiovascular death-by 20% overall and by 25% after the first year. (ajmc.com)
- The incidence of major cardiovascular events such as fatal and non-fatal heart attack was higher in the ezetimibe group as compared to the niacin group (5 percent vs. 1 percent). (bio-medicine.org)
- More intensive LDL-C lowering was also associated with progressively greater risk reductions with higher baseline LDL-C level for myocardial infarction, revascularization, and MACE. (ovid.com)
- The primary endpoint in the trial was a range of adverse cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction, unstable angina , cardiovascular death or nonfatal strokes. (medindia.net)
- The Framingham Study was an epidemiological study and not an investigation of cause and effect , it merely reported the association between total serum cholesterol levels and CAD. (drkaslow.com)
- In contrast to large population studies, the majority of heart attacks do not occur in high-risk individuals based on their total serum cholesterol (D. Mark Hegsted, Ph.D. Professor of Nutrition Emeritus at Harvard). (drkaslow.com)
- In the second trial, patients dosed with the powder form of Renvela once per day and those treated with Renagel tablets three times per day achieved statistically significant reductions in serum phosphorus, with both groups reaching target levels for phosphorus control outlined in the K/DOQI treatment guidelines. (bio-medicine.org)
- In the 1960s, epidemiologic studies established a link between elevated serum cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular events. (diva-portal.org)
- Supplementing with spirulina daily effectively reduces blood serum levels of cholesterol, which means cholesterol is being deposited throughout the body where it needs to be rather than in arterial walls where it can cause cardiovascular problems. (ronpaulforums.com)
- The pooled analyses include data from inclisiran's ORION-9, -10 and -11 trials, which were multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled,18-month studies evaluating inclisiran in patients with HeFH (ORION-9), ASCVD (ORION-10) and ASCVD or ASCVD risk equivalents (ORION-11) on statin therapy who required additional LDL-C lowering. (drugs.com)
- In SSSS, there was a 30% reduction in clinical events, which was composed of 622 events in the placebo group and 431 in the treatment group (191 fewer events). (ahajournals.org)
- Results of the two week placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study demonstrated that in patients treated with DIO-902 there was a trend toward improved glycemic control as measured by HbA1c, fructosamine and fasting blood glucose, as well as significant dose-dependent reductions in total and LDL- cholesterol. (emaxhealth.com)
- Treatment with the combination pill led to a reduction in LDL cholesterol of 38 percent compared to placebo. (norwalkreflector.com)
- The drug, Praluent, was shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular problems from 3.3 percent for placebo patients to 1.7 percent for the treatment group. (reuters.com)
- Patients with a fasting LDL-C ≥ 75 mg/dL were then randomized to receive monthly subcutaneous evolocumab 420 mg or placebo in combination with background lipid-lowering therapy. (azbio.org)
- Evolocumab significantly reduced LDL-C, as measured by the accepted standard, preparative ultracentrifugation, from baseline at week 52 compared to placebo. (azbio.org)
- A total of 901 patients with a fasting LDL-C ≥ 75 mg/dL were then randomized and received monthly subcutaneous evolocumab 420 mg or placebo in combination with background lipid-lowering therapy. (azbio.org)
- Participants taking Praluent had an average reduction in LDL cholesterol ranging from 36 to 59 percent, compared to placebo. (drugs.com)
- After an average of 19 months of treatment, our data show that changes in memory and cognitive function were very small and similar between patients treated with evolocumab and those treated with placebo," said Robert Giugliano, MD, SM, a senior investigator in the TIMI Study Group and physician in the Cardiovascular Division at BWH. (medindia.net)
- greater reductions in ALT and AST, statistically significant relative to placebo, were observed in the prespecified group of 44/78 patients with relatively higher MGL-3196 drug levels. (globenewswire.com)
- High LDL-C and other risk factors for ASCVD, as well as the potential for treatment side effects, may increase with age and differ by gender," said Kausik Ray, MD, ORION-11 trial principal investigator, Professor of Public Health at Imperial College London and Honorary Consultant Cardiologist at the Imperial College NHS Trust. (drugs.com)
- As we move forward in our journey to reimagine treatment for ASCVD, these data analyses reinforce the potential of inclisiran as a first-in-class siRNA treatment to transform LDL-C management with two doses a year, following the initial dose and another dose at three months, and a positive tolerability profile. (drugs.com)
- The guideline emphasizes that lifestyle modification remains a critical component of ASCVD reduction. (aafp.org)
- and (4) persons without clinical ASCVD or diabetes who have LDL-C levels of 70 to 189 mg per dL and an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk of 7.5% or greater. (aafp.org)
- High levels of LDL-C have been proven to increase the risk of developing ASCVD. (prnewswire.com)
- LDL-C levels may be ordered as part a Lipid Profile when a person has a routine health exam. (labcorp.com)
- A greater proportion of ILI participants had reductions in diabetes, hypertension, and lipid-lowering medicines. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Because cholesterol is a fat (medically referred to as lipid ), elevated blood cholesterol is sometimes referred to as hyperlipidemia . (medicinenet.com)
- Cholesterol is a chemical compound that is naturally produced by the body and is structurally a combination of fat (lipid) and steroid. (medicinenet.com)
- The results of the study confirmed that combining a non-statin lipid-lowering drug with a statin can have additional benefits in lowering LDL cholesterol levels thereby reducing adverse cardiovascular events. (medindia.net)
- Dark chocolate consumption increases HDL cholesterol concentration and chocolate fatty acids may inhibit lipid peroxidation in healthy humans. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Alirocumab is a novel lipid-lowering therapy that is highly effective at lowering LDL cholesterol when used in addition to statin therapy and diet. (aafp.org)
Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol1
Blood levels of LDL cholesterol1
- Total cholesterol levels of between 125 and 200 milligrams per deciliter are considered normal for healthy adults. (livestrong.com)
- The online calculator seeks to help decision-makers identify the optimal cost effective policy for hs-CRP screening and statin therapy in intermediate and low risk adults with an LDL cholesterol less than 130 mg/dl. (stanford.edu)
- Researchers at Quest Diagnostics, a national laboratory chain, reviewed blood levels of LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol, in 105 million adults tested by the company between 2001 and 2011. (nytimes.com)
- Improving risk reduction for older adults is of particular importance, as more than 80% of cardiovascular deaths occur in those over 65 years of age. (bmj.com)
- Mean levels of C-reactive protein (a marker of cardiovascular inflammation) were also significantly reduced in a dose-dependent fashion. (emaxhealth.com)
- Adding the cholesterol drug niacin to a statin improved HDL ("good") cholesterol levels and significantly reduced arterial plaque buildup within 8 months, with further improvement seen at the end of the study (14 months). (bio-medicine.org)
- Adding it to simvastatin met the primary composite endpoint by significantly reducing the risk of cardiovascular events by 6.4% compared to simvastatin alone in the intent-to-treat population. (biocentury.com)
- Meanwhile, sugar is cholesterol-free, but it can raise your blood cholesterol very significantly. (debrasnaturalgourmet.com)
- Genetic studies suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are associated with cardiovascular risk and several promising triglyceride-lowering therapies are at various stages of development. (springer.com)
- This review describes the new drugs reducing LDL, apolipoprotein(a), and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and the strategies to modulate HDL metabolism. (springer.com)
- Very low levels of atherogenic lipoproteins and the risk for cardiovascular events. (springer.com)
- Cholesterol is made in the liver and carried in the blood, in cells called lipoproteins. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
- In addition, the panel said that the use of LDL-cholesterol targets might result in the overtreatment of patients with nonstatin drugs. (medscape.com)
- Stone acknowledged that the old targets might be part of the "mind-set" of physicians but said the new recommendations actually simplify treatment in that doctors won't have to fuss around with additional means to lower LDL cholesterol if the patient has been treated with an appropriate dose of statin therapy. (medscape.com)
- Lowering LDL cholesterol levels below previous targets offered additional benefit. (empr.com)
- This panel pointed out that the use of of LDL-cholesterol targets (lowering to 70) results in overtreatment of patients with non-statin drugs. (goodrx.com)
- Up to 87% of patients receiving alirocumab and up to 98% receiving evolocumab reached LDL cholesterol goals. (medicalxpress.com)
- 6 Finally, follow-up results from FOURIER presented in September at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting showed that those with diabetes who took evolocumab had a 57% reduction in LDL cholesterol. (ajmc.com)
- Results of cognitive testing also did not vary by the achieved level of low-density (bad) cholesterol, including the group who were treated with evolocumab and achieved low-density cholesterol below 25 mg/dL, a level that is far below current treatment goals. (medindia.net)
- As expected, the effect of evolocumab on LDL cholesterol levels was impressive-reducing from over 90mg/dl at baseline to 30mg/dl. (forbes.com)
- Cholesterol management in diabetes, meanwhile, can be complicated. (ajmc.com)
- The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of four bariatric surgical procedures to induce diabetes remission and lower cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic obese patients. (hindawi.com)
- For those with diabetes aged 40 to 75 years of age, a moderate-intensity statin, a drug that lowers LDL cholesterol 30% to 49%, should be used. (goodrx.com)
- According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, which ONE of the following should be added to the patient's current regimen to reduce this patient's cardiovascular risk? (acc.org)
- Other factors however can also be a cause, namely diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), kidney problems, and as we have already mentioned, high cholesterol. (theonlineclinic.co.uk)
- This is comparable to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes, smoking or high cholesterol. (glutenfreeliving.com)
- As a side note, notice that although high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes/prediabetes are all nutrition-related, they are by and large relatively well controlled, despite the dismal diet scores. (glutenfreeliving.com)
Statin therapy alone2
- The new expanded label in China is an important milestone providing high-risk patients, who are unable to control their LDL-C with statin therapy alone, with a new treatment option to help prevent life-changing heart attacks and strokes,' said Murdo Gordon , executive vice president of Global Commercial Operations at Amgen. (prnewswire.com)
- While the 2013 cholesterol treatment guidelines of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association do not recommend specific agents to reduce LDL levels, it acknowledges the need to add a non-statin agent when patients do not respond to statin therapy alone. (medindia.net)
Target LDL cholesterol2
High risk for cardiovascular1
- One of the largest and most rigorous studies on pine bark extract (using a Japanese product, however, not Pycnogenol), published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2010, found no reduction in blood pressure or any other benefits in people at high risk for cardiovascular dis- ease who took the supplement for 12 weeks. (healthcentral.com)
- Health: Is lowering cholesterol the key to reducing heart attacks? (hellomagazine.com)
- If such levels of LDL-C fail to be managed, patients will become increasingly susceptible to strokes and heart attacks. (prnewswire.com)
- When the new guidelines were released, many doctors were shocked that they were suddenly being told to stop their decades-long practice of monitoring levels of LDL cholesterol, the kind that increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes, after patients begin taking statin medicines. (nytimes.com)
- In theory, people with high levels of bad LDL cholesterol should have been at increased risk for deaths from heart attacks and strokes. (peoplespharmacy.com)