... is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Prevotella spp. are members of the oral and vaginal flora, and are recovered from anaerobic infections of the respiratory tract. These infections include aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess, pulmonary empyema, and chronic otitis media and sinusitis. They have been isolated from abscesses and burns in the vicinity of the mouth, bites, paronychia, urinary tract infection, brain abscesses, osteomyelitis, and bacteremia associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Prevotella spp. predominate in periodontal disease and periodontal abscesses. In a study of gut bacteria of children in Burkina Faso (in Africa), Prevotella made up 53% of the gut bacteria, but were absent in age-matched European children. Studies also indicate that long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition-those who eat plenty of protein and animal fats typical of Western diet have predominantly Bacteroides bacteria, while for those who consume more ...
Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that can cause a wide variety of infections in humans and other animals through infection or the production of toxins. Staphylococcal toxins are a common cause of food poisoning, as they can be produced in improperly-stored food. Staphylococci are also known to be a cause of bacterial conjunctivitis. Staphylococcus aureus can cause a number of different skin diseases. Among neurosurgical patients, it can cause community-acquired meningitis. Other infections include: Closed-space infections of the fingertips, known as paronychia. The main coagulase-positive staphylococcus is Staphylococcus aureus, although not all strains of Staphylococcus aureus are coagulase positive. These bacteria can survive on dry surfaces, increasing the chance of transmission. S. aureus is also implicated in toxic shock syndrome; during the 1980s some tampons allowed the rapid growth of S. aureus, which released toxins that were absorbed into the bloodstream. Any S. ...
In human anatomy, the eponychium [Greek epi (on, upon) + onychion (little claw)], is the thickened layer of skin surrounding fingernails and toenails. It can also be called the medial or proximal nail fold. Its function is to protect the area between the nail and epidermis from exposure to bacteria. The vascularization pattern is similar to that of perionychium. In hoofed animals, the eponychium is the deciduous hoof capsule in fetuses and newborn foals, and is a part of the permanent hoof in older animals. Nail Paronychium Hyponychium Sangiorgi S, Manelli A, Congiu T, et al. (2004). "Microvascularization of the human digit as studied by corrosion casting". J. Anat. 204 (2): 123-31. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2004.00251.x. PMC 1571248 . PMID 15032919. Bragulla, H. (Mar 1991). "The deciduous hoof capsule (Capsula ungulae decidua) of the equine fetus and newborn foal". Anat Histol Embryol. 20 (1): 66-74. PMID 1877762 ...
Even though the ideal method of diagnosis of melanoma should be complete excisional biopsy,[14] the location of the melanoma may require alternatives. Dermatoscopy of acral pigmented lesions is very difficult but can be accomplished with diligent attention. Initial confirmation of the suspicion can be done with a small wedge biopsy or small punch biopsy.[4] Thin deep wedge biopsies can heal very well on acral skin, and small punch biopsies can give enough clue to the malignant nature of the lesion. Once this confirmatory biopsy is done, a second complete excisional skin biopsy can be performed with a narrow surgical margin (1 mm). This second biopsy will determine the depth and invasiveness of the melanoma,[15] and will help to define what the final treatment will be. If the melanoma involves the nail fold and the nail bed, complete excision of the nail unit might be required. Final treatment might require wider excision (margins of 0.5 cm or more), digital amputation, lymphangiogram with ...
The main contributor to onychocryptosis is footwear, particularly ill-fitting shoes with inadequate toe-box room and tight stockings that apply pressure to the top or side of the foot.[4][5] Other factors may include the damp atmosphere of enclosed shoes, which soften the nail-plate and cause swelling on the epidermal keratin (eventually increasing the convex arch permanently), genetics, trauma and disease. Improper cutting of the nail may cause the nail to cut into the side-fold skin from growth and impact, whether or not the nail is truly "ingrown". The nail bends inwards or upwards depending on the angle of its cut. If the cutting tool, such as scissors, is at an attitude in which the lower blade is closer to the toe than the upper blade, the toenail will tend to grow upwards from its base, and vice versa. The process is visible along the nail as it grows, appearing as a warp advancing to the end of the nail. The upper corners turn more easily than the center of the nail tip. Holding the tool ...
2 will react violently. High-concentration hydrogen peroxide streams, typically above 40%, should be considered hazardous due to concentrated hydrogen peroxide's meeting the definition of a DOT oxidizer according to U.S. regulations, if released into the environment. The EPA Reportable Quantity (RQ) for D001 hazardous wastes is 100 pounds (45 kg), or approximately 10 US gallons (38 L), of concentrated hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area and away from any flammable or combustible substances. It should be stored in a container composed of non-reactive materials such as stainless steel or glass (other materials including some plastics and aluminium alloys may also be suitable).[88] Because it breaks down quickly when exposed to light, it should be stored in an opaque container, and pharmaceutical formulations typically come in brown bottles that block light.[89] Hydrogen ...
... (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage. Hydrogen peroxide is also damaging and is degraded by other enzymes such as catalase. Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. One exception is Lactobacillus plantarum and related lactobacilli, which use a different mechanism to prevent damage from reactive (O2−). SOD enzymes deal with the superoxide radical by either adding or removing an electron from the superoxide molecules it encounters, thus changing the O2− into one of two less damaging species: either molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This SOD-catalyzed ...
All living cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a byproduct of metabolism. ROS are reduced oxygen intermediates that include the superoxide radical (O2−) and the hydroxyl radical (OH•), as well as the non-radical species hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These ROS are important in the normal functioning of cells, playing a role in signal transduction and the expression of transcription factors. However, when present in excess, ROS can cause damage to proteins, lipids and DNA by reacting with these biomolecules to modify or destroy their intended function. As an example, the occurrence of ROS have been linked to the aging process in humans, as well as several other diseases including Alzheimer's, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson's, and some cancers. Their potential for damage also makes reactive oxygen species useful in direct protection from invading pathogens, as a defense response to physical injury, and as a mechanism for stopping the spread of bacteria and viruses by ...
The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time. A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell. While a few free radicals such as melanin are not chemically reactive, most biologically relevant free radicals are highly reactive. For most biological structures, free radical damage is closely associated with oxidative damage. Antioxidants are reducing agents, and limit oxidative damage to biological structures by passivating them from free radicals. Strictly speaking, the free radical theory is only concerned with free radicals such as superoxide ( O2− ), but it has since been expanded to encompass oxidative damage from other reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), or peroxynitrite (OONO−). Denham Harman first proposed the free radical theory of aging in the 1950s, and in the 1970s extended the idea to implicate mitochondrial production of ...
In its pure form on Earth, hydrogen is usually a gas. Hydrogen is also one of the parts that make up a water molecule. Hydrogen is important because it is the fuel that powers the Sun and other stars. Hydrogen makes up about 74% of the entire universe.[1] Hydrogen's symbol on the Periodic Table of Elements is H. Pure hydrogen is normally made of two hydrogen atoms connected together. Scientists call these diatomic molecules. Hydrogen will have a chemical reaction when mixed with most other elements. It has no color or smell. Pure hydrogen is very uncommon in the Earth's atmosphere. In nature, it is usually in water. Hydrogen is also in all living things, as a part of the organic compounds that living things are made of. In addition, hydrogen atoms can combine with carbon atoms to form hydrocarbons. Petroleum and other fossil fuels are made of these hydrocarbons and commonly used to create energy for human use. Hydrogen has three isotopes; the others are called deuterium and tritium. Like regular ...
The Dakin oxidation (or Dakin reaction) is an organic redox reaction in which an ortho- or para-hydroxylated phenyl aldehyde (2-hydroxybenzaldehyde or 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) or ketone reacts with hydrogen peroxide in base to form a benzenediol and a carboxylate. Overall, the carbonyl group is oxidized, and the hydrogen peroxide is reduced. The Dakin oxidation, which is closely related to the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, is not to be confused with the Dakin-West reaction, though both are named after Henry Drysdale Dakin. The Dakin oxidation starts with nucleophilic addition of a hydroperoxide anion to the carbonyl carbon, forming a tetrahedral intermediate (2). The intermediate collapses, causing [1,2]-aryl migration, hydroxide elimination, and formation of a phenyl ester (3). The phenyl ester is subsequently hydrolyzed: nucleophilic addition of hydroxide from solution to the ester carbonyl carbon forms a second tetrahedral intermediate (4), which collapses, ...
Wolffenstein determined that acetone peroxide formed a trimer, and he proposed a structural formula for it. From pp. 2266-2267: "Die physikalischen Eigenschaften des Superoxyds, der feste Aggregatzustand, die Unlöslichkeit in Wasser etc. sprachen dafür, dass das Molekulargewicht desselben ein grösseres wäre, als dem einfachen Atomverhältnisse entsprach. … Es lag also ein trimolekulares Acetonsuperoxyd vor, das aus dem monomolekularen entstehen kann, indem sich die Bindungen zwischen je zwei Sauerstoffatomen lösen und zur Verknüpfung mit den Sauerstoffatomen eines benachbarten Moleküls dienen. Man gelangt so zur folgenden Constitutionsformel: [diagram of proposed molecular structure of the trimer of acetone peroxide] . Diese eigenthümliche ringförmig constituirte Verbindung soll Tri-Cycloacetonsuperoxyd genannt werden." (The physical properties of the peroxide, its solid state of aggregation, its insolubility in water, etc., suggested that its molecular ...
ଉଦଜାନ (ଇଂରାଜୀ: Hydrogen; ହାଇଡ୍ରୋଜେନ୍) ଏକ ରାସାୟନିକ ମୌଳିକ ଓ ଏହାର ପ୍ରତୀକ H, ପରମାଣୁ କ୍ରମାଙ୍କ ୧, ପରମାଣବିକ ବସ୍ତୁତ୍ୱ ୧.୦୦୭ ୯୪ amu । ଉଦଜାନ ସବୁଠାରୁ ହାଲୁକା ମୌଳିକ ଓ ଏହାର ଏକ-ପରମାଣବିକ ଅବସ୍ଥା ବିଶ୍ୱର ସବୁଠାରୁ ପ୍ରଚୁର ପରିମାଣରେ ମିଳୁଥିବା ମୌଳିକ ଅଟେ (ପାଖାପାଖି ୭୫% ପ୍ରତିଶତ) ।[୭][ଟୀକା ୧] ...

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