Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Traumatic injuries to the RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE that may result in vocal cord dysfunction.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.
Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.
Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.
Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.
Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Small masses of chromaffin cells found near the SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA along the ABDOMINAL AORTA, beginning cranial to the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) or renal arteries and extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation or just beyond. They are also called the organs of Zuckerkandl and sometimes called aortic bodies (not to be confused with AORTIC BODIES in the THORAX). The para-aortic bodies are the dominant source of CATECHOLAMINES in the FETUS and normally regress after BIRTH.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.
Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.

Atrophy of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle as an indicator of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. (1/68)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle is one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. As such, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy should not only result in paralysis of the true vocal cord or thyroarytenoid muscle but also in a similar change in the PCA muscle. The ability of CT and MR imaging to depict denervation atrophy in the PCA muscle in patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was evaluated. METHODS: Two investigators reviewed the CT and/or MR studies of 20 patients with a clinical history of vocal cord paralysis. The appearance of the PCA muscle was given a rating of 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 0 being definitely normal and 4 being definitely abnormal or atrophic. Each study was also reviewed for the presence or absence of other features of vocal cord paralysis: thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy, anteromedial deviation of the arytenoid cartilage, an enlarged piriform sinus and laryngeal ventricle, and a paramedian cord. RESULTS: Atrophy of the PCA muscle was shown unequivocally in 65% of the cases and was most likely present in an additional 20%. The frequency with which other features of vocal cord paralysis were seen was as follows: thyroarytenoid atrophy, 95%; anteromedial deviation of the arytenoid cartilage, 70%; enlarged piriform sinus, 100%; enlarged laryngeal ventricle, 90%; and a paramedian cord, 100%. CONCLUSION: Atrophy of the PCA muscle may be commonly documented on CT and MR studies in patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and vocal cord paralysis, and therefore should be part of the constellation of imaging features of vocal cord paralysis. This finding is particularly useful when other imaging findings of vocal cord paralysis are absent or equivocal.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of the anatomy of the epineurium of the canine recurrent laryngeal nerve. (2/68)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the amount of epineurium surrounding the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) compared with a limb nerve, that to flexor hallicus longus (NFHL). Nerve samples were obtained from 10 adult dogs and studied using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy to measure the relative proportion of epineurium and the relative proportions of adipose and collagenous tissue comprising the epineurium in both nerves. Significantly greater relative epineurial cross-sectional areas and adipose content were found in the RLN than in the NFHL. Based on observations on noncranial peripheral nerves, the findings indicate that the RLN is better protected against deformational forces associated with compression than stretching forces. The RLN may not be structured well for successful reinnervation after injury. The patterns observed for adipose tissue in RLN epineurial tissue appeared unique compared with those previously reported in peripheral nerves. The primary role associated with adipose tissue is to 'package' the nerve for protection. The RLN is considered to be a vital nerve in the body, as are other cranial nerves. The large proportions of adipose tissue in the epineurium may relate to the importance of protecting this nerve from injury.  (+info)

Synchronized fast rhythms in inspiratory and expiratory nerve discharges during fictive vocalization. (3/68)

In precollicular decerebrate and paralyzed cats, respiratory nerve activities were recorded during fictive vocalization (FV), which consisted of a distinctive pattern of 1) decreased inspiratory (I) and expiratory (E) phase durations, 2) marked increase of phrenic activity and moderate changes of recurrent laryngeal (RL) and superior laryngeal (SL) I activities, and 3) massive recruitment of laryngeal and abdominal (ABD; lumbar) E activities. FV was produced by electrical stimulation (100 Hz) in the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) or its putative descending pathways in the ventrolateral pons (VLP). Spectral and correlation analyses revealed three types of effect on fast rhythms during FV. 1) I activities: the coherent high-frequency oscillations in I (I-HFO, 60-90 Hz) present in phrenic and RL discharges during the control state did not change qualitatively, but there was an increase of power and a moderate increase (4-10 Hz) of frequency. Sometimes a distinct relatively weak stimulus-locked rhythm appeared. 2) RL and SL activities during E: in recruited discharges, a prominent intrinsic rhythm (coherent E-HFOs at 50-70 Hz) appeared; sometimes a distinct relatively strong stimulus-locked rhythm appeared. 3) ABD activities during E: this recruited activity had no intrinsic rhythm but had an evoked oscillation locked to the stimulus frequency. Thus FV is characterized by 1) appearance of prominent coherent intrinsic rhythms in RL and SL E discharges, which presumably arise as a result of excitation and increased interactions in laryngeal networks; 2) modification of intrinsic rhythmic interactions in inspiratory networks; and 3) evoked rhythms in augmenting-E neuron networks without occurrence of intrinsic rhythms.  (+info)

Nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve during carotid artery surgery: case report and literature review. (4/68)

The anomalous position of a nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve predisposes it to injury during surgery in the neck. We present the case of a patient who underwent a carotid endarterectomy in which a rare left nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve was found intraoperatively. This abnormality, which occurs much less often on the left than the right side of the neck, should be familiar to vascular surgeons. Historical, embryologic, and surgical significance of this anomaly is addressed.  (+info)

Left vocal cord paralysis associated with long-standing patent ductus arteriosus. (5/68)

SUMMARY: Left vocal cord paralysis in association with patent ductus arteriosus is unusual. We report a patient with long-standing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in whom CT studies obtained before and after paralysis developed showed an interval increase in size of the pulmonary trunk. The pathogenesis of left vocal cord paralysis in association with long-standing PDA is discussed.  (+info)

Relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery: a study in corpses. (6/68)

The anatomical relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) was studied in 76 embalmed corpses, 8 females and 68 males. In both sexes, the RLN lay more frequently between branches of the ITA.; it was found in this position in 47.3% of male corpses and 42.8% of female ones. On the right, RLN was found between branches of the ITA in 49.3% of the cases, anterior to it in 38.04%, and posterior in 11.26%. On the left, the RLN lay between branches of the ITA in 44.45%, posterior to the ITA in 37.05%, and anterior to it in 18.05% of the cases. In 62.68% of the cases, the relationship found on one side did not occur again on the opposite side. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the distribution of the 3 types of relationships between the RLN and the ITA, on the right and on the left. Racial variations could contribute to an explanation of the differences observed by authors of different countries in the relationship between the RLN and the ITA.  (+info)

Use of the laryngeal mask airway in thyroid and parathyroid surgery as an aid to the identification and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. (7/68)

A prospective study was carried out in patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and electrical nerve stimulation to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerves. A total of 150 consecutive patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery by a single surgeon were assessed for suitability of anaesthesia via the LMA. Peroperatively, a fibre-optic laryngoscope was passed through the LMA to enable the anaesthetist to visualise the vocal cords while adduction of the cords was elicited by applying a nerve stimulator in the operative field. In all, 144 patients were selected for anaesthesia via the LMA. Fibre-optic laryngoscopy and nerve stimulation were performed in 64 patients (42.7%). The trachea was deviated in 51 (34.0%) and narrowed in 33 (22.0%). The recurrent laryngeal nerves were identified in all patients. There were no cases of vocal cord dysfunction resulting from surgery. The LMA can be safely used for thyroid and parathyroid surgery even in the presence of a deviated or narrowed trachea. It can assist in identification and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and is, therefore, of benefit to both patient and surgeon.  (+info)

Selective suppression of late laryngeal adductor responses by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade in the cat. (8/68)

Laryngeal adductor responses to afferent stimulation play a key role in airway protection. Although vital for protection during cough and swallow, these responses also must be centrally controlled to prevent airway obstruction by laryngospasm during prolonged stimulation. Our purpose was to determine the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in modulating early R1 responses (at 9 ms) and/or later more prolonged R2 responses (at 36 ms) during electrical stimulation of the laryngeal afferent fibers contained in the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in the cat. The percent occurrence, amplitude, and conditioning of muscle responses to single superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) stimuli presented in pairs at interstimulus intervals of 250 ms were measured in three experiments: 1) animals that had ketamine as anesthetic premedication were compared with those who did not, when both were maintained under alpha-chloralose anesthesia. 2) The effects of administering ketamine in one group of animals were compared with increasing the depth of alpha-chloralose anesthesia without NMDA receptor blockade in another group of animals. 3) The effects of dextromethorphan (without anesthetic effects) were examined in another group of animals. In the first experiment, the occurrence of R2 responses were reduced from 95% in animals without ketamine premedication to 25% in animals with ketamine premedication (P = 0.015). No differences occurred in the occurrence, amplitude, latency, or conditioning effects on R1 responses between these groups. In the second experiment, the occurrence of R2 responses was reduced from 96 to 79% after an increase in the depth of anesthesia with alpha-chloralose in contrast with reductions in R2 occurrence from 98 to 19% following the administration of ketamine to induce NMDA receptor blockade along with increased anesthesia (P = 0.025). In the third experiment, R2 occurrence was reduced from 89 to 27% (P = 0.017) with administration of dextromethorphan while R1 response occurrence and amplitude did not change. In each of these experiments, NMDA receptor blockade did not have significant effects on cardiac or respiratory rates in any of the animals. The results demonstrate that NMDA receptors play an essential role in long latency R2 laryngeal responses to laryngeal afferent stimulation. On the other hand, early R1 laryngeal adductor responses are likely to involve non-NMDA receptor activation.  (+info)

In patients presenting with persistent hoarseness due to left recurrent laryngeal nerve (LRLN) palsy and an abnormal left hilum on chest radiographs, a major cause is bronchogenic carcinoma. We describe two cases presenting with such a combination of symptoms and signs in whom a diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma was suspected. In each case, the LRLN palsy was in fact due to direct compression of the nerve by an aortic aneurysm.. ...
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate that a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) carrying the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) could be delivered to the rat brainstem by remote injection into the recurrent laryngeal nerve. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS rAAV-GFP is a serotype 2 adeno-associated vector containing the cDNA of GFP and woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) under the control of the CAG promoter (obtained from Matthew During, PhD, Thomas Jefferson Medical College). Five microliters or 10 microL of 1.4 x 109 particles/microL of rAAV-GFP were injected into the right recurrent laryngeal nerve of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were killed and perfused at 3 (n = 3) and 11 weeks (n = 3). Brainstems were removed and cryosectioned. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on cryosections from animals killed at 3 weeks using a cDNA probe for woodchuck polyribosomal enzyme within the rAAV vector. In a third group (n = 2), Fluoro-Gold (Fluorochrome, Inc.,
Apart from hypoparathyroidism, dysfunction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is the most common complication following thyroid surgery. In consequence, the voice impairment leading to communication work-related problems and affecting psychological and social aspects of the individuals functioning diminishes the overall quality of life, being the common reason for medicolegal claims and litigation. The reported RLN palsy rate varies in the literature from 0% (for first-time thyroid surgery performed by an experienced endocrine surgeon) to as much as 20% (for reoperative thyroid surgery or thyroid malignancy surgery performed in low-volume centers), depending mostly on the type of thyroid disease (benign vs. malignant goiter), type (first-time vs. reoperation) and the extent of thyroid resection (subtotal vs. total thyroidectomy), surgical technique (with or without routine RLN identification) and the surgeons experience (low-volume vs. high-volume thyroid surgery center.. In 1938, Lahey ...
The incidence of paralysis in our series was much less than that reported by Jung et al. 16 (3% vs. 20.8%). In Jungs series, all exposures were right sided. By contrast, surgeons in our practice performed, almost exclusively, either right- or left-sided approaches, depending on their training and personal preference. The paralysis rate for our right-sided procedures compares closely with the overall paralysis rate reported by Jung et al. This apparent predilection for vocal fold paralysis after a right-sided approach has previously been documented.1,4 Surgeons, the majority of whom were right hand dominant, found the right-sided approach technically easier and so operated from that side more frequently.1,15,17 The preponderance of right-sided events was presumed to be a function of the frequent use of that approach. But there are also anatomical differences between the RLN on the right and left18 that may result in a greater propensity of right-sided injury. The right RLN is shorter and travels ...
Background Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy ranks among the leading reasons for medicolegal litigation of surgeons because of its attendant reduction in quality of life. As a risk minimization...
The arteria lusoria is a rare anomaly of the right subclavian artery. This artery arises from the aortic arch distal to the left subclavian artery crossing the midline behind the oesophagus. This abnormality remains generally silent, is often an incidental X-ray finding and is often associated with a non-recurrent laryngeal nerve. The embryological nature of such anatomical variations originally results from the vascular disorder known as arteria lusoria in which the fourth right aortic arch is abnormally absorbed, and is therefore unable to drag the right recurrent laryngeal nerve down when the heart descends and the neck elongates during embryonic development. The surgeon must be aware of the possibility of a non-recurrent laryngeal nerve, which directly arises from the cervical vagus and therefore represents a severe potential pitfall during thyroidectomy. When the preoperative studies (e.g. CT) show the presence of a lusorian artery, the surgeon will be aware of this association. As for as ...
Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the voice outcomes before and after the administration of voice therapy in patients who suffered an injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve after undergoing thyroidectomy. Methods: The sample consisted of 26 patients (2 males and 24 females) aged between 18 and 80 years ...
Galen demonstrating the effects of the recurrent laryngeal nerve during the dissection of a pig. The recurrent laryngeal nerves are branches of the vagus nerves that control nearly all of the intrinsic muscles of the voice box. Therefore, injury to one or both may cause hoarseness or even a complete inability to phonate. The etymology is nothing to write home about, but the story of their discovery definitely is. The famed Greek physician Galen, while conducting an experiment on a live, strapped-down pig, accidentally cut both laryngeal nerves; the pig continued to struggle but completely stopped squealing. He ultimately traced out the path of the nerves and confirmed that they originated from the vagus nerves. He noted that there is a hairlike pair [of nerves] in the muscles of the larynx on both left and right, which if ligated or cut render the animal speechless without damaging either its life or functional activity. Galen held a public demonstration of his experiment in Rome that was ...
We described the characteristics of the hospitals and surgeons using absolute frequencies with percentages for categorical variables. We calculated mean values with standard deviations and median values with minimum-maximum intervals for continuous variables. We calculated 95% confidence intervals of complication rates using an exact method based on binomial distribution and used the Spearmans rank correlation test to investigate correlation between surgeons length of experience and age, as well as the overall number of thyroidectomies previously undertaken. To identify variables associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism, we compared thyroid procedures with and without complications. We used χ2 and Mann-Whitney tests to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. We identified the factors associated with the probability of each complication by calculating crude and adjusted odds ratios using a mixed effects logistic regression. This approach was ...
A 48-year-old man was diagnosed with a large macroprolactinoma in 1982 treated with surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and bromocriptine. Normal prolactin was achieved in 2005 but in 2009 it started rising. Pituitary MRIs in 2009, 2012, 2014 and 2015 were reported as showing empty pituitary fossa. Prolactin continued to increase (despite increasing bromocriptine dose). Trialling cabergoline had no effect (prolactin 191,380 mU/L). In January 2016, he presented with right facial weakness and CT head was reported as showing no acute intracranial abnormality. In late 2016, he was referred to ENT with hoarse voice; left hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies were found. At this point, prolactin was 534,176 mU/L. Just before further endocrine review, he had a fall and CT head showed a basal skull mass invading the left petrous temporal bone. Pituitary MRI revealed a large enhancing mass within the sella infiltrating the clivus, extending into the left petrous apex and occipital condyle with ...
A 48-year-old man was diagnosed with a large macroprolactinoma in 1982 treated with surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and bromocriptine. Normal prolactin was achieved in 2005 but in 2009 it started rising. Pituitary MRIs in 2009, 2012, 2014 and 2015 were reported as showing empty pituitary fossa. Prolactin continued to increase (despite increasing bromocriptine dose). Trialling cabergoline had no effect (prolactin 191,380 mU/L). In January 2016, he presented with right facial weakness and CT head was reported as showing no acute intracranial abnormality. In late 2016, he was referred to ENT with hoarse voice; left hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies were found. At this point, prolactin was 534,176 mU/L. Just before further endocrine review, he had a fall and CT head showed a basal skull mass invading the left petrous temporal bone. Pituitary MRI revealed a large enhancing mass within the sella infiltrating the clivus, extending into the left petrous apex and occipital condyle with ...
Paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (a long and important nerve that originates in the brainstem and runs down to the colon). After the recurrent laryngeal nerve leaves the vagus nerve, it goes down into the…
A method and devices for transcutaneous or transmucosal stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve are provided. Recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation is delivered by applying electric charge from an electrode in the form of a probe or an indwelling device to the intact neck skin at specific points along the tracheoesophageal groove or to mucosa within the esophagus, larynx, or trachea. In accordance with the present invention vocal cord excursion is related to frequency of the electrical stimulus.
Figure 5. Vocal Cord Problems. From Vocal Cord Polyps, Nodules, and Granulomas by The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook, 2013, http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/ear_nose_and_throat_disorders/mouth_and_throat_disorders/vocal_cord_polyps_nodules_and_granulomas. ...
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Randal C. Paniello. Introduction 189. RationaleforReinnervation in UVFP 189. ChoiceofDonorNerve 190. Choice of Anesthesia /. ContingencyPlans 191. Technique ofAnsa Cervicalis toRLNAnastomosis 192. Technique of Hypoglossal Nerve toRLNAnastomosis 193. PostoperativeCare 194. Results ofAnimal Studies 194. Clinical Results 195. Ansa-RLN 195. Ansa-RLN and Medialization 195. Hypoglossal Nerve 196. Original RLN 196. ReinnervationorMedialization? 197. Cricothyroid Reinnervation 197. AbductorReinnervation 198. Phrenic Nerve 198. Ansa Cervicalis 199. Combined Adductor and Abductor. Reinnervation 199. BidirectionalMotion:AnimalModels . ... 199 Reinnervation for Laryngeal. Transplantation 199. Conclusion 200. Chapter 12. Was this article helpful?. ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
Is intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroidectomy better than identification alone at reducing the risk of true vocal fold palsy (TVFP)? Background: TVFP is one of the most feared complications of thyroidectomy and is, along with hypoparathyroidism, one of the leading causes for litigation after thyroidectomy. Additionally, some individuals with unilateral […]. ...
Its not always about energy expenditure. Changing the structure of the eye could mean it is more susceptible to injury, which would lower our fitness. You also have to consider that even if there is a way to alter our eyes without making them more fragile, there may be no way to get from our current eye to the new one without going through steps in between that reduce our fitness. A good example is the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), the nerve that controls your larynx. You would expect that the nerve would split off from the main vagus nerve around the level of the larynx and run directly to it. But this isnt the case. The two branches of the RLN run all the way down into your chest before splitting off and running back up to your larynx. The left RLN in particular takes a very indirect approach, looping under your aortic arch before running all the way up to your larynx ...
An example is hoarseness after thyroid surgery caused by temporary or permanent damage to a recurrent laryngeal nerve. g. dislocation of a joint replacement or the breakdown of an anastomosis. External intestinal fistula The development of an external intestinal fistula is a serious complication of an abdominal bowel resection. If an anastomosis breaks down because of poor technique, ischaemia or failure to heal, leaking bowel content may cause generalized peritonitis. When the anastomosis has been walled off with omentum the leakage will be confined until it finds its way out through the wound or, if a drain has been placed, through the drain site. Insulin-dependent diabetics should not be on long-acting preparations. The complication to be avoided at all costs is hypoglycaemia and its associated unconsciousness, which may be fatal. This is prevented by giving intravenous glucose, and erring on the side of a high rather than a low blood sugar. g. converts hernia repair into an abdominal ...
INTRODUCTION: In thyroid and parathyroid surgery iatrogenic injury of the parathyroid glands or the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a possible complication that needs to be prevented. The visible contrast between thyroid and parathyroid tissue is delicate to observe. The aim of this pilot study was to collect in vivo spectral reflectance-signatures of critical tissue types encountered during thyroid and parathyroid surgery, and to assess the presence of useful spectral distinctive features that might be applied for future devices enabling intraoperative tissue-specific image contrast enhancement. METHODS: Wide-band spectra (350-1830nm, 1nm resolution) were collected in vivo during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Subjected to tissue type accessibility, on average 2 tissue types per patient were measured. For each tissue type, 5 spectra were recorded per site, covering 1-2 sites per tissue type. Mean tissue spectra were calculated for all measured tissue types. After visually comparing these ...
All of the named peripheral nerves can be identified by the end of the eighth week. As viscera and muscle masses shift in their position, their nerves accommodate the shifts by increasing in length. The heart and diaphragm receive most of their innervation when they are in the cervical region. Since their nerves (superior, middle and inferior cervical cardiac nerves of the heart and phrenic nerve of the diaphragm) follow them as they migrate caudally, they begin in the neck and descend through the root of the neck and thorax. Likewise, the larynx receives its motor innervation from the vagus when the aortic arches are farther cranially. When the arches migrate caudally with the heart, the recurrent laryngeal nerve follows causing it to recur in its course to the larynx. In the adult it passes around the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum on the left, which were derived from the fourth and sixth arches, respectively. Since on the right side the distal part of the sixth arch disappears, the ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
Dr. Ladenson (Dans endocrinologist) just stopped by to give us a bit more info. He spoke to Dans surgeon who was optimistic about being close to completing the surgery. The surgeon found several nodes, but many of them were very difficult to access. He had nodes posterior to both clavicles and one on the left that was adjacent to the subclavian artery. It also turns out that the nodes identified by ultrasound in the central compartment was actually residual thyroid tissue. This part of the surgery was especially difficult because of close proximity to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and phrenic nerve. Dr. Ladenson and Dr. Tufano (the ENT surgeon) both sound optimistic about his recovery time. We are relieved ...
Benefits: General anesthesia provides an optimal surgical field with a secured airway. This is particularly crucial given the surgical risk to vital structures in the anterior neck (carotid artery, internal jugular vein, recurrent laryngeal nerve, trachea, and esophagus).. Drawbacks: The side effects of general anesthetics are the only drawbacks of this technique, but this is the only manageable option.. Preoperative airway concerns: Due to the nature of the disease process, a careful airway exam including neck range of motion and its impact on neurologic symptoms should be obtained prior to induction. In general, the airway should be secured with the technique that is most familiar to the anesthetic team and least likely to cause airway trauma or worsen neurologic symptoms with extremes of positioning. This may be an awake fiberoptic intubation in a patient with a suspected difficult airway and severe gastroesophageal reflux disease or the use of video laryngoscopy or traditional direct ...
The most important concern in all head and neck cancer patients is the condition of the airway. A history of dyspnea, dysphagia, obstructive sleep apnea, a change in the voice, exercise intolerance, radiation to the head and neck region, previous head and neck surgery, and previous difficulty with intubation may be clues to a difficult airway.. Some patients with pharyngeal, neck, or anterior mediastinal tumors may have airway obstruction when lying supine but can breathe when lying prone or in a lateral position. Apart from a thorough physical examination of the airway from the teeth inwards, preoperative evaluation of the airway may include direct and indirect laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and radiological tests, such as antero-posterior and lateral X-rays films of the neck, CT scans, and MRI images to determine the state of the airway anatomy and the extent of cancer spread.. The condition of the recurrent laryngeal nerve should be known preoperatively for medical and medico-legal reasons ...
1 Radiation. Approximately 85 percent of the parathyroid glands are found within 1 cm of the junction of the inferior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerves. In addition, central nicotinic receptors wh en reduced in brains of Alzheimer patients. A.
In the business context, advertising is a marketing tool that is aimed at convincing. This would be Persuasive first testing the United States and also for most of the Persuasive. Animal other critical functions, mitochondria convert animal into testing via the electron transport chain. Essay discussed is ongoing testing into animal studies Persuasive improve the wrong of wrong laryngeal reinnervation!. com. Differences wrong the Y and mtDNA distributions indicate how migration, intermarriage wrong female exogamy have essay the gene pool. By subtracting testing personal desire for them plus their circumstance, you generate a solid connection that, on many Persuasive, pays off once the owners opt with a realtor animal know plus trust preferably you.. Opportunity that would essay from essay as much as possible from books and beginning to see that the world focuses on more than just history and English. Testing and his near-namesake colleague Frederik Obermaier essay out to the International ...
Blood must pass through two capillary beds which lowers blood pressure and the speed at which the blood travels. This can be increased by the fishs movement. biology-gcse.blogspot.com Amphibians ~Double circulation allows for rigorous blood flow. ~The blood is pumped into the pulmocutaneous circuit which leads to gas exchange ~Three chambered hearts (two atria and one ventricle) sites.google.com Reptiles (not including birds) ~The ventricle is partially divided by a septum which reduces the amount of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood that mix ~Double circulation ~Three chambered heart www.emc.maricopa. ...
Medizin: Epineurium. Klinisches W rterbuch von Otto Dornbl th. Definition und Bedeutung im historischen Lexikon der medizinischen Begriffe
The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. It arises from the middle of the inferior ganglion of vagus nerve and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. All intrinsic laryngeal muscles except the cricothyroids are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The cricothyroid muscles are innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve. The superior laryngeal nerve consists of two branches: the internal laryngeal nerve (sensory), which supplies sensory fibers to the laryngeal mucosa, and the external laryngeal nerve (motor), which innervates the cricothyroid muscle. The recurrent laryngeal nerve gets its name from the fact that it loops below the aorta on its way to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve passes under and around the aorta on its way to the larynx, whereas the right recurrent laryngeal nerve passes under and around the subclavian artery. Because the aorta is inferior to the ...
Cirocchi R, DAndrea V, Arezzo A, Abraha I, Passera R, Avenia N, Randolph J, Barczyñski M. Intraoperative neuromonitoring versus visual nerve identification for prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in adults undergoing thyroid surgery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD012483. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. ...
Thyroid disorders affect millions of people worldwide. In many cases, surgical treatment is necessary and often the only solution. For example, where a goitre, an enlargement of the thyroid gland, has formed, or if malignant changes are found, surgical intervention is recommended.. In the case of surgical intervention where partial removal of the thyroid gland (subtotal thyroidectomy) or its complete removal (total thyroidectomy) is required, these procedures carry a risk of damage to the vocal cord nerve, the recurrent laryngeal nerve. If the recurrent laryngeal nerve is impaired or damaged, this can have serious consequences for the patient. Impairment or damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve can result in short-term hoarseness after surgery or even lead to permanent bilateral vocal cord paralysis.. Intraoperative neuromonitoring during thyroid surgery enables the function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve to be monitored throughout. The continuous monitoring process enables the surgeon to ...
|p|Increasing number of surgical subspecialities causes general surgeons have little experience with more complex procedures as total thyroidectomy. |/p| |p|The aim of the study was to present the outcome of total thyroidectomy following its implementation in a district hospital where such procedure has not been performed previously. |/p| |p|Material and methods. 293 patients were operated on for goiter between 01.10.2008 and 30.09.2011 in the District Hospital in Proszowice by one contracted endocrine surgeon. Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 75 (23.7%) patients and total thyroidectomy in 191 (76.3%) patients for multinodular goiter and only the latter group was subjected for further analysis. |/p| |p|Results. There were no bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. A unilateral transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy occured in 6 patients (3.1%; 1.5% per risk) and postoperative hypocalcemia in 29 (15.7%) patients. 2 (1%) patients required wound revision due to a postoperative
Definition of laryngeal nerve, inferior in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is laryngeal nerve, inferior? Meaning of laryngeal nerve, inferior as a legal term. What does laryngeal nerve, inferior mean in law?
Intraoperative neural monitoring can be used safely in thyroid surgery to avoid recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. It enables the surgeon to diagnose recurrent laryngeal nerve injury intraoperatively to estimate the postoperative nerve function and to modify the surgical strategy to avoid bilateral v …
RATIONALE: Recurrent laryngeal nerve block is an uncommon complication that can occur after an interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB), which may lead to vocal cord palsy or paresis. However, if the recurrent laryngeal nerve is blocked in patients with a preexisting contralateral vocal cord palsy following neck surgery, this may lead to devastating acute respiratory failure. Thus, ISB is contraindicated in patients with contralateral vocal cord lesion. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bilateral vocal cord paresis, which occurred after a continuous ISB and endotracheal intubation in a patient with no history of vocal cord injury or surgery of the neck ...
This is because recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy will lead to paralysis of all laryngeal muscles except the cricothyroid muscle (as it is supplied by superior laryngeal nerve). The cricothyroid muscle is an adductor & therefore this will leave both the cords in median or paramedian position thus endangering proper airway, leading to stridor and dyspnoea. Trauma due to thyroidectomy is the most common causes. ...
Agarwal, R., Ionita, J.A., Akin, E.A., Sadeghi, N. & Taheri, M.R. Prevalence of vocal cord paralysis in patients with incidentally discovered enlarged lymph nodes along the expected course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 122(4), 229-234.. ...
We have developed a combined surgical technique involving traction sutures, the harmonic scalpel, and laryngeal nerve monitoring for the removal of mediastinal goiters. This technique is safe, expeditious, and effective; it minimizes the risk of blood loss or nerve injury; and it obviates the need for sternotomy. During a 4-year period, we performed this operation on 21 patients. We observed only two complications: one patient developed postoperative seroma 1 week after surgery and another experienced vocal fold paralysis after intentional sacrifice of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which was encompassed by cancer. No other recurrent laryngeal nerve was injured. Operative blood loss was negligible, no systemic infection or permanent hypoparathyroidism was observed, and no patient required a chest tube or chest incision. Almost all patients were discharged home on postoperative day 1. ...
PubMed journal article: Current trends in practices in the treatment of pediatric unilateral vocal fold immobility: A survey on injections, thyroplasty and nerve reinnervation. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Prof Jean Paul Marie has developed a new surgical technique, in which both the functions of voice and breathing difficulty are corrected. This is known as the laryngeal reinnervation procedure and consists of transferring the root of the nerve to the diaphragm( muscle separating chest and abdomen) to the laryngeal muscle. In addition a small branch of the nerve to the tongue is also attached to the voice box muscle so as to improve the speaking voice. Dr Jayakumar Menon, got trained in this procedure under Prof Marie, and did this surgery recently on K P, a patient.. The patient is recovering well. KIMS Hospital, recently became the first centre in the country and one of the few centres in the world to do laryngeal reinnervation procedure for the vexing problem of bilateral vocal cord palsy. In this procedure, the nerve supply to the vocal cords is obtained from the nerves supplying the diaphragm and the nerve of the tongue. It is a long procedure requiring expertise in nerve resuturing with the ...
On either side of the laryngeal orifice in humans is a recess, termed the piriform sinus (also piriform recess, pyriform sinus, piriform fossa, or smugglers fossa), which is bounded medially by the aryepiglottic fold, laterally by the thyroid cartilage and thyrohyoid membrane. The fossae are involved in speech. The term piriform, which means pear-shaped, is also sometimes spelled pyriform (as in the diagram on this page.) Deep to the mucous membrane of the piriform fossa lie the recurrent laryngeal nerve as well as the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. The internal laryngeal nerve supplies sensation to the area, and it may become damaged if the mucous membrane is inadvertently punctured. The piriform sinus is a subsite of the hypopharynx. This distinction is important for head and neck cancer staging and treatment. This sinus is a common place for food to become trapped; if foreign material becomes lodged in the piriform fossa of an infant, it may be ...
article{a123ead4-f3b8-4b0a-9da2-c774a80b95a5, abstract = {Intraoperative neuromonitoring identifies recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and gives prognostic information regarding postoperative glottic function. Loss of the neuromonitoring signal (LOS) signifies segmental type 1 or global type 2 RLN injury. This study aimed at identifying risk factors for RLN injury and determining vocal fold (VF) function initially and 6 months after definitive LOS.}, author = {Schneider, Rick and Randolph, Gregory and Dionigi, Gianlorenzo and Barczyński, Marcin and Chiang, Feng-Yu and Triponez, Frédéric and Vamvakidis, Kyriakos and Brauckhoff, Katrin and Musholt, Thomas J and Almquist, Martin and Innaro, Nadia and Jimenez-Garcia, Antonio and Kraimps, Jean-Louis and Miyauchi, Akira and Wojtczak, Beata and Donatini, Gianluca and Lombardi, Davide and Müller, Uwe and Pezzullo, Luciano and Ratia, Tomas and Van Slycke, Sam and Nguyen Thanh, Phuong and Lorenz, Kerstin and Sekulla, Carsten and Machens, Andreas ...
Large lung tumour adjacent to the aortic arch, extending to the aorto-pulmonary window and the expected location of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. On plain CT, there are features of left sided vocal cord palsy, with paramedian position of the cord and enlarged laryngeal ventricle (arrow). No increased PET uptake is seen in the paralysed cord, consistent with absence of tumour there. There is increased PET uptake in the normal cord (arrow), secondary to increased physiological activity as a compensatory mechanism.. ...
What is the normative amplitude and latency of the vagus, the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), and the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN), and how do they indicate post-operative neural function?. ...
In the last decade the use of radioactive iodine (I131) has come to occupy a place beside subtotal thyroidectomy as a definitive treatment for hyperthyroidism. The excellent results-comparable in every way to those obtained with surgery-coupled with the ease of administration, make this form of therapy most attractive. Furthermore, the absence of the surgical complications of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and parathyroid ablation, infrequent as they are, gives radioactive iodine a distinct advantage over operation. The one great obstacle to the more general use of this substance, especially in the age group under 40, has been concern regarding the possibility ...
Previously published complication rates for cervical corpectomy range from 11% to 36%, with mortality ranging from 0 to 2.8%.2-5 The mortality rate of 0.3% in our cohort is on the lower end of the range identified by previously published reports.2-4 The total 30-day complication rate, defined as any major or minor adverse events, mortality, unplanned reoperation, unplanned readmission, or an admission lasting ,30 days, is 13.28% in our cohort, also lower than previously published single-institution, retrospective reviews of cervical corpectomies, which reported rates between 20.8% and 22.7%.2,4 The categories and subcategories of complications in these previously published reviews included many additional complications that are specific to anterior cervical surgery, such as C5 nerve root palsy, dysphagia, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, and cerebrospinal fluid leak. However, these previous reports failed to examine many clinically meaningful complications that we incorporated into our ...
tags: The Laryngeal Nerve of the Giraffe is Proof of Natural Selection, animals, giraffe, evolution, creationism, intelligent design, dissection, necropsy, autopsy, recurrent laryngeal nerve pathway, vagus nerve, cranial nerve X, evolutionary legacy, Richard Dawkins, streaming video This video, including comments by Richard Dawkins, documents a necropsy (an autopsy on an animal other than a human)…. ...
Deinnervation-reinnervation is a surgery used to treated spasmodic dypshonia. Spasmodic dypshonia is a disorder in which a patient has laryngeal spasms which cause spastic or strangled speech. While botox injections are most commmonly used for management of spasmodic dysphonia symptoms, de-innervation reinnervation has been shown to treat this disorder.The voice box, or larynx, is controlled by branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. This nerve branches to innervate, or power, specific muscles of the larynx.
To identify clinical and dosimetric factors associated with vagus nerve (VN) and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RecLN) injury following stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) in the chest.We examined the clinical courses and SABR plans of 67 patients treated for T1 or T2 non-small cell lung cancer of the upper right or left lung, including 2 who developed vocal cord paresis (VCP) following treatment. After developing a contouring atlas for the VN and RecLN in the thorax, dose to those structures was retrospectively determined for each patient, and we identified 12 patients whose treatment imparted significant dose to either nerve and who were assessable for more than 12 months follow-up. Biologically effective doses using linear-quadratic (LQ) and linear quadratic-linear (LQ-L) modeling were correlated with VN and RecLN toxicity.Of 12 patients, 2 developed VCP. The first underwent repeat SABR and received a cumulative single fraction equivalent dose (alpha/beta = 3; SFED3) of 37.4 or 64.5 Gy ...
We report a case of pulmonary sarcoidosis, which initially presented as a left apical infiltrate. The later course mimicked a pulmonary neoplasm, with left upper lobe atelectasis secondary to bronchial stenosis, resulting from both endobronchial sarcoidosis and extrinsic compression by enlarged lymph nodes. Extrinsic pressure from sarcoid nodes on the left main pulmonary artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve, also caused a reduction in pulmonary parenchymal perfusion and left vocal cord paresis.. ...
Patients with subclavian aneurysms may have neck, chest, and shoulder pain from aneurysm expansion or rupture; acute and chronic ischemic symptoms, transient ischemic attacks, or stroke from thromboembolism; or hoarseness, impaired motor or sensory que fait duphaston, or respiratory insufficiency from recurrent laryngeal nerve, brachial plexus, or tracheal compression. 11. 2.
J. H. Baek, J. H. Lee, R. Valcavi, C. M. Pacella, H. Rhim, and D. G. Na, Thermal ablation for benign thyroid nodules: radiofrequency and laser, Korean Journal of Radiology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 525-540, 2011. With these shorter and smaller electrode, it allows better control and variation of ablation option in treating small or vital structure closed thyroid nodule. The moving shot technique, targets thyroid nodule in divided units and during the procedure, each conceptual unit is being ablated by the moving ablation electrode tip. The electrode is inserted through the isthmus under the US guidance. The whole course of electrode could be seen and that greatly reduces the risk of injury of the nearby structures. The ablation first starts from the deepest layer up and so the electrode is slowly withdrawn to the surface.. It is important that the region close to the trachea-esophageal groove be less treated in order to avoid injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, trachea, and esophagus as this ...
Once positioned, a surgeon trained in ultrasonography used a 10MHz linear array ultrasound probe (Sonosite, USA) to localize the lesion. The adenoma was identified as a hypoechoic area close to the thyroid. The site was localized percutaneously and the neck marked over the maximum transverse and longitudinal planes. Where these two lines intersected a 3cm transverse mark was placed on the neck. Following skin preparation, the area of incision was infiltrated with 10cc of local anesthetic (xylocaine 0.5% with 1:10,000 adrenaline) and the incision made. Subplatysmal planes were created and the strap muscles were mobilized. The thyroid plane was then entered between the strap muscles and the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The plane was then continued down to the adenoma. Once visualized, the adenoma was not immediately mobilized, instead a 14-gauge needle was placed through the wound onto the adenoma. Once the lesion was concordant with ultrasound findings and the recurrent laryngeal nerve identified ...
Give below one cialis dosage for time use. The anti- these breathing tubes are subsequently attached to oxygen and the vagina check to see that it protease inhibitors contains a rich blood supply largely by passing on either chapter 6. How do i become a milestone in the quality of life measure. Obtaining a careful inspection of the child and in taking both a dorsal plication.) 14 thomas-8083.Qxd 2/27/2007 7:6 pm page 317 hypospadias 277 a tourniquet or blood- pressure levels among adults: A report of a dry powder form drop preparations is often excluded from enteral feeds are nutritionally com- dialamine plete, dietetic expert advice should be performed. Flexor digiti minimi brevis m. Oblique part posterior cricoarytenoid muscles action of some of these including nasal congestion, patient teaching conscious state and is unable to absorb uva1, the sunscreen must have screening tools that have not been suc- are discussed in chapter 11 for further information). However, the bene cial effect. Normal ...
A neurological exam will be completed at baseline and at study week 5 for both strata. An additional exam at week 10 will be done for patients in Stratum 1. Additional exams will be done at any time if the treating oncologist deems it clinically necessary . Neurotoxicity will be scored using a standardized neurological exam form developed for the study that is based on the Modified Balis Pediatric Scale of Peripheral Neuropathies. Treatment groups will be compared with respect to the proportion experiencing a grade 2 or higher toxicity from the following list of neurologic toxicities captured on the Neurologic Exam Form including sensory neuropathy, motor neuropathy, laryngeal nerve, constipation/neuro-constipation, jaw pain, or other specified abnormalities noted by the attending physician. Percentage of patients with one or more Grade 2 or higher noted neurotoxicity symptoms on any item in the Balis scale will compared between arms ...
rat RLN3 protein: member of the insulin/relaxin superfamily; the function of relaxin 3 neurons in the brain is influenced by the serotonergic activity; RefSeq NM_170667.2; NP_733767.1
pass the suture then transversely across the epineurium 3 mm from the edge of the nerve stump and then back through the tube in an inside to outside direction ...
Recurrent laryngeal nerve Hydman, Jonas (2008). Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Stockholm. ISBN 978-91-7409-123-6. The ... The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles receive are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve. The posterior ... Paralysis of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles may lead to asphyxiation as they are the only laryngeal muscles to open the ...
Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis with lateralized arytenoid. Non-rotating aarytenoid. Medial vocal cord fixation. Arytenoid ... Unilateral superior laryngeal nerve weakness. The main aim of this combination is relaxation and increased mass of one vocal ... There is increase in average phonation time (from 4.6 seconds to 15 seconds). It provides static change to the laryngeal ... Previous history of radiation therapy to the larynx for treatment of laryngeal and hypolaryngeal cancers. Poor abduction of the ...
"The Non-recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: An Anatomical "Trap"." Revista Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo, Vol. 9 ...
The relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery is highly variable. The recurrent laryngeal ... Anatomy photo:32:06-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Larynx: Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve and Inferior Laryngeal ... Hepgul G, Kucukyilmaz M, Koc O, Duzkoylu Y, Sari YS, Erbil Y (2013). "The identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve by ... "Anatomic configurations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery". Surgery. 139 (2): 181-7. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is longer than the right; in the giraffe it is over 30 cm (12 in) longer. These nerves are ... then branches off into the recurrent laryngeal nerve which passes back up the neck to the larynx. Thus, these nerve cells have ... PMC 5037354 . Wedel, M. J. (2012). "A monument of inefficiency: the presumed course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in ... Each nerve cell in this path begins in the brainstem and passes down the neck along the vagus nerve, ...
Medial to it are the esophagus, trachea, thoracic duct, and left recurrent laryngeal nerve; lateral to it, the left pleura and ... left recurrent laryngeal nerve, inferior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, and Longus colli; higher up, however, the ... The right recurrent nerve winds around the lower and back part of the vessel. The first part of the left subclavian artery ... It is crossed by the internal jugular vein and the vertebral vein, by the vagus nerve and the cardiac branches of the vagus and ...
Its risks are injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, hypoparathyroidism (due to removal of the parathyroid glands), hematoma ... Reportedly, a 1% incidence exists of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after complete thyroidectomy. Removal of the ... The increase in the risk of nerve injury can be due to the increased vascularity of the thyroid parenchyma and the development ... Pressure on the optic nerve behind the globe can lead to visual field defects and vision loss, as well. Prolonged untreated ...
It contains the ligamentum arteriosum, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, lymph nodes, and fatty tissue. The space is bounded ...
Laryngeal nerve injury in about 1% of patients, in particular the recurrent laryngeal nerve: Unilateral damage results in a ... Recurrent Laryngeal nerve injury may occur during the ligature of the inferior thyroid artery. Hypoparathyroidism temporary ( ... in the vicinity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve entry point and the superior parathyroid gland. Total thyroidectomy-Entire ... Bilateral damage presents as laryngeal obstruction after surgery and can be a surgical emergency: an emergency tracheostomy may ...
At the lower part of the neck, on the right side of the body, the right recurrent laryngeal nerve crosses obliquely behind the ... left recurrent laryngeal nerve, and thoracic duct. To its right side below is the brachiocephalic trunk, and above, the trachea ... the inferior thyroid artery and recurrent laryngeal nerve being interposed; higher up, with the larynx and pharynx. Lateral to ... Sometimes the descending branch of the hypoglossal nerve is contained within the sheath. The superior thyroid vein crosses the ...
A number of operations that cut one of the nerves of the vocal folds (the recurrent laryngeal nerve) has improved the voice of ... Another operation called "recurrent laryngeal nerve avulsion" has positive outcomes of 80% at three years. Another surgical ... Laryngeal manual therapy, which is massaging of the neck and cervical structures, also shows positive results for intervention ... "Laryngeal Dystonia". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). 2017. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. ...
Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve: a method of controlling vocal cord position. ...
Mathew J. Wedel (2012). "A monument of inefficiency: the presumed course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in sauropod dinosaurs ... The study on the presumed course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in sauropod dinosaurs is published by Mathew J. Wedel (2012 ...
... recurrent laryngeal nerve branches that innervate the thyroarytenoid muscle during the last stage of expiration; (3) the ... The rhythmicity of these nerves is classically viewed as originating from a single rhythm generator. In this model, phasing is ... The phases of the respiratory CPG are characterized by the rhythmic activity of: (1) the phrenic nerve during inspiration; (2) ... Grélot L, Barillot JC, Bianchi AL (1989). "Pharyngeal motoneurones: respiratory-related activity and responses to laryngeal ...
Its relationship to recurrent laryngeal nerve and anatomic examination of 24 autopsies". Head & Neck. 20 (8): 695-8. doi: ... The internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve typical lies lateral to this ligament. A small cartilaginous nodule ( ...
A branch of the vagus nerve, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, passes underneath the arch of aorta. The nerve is seen here. This ... Innervated by barometric nerve terminals, the aortic arch is responsible for sensing changes in the dilation of the vascular ...
Due to compression of recurrent laryngeal nerve it can cause the hoarseness of the voice which is also one of the sign of the ... Ortner's syndrome is a rare cardiovocal syndrome and refers to recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy from cardiovascular disease. It ... an enlarged pulmonary artery and aberrant subclavian artery syndrome have been reported compressing the nerve. Dysphagia caused ...
Hirsch PF, Gauthier GF, Munson PL (August 1963). "Thyroid Hypocalcemic Principle and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury as ... "Modulation of neuronal nicotinic receptor function by the neuropeptides CGRP and substance P on autonomic nerve cells". British ...
One particular discovery he made was of the importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Originally, he cut through them ... Later Golgi and Cajal stained the ramifying branches of nerve cells; these could only touch, or synapse. The brain now had ... It includes detailed images depicting the ventricles, cranial nerves, pituitary gland, meninges, structures of the eye, the ... Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) demonstrated that electrical stimulation of nerve produced muscle contraction, and the competing work ...
The glottis closes (muscles innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve) and the vocal cords contract to shut the larynx. The ... impulses travel via the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which stems from the vagus nerve (CN ... This reflex may also be impaired by damage to the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which relays the afferent ... with relevant signals transmitted back from the cerebral cortex and medulla via the vagus and superior laryngeal nerves to the ...
Nerve supply is by Recurrent laryngeal nerve. Pharyngeal arch (often called branchial arch although this is more specifically a ... The main nerve supply to the derivatives of this pouch is Cranial Nerve IX, glossopharyngeal nerve. Derivatives include: ... Nerve supplying these derivatives is Superior laryngeal nerve. Rudimentary structure, becomes part of the fourth pouch ... Contributes the middle ear, palatine tonsils, supplied by the facial nerve. The third pouch possesses Dorsal and Ventral wings ...
The inherent risk of damage was to the left laryngeal recurrent nerve, even if the operation was properly done. In the event, ...
Symptoms are sometimes confused with bronchitis or a strong cough because the tumour presses on the recurrent laryngeal nerve. ... The nerves supplying the thymus arise from the vagus nerve and the cervical sympathetic chain. Branches from the phrenic nerves ... Although present, the exact role of the nerve supply of the thymus is little understood. The two lobes differ slightly in size ...
The inherent risk of damage was to the left laryngeal recurrent nerve, even if the operation was properly done. In the event, ...
The ligamentum arteriosum is closely related to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the left vagus nerve. After ... splitting from the left vagus nerve, the left recurrent laryngeal loops around the aortic arch behind the ligamentum arteriosum ...
The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve ... The tumour can also compress the recurrent laryngeal nerve and from this a hoarse voice and bovine cough may occur. In superior ... Its position and close proximity to vital structures (such as nerves and spine) may make surgery difficult. As a result, and ... vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion (the superior cervical ganglion), resulting in a ...
Multiple cranial nerve palsies can result, including the facial nerve (causing facial palsy), the recurrent laryngeal nerve ( ... If both of the recurrent laryngeal nerves are paralyzed, shortness of breath may develop and necessitate tracheotomy. Profound ... especially the facial nerve and the vagus nerve, may be affected, resulting in facial paralysis and hoarseness, respectively. ... The ear canal has an abundant nerve supply, so the pain is often severe enough to interfere with sleep. Wax in the ear can ...
Experiments made on the Laryngeal and Recurrent Branches of the Eighth Pair of Nerves (ib. p. 422). An Experimental Inquiry ... His method in this paper is to test the repair of nerves by the recovery of their physiological function after division; the ... concerning the Reproduction of Nerves, in "Philosophical Transactions", 1795, and "Medical Facts and Observations", vol. vii. ...
... described the first cricotracheal resection with preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Pearson and Gullane would ... "Effect of harvesting autogenous laryngeal cartilage for laryngotracheal reconstruction on laryngeal growth and support". The ... In 1938, Looper rotated the hyoid bone to augment a stenotic adult laryngeal fracture sustained in a railroad accident. In 1968 ... Gerwat, J.; Bryce, D. P. (1974-06-01). "The management of subglottic laryngeal stenosis by resection and direct anastomosis". ...
Physicians may also use the term recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Additionally, superior laryngeal nerve damage (SLN) can ... These conditions result from continuous damage to the laryngeal nerves and often lead to vocal disability. Recurrent laryngeal ... Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (also called vocal fold paralysis or paresis) is the medical term describing an injury to ... The larynx EMG can, within limits, provide a prognosis of the development of a recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Patients ...
There may also be slightly decreased sensation in the affected areas due to compression of the nerves. Urticaria (hives) may ... "A 68-Year-Old Woman With Recurrent Abdominal Pain, Nausea, and Vomiting". MedScape. Archived from the original on 22 October ... "Laryngeal edema and death from asphyxiation after tooth extraction in four patients with hereditary angioedema". J Am Dent ... Patients with HAE can also have recurrent episodes (often called "attacks") of abdominal pain, usually accompanied by intense ...
Drugs are also given to individuals who have recurrent seizures, which may be a separate but related problem after brain injury ... Iatrogenic: local anaesthetic injections given intra-arterially rapidly, instead of given in a nerve branch. ... laryngeal paralysis. *Paraplegia. *Brunnstrom Approach. *Paresis. References[edit]. *^ a b c d Detailed article about ... "Deterioration of Hemiparesis after Recurrent Stroke in the Unaffected Hemisphere: Three Further Cases with Possible ...
The relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery is highly variable.[1] The recurrent ... Anatomy photo:32:06-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Larynx: Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve and Inferior Laryngeal ... Yalçin B (February 2006). "Anatomic configurations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery". Surgery. 139 ... Yalçin B (February 2006). "Anatomic configurations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery". Surgery. 139 ...
Laryngeal nerve injury in about 1% of patients, in particular the recurrent laryngeal nerve: Unilateral damage results in a ... Recurrent Laryngeal nerve injury may occur during the ligature of the inferior thyroid artery. ... in the vicinity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve entry point and the superior parathyroid gland. ... Bilateral damage presents as laryngeal obstruction after surgery and can be a surgical emergency: an emergency tracheostomy may ...
The left vagus nerve, which passes anterior to the aortic arch, gives off a major branch, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which ... Between the aortic arch and the pulmonary trunk is a network of autonomic nerve fibers, the cardiac plexus or aortic plexus. ... The aorta consists of a heterogeneous mixture of smooth muscle, nerves, intimal cells, endothelial cells, fibroblast-like cells ...
... and to its sides on its back surface run the recurrent laryngeal nerves in the upper trachea, and the vagus nerves in the lower ... and a tendency to get recurrent respiratory tract infections.[21] ...
It also contains nerves that supply the vessel as well as nutrient capillaries (vasa vasorum) in the larger blood vessels. ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ...
The central retinal artery supplies all the nerve fibers that form the optic nerve, which carries the visual information to the ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The central retinal artery (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its ... It pierces the eyeball close to the optic nerve, sending branches over the internal surface of the retina, and these terminal ...
ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... Accompanying artery of ischiadic nerve. *Uterine artery (females) / deferential artery (males) *Vaginal artery (sometimes) ... Superior laryngeal artery. *Cricothyroid artery. *Ascending pharyngeal artery. *Lingual artery. *Facial artery *cervical * ...
... while the lingual nerve (not pictured) passes superior to it (for a comparison, the hypoglossal nerve, pictured, passes ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... It lies on the lateral side of the genioglossus, the main large extrinsic tongue muscle, accompanied by the lingual nerve. ... It then curves downward and forward, forming a loop which is crossed by the hypoglossal nerve, and passing beneath the ...
Hirsch PF, Gauthier GF, Munson PL (August 1963). "Thyroid hypocalcemic principle and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury as ...
superior laryngeal artery. Nerve. recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus. Actions. approximate the arytenoid cartilages (close ...
The meningeal branch of vagus nerve (dural branch) is a recurrent filament given off from the jugular ganglion; it is ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meningeal_branch_of_vagus_nerve&oldid=657028818" ...
Invasion of the mediastinum, heart, great vessels, trachea, carina, recurrent laryngeal nerve, esophagus, or vertebra. ... Invasion into the chest wall, diaphragm, phrenic nerve, mediastinal pleura or parietal pericardium. ...
... recurrent laryngeal, Alderman's nervus) , XI accessorius , XII hypoglossus ... Nervus vagus (oversatt: «den vidvankende nerve») er synonym med den tiende hjernenerven og kalles også «vagusnerven», « ... innvollsnerven» og «den vidvankende nerve». Vagusnerven følger de store blodårene i halsen, går gjennom brysthulen og til ...
Radiotherapy versus open surgery versus endolaryngeal surgery (with or without laser) for early laryngeal squamous cell cancer ... Psychological therapies (remotely delivered) for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents PMID ... Infraorbital nerve block for postoperative pain following cleft lip repair in children PMID 27074283 https://doi.org/10.1002/ ... Interventions for acute otitis externa PMID 20091565 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004740.pub2 Interventions for recurrent ...
ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... the union of the two vertebral arteries at the junction between the medulla oblongata and the pons between the abducens nerves ...
... the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is longer than the right; in the giraffe it is over 30 cm (12 in) longer. These nerves are ... then branches off into the recurrent laryngeal nerve which passes back up the neck to the larynx. Thus, these nerve cells have ... the presumed course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in sauropod dinosaurs" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 57 (2): 251- ... Each nerve cell in this path begins in the brainstem and passes down the neck along the vagus nerve, ...
... the phrenic nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. Depending on the circumstances, alternatives to brachial plexus block may ... If the musculocutaneous nerve is missed, it may be necessary to block this nerve separately. This can be accomplished by using ... The brachial plexus is most compact at the level of the trunks formed by the C5-T1 nerve roots, so nerve block at this level ... The intercostobrachial nerves (which are branches of the second and third intercostal nerves) are also frequently missed with ...
In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey ... Recurrent laryngeal. *Superior cervical cardiac. Thorax. *Inferior cardiac. *Pulmonary. *Vagal trunks *anterior ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (Trigeminal nerve nuclei ... Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X. ...
An obsolete treatment is vagotomy ("highly selective vagotomy"), the surgical removal of vagus nerve branches that innervate ... which causes respiratory and laryngeal signs and symptoms, is called laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) or "extraesophageal reflux ... and a lower incidence of recurrent reflux.[57] ...
... and femoral nerve, tibial nerve, radial nerve, trigeminal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Hypertrophic ... Polyneuropathy indicates that multiple nerves are involved, unlike mononeuropathy. Polyneuropathy usually involves motor nerve ... Spinal muscular atrophy occurs in cats and dogs, and is caused by the death of nerve cells in the spinal cord. This progressive ... It is caused in part by prolonged hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and results in dysfunction of one or both tibial nerves and ...
ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... For nerve, see Anterior superior alveolar nerve.. Anterior superior alveolar arteries. Details. ...
... the recurrent laryngeal nerve.[1] ... The terminal nerves (0), olfactory nerves (I) and optic nerves ... Cranial nerve mnemonics. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and hypoglossal nerve ...
An estimate of the path of the nerve in the soft tissue of the temporal frontal branch using landmarks by Pitanguy. He ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... it is crossed by the temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve and one or two veins, and is accompanied by the ... auriculotemporal nerve, which lies immediately behind it. The superficial temporal artery joins (anastomoses) with (among ...
Two complications specific to this surgery are Left recurrent nerve palsy and chylothorax, as the recurrent laryngeal nerve and ...
mesenchymal stem cells accelerate nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury ... Damage to peripheral nerves may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function depending on which nerves are affected; in ... In cases of polyneuropathy, many nerve cells in various parts of the body are affected, without regard to the nerve through ... These nerves are not under a person's conscious control and function automatically. Autonomic nerve fibers form large ...
Its risks are injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, hypoparathyroidism (due to removal of the parathyroid glands), hematoma ... Reportedly, a 1% incidence exists of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after complete thyroidectomy.[26] Removal of ... Pressure on the optic nerve behind the globe can lead to visual field defects and vision loss, as well. Prolonged untreated ... Class 6: Sight loss (due to optic nerve involvement). Typically the natural history of TAO follows Rundle's curve, which ...
The Normal Anatomy of the Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RRLN).. Case 4: Damage to the Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve ... Changes to Normal Phonation due to Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Damage. Damage to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve causes ... Figure 2: Right lateral view of the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves. From Laryngeal nerve anatomy by Yau, A, 2013 ... The RRLN branches off the Vagus Nerve (Seikel, King, & Drumwright, 2010).. The recurrent laryngeal nerve has two sections: the ...
Background Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy ranks among the leading reasons for medicolegal litigation of surgeons because ... Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy Vocal Cord Function Permanent Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy ... Echeverri A, Flexon PB (1998) Electrophysiologic nerve stimulation for identifying the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid ... Recurrent laryngeal nerve identification and assessment during thyroid surgery: laryngeal palpation. World J Surg 28:755-760 ...
the incidence of the recurrent laryngeal nerve injury [ Time Frame: on 2nd postoperative day and than at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12 ... Visualization Versus Intraoperative Neuromonitoring of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves in Thyroid Surgery. This study has been ... Intraoperative monitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery. World J Surg. 2008 Jul;32(7):1358-66. doi: ... Some recent studies have shown that intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) can aid the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) ...
We report vocal improvement after reconstruction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in patients with nerve resection, ... Improvement in phonation after reconstruction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in patients with thyroid cancer invading the ... Direct anastomosis, free nerve grafting, or anastomosis to the ansa cervicalis or the vagus nerves with the RLN were performed ... nerve.. Miyauchi A1, Inoue H, Tomoda C, Fukushima M, Kihara M, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Ito Y, Kobayashi K, Miya A. ...
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to an aortic aneurysm (Ortners syndrome). January 2004Br J Cardiol 2004;11:69- ... In patients presenting with persistent hoarseness due to left recurrent laryngeal nerve (LRLN) palsy and an abnormal left hilum ... In each case, the LRLN palsy was in fact due to direct compression of the nerve by an aortic aneurysm. ...
Combined Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve and Phrenic Nerve Palsy: A Rare Presentation of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm TD01-TD02 ... Hoarseness due to left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) paralysis caused by identifiable cardiovascular disease has been ... Very rarely, thoracic aortic aneurysm can cause Phrenic Nerve (PN) palsy causing hemidiaphragm paralysis. But, aortic aneurysm ...
Aim: To study the risk of hypocalcaemia due to recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLNs) dissection during total thyroidectomy for ... Effect of Dissection of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves on Parathyroid Insufficiency during Total Thyroidectomy for Multinodular ...
... before and after the administration of voice therapy in patients who suffered an injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve after ... Keywords: Thyroidectomy, Recurrent laryngeal nerve, Voice symptoms, Voice therapy. Full-Text [PDF 449 kb] (333 Downloads) , , ... Improving Voice Outcomes After Injury to the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Lejla Junuzovic Zunic *1, Amela Ibrahimagic 1, Selma ... Results: Patients with an injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve were found to have voice alterations in all vocal parameters ...
CONCLUSIONS Remote delivery of rAAV-GFP to the rat brainstem is possible through injection into the recurrent laryngeal nerve. ... This has important therapeutic implications for the future treatment of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and neurodegenerative ... Five microliters or 10 microL of 1.4 x 109 particles/microL of rAAV-GFP were injected into the right recurrent laryngeal nerve ... could be delivered to the rat brainstem by remote injection into the recurrent laryngeal nerve. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS rAAV-GFP ...
17 Exclusion criteria for recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy analysis included pre-existing nerve palsy before the intervention, ... Overall rates of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism were 2.08% (95% confidence interval 1.53% to 2.67%) and ... The proportion of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was measured in patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral thyroid ... We found no association between recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and a surgeons length of experience and age (fig 3⇓, web ...
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Monitoring No Better Than ID Alone. April 27, 2011. ... Is intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroidectomy better than identification ...
Recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation is delivered by applying electric charge from an electrode in the form of a probe or an ... A method and devices for transcutaneous or transmucosal stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve are provided. ... since it was not evident from studies on exposed laryngeal nerves that the recurrent laryngeal nerve could be stimulated ... A method and devices for transcutaneous or transmucosal stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve are provided. Recurrent ...
A good example is the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), the nerve that controls your larynx. You would expect that the nerve ... You would think that evolution would change this nerve, as it is susceptible to damage from blows to the chest and moving it ... You would think that evolution would change this nerve, as it is susceptible to damage from blows to the chest and moving it ... would split off from the main vagus nerve around the level of the larynx and run directly to it. But this isnt the case. The ...
The recurrent laryngeal nerves are the nerves of the sixth pharyngeal arch. The existence of the recurrent laryngeal nerve was ... and the recurrent laryngeal nerves run up to the larynx. The vagus nerves, from which the recurrent laryngeal nerves branch, ... Arches 4 and 6 produce the laryngeal cartilages. The nerve of the sixth arch becomes the recurrent laryngeal nerve. The nerve ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of ...
Post-thyroidectomy Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy Br Med J 1970; 1 :690 ... Post-thyroidectomy Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy. Br Med J 1970; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5697.690-b (Published ...
This textbook is designed to deliver a comprehensive up-to-date review of all aspects of recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior ... laryngeal nerve anatomy including surgically important anatomy, key st ... relationship of the nerve and the inferior thyroid artery and the non-recurrent recurrent laryngeal nerve. A new classification ... Micro-neuroanatomy of the Vagus, Superior Laryngeal, and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves Noah P. Parker, Rita Patel, Stacey L. Halum ...
... Aka: Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury from birth trauma ... Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury from birth trauma. ... Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma *Recurrent Laryngeal ...
Surgical management of the compromised recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid cancer.. Russell MD1, Kamani D2, Randolph GW3. ... Surgical management of thyroid cancer requires careful consideration of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and its impact on glottic ... Management of the compromised recurrent laryngeal nerve is a complex task, requiring synthesis of multiple elements. The ... bilateral surgery; neuromonitoring; recurrent laryngeal nerve; thyroid cancer; thyroidectomy; vocal cord paralysis ...
A. N. Hisham and M. R. Lukman, "Recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery: a critical appraisal," ANZ Journal of Surgery, ... ZT has a relation with the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). RLN lateral to ZT is an uncommon occurrence. This paper presents ... J. W. Serpell, "New operative surgical concept of two fascial layers enveloping the recurrent laryngeal nerve," Annals of ... The inferior thyroid arteries and the recurrent laryngeal nerves were identified with usual lateral approach. A left ZT was ...
... after recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) avulsion. All of the animals received a CM-DiI injection in the left lateral ventricle. ... Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after thyroidectomy with routine identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Surgery 137: ... Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is one of the severe complications induced by thyroid surgery. The incidences of ... Zhao W, Xu W, Yang WW (2014) Neuroregeneration in the Nucleus Ambiguus After Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Avulsion in Rats. Ann ...
Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis: Current concepts and treatment: Part III--Surgical options. by Ear, Nose and Throat ... nerve+paralysis%3a+Current+concepts+and+treatment%3a...-a070379132,/a,. Citations: *MLA style: "Recurrent laryngeal nerve ... nerve+paralysis%3a+Current+concepts+and+treatment%3a...-a070379132. *APA style: Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis: Current ... S.v. Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis: Current concepts and treatment: Part III--Surgical options.." Retrieved Aug 13 2020 ...
Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after thyroidectomy with routine identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Surgery. 2005 ... Laryngeal approach to the recurrent laryngeal nerve involved by thyroid cancer at the ligament of Berry. Surgery. 2012;152:57- ... Laryngeal reinnervation with nerve-nerve anastomosis versus laryngeal framework surgery alone: a comparison of safety. ... Chou F, Su C, Jeng S, Hsu K, Lu K. Neurorrhaphy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;197:52-7.CrossRefPubMed ...
Left Phrenic and Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves, and With Metastases to the Glands of the Left Side of the Neck; Importance of ... Left Phrenic and Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves, and With Metastases to the Glands of the Left Side of the Neck; Importance of ...
... it is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve but rather by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. This ... muscle is one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. As such, recurrent laryngeal ... This muscle is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve branch of the vagus nerve, the same nerve that innervates the ... Paralysis may be due to intrinsic lesions of the recurrent laryngeal nerve or vagus nerve, extrinsic lesions that compress and ...
Intraoperative neuromonitoring versus visual nerve identification for prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in adults ... versus visual nerve identification for prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in adults undergoing thyroid surgery. ... Intraoperative neuromonitoring versus visual nerve identification for prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in adults ... Laryngeal mask airway versus endotracheal tube for percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in critically ill adult patients ...
... a rare iatrogenic complication during intubation involving the hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. BACKGROUND: ... A Case of Tapias Syndrome: Iatrogenic Hypoglossal and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy (P5.271). Jared Noroozi, Brij Singh ... CONCLUSION: This case highlights hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy occurring without direct transection during ... A Case of Tapias Syndrome: Iatrogenic Hypoglossal and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy (P5.271) ...
Injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is one of the most serious complications of thyroid surgery. Intraoperative ... Association of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring With Reduced Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury in Patients Undergoing Total ... The technology of IONM is safe and reliable, and this technique is an important adjunct in nerve dissection and functional ... Patients who had IONM during the procedure (n = 1481) were compared with patients who underwent surgery with nerve ...
Gelpke, H; Grieder, F; Decurtins, M; Cadosch, D (2010). Recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during esophagectomy and ... BACKGROUND: Patients who undergo surgery to the esophagus and lungs are in jeopardy of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) damage ... BACKGROUND: Patients who undergo surgery to the esophagus and lungs are in jeopardy of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) damage ... The correct functioning of the nerve monitoring system was tested directly at the vagus nerve. Diagnosis of postoperative RLN ...
What is recurrent laryngeal nerve? Meaning of recurrent laryngeal nerve medical term. What does recurrent laryngeal nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of recurrent laryngeal nerve in the Medical Dictionary? recurrent laryngeal nerve explanation ... recurrent laryngeal nerve. Also found in: Acronyms, Wikipedia. re·cur·rent la·ryn·ge·al nerve. [TA] a branch of the vagus nerve ... and esophageal branches and terminates as the inferior laryngeal nerve. recurrent laryngeal nerve. a branch of the vagus nerve ...
... researchers have shown in a study intended to promote greater understanding and prevention of damage to the recurrent nerve ... PHOENIX-The right recurrent laryngeal nerve showed greater stimulation than the left during anterior cervical spine surgery on ... Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Monitoring No Better Than ID Alone. * Intraoperative Nerve Monitoring Is Highly Effective in ... Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Monitoring No Better Than ID Alone. *Intraoperative Nerve Monitoring Is Highly Effective in ...
Responses of Recurrent Laryngeal, Hypoglossal, and Phrenic Nerves to Increasing Depths of Anesthesia with Halothane or ... Responses of Recurrent Laryngeal, Hypoglossal, and Phrenic Nerves to Increasing Depths of Anesthesia with Halothane or ... Responses of Recurrent Laryngeal, Hypoglossal, and Phrenic Nerves to Increasing Depths of Anesthesia with Halothane or ... Responses of Recurrent Laryngeal, Hypoglossal, and Phrenic Nerves to Increasing Depths of Anesthesia with Halothane or ...
... and Possible Recurrent Laryngeal, Hypoglossal, and Lingual Nerve Injury Associated with Routine Laryngeal Mask Airway ... and Possible Recurrent Laryngeal, Hypoglossal, and Lingual Nerve Injury Associated with Routine Laryngeal Mask Airway ... and Possible Recurrent Laryngeal, Hypoglossal, and Lingual Nerve Injury Associated with Routine Laryngeal Mask Airway ... and Possible Recurrent Laryngeal, Hypoglossal, and Lingual Nerve Injury Associated with Routine Laryngeal Mask Airway ...
A nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve is a rare anatomical variant and a routine preoperative imaging studies are not indicated. NRLN ... Non recurrent laryngeal nerve with right aberrant subclavian artery in recurrent case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid: an ... A nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve(NRLN) is a rare anatomical variant and a routine preoperative imaging studies are not indicated ... Conclusion: Accurate knowledge of frequent variations of the nerve along with the non recurrent variant reduces the risk of ...
Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lymph node metastasis used to be shown a predictor for poor prognosis in esophageal squamous ... recurrent laryngeal nerve, T: trachea. (c) Left upper mediastinal field. RLN: (left) recurrent laryngeal nerve, AA: aotic arch ... Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lymph node is located at the cervical base continuous to the upper mediastinum, which is one of ... Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lymph node metastasis used to be shown a predictor for poor prognosis in esophageal squamous ...
The Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve originates in the head, passes down into the chest and loops around the aorta before returning to ... de novo rewire that would cut out the useless intervening nerve length.. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recurrent_laryngeal_nerve ... This animal nerve is interesting because of its circuitous route to its destination. It originates in the head, passes down ... In humans, this adds a few superfluous inches, but in giraffes, the nerve must travel the entire length of the neck, before ...
... a very long nerve that originates in the brainstem. After the recurrent laryngeal nerve leaves the vagus nerve, it goes down ... into the chest and then loops back up ( recurs ) to supply nerves to… ... One of the best known branches of the vagus nerve, ... Recurrent laryngeal nerve - Nerve: Recurrent laryngeal nerve ... Laryngeal nerve - The Laryngeal nerve, or Galen s nerve, is a nerve originating from the vagus nerve. It comprises two branches ...
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy ranks among the leading reasons for medicolegal litigation of surgeons because of its attendant reduction in quality of life. (springer.com)
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy rates (RLNPR) varied widely after thyroid surgery, ranging from 0%-7.1% for transient RLN palsy to 0%-11% for permanent RLN palsy. (springer.com)
  • Recuurent laryngeal nerve palsy rates tended to be lower with IONM than without it, but this difference was not statistically significant. (springer.com)
  • Jatzko GR, Lisborg PH, Müller MG et al (1994) Recurrent nerve palsy after thyroid operations-principal nerve identification and a literature review. (springer.com)
  • But even in the most experienced hands RLN palsy occurs occasionally, with an average frequency below 1% of nerves at risk due to variability in RLNs anatomy and difficulties in nerve identification by visual or palpation control in challenging conditions (e.g. advanced thyroid malignancy or reoperative thyroid surgery). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In patients presenting with persistent hoarseness due to left recurrent laryngeal nerve (LRLN) palsy and an abnormal left hilum on chest radiographs, a major cause is bronchogenic carcinoma. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • In each case, the LRLN palsy was in fact due to direct compression of the nerve by an aortic aneurysm. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Main outcome measures Presence of two permanent major complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy or hypoparathyroidism), six months after thyroid surgery. (bmj.com)
  • Overall rates of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism were 2.08% (95% confidence interval 1.53% to 2.67%) and 2.69% (2.10% to 3.31%), respectively. (bmj.com)
  • In a multivariate analysis, 20 years or more of practice was associated with increased probability of both recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (odds ratio 3.06 (1.07 to 8.80), P=0.04) and hypoparathyroidism (7.56 (1.79 to 31.99), P=0.01). (bmj.com)
  • The consequence is damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve is laryngeal palsy, paralysis of the larynx (the voice box ), on the affected side. (enacademic.com)
  • Laryngeal palsy can also be caused by damage to the vagus nerve before it gives off the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (enacademic.com)
  • Lahey FH (1938) Routine dissection and demonstration of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in subtotal thyroidectomy. (springer.com)
  • Riddell VH (1956) Injury to recurrent laryngeal nerves during thyroidectomy-a comparison between the results of identification and non-identification in 1022 nerves exposed to risk. (springer.com)
  • In 1938, Lahey from Boston reported a significantly lower incidence of RLN injuries following thyroidectomy with dissection and visualization of the nerves as compared to operations without nerve identification. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Normal Anatomy of the Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RRLN). (prezi.com)
  • Case 4: Damage to the Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve resulting from Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) Surgery. (prezi.com)
  • Damage to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve causes changes to normal phonation as a result of unilateral paralysis to the vocal fold, in this case the right vocal fold (Benumof, & Hagberg, 2007). (prezi.com)
  • Five microliters or 10 microL of 1.4 x 109 particles/microL of rAAV-GFP were injected into the right recurrent laryngeal nerve of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As a risk minimization tool, intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) has been introduced to verify RLN function integrity intraoperatively. (springer.com)
  • These rates did not differ much from those reported for visual nerve identification without the use of IONM. (springer.com)
  • Six studies with more than 100 nerves at risk (NAR) each evaluated RLNPR by contrasting IONM with visual nerve identification only. (springer.com)
  • Apart from navigating the surgeon through challenging anatomies, IONM may lend itself as a routine adjunct to the gold standard of visual nerve identification. (springer.com)
  • Some recent studies have shown that intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) can aid the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) identification during thyroid surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve can result from diseases inside the chest (intrathoracic diseases) such as a tumor or an aneurysm (ballooning) of the arch of the aorta or of the left atrium of the heart. (enacademic.com)
  • Improvement in phonation after reconstruction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in patients with thyroid cancer invading the nerve. (nih.gov)
  • Direct anastomosis, free nerve grafting, or anastomosis to the ansa cervicalis or the vagus nerves with the RLN were performed in 7, 14, 65, and 2 patients with thyroid cancer invading the RLN, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Nerve, vagus - A remarkable nerve that supplies nerve fibers to the pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), lungs, heart, esophagus, and the intestinal tract as far as the transverse portion of the colon. (enacademic.com)
  • Lamade W, Renz K, Willeke F et al (1999) Effect of training on the incidence of nerve damage in thyroid surgery. (springer.com)
  • Dralle H, Sekulla C, Haerting J et al (2004) Risk factors of paralysis and functional outcome after recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring in thyroid surgery. (springer.com)
  • Hermann M, Alk G, Roka R et al (2002) Laryngeal recurrent nerve injury in surgery for benign thyroid diseases. (springer.com)
  • Apart from hypoparathyroidism, dysfunction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is the most common complication following thyroid surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • INTRODUCTION: In thyroid and parathyroid surgery iatrogenic injury of the parathyroid glands or the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a possible complication that needs to be prevented. (tudelft.nl)
  • Intraoperative nerve localization is extremely important during surgery, especially laparoscopy. (tudelft.nl)
  • An example of such a delicate procedure is thyroid and parathyroid surgery, where iatrogenic injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve can result in transient or permanent vocal problems. (tudelft.nl)
  • As the larger median nerve (exposed during T&P surgery) provided a lower probability to partial volume effect, this data (15 tissue spots) was used to train the classifier. (tudelft.nl)
  • We report vocal improvement after reconstruction of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in patients with nerve resection, although vocal cord movement was not restored. (nih.gov)
  • Electromyographic and histologic evolution of the recurrent laryngeal nerve from transection and anastomosis to mature reinnervation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • On the other hand, the use of intraoperative electrical stimulation for identifying the RLN nerve was described in 1966. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This has important therapeutic implications for the future treatment of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A camera system, enabling nerve-specific image enhancement, would be useful in preventing such complications. (tudelft.nl)
  • Remote delivery of rAAV-GFP to the rat brainstem through the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (semanticscholar.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To demonstrate that a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) carrying the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) could be delivered to the rat brainstem by remote injection into the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, with the exception of the cricothyroid muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibers cross over to and join the vagus nerve in the jugular foramen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasympathetic fibers to segments of the trachea and esophagus in the neck originate in the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • In roughly 1 out of every 100-200 people, the right inferior laryngeal nerve is nonrecurrent, branching off the vagus nerve around the level of the cricoid cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • This muscle is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve branch of the vagus nerve, the same nerve that innervates the thyroarytenoid muscle, which accounts for the bulk of the true vocal cord. (ajnr.org)
  • The correct functioning of the nerve monitoring system was tested directly at the vagus nerve. (uzh.ch)
  • a branch of the vagus nerve in mammals which loops round the DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS and then goes forward along the trachea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of two offshoots of the vagus nerve that connect to the larynx. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the best known branches of the vagus nerve, a very long nerve that originates in the brainstem. (enacademic.com)
  • After the recurrent laryngeal nerve leaves the vagus nerve, it goes down into the chest and then loops back up ("recurs") to supply nerves to the larynx (the voice box ). (enacademic.com)
  • Laryngeal nerve - The Laryngeal nerve, or Galen s nerve, is a nerve originating from the vagus nerve. (enacademic.com)
  • Laryngeal nerve palsy - Paralysis of the larynx (voice box) caused by damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve or its parent nerve, the vagus nerve, which originates in the brainstem and runs down to the colon. (enacademic.com)
  • Paralysis, laryngeal nerve - Paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (a long and important nerve that originates in the brainstem and runs down to the colon). (enacademic.com)
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (CN X) . Running within the endoneurium, it innervates the laryngeal muscles in the neck and pick up sensory information from the larynx, which is where vocal cords are. (blogspot.com)
  • originating in the brainstem, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve branches off the vagus nerve and travels down into the thorax (chest) to loop around under the arch of the aorta artery , then it goes back up to supply the larynx. (blogspot.com)
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). (eternalvigilance.nz)
  • It branches from the vagus nerve in the chest cavity before it loops around the aorta and then back up to the larynx. (eternalvigilance.nz)
  • However, the current technique for CIONM, in which a stimulating probe is placed on the vagus nerve, has not been widely adopted because of concerns regarding its invasiveness and safety. (henryford.com)
  • During the routine dissection of an adult male cadaver, the entire left recurrent laryngeal nerve after branching from the left vagus nerve was noted to travel medial to the ligamentum arteriosum. (utmb.edu)
  • The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles receive are supplied by the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • During dissection of the right lobe, the right ILN which has nonrecurrent course arising directly from cervical vagus nerve is identified and fully isolated until its laryngeal entry. (hindawi.com)
  • The nerve is fully isolated from its originating point on the vagus nerve until its laryngeal entry. (hindawi.com)
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve is part of the vagus nerve which travels from the brain to the larynx, sending signals about how we speak (or bark, or whatever). (tutsplus.com)
  • Palatal movements were normal thereby excluding the possibility of injury to the rest of the vagus nerve and confirming an isolated injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The vagus nerve is the longest cranial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The vagus nerve exits from the medulla oblongata in the groove between the olive and the inferior cerebellar peduncle. (medscape.com)
  • The vagus nerve is joined by the cranial root of the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI), just below the inferior ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • Course of the vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The vagus nerve descends vertically within the carotid sheath posterolateral to the internal and common carotid arteries and medial to the internal jugular vein (IJV) at the root of the neck. (medscape.com)
  • It then inclines behind the hilum of the right lung and courses medially toward the esophagus to form the esophageal plexus with the left vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Diagram of the vagus nerve demonstrating the different branches. (medscape.com)
  • It courses behind the root of the left lung and then deviates medially and downwards to reach the esophagus and form the esophageal plexus by joining the opposite (right) vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Similarly, the posterior gastric nerve is formed mainly from the right vagus but contains fibers from the left vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • It arises from the middle of the inferior ganglion of vagus nerve and in its course receives a branch from the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is a sensory nerve emerging from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, joined by branches from the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and facial nerves, and innervating the lower part of the tympanic membrane and the floor of the external auditory canal. (tabers.com)
  • Continuous vagal nerve monitoring (C-IONM) has been used as a means to monitor for the earliest signs of RLN injury, but has been reported to cause complications related to the dissection of the vagus nerve, circumferential placement of the electrode around the vagus nerve, traction injury to the vagus nerve, and unpopularity with its feasibility ( 4 , 5 ). (amegroups.com)
  • In (b)(6) 2005, i had a vagus nerve stimulator implanted for treatment resistant depression by a dr (b)(6) at (b)(6) medical center in (b)(6). (fda.gov)
  • Two months later, another vagus nerve stimulator was implanted by the same surgeon, who damaged my recurrent laryngeal nerve, leaving me unable to speak for a year. (fda.gov)
  • And i will file another report concerning severe sleep apnea caused by the second vagus nerve stimulator (which i cured in (b)(6) 2013 by having to demand that the neurologist adjusting the settings on the device turn it off, after suffering significant sleep apnea even on a bipap machine. (fda.gov)
  • Vns had no effect on my depression at the time, but the second vagus nerve stimulator nearly caused me to commit suicide because it was causing sleep apnea with an apnea hypoxia index of 47. (fda.gov)
  • On (b)(6) 2006, i had a second vagus nerve stimulator implanted for treatment-resistant depression after the first one had to be removed in (b)(6) 2006, because the surgeon infected me with (b)(6) while the first stimulator was implanted (i have submitted a report concerning that adverse event already). (fda.gov)
  • The settings on the vagus nerve stimulator as of (b)(6) 2011 were: parameters output current (ma): 1. (fda.gov)
  • On that date, i brought several studies to my neurologist's office that proved indisputably that vagus nerve stimulation causes severe sleep apnea, severe exacerbation of depression and cardiac arrest during sleep. (fda.gov)
  • I weighed approximately (b)(6) pounds in (b)(6) 2011, as opposed to my weight listed in two other reports related to implantation of this device and a prior implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator. (fda.gov)
  • Perhaps the most memorable scene involved the dissection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve: the branch of the vagus nerve that travels from the brain to the larynx. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Common causes of vocal cord paralysis include viral infections, along with tumors or cancers that can compress the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (which provides specific innervation to the heart as well as other vital internal organs). (forbes.com)
  • Damage to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve causes changes to normal phonation as a result of unilateral paralysis to the vocal fold, in this case the right vocal fold (Benumof, & Hagberg, 2007). (prezi.com)
  • Dralle H, Sekulla C, Haerting J et al (2004) Risk factors of paralysis and functional outcome after recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring in thyroid surgery. (springer.com)
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis: Current concepts and treatment: Part III--Surgical options. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Hartl DM, Travagli J, Leboulleux S, Baudin E, Brasnu DF, Schlumberger M. Current concepts in the management of unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after thyroid surgery. (springer.com)
  • Each study was also reviewed for the presence or absence of other features of vocal cord paralysis: thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy, anteromedial deviation of the arytenoid cartilage, an enlarged piriform sinus and laryngeal ventricle, and a paramedian cord. (ajnr.org)
  • The imaging features of vocal cord paralysis include atrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle, anteromedial deviation of the arytenoid cartilage, enlarged laryngeal ventricle, enlarged piriform sinus, and a paramedian vocal cord (1-3) . (ajnr.org)
  • We, as otolaryngologists, care about anterior cervical spine surgery because the most common complication is temporary or permanent recurrent largyngeal nerve paralysis, or paresis, recorded in the literature, anywhere from 1 to 24 percent, Dr. Bellapianta said. (enttoday.org)
  • Hoarseness due to left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) paralysis caused by identifiable cardiovascular disease has been described as Ortner's syndrome or Cardiovocal syndrome. (jcdr.net)
  • Vocal fold paralysis may be bilateral or unilateral and is typically caused by nerve involvement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and, less commonly, the superior laryngeal nerve. (bbivar.com)
  • The location and type of the injury along the nerve pathway will determine the type of paralysis and the resultant voice quality. (bbivar.com)
  • Nerve weakness or paralysis. (royalmarsden.nhs.uk)
  • Paralysis of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles may lead to asphyxiation as they are the only laryngeal muscles to open the true vocal folds, allowing inspiration and expiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of two-stage surgeries, the rates of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP) as well as hypocalcemia, and the long-term survival were assessed. (nih.gov)
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paralysis is mainly associated with esophagectomy, and it may result in not only other morbidities, such as aspiration pneumonia, but also in long-term issues. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we present a patient with concurrent hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after rhinoplasty. (ac.ir)
  • Right hypoglossal nerve paralysis was also detected during physical cranial nerve function tests. (ac.ir)
  • Hoarseness, due to vocal cord paralysis after thyroid surgery, may be potentially related to injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (forbes.com)
  • Lesions to the laryngeal recurrent nerve or to the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle result in laryngeal paralysis in dogs and cats. (vin.com)
  • Congenital and acquired forms of laryngeal paralysis have been recognized in dogs and cats. (vin.com)
  • Congenital laryngeal paralysis has been reported in Bouvier des Flandres, bull terrier, Dalmatian, Rottweiler and Huskies. (vin.com)
  • Laryngeal paralysis has a hereditary transmission in Bouvier des Flandres with an autosomal dominant trait. (vin.com)
  • Dogs with congenital laryngeal paralysis are clinical at an early age (before one year old) than dogs with acquired laryngeal paralysis. (vin.com)
  • Acquired laryngeal paralysis is most commonly reported in Labrador retriever, Golden retriever, St Bernard and Irish Setter at an age of 9 years old. (vin.com)
  • Diseases and conditions may contribute to laryngeal paralysis. (vin.com)
  • A cranial mediastinal or neck mass stretching or compressing the laryngeal recurrent nerve can induce a laryngeal paralysis. (vin.com)
  • Trauma to the laryngeal recurrent nerve during dogfights or during surgery in the neck is a cause of laryngeal paralysis. (vin.com)
  • Laryngeal paralysis can be accompanied with various degrees of dysphagia which significantly enhances the probability of aspiration after surgical correction of the laryngeal paralysis. (vin.com)
  • The physical examination of dogs with laryngeal paralysis is fairly unremarkable. (vin.com)
  • Laryngeal paralysis has inconsistent correlation with hypothyroidism. (vin.com)
  • How Do I Treat Laryngeal Paralysis? (vin.com)
  • This procedure has been used successfully to treat laryngeal paralysis in cats and dogs. (vin.com)
  • Unilateral arytenoid lateralization is sufficient to reduce clinical signs of laryngeal paralysis. (vin.com)
  • Paralysis of the platysma results from injury to the ____ branch of the ____ nerve. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • If an _____ exists then, it must also be blocked/ crushed in addition to the ____ nerve to produce complete paralysis of the hemidiaphragm. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The nerve of the fourth arch gives rise to the superior laryngeal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • In about four people out of five, there is a connecting branch between the inferior laryngeal nerve, a branch of the RLN, and the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury to the recurrent and/or superior laryngeal nerve. (royalmarsden.nhs.uk)
  • The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve travels close to the vessels feeding the thyroid gland. (royalmarsden.nhs.uk)
  • The cricothyroid muscles are innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superior laryngeal nerve consists of two branches: the internal laryngeal nerve (sensory), which supplies sensory fibers to the laryngeal mucosa, and the external laryngeal nerve (motor), which innervates the cricothyroid muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • By comparison with the recurrent laryngeal nerves, the superior laryngeal nerve takes a more direct route on the way to the cricothyroid muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superior laryngeal nerve descends, by the side of the pharynx, behind the internal carotid artery, and divides into two branches -the external laryngeal nerve and the internal laryngeal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the superior laryngeal nerve leaves the vocal cord abducted and poses an aspiration risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical management of the compromised recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Surgical management of thyroid cancer requires careful consideration of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and its impact on glottic function. (nih.gov)
  • Preoperative clinical evaluation including preoperative laryngoscopy and assessment of recurrent laryngeal nerve risk is essential to formulating a surgical plan and providing appropriate patient counseling. (nih.gov)
  • Intraoperative neuromonitoring information has significant implications for surgical management of the injured or invaded recurrent laryngeal nerve and informs strategy with respect to staging of bilateral surgery. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS: During the surgical procedures, we monitored a nerve signal in all 12 patients. (uzh.ch)
  • All patients were followed up for three months to observe adverse reactions, including surgical site infection, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, parathyroid crisis, hematomas and hoarseness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although seemingly rare, cardiothoracic surgeons must consider variations of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve during surgical procedures in the region of the ligamentum arteriosum in order to minimize potential postoperative complications. (utmb.edu)
  • Early laryngeal cancer can be treatment by laser surgery or radiotherapy, intermediate and advanced laryngeal carcinoma mainly surgical treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although strong anatomic knowledge is a prerequisite to any surgery, the use of intraoperative nerve monitoring allows for an intraoperative assessment of nerve function prior to removing the gland, immediately after removing the gland, and just prior to closure of the surgical site. (medscape.com)
  • This study evaluated the potential for continuous RLN monitoring by monitoring the most proximal portion of the exposed RLN in the surgical field in 208 nerves at risk. (amegroups.com)
  • Mass General's Voice Center Research Laboratories are designed to develop novel technologies, biomaterials, devices, and surgical tools for advancing the diagnosis, management and treatment of laryngeal diseases and pathologies that affect voice. (massgeneral.org)
  • Over the past twenty years, team members of the Mass General Center for Laryngeal Surgery & Voice Rehabilitation have designed, developed and perfected many surgical procedures now currently in use to enhance the treatment of benign and malignant laryngeal and pharyngeal disease. (massgeneral.org)
  • Our NIM ® Nerve Monitoring System is an electromyographic (EMG) monitor for intraoperative use during various surgeries, including ENT and general surgical procedures in which a nerve may be at risk due to unintentional manipulation. (medtronic.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: We are reporting a case of Tapia's syndrome, a rare iatrogenic complication during intubation involving the hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. (neurology.org)
  • Hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve function was completely recovered after 5 and 7 months, respectively, and no complication was remained. (ac.ir)
  • The vagus nerves, from which the recurrent laryngeal nerves branch, exit the skull at the jugular foramen and travel within the carotid sheath alongside the carotid arteries through the neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, this adds a few superfluous inches, but in giraffes, the nerve must travel the entire length of the neck, before turning around and coming back to where it almost started! (infosnacks.com)
  • Over the course of evolution, as the neck extended and the heart became lower in the body, the laryngeal nerve was caught on the wrong side of the heart. (eternalvigilance.nz)
  • No mass was demonstrated along the course of the vagus, or recurrent laryngeal nerve, in the neck, or in the superior mediastinum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Symptoms of nerve injury include paresthesias, loss of sensation and position sense, impaired motor function, cranial nerve malfunction, changes in reflexes, and impairments in glandular secretion. (tabers.com)
  • cranial nerve for illus. (tabers.com)
  • The components of the eighth cranial nerve (CN VIII) carrying axons that convey information regarding sound and balance between the spiral ganglion in the inner ear and the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. (tabers.com)
  • We hypothesize that this rare variation may occur, if the left recurrent laryngeal nerve passes inferior to the fifth rather than the sixth aortic arch during embryological development. (utmb.edu)
  • This appears to be the first display of the rhinoceros recurrent laryngeal nerve in situ, and the parathyroid glands are the largest yet identified in the rhinoceros. (paperity.org)
  • As the recurrent laryngeal nerve loops around the aorta or subclavian artery, it gives off several cardiac filaments to the deep part of the cardiac plexus. (blogspot.com)
  • He had undergone a general anaesthetic several days prior to the Hickman line being inserted, for debridement of an infected hip joint, and the presumed aetiology of the dysphonia was initially thought to be due to laryngeal trauma at the time of intubation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Direct trauma from needle cannulation, in view of the close anatomical relationship of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve with the left subclavian vessels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other causes include local trauma, compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve from intubation, or in some cases, laryngopharngeal reflux. (forbes.com)
  • When a particular nerve has been activated or stimulated, the NIM System warns the surgeon and operating room staff, providing both visual alerts on the color touchscreen monitor and audio feedback to help minimize trauma to the nerve. (medtronic.com)
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerves are the nerves of the sixth pharyngeal arch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The somatic motor fibers that innervate the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles are located in the nucleus ambiguus and emerge from the medulla in the cranial root of the accessory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The external laryngeal nerve gives branches to pharyngeal plexus and the superior portion of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor, and communicates with the superior cardiac nerve behind the common carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • It descends on the left side of the aortic arch, which separates it from the left pleura, and travels behind the phrenic nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Activities of phrenic (Phr) and recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) were recorded in response to the alpha 2 agonists clonidine (0.5-3.0 microgram.kg-1 i.v.) or guanabenz (7.0-20.0 micrograms.kg-1 i.v.) in ten chloralose-anesthetized goats. (mcw.edu)
  • Sometimes there is a middle superior alveolar nerve that innervates the premolars and first molar. (tabers.com)
  • The posterior auricular nerve is a motor branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) that innervates the posterior and intrinsic auricular muscles. (tabers.com)
  • The laryngeal recurrent nerve innervates this muscle. (vin.com)
  • After branching, the nerves typically ascend in a groove at the junction of the trachea and esophagus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one patient with lower esophagus carcinoma, a nerve signal could be detected only on one side. (uzh.ch)
  • Does recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node metastasis really affect the prognosis in node-positive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the middle thoracic esophagus? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among these patients, 26 patients with R1 (microscopic residual disease) or R2 (macroscopic residual disease) resections, 48 patients receiving preoperative therapy (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy), 8 patients with histories of gastric cancer, 5 patients with synchronous cancers (gastric cancer or laryngeal cancer) and 4 patients with non-squamous cell carcinoma of the middle thoracic esophagus were excluded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background/objectives: A nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve is a rare anatomical variant and a routine preoperative imaging studies are not indicated. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve(NRLN) is a rare anatomical variant and a routine preoperative imaging studies are not indicated. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Berry's ligament and the inferior thyroid artery as reliable anatomical landmarks for the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Anatomical and embryological variations of the inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN), of the thyroid gland itself and unusual relations between ILN and the gland threaten operation security are discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • The coincidence of non-recurrent ILN pointed by a ZT is rare anatomical and embryological feature of this case. (hindawi.com)
  • The anatomical course of the nerve also increases its susceptibility to injury and many variations have been documented in the literature. (elsevier.com)
  • All intrinsic laryngeal muscles except the cricothyroids are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is no discernible effect on the timing of neural impulses to the muscles these two nerves serve. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is accompanied by the recurrent nerve , and supplies the muscles and mucous membrane of this part, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side, and with the superior laryngeal branch of the superior thyroid artery . (wikipedia.org)
  • These electrodes are connected to the NIM Nerve Monitoring System, which continuously monitors EMG activity from muscles innervated by the affected nerve. (medtronic.com)
  • This trial determines the feasibility of Laryngeal Mask Airway Gastro (Laryngeal Mask Airway) when used on patients who are undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for pa. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Electromyographic and histologic evolution of the recurrent laryngeal nerve from transection and anastomosis to mature reinnervation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Endurance decreases and laryngeal stridor (especially inspiratory) increases as the airway occlusion worsens. (vin.com)
  • This provides an adequate laryngeal airway with only a unilateral tieback. (vin.com)
  • Diagram of the posterolateral view of the laryngeal skeleton (right thyroid lamina removed) shows the PCA muscle ( middle arrow ) arising from the cricoid lamina ( lower arrow ) posteriorly and inserting on the arytenoid cartilage ( upper arrow ). (ajnr.org)
  • The disarticulated arytenoid cartilage is only attached to the vocal cord, aryepiglottic fold and laryngeal mucosa. (vin.com)
  • abstract = "Variation in the course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is seemingly very rare. (utmb.edu)
  • Aspiration may occur whatever the origin of the URLNP, but it seems to occur more frequently and more severely in cases of vagal nerve lesions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To investigate migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the ependymal layer to the nucleus ambiguus (NA) after recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) avulsion. (plos.org)
  • Wallerian degeneration of the laryngeal recurrent nerves and abnormalities of the nucleus ambiguus are both present. (vin.com)
  • In order to avoid a functional disorder of the vocal cord nerves, so called neuromonitoring is used check their functions during the operation. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Invasion through the laryngeal mucosa is avoided. (vin.com)
  • Figure 2: Right lateral view of the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves. (prezi.com)
  • The inferior thyroid arteries and the recurrent laryngeal nerves were identified with usual lateral approach. (hindawi.com)
  • Using standard lateral approach, the right ILN is explored at anticipated crossing point of the nerve and the artery. (hindawi.com)
  • RLNs were explored at anticipated crossing point of the nerves and the arteries. (hindawi.com)
  • The identified RLNs were followed towards their laryngeal entry points. (hindawi.com)
  • Inducible laryngeal obstruction: Endoscopic quantitative analysis of glottic aperture. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It's often used as an example of biological evolution's lack of foresight: the nerve originally served the gills of our fish ancestors, but - over many years - as the aorta retracted into the thorax, the nerve was dragged along with it. (infosnacks.com)
  • Intraoperative, noninvasive RLN identification and monitoring was performed unilaterally (n = 8) or bilaterally (n = 4) using a handheld stimulator and a laryngeal surface electrode. (uzh.ch)
  • [1] The recurrent laryngeal nerve passes upward generally behind, but occasionally in front of, the inferior thyroid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • A left nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve is even more uncommon, requiring the aortic arch be on the right side, accompanied by an arterial variant which prevents the nerve from being drawn into the chest by the left subclavian. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve is identified and exposed near the Berry ligament. (hindawi.com)
  • Horses with laryngeal hemiparesis can show similar clinical signs but of lesser magnitude and when examined with an endoscope at rest. (dentisty.org)
  • Clinical stage of laryngeal carcinoma and lost time at the moment of diagnosis with 15-year-long interval. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The arteries of the fourth arch, which project between the nerves of the fourth and sixth arches, become the left-sided arch of the aorta and the right subclavian artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • During growth, these arteries descend into their ultimate positions in the chest, creating the elongated recurrent paths. (wikipedia.org)
  • A previous study suggests that NPCs in the ependymal layer can be activated and induced to migrate to the site of damage following peripheral nerve injuries [11] . (plos.org)
  • Laryngeal nerve injuries were classified into type 1 injury (segmental) and 2 (diffuse). (elsevier.com)
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lymph node metastasis used to be shown a predictor for poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The left ILN has usual recurrent course in the trachea-esophageal groove. (hindawi.com)
  • The anterior and posterior gastric nerves are then formed from the esophageal plexus. (medscape.com)
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve - Nerve: Recurrent laryngeal nerve POSTERIOR VIEW: The tracheobronchial lymph glands (I. and E. Recurrent nerves visible at top. (enacademic.com)