Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Organs at Risk
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
Organ Sparing Treatments
Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (1/2787)OBJECTIVE: Many surgeons continue to place a prophylactic drain in the pelvis after completion of a colorectal anastomosis, despite considerable evidence that this practice may not be useful. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if placement of a drain after a colonic or rectal anastomosis can reduce the rate of complications. METHODS: A search of the Medline database of English-language articles published from 1987 to 1997 was conducted using the terms "colon," "rectum," "postoperative complications," "surgical anastomosis," and "drainage." A manual search was also conducted. Four randomized controlled trials, including a total of 414 patients, were identified that compared the routine use of drainage of colonic and/or rectal anastomoses to no drainage. Two reviewers assessed the trials independently. Trial quality was critically appraised using a previously published scale, and data on mortality, clinical and radiologic anastomotic leakage rate, wound infection rate, and major complication rate were extracted. RESULTS: The overall quality of the studies was poor. Use of a drain did not significantly affect the rate of any of the outcomes examined, although the power of this analysis to exclude any difference was low. Comparison of pooled results revealed an odds ratio for clinical leak of 1.5 favoring the control (no drain) group. Of the 20 observed leaks among all four studies that occurred in a patient with a drain in place, in only one case (5%) did pus or enteric content actually appear in the effluent of the existing drain. CONCLUSIONS: Any significant benefit of routine drainage of colon and rectal anastomoses in reducing the rate of anastomotic leakage or other surgical complications can be excluded with more confidence based on pooled data than by the individual trials alone. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials would further reinforce this conclusion. (+info)
The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction. (2/2787)BACKGROUND: Both psychological and physiological disturbances have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). AIMS: To investigate how the psychological factors act, and the involvement of infective and physiological factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalised for gastroenteritis reported life events for the previous 12 months, and past illness experiences on standardised questionnaires. They also completed psychometric questionnaires for anxiety, neuroticism, somatisation, and hypochondriasis. In some patients, rectal biopsy specimens were obtained during the acute illness and at three months postinfection. RESULTS: Ninety four patients completed all questionnaires: 22 patients were diagnosed with IBS after their gastroenteritis (IBS+), and 72 patients returned to normal bowel habits (IBS-). IBS+ patients reported more life events and had higher hypochondriasis scores than IBS- patients. The predictive value of the life event and hypochondriasis measures was highly significant and independent of anxiety, neuroticism, and somatisation scores, which were also elevated in IBS+ patients. Rectal biopsy specimens from 29 patients showed a chronic inflammatory response in both IBS+ and IBS- patients. Three months later, specimens from IBS+ patients continued to show increased chronic inflammatory cell counts but those from IBS- patients had returned to normal levels. IBS+ and IBS- patients exhibited rectal hypersensitivity and hyper-reactivity and rapid colonic transit compared with normal controls, but there were no significant differences between IBS+ and IBS- patients for these physiological measurements. CONCLUSION: Psychological factors most clearly predict the development of IBS symptoms after gastroenteritis but biological mechanisms also contribute towards the expression of symptoms. (+info)
High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan. (3/2787)The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health. (+info)
P fimbriae and other adhesins enhance intestinal persistence of Escherichia coli in early infancy. (4/2787)Resident and transient Escherichia coli strains were identified in the rectal flora of 22 Pakistani infants followed from birth to 6 months of age. All strains were tested for O-antigen expression, adhesin specificity (P fimbriae, other mannose-resistant adhesins or type 1 fimbriae) and adherence to the colonic cell line HT-29. Resident strains displayed higher mannose-resistant adherence to HT-29 cells, and expressed P fimbriae (P = 0.0036) as well as other mannose-resistant adhesins (P = 0.012) more often than transient strains. In strains acquired during the first month of life, P fimbriae were 12 times more frequent in resident than in transient strains (P = 0.0006). The O-antigen distribution did not differ between resident and transient strains, and none of the resident P-fimbriated strains belonged to previously recognized uropathogenic clones. The results suggest that adhesins mediating adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, especially P fimbriae, enhance the persistence of E. coli in the large intestine of infants. (+info)
Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary cultures by a slide agglutination test. (5/2787)Hen antigonococcal lipopolysaccharide hen serum was used in a simple slide agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary isolates. (+info)
An analysis of digital rectal examination and serum-prostate-specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer in general practice. (6/2787)BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is now the commonest cancer in men and the second commonest cause of death from cancer. However, general-practice-based research on prostate cancer remains scanty. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the acceptability of digital rectal examination (DRE) and serum-prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the early detection of prostate cancer in a general practice setting. Another aim was to ascertain the incidence of prostate cancer among 50-79-year-old men in the solo practice. METHODS: We conducted an opportunistic, prospective, population-based study involving men with no prior, proven history of prostate cancer. RESULTS: A total of 211 (87.6%) out of 241 targeted patients agreed to take part in the study. Abnormal DREs were found in 9%, while 9.5% of PSA tests were found to be abnormal. One or both tests were abnormal in 29 patients-13.7% of the study population. Eleven biopsies were performed during the study, with cancer detected in three (27.3%)-1.4% of the total population. Eighteen patients were not biopsied either on clinical grounds or by personal choice. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of abnormal DRE and PSA tests was lower than that detected in previous hospital or specialist-based studies. Both tests were found to be highly acceptable to the population studied. Not all patients with abnormal early detection tests need necessarily proceed to further invasive investigations. (+info)
Dietary determinants of colorectal proliferation in the normal mucosa of subjects with previous colon adenomas. (7/2787)Dietary determinants of colorectal mucosa proliferation were studied in 69 subjects previously operated for at least two sporadic colon adenomas. Information on recent dietary habits was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire, and proliferation was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation in colorectal biopsies by determining the labeling index (LI) and the percentage of LI in the upper part of the crypt, two parameters that are increased in subjects at high risk of colon cancer. The LI was significantly higher in women as compared with men (P = 0.01). Diet showed several associations with colorectal mucosa proliferation: (a) subjects in the highest tertile of fish consumption had a significantly lower LI (P = 0.0013) compared with those in the lower tertiles [5.20 +/- 1.87 versus 6.80 +/- 2.18 (mean +/- SD)]; (b) subjects with a low red meat consumption had lower proliferation in the upper part of the crypt [2.38 +/- 2.10, 5.30 +/- 4.62, and 5.89 +/- 4.82 in the low, middle, and high tertile of consumption, respectively (mean +/- SD); P = 0.0093]; (c) according to estimated nutrient intakes, the LI was lower in subjects reporting a high intake of starch (P = 0.006) and higher in subjects with a low intake of beta-carotene (P = 0.002). The results show that subjects reporting a diet rich in fish, starch, and beta-carotene and low in red meat had lower colorectal mucosa proliferation and a normal pattern of proliferation along the crypt. Given the correlation between colorectal proliferative activity and colon cancer risk, such a dietary pattern might be beneficial for subjects at high risk of colon cancer. (+info)
Rectal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to chimpanzees. (8/2787)Inoculation of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been used as a model system to define mechanisms of pathogenesis and to test protective efficacy of candidate HIV-1 vaccines. In most of these studies, the animals were inoculated intravenously. However, because HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces, future evaluations of vaccines should employ mucosal routes for administering infectious virus to immunized animals. To develop a model of rectal transmission of HIV-1, chimpanzees were exposed without trauma to 4 different HIV-1 strains at doses ranging from 200 to 10,000 TCIDs. Infection, characterized by seroconversion and repeated isolation of virus from lymphocytes, was established in 1 of 5 animals. This animal was sequentially inoculated with a subtype B and then an E strain and was infected with both strains. The results show that rectal exposure of adult chimpanzees to cell-free HIV-1 was not an efficient mode of transmission in this cohort. (+info)
Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the rectum, which is the final section of the large intestine. These neoplasms can be either benign or malignant, and they can range in size and location within the rectum. Benign rectal neoplasms, also known as polyps, are non-cancerous growths that typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They can be either pedunculated, meaning they have a stalk that attaches them to the rectal wall, or sessile, meaning they are attached directly to the rectal wall. Malignant rectal neoplasms, also known as rectal cancers, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Rectal cancers can be either adenocarcinomas, which are the most common type, or squamous cell carcinomas, which are less common. Rectal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, pain or discomfort in the rectum, and a feeling of incomplete bowel movements. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options for rectal neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Rectal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the rectum, which is the final part of the large intestine. The rectum is responsible for storing feces until they are eliminated from the body through the anus. Rectal diseases can be acute or chronic and can range from minor to severe. Some common rectal diseases include: 1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. 2. Anal fissures: Tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and bleeding during bowel movements. 3. Fistulas: Abnormal connections between the rectum and other organs or tissues, such as the skin or vagina. 4. Polyps: Non-cancerous growths in the rectum that can cause bleeding or blockage. 5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the rectum and other parts of the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. 6. Rectal cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the rectum and can spread to other parts of the body. Rectal diseases can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical imaging tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment options depend on the specific disease and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.
Sigmoid neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the sigmoid colon, which is the lower part of the large intestine. These tumors can be either benign or malignant, and they are typically classified as adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Adenomas are non-cancerous growths that arise from the lining cells of the colon. They are usually small and slow-growing, but in some cases, they can develop into cancer over time. Adenocarcinomas, on the other hand, are cancerous tumors that develop from the lining cells of the colon. They can be either localized or have spread to other parts of the body. Sigmoid neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment for sigmoid neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor. Benign tumors may be removed through surgery, while malignant tumors may require a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
Intestinal polyps are abnormal growths that develop on the inner lining of the intestines. They can occur anywhere along the digestive tract, from the esophagus to the rectum, but are most commonly found in the colon and rectum. Intestinal polyps can be either non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Benign polyps are more common and are usually small, while malignant polyps are less common and tend to be larger. Most intestinal polyps do not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine colonoscopies or other diagnostic tests. However, some larger polyps can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and changes in bowel habits. Treatment for intestinal polyps depends on their size, number, and type. Small, non-cancerous polyps can often be removed during a colonoscopy or other minimally invasive procedure. Larger or more complex polyps may require surgery. In some cases, if a polyp is cancerous, additional treatment such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be necessary.
In the medical field, Megacolon refers to a condition in which the colon (large intestine) becomes abnormally dilated or enlarged. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including damage to the nerves that control the muscles in the colon, chronic inflammation of the colon, or a blockage in the colon that prevents waste from passing through. Symptoms of Megacolon may include abdominal pain, constipation, bloating, and a feeling of fullness after eating a small amount of food. In severe cases, Megacolon can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction, sepsis, and malnutrition. Treatment for Megacolon depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medications or dietary changes may be sufficient to manage symptoms. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon or to create a new pathway for waste to pass through.
Proctitis is an inflammation of the rectum, which is the final part of the large intestine. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, injuries, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of proctitis may include rectal pain, bleeding, itching, discharge, and difficulty passing stool. Treatment for proctitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Rectal prolapse is a medical condition in which the rectum, the lower part of the large intestine, descends or protrudes through the anus. This can cause a bulge or lump in the anus, which may be visible externally or felt internally. Rectal prolapse can be classified as either complete or incomplete, depending on whether the entire rectum or just part of it is involved. It can also be classified as primary or secondary, depending on whether it is caused by a weakness in the rectal muscles or by an underlying medical condition such as constipation, childbirth, or chronic straining. Treatment for rectal prolapse may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.
Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the colon, which is the final part of the large intestine. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign colonic neoplasms include polyps, which are small, non-cancerous growths that can develop on the inner lining of the colon. Polyps can be further classified as adenomas, which are made up of glandular tissue, or hyperplastic polyps, which are non-glandular. Malignant colonic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of colon cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular tissue of the colon. Colonic neoplasms can be detected through various diagnostic tests, including colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood testing. Treatment options for colonic neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the overall health of the patient. Early detection and treatment of colonic neoplasms can significantly improve the chances of a successful outcome.
Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the colon or rectum. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Colorectal neoplasms can be further classified into polyps, adenomas, and carcinomas. Polyps are non-cancerous growths that typically arise from the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Adenomas are a type of polyp that have the potential to become cancerous if left untreated. Carcinomas, on the other hand, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal neoplasms are a common health concern, and regular screening is recommended for individuals at high risk, such as those with a family history of colorectal cancer or those over the age of 50. Early detection and treatment of colorectal neoplasms can significantly improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
Cecal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the cecum, which is the first part of the large intestine. These neoplasms can be either benign or malignant, and they may cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. Cecal neoplasms can be further classified based on their type, including adenomas, carcinomas, and sarcomas. Adenomas are non-cancerous growths that can develop into carcinomas if left untreated. Carcinomas are cancerous tumors that can spread to other parts of the body if not treated. Sarcomas are rare tumors that develop from connective tissue in the cecum. Diagnosis of cecal neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as colonoscopy or CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health. They may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.
Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of an organ or tissue. It is one of the most common types of cancer and can occur in many different parts of the body, including the lungs, breast, colon, rectum, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid gland. Adenocarcinomas typically grow slowly and may not cause symptoms in the early stages. However, as the cancer grows, it can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. This can lead to more serious symptoms and a higher risk of complications. Treatment for adenocarcinoma depends on the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to remove or destroy the cancer cells and prevent them from spreading further.
Adenoma, Villous is a type of non-cancerous growth (benign tumor) that occurs in the lining of the colon or rectum. It is characterized by the presence of villi, which are finger-like projections that line the inner surface of the lining of the colon or rectum. These villi are covered in cells that produce mucus and other substances that help to protect the lining of the colon or rectum. Villous adenomas are usually small and may not cause any symptoms. However, in some cases, they can grow larger and cause problems such as bleeding, blockage of the colon or rectum, or the development of cancer. They are typically diagnosed through colonoscopy, a procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the colon or rectum to examine the lining. Treatment for villous adenomas may include the removal of the growth through a procedure called polypectomy, in which the growth is removed using a snare or other tool. In some cases, if the growth is large or has certain characteristics, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected area of the colon or rectum. It is important to note that while villous adenomas are usually non-cancerous, they can sometimes develop into cancer, so it is important to have them monitored and treated if necessary.
Constipation is a common digestive disorder characterized by difficulty in passing stools or infrequent bowel movements. It is typically defined as having fewer than three bowel movements per week or difficulty passing stools that are hard, dry, and lumpy. Constipation can be caused by a variety of factors, including a lack of fiber in the diet, dehydration, certain medications, hormonal changes, and certain medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and Parkinson's disease. Symptoms of constipation may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and a feeling of incomplete bowel movements. Treatment for constipation typically involves changes in diet and lifestyle, such as increasing fiber intake and staying hydrated, as well as the use of over-the-counter laxatives or stool softeners. In severe cases, medical intervention may be necessary.
Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the colon and rectum. It is characterized by inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the colon and rectum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and stress management. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.
Imperforate anus is a congenital anomaly in which the opening of the rectum is not present at the anus. This means that the stool cannot pass through the anus and instead collects in the rectum, causing constipation and other complications. Imperforate anus can occur as a complete or partial absence of the anus, and it may be associated with other birth defects such as a missing rectum or a shortened colon. Treatment typically involves surgery to create an opening in the rectum and connect it to the anus.
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage, also known as GI bleeding, is a medical condition in which there is bleeding in the digestive tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, or anus. The bleeding can be acute or chronic, and the severity can range from mild to life-threatening. The symptoms of gastrointestinal hemorrhage can include black or tarry stools, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, and fainting. The cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be due to a variety of factors, including peptic ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal tumors, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, and liver disease. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal hemorrhage typically involves a physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies such as endoscopy or colonoscopy, and sometimes angiography. Treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the bleeding. It may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.
Digestive System Neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the organs of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can cause a range of symptoms, depending on their location and size. Some common types of digestive system neoplasms include esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and gallbladder cancer. These neoplasms can be diagnosed through various medical tests, such as endoscopy, biopsy, imaging studies, and blood tests. Treatment for digestive system neoplasms depends on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to remove or destroy the tumor, prevent it from spreading, and improve the patient's quality of life.
Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, which is the final part of the large intestine. The colon is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from the remaining food matter in the digestive tract, and it also plays a role in the formation of feces. Colonic diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Inflammatory colonic diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Non-inflammatory colonic diseases include diverticulitis, polyps, and colon cancer. Inflammatory colonic diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Non-inflammatory colonic diseases, on the other hand, are not associated with inflammation and can have a variety of symptoms depending on the specific condition. Colonic diseases can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and barium enema. Treatment for colonic diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, dietary changes, and in some cases, surgery.
An adenoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops from glandular cells. It is a type of neoplasm, which is an abnormal growth of cells. Adenomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the colon, rectum, breast, thyroid gland, and prostate gland. In the colon and rectum, adenomas are commonly referred to as polyps. They can vary in size and shape and may or may not cause symptoms. However, some adenomas can develop into cancer if left untreated, which is why they are often removed during a colonoscopy or other screening tests. In other parts of the body, adenomas may cause symptoms depending on their location and size. For example, an adenoma in the thyroid gland may cause a goiter, while an adenoma in the prostate gland may cause difficulty urinating. Treatment for adenomas depends on their size, location, and whether they are causing symptoms. Small adenomas may not require treatment, while larger ones may be removed through surgery or other procedures. In some cases, medication may be used to shrink the adenoma or prevent it from growing back.
Rectovaginal fistula is a abnormal connection between the rectum and the vagina. This connection can be caused by a variety of factors, including surgery, infection, radiation therapy, or trauma. Symptoms of rectovaginal fistula may include discharge from the vagina, difficulty with bowel movements, and pain or discomfort in the pelvic area. Treatment options for rectovaginal fistula may include surgery, medications, or other therapies, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.
Gastrointestinal neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the lining of the digestive tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Gastrointestinal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests such as endoscopy or CT scans, and biopsy. Treatment options for gastrointestinal neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.
Polyphloretin phosphate (PPP) is a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. It is a derivative of phlorizin, which is a natural compound found in apples. PPP is a white, odorless, and tasteless powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. In the medical field, PPP is used as a diuretic, which means it helps to increase urine production and reduce fluid retention in the body. It is also used to treat high blood pressure and edema (swelling caused by excess fluid in the body). PPP is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and promoting their death. In addition to its medical uses, PPP is also used in the production of cosmetics and personal care products, such as shampoos and toothpaste, due to its ability to improve the texture and stability of these products.
Fecal incontinence is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary loss of feces or stool. It can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, including weakened pelvic floor muscles, damage to the nerves that control bowel movements, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinson's disease. Fecal incontinence can be classified into two main types: urge incontinence and stress incontinence. Urgent incontinence is characterized by the sudden and urgent need to have a bowel movement, followed by the involuntary loss of feces. Stress incontinence, on the other hand, occurs when physical activities such as coughing, sneezing, or lifting weights put pressure on the rectum and cause feces to leak out. Fecal incontinence can be a distressing and embarrassing condition that can affect a person's quality of life. Treatment options may include lifestyle changes, such as dietary modifications and exercise, as well as medical interventions such as medications, biofeedback therapy, and surgery.
In the medical field, a polyp is a growth or tumor that arises from the inner lining of a body cavity or organ. Polyps can occur in various parts of the body, including the colon, rectum, stomach, and uterus. Polyps can be either non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Benign polyps are usually small and do not cause any symptoms, but they can sometimes cause bleeding or blockage of the affected organ. Malignant polyps, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow and spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Polyps are often detected during routine medical exams, such as colonoscopies or endoscopies, and can be removed during the same procedure. In some cases, polyps may require further testing or treatment, depending on their size, type, and location.
Multiple primary neoplasms, also known as synchronous or metachronous neoplasms, are two or more neoplasms (cancerous or non-cancerous tumors) that occur in the same individual at the same time or at different times. In the medical field, multiple primary neoplasms can occur in different organs or tissues of the body, and they can be either cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). The occurrence of multiple primary neoplasms can be due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, exposure to environmental toxins, lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions such as immunosuppression. The diagnosis of multiple primary neoplasms typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy of the tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, location, and stage of the neoplasms, as well as the overall health of the individual.
Colonic polyps are small growths that develop on the inner lining of the colon. They are usually benign, meaning they are not cancerous, but in some cases, they can develop into cancer if left untreated. Colonic polyps can be classified into different types based on their size, number, and appearance. Some common types of colonic polyps include: 1. Adenomatous polyps: These are the most common type of colonic polyps and are usually caused by a genetic predisposition. They can develop into cancer if left untreated. 2. Hyperplastic polyps: These polyps are not usually cancerous and are often found in people over the age of 50. 3. Villous adenomas: These polyps are similar to adenomatous polyps but have a villous appearance, meaning they have finger-like projections. 4. Tubular adenomas: These polyps are also similar to adenomatous polyps but have a tubular appearance. Colonic polyps are usually detected during a colonoscopy, which is a procedure that involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the colon to examine the lining of the colon. If a polyp is found, it can be removed during the colonoscopy. Regular screening for colonic polyps is recommended for people over the age of 50, especially those with a family history of colon cancer or other risk factors.
Anus diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the anus, which is the opening at the end of the rectum through which solid and liquid waste is eliminated from the body. Some common examples of anus diseases include: 1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the anus or rectum that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. 2. Anal fissures: Tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain, bleeding, and difficulty passing stool. 3. Anal cancer: A rare but serious cancer that can develop in the cells lining the anus. 4. Fistulas: Abnormal connections between the anus and other organs, such as the bladder or vagina. 5. Anal abscess: A collection of pus that forms in the skin or tissue around the anus. 6. Perianal warts: Small, raised growths on the skin around the anus that are caused by a sexually transmitted infection. 7. Anal itching: A persistent or severe itching sensation around the anus that can be caused by a variety of factors, including skin conditions, infections, and allergies. These conditions can be treated with a variety of methods, including medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms related to anus diseases, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the rectum and anus. They are a common condition that affects many people at some point in their lives. Hemorrhoids can be either internal or external, and they can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, itching, bleeding, and discomfort during bowel movements. Internal hemorrhoids are located inside the rectum and are not visible from the outside. They may cause bleeding during bowel movements or discomfort when passing stool. External hemorrhoids are located under the skin around the anus and are visible. They may cause itching, pain, and discomfort, especially when sitting for long periods or during bowel movements. Hemorrhoids can be caused by a variety of factors, including straining during bowel movements, pregnancy, obesity, and chronic constipation. Treatment options for hemorrhoids include lifestyle changes, such as increasing fiber intake and staying hydrated, as well as medical treatments, such as medications, rubber band ligation, and surgery.
Radiation injuries refer to damage to living tissue caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is a type of energy that has enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, creating ions. This can cause damage to cells and tissues, leading to a range of symptoms and health problems. Radiation injuries can occur from a variety of sources, including medical procedures such as radiation therapy, nuclear accidents, and exposure to radioactive materials. The severity of radiation injuries depends on the dose of radiation received, the duration of exposure, and the type of tissue affected. Symptoms of radiation injuries can include skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and an increased risk of developing cancer. In severe cases, radiation injuries can be life-threatening and may require medical intervention, such as surgery or supportive care. Treatment for radiation injuries depends on the severity of the injury and the underlying cause. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms, wound care, and physical therapy. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair injuries.
An ulcer is a sore or open wound that forms on the surface of the skin, mucous membranes, or other tissues in the body. In the medical field, ulcers can occur in various locations, including the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, esophagus, and mouth. Stomach ulcers, also known as peptic ulcers, are the most common type of ulcer and are caused by a combination of factors, including the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and stress. Small intestine ulcers are often caused by Crohn's disease or celiac disease, while large intestine ulcers are often caused by ulcerative colitis. Esophageal ulcers, also known as Barrett's esophagus, are caused by chronic acid reflux and can increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Mouth ulcers, also known as canker sores, are usually harmless and resolve on their own within a few days to a week. Treatment for ulcers depends on the location and cause of the ulcer. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat H. pylori infection, while NSAIDs may be stopped or replaced with other medications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.
Hirschsprung disease, also known as congenital aganglionic megacolon, is a rare disorder that affects the development of the nervous system in the intestines. It occurs when the nerve cells (ganglion cells) that control the muscles in the walls of the intestines fail to develop properly, leading to a blockage of the digestive system. The disease is typically diagnosed in infancy or early childhood, and symptoms can include constipation, abdominal pain, vomiting, and failure to thrive. In severe cases, the blockage can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, and even death. Treatment for Hirschsprung disease typically involves surgery to remove the affected section of the intestine and reconnect the healthy parts. In some cases, medications or other therapies may also be used to manage symptoms.
Intestinal perforation is a medical condition in which there is a hole or tear in the wall of the intestine. This can occur due to various causes, such as trauma, infection, or underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or cancer. When the wall of the intestine perforates, the contents of the intestine can leak out into the surrounding tissue, causing an infection called peritonitis. This can be a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly. Symptoms of intestinal perforation may include severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, and a fast heart rate. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and treatment may involve surgery to repair the perforation and remove any infected tissue.
Transverse folds of rectum
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
Is the Rectum a Grave?
Rectum: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image
Senega rectum, anus, stool symptoms - ABC Homeopathy
Spongia Tosta rectum, anus, stool symptoms - ABC Homeopathy
CPT® Code 45337 - Endoscopy Procedures on the Rectum - Codify by AAPC
Ecuación de la recta en R^3 - GeoGebra
Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the colon, rectum and anus
Digestive tract with the mouth; esophagus; stomach; small intestine; large intestine; also called colon; ileum; rectum; and...
Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastrointestinal tract malignant diseases: From the oral cavity to rectum
Quick Facts: Rectum and Anus - MSD Manual Consumer Version
Surveillance of screening-detected cancers (colon and rectum, breast, and cervix) - United States, 2004-2006
rectum - Wîkîferheng
Gonococcal Infections Among Adolescents and Adults - STI Treatment Guidelines
Digital Rectal Examination Technique: Approach Considerations, Digital Examination of Rectum, Complications
Potentilla recta L. - United States, Kentucky (Accession No: 31234100606589) - Tennessee-Kentucky Plant Atlas
NET Colon and Rectum | EOD Data SEER*RSA
Cancer Facts for Men | Common Cancers in Men | American Cancer Society
Spinal Afferent Innervation of the Colon and Rectum<...
Intestinal Carcinoid Tumor: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Table 5 - Symptoms, Sites, and Significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in Men Who Have Sex with Men - Volume 25, Number 4-April...
Application of an interstitial and biodegradable balloon system for prostate-rectum separation during prostate cancer...
Semi Latus Rectum of Hyperbola Calculator | Calculate Semi Latus Rectum of Hyperbola
Prostate Cancer News and latest stories | The Jerusalem Post
GHO | Metadata | Subcause group - Codelist
Bach: The Art of Fugue | Linn Records
Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgical Approach to Total Pelvic Exenteration. | Dis Colon Rectum;66(9): e951-e957, 2023 09 01. ...
Racor de tubo y junta macho a rosca recta SAE - Eutecnet.com
CERR.BUZÓN 135M LENG.RECTA C-40 32mm | Macia Industrial Suministros Obras
- Authors report their experience in the treatment of adenomas with severe dysplasia and early cancer of the colon-rectum confirming that the endoscopic resection of these lesions is safe and curative when completely removed and no submucosal invasion is found. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Dis Colon Rectum;66(4): e169, 2023 04 01. (bvsalud.org)
- Rectum cancer tissue array, set 3, 16 cases, 48 cores, non-over lapping with REC481 and REC482, one normal paired with two tumor tissue cores from each patient with grading and TNM staging data. (delos.info)
- Drawing shows gloved and lubricated finger inserted into rectum to feel prostate. (medscape.com)
- When the intestine gets full, the stool passes into the rectum, and you feel like you need to go to the bathroom. (msdmanuals.com)
- Completamos un applet anterior, con éste, en el que podemos variar el punto de la recta en la vista gráfica. (geogebra.org)
- Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. (cancer.org)
- To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the colon and rectum in association with HIV infection. (scielo.org.za)
- Ji " https://ku.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=rectum&oldid=5127502 " hatiye standin. (wiktionary.org)
- Despite the fact that it can infect the rectum, the few studies that we have don't really show that it causes proctitis, like some other STIs can. (cdc.gov)
- Colon and rectal surgeons are experts in the surgical and non-surgical treatment of diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. (fascrs.org)
- They are well-versed in the treatment of both benign and malignant diseases of the colon, rectum and anus and are able to perform routine screening examinations and surgically treat conditions if indicated to do so. (fascrs.org)
- The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons is dedicated to ensuring high-quality patient care by advancing the science, prevention and management of disorders and diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. (fascrs.org)
- The rectum connects the colon to the anus, which is the opening where stool exits the body. (healthwise.net)
- The sphincters keep the anus closed as stool collects in the rectum. (healthwise.net)
- Feces pass through the rectum and are then excreted through the anus. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Rectal and anorectal strictures are narrowings of the rectum and anus due to the presence of scar tissue. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Rectal prolapse is a condition in which one or more layers of the rectum protrude through the anus. (merckvetmanual.com)
- A tear in the rectum or anus can be caused by a sharp object that is accidentally eaten or an accidental tear during a rectal examination. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Signs may include constipation, straining or reluctance to defecate, bleeding, and discoloration of the rectum and anus. (merckvetmanual.com)
- What are the rectum and anus? (msdmanuals.com)
- Your rectum and anus are part of your digestive tract. (msdmanuals.com)
- The rectum connects your large intestine to your anus. (msdmanuals.com)
- It is composed of the small intestine (subdivided into the jejunum and the ileum , which is 4 to 7 meters long, the colon (also named the large intestine), the rectum and the anus. (hug.ch)
Layers of the rectum2
Colon or rectum1
- Polyps are abnormal growths that start in the inner lining of the colon or rectum. (fascrs.org)
- I just captured this shot of Clematis recta 'Lime Close' in the garden. (jlbg.org)
- The rectum is the final portion of the large intestine and marks the end of the digestive tract. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Because of the potential complication of rectal stricture formation (see above), complete amputation of the rectum is generally done only in severe cases. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Colorectal polyps are commonly found during standard screening exams of the colon (large intestine) and rectum (the bottom section of your colon). (fascrs.org)
- We have noticed that a proportion of patients with MYH-associated polyposis presenting for yearly colonoscopy surveillance have rectums that are studded with small hyperplastic polyps. (nih.gov)
- The rectum is the final portion of the large intestine. (medlineplus.gov)
- doctor is concerned that this area is delicate due too soft tissue , scar tissue , not a lot of area of rectum left large mass was removed from rectum. (cancer.org)
- The rectum is usually empty, because stool is stored in the large intestine. (msdmanuals.com)
- Diagram depicting clinical difference between true (full-thickness) prolapse (left), including all layers of rectum and with circular folds seen on prolapsed intestine, and procidentia, or mucosa-only prolapse (right), in which radial folds are seen in mucosa. (medscape.com)
- Your rectum stores stool prior to a bowel movement. (nih.gov)
- Based on the theory that people's evaluations of experiences are disproportionately shaped by the end of experiences, modifying a colonoscopy by leaving the tip of the colonoscope in patients' rectums for up to an additional three minutes without moving it reduced patients' recalled pain and, at a median of 5.3 years follow-up, increased the likelihood patients agreed to have another colonoscopy if needed by 41%, controlling for medical circumstances. (wiseinterventions.org)
- A gastroenterologist can see the entire colon and rectum during a colonoscopy . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Technique for the systematic examination of colon--rectum specimens. (nih.gov)
- Most often, they grow in the left side of the colon and in the rectum. (fascrs.org)
- It begins at the level of the right iliac fossa, then is subdivided into the ascending colon (right part), the transverse colon (part under the ribs), the descending colon (left part), and then into the sigmoid colon (which is located in the left iliac fossa) which continues to the rectum. (hug.ch)
- Now the rectum is the lower end of the GI tract. (awakeningwithplanetearth.com)
- For the sake of my rectum, I would like to explain, by 'lower' I mean lower with respect to gravity and standing posture. (awakeningwithplanetearth.com)
- A sigmoidoscopy only allows them to examine the rectum and lower colon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
-  Different techniques have been developed to remove a foreign body from the rectum. (nih.gov)
- Any foreign body present in the rectum should be removed promptly  . (nih.gov)
- Most of case series of foreign body within the rectum are reported from Eastern Europe and uncommon in Asia. (alliedacademies.org)
- To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of a disposable endoscopic clip used for closure of a deeply penetrating injury to the rectum. (medscape.com)
- Aprenda los términos para la recta final. (nih.gov)
- When the intestine gets full, the stool passes into the rectum, and you feel like you need to go to the bathroom. (msdmanuals.com)
- Case report begins with a 36-year-old male presented with the history of accidental introduction of glass bottle in the rectum. (alliedacademies.org)
- As fate would have it, this happy talk is such a rare event that my rectum takes to it like a duckling to water. (awakeningwithplanetearth.com)