Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Receptors, Neurokinin-1: A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Performance-Enhancing Substances: Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Residential Treatment: A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Controlled Substances: Drugs or chemical agents whose manufacture, possession, or use are regulated by government. This may include narcotics and prescription medications.Physalaemin: An oligopeptide isolated from the skin of Physalaemus fuscumaculatus, a South American frog. It is a typical kinin, resembling SUBSTANCE P in structure and action and has been proposed as a sialagogue, antihypertensive, and vasodilator.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.United StatesReceptors, Neurokinin-2: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.Receptors, Tachykinin: Cell surface proteins that bind TACHYKININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Three classes of tachykinin receptors have been characterized, the NK-1; NK-2; and NK-3; which prefer, respectively, SUBSTANCE P; NEUROKININ A; and NEUROKININ B.Eledoisin: A peptide extracted from the posterior salivary glands of certain small octopi (Eledone spp., Mollusca), or obtained by synthesis. Its actions resemble those of SUBSTANCE P; it is a potent vasodilator and increases capillary permeability. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1364)Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Autacoids: A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.Receptors, Neurotransmitter: Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).QuinuclidinesLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neurokinin B: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Criminals: Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.PrisonersCannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Crime Victims: Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Receptors, Neurokinin-3: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin B (neurokinin beta, neuromedin K) over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. They have been found in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.National Institute on Drug Abuse (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Halfway Houses: Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Biphenyl CompoundsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Inhalant Abuse: Illicit use of chemicals and products whose vapors can be inhaled to produce a rapid mind-altering effect. Inhalants include aerosols, gases, and volatile solvents that are often inhaled repeatedly to achieve the short-lived intoxicating effect.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Homeless Youth: Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Neurogenic Inflammation: Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Group Homes: Housing for groups of patients, children, or others who need or desire emotional or physical support. They are usually established as planned, single housekeeping units in residential dwellings that provide care and supervision for small groups of residents, who, although unrelated, live together as a family.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Physician Impairment: The physician's inability to practice medicine with reasonable skill and safety to the patient due to the physician's disability. Common causes include alcohol and drug abuse, mental illness, physical disability, and senility.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Kassinin: Dodecapeptide tachykinin found in the central nervous system of the amphibian Kassina senegalensis. It is similar in structure and action to other tachykinins, but is especially effective in contracting smooth muscle tissue and stimulating the micturition reflex.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Thiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.ArkansasSuicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.KentuckyNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Therapeutic Community: Psychotherapeutic technique which emphasizes socioenvironmental and interpersonal influences in the resocialization and rehabilitation of the patient. The setting is usually a hospital unit or ward in which professional and nonprofessional staff interact with the patients.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Adolescent Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Caustics: Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Thiorphan: A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Neurotensin: A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Other substances - deliberate[edit]. Recreational use[edit]. Legal - helium, nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") ... Illegal - various gaseous, vaporised or aerosolized recreational drugs Medical use[edit]. Diagnostic[edit]. Various specialized ... Other substances - accidental[edit]. Examples of accidental inhalation includes inhalation of water (e.g. in drowning), smoke, ... food, vomitus and less common foreign substances[1] (e.g. tooth fragments, coins, batteries, small toy parts, needles). ...
Main article: Recreational drug use § Stimulants. See also: Substance abuse. Stimulants enhance the activity of the central and ... Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse. Chapter 2-How Stimulants Affect the Brain and Behavior. Substance Abuse and Mental ... Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse (1 January 1999). "Chapter 2-How Stimulants Affect the Brain and Behavior". Substance ... Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health ...
Smoking any substance will carry the same risk as smoking tobacco due to carcinogens in all smoke, and the ultimate conclusions ... A confounding factor in cannabis research is the prevalent usage of other recreational drugs, especially alcohol and nicotine. ... Between 20 and 30 percent of recreational users experience intense anxiety and/or panic attacks after smoking cannabis, however ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Irner TB (2012). "Substance exposure in utero and developmental consequences in ...
As a Schedule I drug under the federal Controlled Substances Act of 1970, cannabis (legal term marijuana) is considered to have ... As a psychoactive drug, cannabis continues to find extensive favor among recreational and medical users in the United States. ... Cannabis for industrial uses (hemp) was made illegal to grow without a permit under the Controlled Substances Act because of ... The bipartisan bill would move cannabis from Schedule I to Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act. This would allow ...
A Pilot Study of Adult Recreational Drug Use via the WWW". Substance Abuse. 19 (3): 109-121. doi:10.1080/08897079809511380. ... 500 Black and 419 Latino active substance users. A. G., Sulszberger (2011-02-11). "Hospitals Shift Smoking Bans to Smoker Ban ... "Racial differences in discrimination experiences and responses among minority substance users". Ethnicity & Disease. 13 (4): ...
Is recreational drug use normal? Journal of Substance Use, 7, 116-123. Available online at http://www.duncan-associates.com/Is- ... Chapter 18: Responsibilities of the recreational drug user. "Towards a Culture of Responsible Psychoactive Drug Use". Cato ... For illegal psychoactive drugs that are not diverted prescription controlled substances, some critics believe that illegal ... Recreational-Drug-Use-Normal.pdf Weeks MR, Dickson-Gomez J, Mosack KE, Convey M, Martinez M, Clair S (July 2006). "The Risk ...
Recreational Use[edit]. The authors of several studies of Amfepramone claim that the substance has a relatively low potential ... Allegedly, recreational users of Amfepramone in the UK refer to Amfepramone tablets as "tombstones"[citation needed]. ... It is also a Schedule IV controlled substance in Canada. In the UK Amfepramone is a class C drug [8] and as a medicine, it is a ... "TGA Approved Terminology for Medicines, Section 1 - Chemical Substances" (PDF). Therapeutic Goods Administration, Department of ...
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 71, 48-53. COUGHLIN, P; MAVOR, A (1 October 2006). "Arterial Consequences of Recreational ... It often applies to substance dependence and recreational drug use. Typically, the powdered drug is mixed with water to create ... Substances below a certain molecular weight can be absorbed through the skin and into the bloodstream when dissolved in the ... Once the water and substance are combined in the mixing vessel, heat is sometimes applied to assist the mixing. Filtering is ...
Recreational drug use in Hong Kong among young adults has been in the rise in recent decades, popularised by the introduction ... Substance use & misuse, 41(14), 1967-1990. Cohen, R.S. (1998). The Love Drug: marching to the beat of ecstasy. NY: The Haworth ... Substance use & misuse, 41(14), 1967-1990. Yuen, ECP. (2001). The common drugs of abuse in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Journal of ... Substance use & misuse, 41(14), 1967-1990. Chan Wai Leung, Chu Fung, Wong Pui Ling, Yu Kai Ming Caritas - Hong Kong. Innovative ...
Recreational users usually take the drug orally; there are a few case reports of rectal administration and one report of ... Phenibut is not a controlled substance in any country. As such, it is currently a legal intoxicant. In 2015, it was suggested ... Withdrawal symptoms may occur upon discontinuation, and, in recreational users taking high doses, have been reported to include ... Some limited information has been described on the pharmacokinetics of phenibut in recreational users taking much higher doses ...
... substance abuse groups and additional recreational therapy. Provo Canyon School's stated philosophy stresses that "youth must ... The clients receive a wide range of interventions including, recreational, individual, group and art therapy. Other specialty ... Provo Canyon School combines an academic program with individual, group, family and recreational therapy. Treatment teams for ... The school has specialized programs for substance abuse and addiction problems.[citation needed] Its Sommerset program, ...
The treaty also gave India 25 years to clamp down on recreational drugs. Towards the end of this exemption period, the Indian ... Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (India). Chapter I, Section 2.iii Jonathan P. Caulkins; Angela Hawken; Beau ... Commentary on the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 Manoj Mitta (2012-11-10). "Recreational use of marijuana: Of highs ... possession and consumption of bhang and bhang-containing substances without a license. In 2015, the first organised efforts to ...
In many areas of the world it is commonly used as a recreational drug. Clonazepam is prescribed for epilepsy and panic disorder ... CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Fisher, Gary L. (2009). Encyclopedia of substance abuse prevention, treatment, & ... In several countries, prescription and use is now severely limited due to abusive recreational use of clonazepam. ... "Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2006: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits". Substance Abuse and Mental ...
"Recreational Drug Wars: Alcohol Versus Ecstasy". www.ecstacy.org. Retrieved 27 June 2013. "November 13, 1995: Leah Betts, left ... Blackman, Shane J. (2004). Chilling Out: The Cultural Politics of Substance Consumption, Youth and Drug Policy. McGraw-Hill ... Carey, Jim (March 1997). Recreational Drug Wars: Alcohol Versus Ecstasy - referenced from the book Ecstasy Reconsidered, ... death Moral panic Recreational drug use War on drugs Overdose Responsible drug use Rachel Whitear "Deaths England and Wales ...
Gitlow, Stuart (2007). Substance Use Disorders: A Practical Guide. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-7817-6998- ... Following the success of recreational cannabis ballot initiatives in four states and the District of Columbia in 2012 and 2014 ... However, the possession of marijuana for recreational use remains illegal. Several proposals to legalize the drug have been ... "3 out of 5 in R.I. support legalized recreational marijuana, poll says - News - providencejournal.com - Providence, RI". ...
Chaplin, E.; Gilvarry, C.; Tsakanikos E. (2011). "Recreational substance use patterns in adults with intellectual disability ...
Helander, Anders; Bäckberg, Matilda (2016). "New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) - the Hydra monster of recreational drugs". ... "Identification of a new psychoactive substance in seized material: the synthetic opioid N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenethyl)piperidin-4- ...
Helander, Anders; Bäckberg, Matilda (2016). "New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) - the Hydra monster of recreational drugs". ... U-47700 was placed into Schedule 1 of South Dakota's Controlled Substance Schedule. It was signed by Governor Daugaard on ... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) (7 September 2016). "Proposed Rule: Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary ... Drug Enforcement Administration has placed U-47700 into Schedule 1 of the Controlled Substances Act, effective November 14, ...
The more potent a particular substance is, the steeper this curve will be. In quantitative situations, the Y-axis often is ... For most beneficial or recreational drugs, the desired effects are found at doses slightly greater than the threshold dose. At ... ", "hazardous" and (where relevant) beneficial levels and dosages for drugs, pollutants, foods, and other substances to which ...
Though recreational drug use was uncommon in Puerto Rico in the 1950s, it had markedly increased in the 1960s. By the following ... Estimates found that up to seventy thousand islanders were substance abusers. A number of drug cartels discovered that Puerto ... efforts over multiple decades contributing to a cycle of violence in which both the demand and supply of illegal substances ...
In Australia, Walker (1991) finds a strong link between substance abuse and crime. In general, making drugs illegal results in ... Those who favor decriminalization also point to experience in those countries which permit activities such as recreational drug ... There is clear evidence of lower levels of substance abuse and disruptive behavior. The presence of public order crimes ... For all its carcinogenic qualities, tobacco is not a prohibited substance. Similarly, the excessive consumption of alcohol can ...
Although the medical use of marijuana is permitted, smoking the substance is not legal. On 19 April 1932 Puerto Rico enacted ... In Puerto Rico, marijuana (cannabis) is legal for medical purposes but illegal for recreational purposes. Legislation to ban ...
showed that risk for MDR-TB is three times higher among recreational drug users than non-users. Shin et al.'s study ... emphasize another factor in MDR-TB prevalence in Russian prisons: alcohol and substance use. Ruddy et al. ... "Transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from an HIV-positive client in a residential substance-abuse treatment ...
"Acute toxicity associated with the recreational use of the novel dissociative psychoactive substance methoxphenidine". Clinical ... As of October 2015 MXP is a controlled substance in China. MXP is also banned in Sweden. In Canada, MT-45 and its analogues ... Anders Helander; Olof Beck; Matilda Bäckberg (June 2015). "Intoxications by the dissociative new psychoactive substances ... were made Schedule I controlled substances. Possession without legal authority can result in maximum 7 years imprisonment. ...
Certain substances (e.g. ketamine) are injected intramuscularly for recreational purposes. Possible sites for IM injection ... Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle. In medicine, it is one of several ...
JEL: Q26 - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources. JEL: Q28 - Government Policy. JEL: Q29 - Outros. JEL: Q3 - Nonrenewable ... JEL: I12 - Health Production: Nutrition, Mortality, Morbidity, Substance abuse and Addiction, Disability, and Economic Behavior ...
RE: Favorite recreational substance (19-08-2016 01:12 PM)GenesisNemesis Wrote: Does food count as a recreational substance?. It ... RE: Favorite recreational substance As one who has never dabbled in "recreational" substances this thread has been rather ... Favorite recreational substance (19-08-2016 11:07 AM)ohio_drg Wrote: As one who has never dabbled in "recreational" substances ... Favorite recreational substance (19-08-2016 11:07 AM)ohio_drg Wrote: As one who has never dabbled in "recreational" substances ...
health harms of drug use hepatitis HIV new psychoactive substances (NPS) nightlife/recreational settings prevention ... New psychoactive substances, drug injecting and sex in recreational settings - increased risk of HIV and HCV and opportunities ... This editorial examines drug injecting and sexual activity in recreational settings, the increased risk of HIV and HCV ...
Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Review. MeSH terms. *Adolescent. *Adult ... However, the increasing recreational use of N2O may result in vitamin B12 deficiency-related neurologic and psychiatric ... Recreational nitrous oxide abuse related subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in adolescents - A case series and ...
Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... In order to lead to significant changes in HRV among recreational endurance runners, it seems that moderate- and high-intensity ... This study showed that recreational endurance runners with a high HRV at baseline improved their endurance running performance ... Heart rate variability in prediction of individual adaptation to endurance training in recreational endurance runners.. ...
Other substances - deliberate[edit]. Recreational use[edit]. Legal - helium, nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") ... Illegal - various gaseous, vaporised or aerosolized recreational drugs Medical use[edit]. Diagnostic[edit]. Various specialized ... Other substances - accidental[edit]. Examples of accidental inhalation includes inhalation of water (e.g. in drowning), smoke, ... food, vomitus and less common foreign substances[1] (e.g. tooth fragments, coins, batteries, small toy parts, needles). ...
Main article: Recreational drug use § Stimulants. See also: Substance abuse. Stimulants enhance the activity of the central and ... Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse. Chapter 2-How Stimulants Affect the Brain and Behavior. Substance Abuse and Mental ... Treatment, Center for Substance Abuse (1 January 1999). "Chapter 2-How Stimulants Affect the Brain and Behavior". Substance ... Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health ...
Sexual minorities more likely to suffer severe substance use disorders. Researchers know that lesbian, gay and bisexual ... Chemsex and recreational drug use resources * Interactions between HIV treatment and recreational drugs. A drug interaction can ... Chemsex and recreational drug use: latest news. * Decline in chemsex over time in three English clinics 09 May 2019 ... Chemsex and recreational drug use features * Crystal meth and London gay men - examining the evidence. Last month the medical ...
Be a current, recreational, nondependent, polydrug user defined as nonmedical use with at least 2 types of perception-altering ... Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Ketamine. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. ... Recreational Drug Users. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and ... Participation in treatment for substance-related disorders within 3 years prior to Screening ...
A. Controlled substance means a controlled substance in schedules I through V of section 202 of the Controlled Substance Act ( ... Social/Recreational Alternatives. The University offers a well-populated social activities calendar working with over 70 clubs ... Substance Abuse Taskforce. The Substance Abuse Taskforce has functioned for many years on campus serving in an advisory ... POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE. Alcohol Use/Abuse and Associated Health Risks. Consequences of drinking too much: Alcohol ...
Detox Recreational Drugs are not Completely Safe Impact of Drug Abuse on Health and Society Christianson Syndrome Substance ... Substance Abuse Disorder. Substance abuse disorder is a dependency on substances that are hazardous when consumed in large ... Recreational Drugs are not Completely Safe. Recreational drugs are commonly used in rave parties. Serotonin syndrome can occur ... For the parents and others who care for these kids, Fettes said its important to be aware of the increased risk of substance ...
Drug Toxicity Drug Detox Recreational Drugs are not Completely Safe Impact of Drug Abuse on Health and Society Substance Abuse ... Substance Abuse Disorder. Substance abuse disorder is a dependency on substances that are hazardous when consumed in large ... Recreational Drugs are not Completely Safe. Recreational drugs are commonly used in rave parties. Serotonin syndrome can occur ... The use of Drugs for reasons other than its prescribed recommendation, is known as Drug abuse or substance abuse. Drug abuse or ...
... taking a substance for the sole purpose of getting high). ... Recreational drugs are mind-altering chemical substances that ... Recreational drugs fall into 3 main categories Recreational drugs are mind-altering chemical substances that are used for non- ... How are recreational drugs administered?. There are a number of ways in which these substances can be taken:. *Orally, as a ... What types of recreational drugs are there?. There are many types of recreational drugs. Some people are often surprised to ...
Water Safety (Recreational). * Water Safety (American Red Cross) Weight Control. * Calculate Your Body Mass Index (National ...
Even in states where marijuana has been legalized for recreational use by adults,¶ it might be difficult to determine whether a ... Substance used. No./Total no. (%). All cases (N = 2,602). Any THC. (N = 1,620). Exclusive THC§. (N = 665). Any nicotine. (N = ... E-cigarette, or vaping, substances reported††. Any THC. 1,620/1,620 (100). 665/665 (100). 811/1,128 (72). N/A. 1,620/1,979 (82) ... First, data on substances used and product sources were reported by patients or their proxies and might be subject to recall or ...
... and has uncovered some revealing new facts about the motivations of recreational drug users. ... Large declines seen in teen substance abuse, delinquency. October 25, 2017 More than a decade of data indicates teens have ... "We found recreational users viewed themselves as different from people who are habitual users. The recreational drug users used ... Study finds recreational drug users not what we think. December 7, 2017 A James Cook University researcher has been ...
Purchase Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 2 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128002124 ... Challenges in the Investigation of Human Recreational Ecstasy Users. *Neuropsychological Findings in Recreational Ecstasy Users ... Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 2 1st Edition. Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, ... Offers a modern approach to understanding the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence-based ethos for ...
The Other Side of Legalizing Recreational Marijuana. While marijuana legalization for recreational use is just gaining ... According to some, legalizing marijuana will just increase substance abuse. Some groups are concerned that legalizing marijuana ...
Policy on Recreational Marijuana. Although the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has legalized recreational use of marijuana by ... "prohibited substances"). WPI prohibits persons from permitting the use of prohibited substances in a campus residence or ... Students under the age of 21 may not be under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance. Regardless of age, no ... WPI also prohibits the use, possession, sale, distribution, or manufacture of other substances, even though they may not be ...
... after recreational marijuana use was legalized in those states. ... Marijuana is still an illegal controlled substance under ... Retail sales of recreational marijuana in the U.S. hit $1.8 billion in 2016, led by Colorado and Washington, and are expected ... Estimated effects of recreational marijuana sales in 3 states. Change in claim frequency for vehicles up to 33 years old, 2012- ... Recreational marijuana and collision claim frequencies HLDI bulletin. Prevalence of marijuana involvement in fatal crashes: ...
Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling. *Surgical Technology/Technologist. *Therapeutic Recreation/Recreational Therapy. * ...
Therapeutic Recreation/Recreational Therapy. *Traditional Chinese Medicine And Chinese Herbology. *Turf And Turfgrass ... Substance Abuse/Addiction Counseling. *Surgical Technology/Technologist. *Taxidermy/Taxidermist. * ...
... substance abuse and mental health programs; educational and career programs; recreational programs; community services programs ... including substance abuse treatment services, mental health services, developmental services, literacy services, medical ... "Substance abuse" means using, without medical reason, any psychoactive or mood-altering drug, including alcohol, in such a ... information to be used in determining a childs need for further evaluation or assessment or for referral for other substance ...
Eiji is going to a dance party and is considering taking MDMA, an illegal mood-altering substance. Using MDMA in this way is ... Eric is going to a dance party and is considering taking Ecstasy, an illegal mood-altering substance. Using Ecstasy in this way ... Kumi is going out and is considering taking Speed, an illegal mood-altering substance. Using Speed in this way is morally wrong ... Claudia is going out and is considering taking Speed, an illegal mood-altering substance. Using Speed in this way is morally ...
Not every illicit substance user is an addict in need of "recovery." Many are recreational users. In fact, many who begin ... recreational use of illicit drugs after the age of 25 are not addicted, and the majority of illicit drug addicts recover ...
  • Although the Commonwealth of Massachusetts has legalized recreational use of marijuana by people at or over the age of 21, WPI must abide by federal laws, including the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act, in order to remain eligible for federal funding, including funding for student financial aid. (wpi.edu)
  • Recent developments with respect to medical marijuana laws at the state level raise new questions for employers on top of existing issues surrounding drug testing and substance abuse management in the workplace. (jacksonlewis.com)
  • Collision claim rates have increased 3 percent in Colorado, Oregon and Washington, after recreational marijuana use was legalized in those states. (iihs.org)
  • Legalizing recreational marijuana use in Colorado, Oregon and Washington has resulted in collision claim frequencies that are about 3 percent higher overall than would have been expected without legalization, a new Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) analysis shows. (iihs.org)
  • Colorado and Washington were the first to legalize recreational marijuana for adults 21 and older with voter approval in November 2012. (iihs.org)
  • Oregon voters approved legalized recreational marijuana in November 2014, and sales started in October 2015. (iihs.org)
  • HLDI also looked at loss results for each state individually compared with loss results for adjacent states without legalized recreational marijuana use prior to November 2016. (iihs.org)
  • The combined-state analysis shows that the first three states to legalize recreational marijuana have experienced more crashes," says Matt Moore, senior vice president of HLDI. (iihs.org)
  • Each of the individual state analyses also showed that the estimated effect of legalizing recreational use of marijuana varies depending on the comparison state examined. (iihs.org)
  • As HLDI continues to examine insurance claims in states that allow recreational use of marijuana, IIHS has begun a large-scale case-control study in Oregon to assess how legalized marijuana use may be changing the risk of crashes with injuries. (iihs.org)
  • Ingesting other substances, such as marijuana or cocaine, along with MDMA greatly increases the danger of adverse reactions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures: (1) gray matter density using voxel-based morphometry, (2) volume (total brain and regional volumes), and (3) shape (surface morphometry). (jneurosci.org)
  • These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization. (jneurosci.org)
  • The four most common substances that are consistently abused among college students are alcohol, Adderall, marijuana, and ecstasy. (scholarships.com)
  • The recent legalization of recreational marijuana (cannabis) use in California, Colorado, and Washington reflect the sweeping changes in the attitudes and perceptions towards marijuana use in the United States. (eurekalert.org)
  • Eight states have voted in favor of legal recreational marijuana and 26 states in total allow medicinal marijuana. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results, however, give the researchers reason to believe the population may be at a particularly high risk for adverse health outcomes, as the concurrent use of multiple substances (marijuana, prescribed prescription drug, and even self-prescribed illicit drugs) all used in combination may make older adults further vulnerable to poor physical and mental health outcomes and certainly can impact their care. (eurekalert.org)
  • Multiple substance use commonly begins with alcohol or tobacco use, then progresses in some individuals to heavy drinking and marijuana use, followed by other hard drugs [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Back in the bad old days when it was illegal throughout the country, marijuana varied widely in quality and was often "cut" with other substances that made it less effective and even, in some cases, harmful. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • As a Schedule I drug under the federal Controlled Substances Act of 1970, cannabis (legal term marijuana) is considered to have "no accepted medical use" and have a high potential for abuse and physical or psychological dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under federal law, it is illegal to possess, use, buy, sell, or cultivate marijuana in all United States jurisdictions, since the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 classifies marijuana as a Schedule I drug, claiming it has a high potential for abuse and has no acceptable medical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hallucinogenic activity of the serotoninergic receptors has been noticed since perceptual alterations induced by the consumption of some recreational drugs, such as LSD and ecstasy, were observed. (springer.com)
  • Eric is going to a dance party and is considering taking Ecstasy, an illegal mood-altering substance. (springer.com)
  • The substance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA [ie, ecstasy, XTC, Adam, E, X, clarity, Stacy, Molly]) is an amphetamine derivative that has gained significant popularity in recent years and has become the recreational drug of choice for many adolescents and young adults. (medscape.com)
  • Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume 2: Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants and International Aspects is the second of three volumes in this informative series and offers a comprehensive examination of the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse. (elsevier.com)
  • As such, 19Up enables detailed investigation of genetic and environmental pathways to mental illness and substance misuse within the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Sample (BLTS). (bmj.com)
  • Inhalants - also known as "huffing," are a group of substances including vapor-releasing solvents that produce levels of intoxication when inhaled. (deltamedcenter.com)
  • Examples of accidental inhalation includes inhalation of water (e.g. in drowning), smoke, food, vomitus and less common foreign substances (e.g. tooth fragments, coins, batteries, small toy parts, needles). (wikipedia.org)
  • An event is a release of any hazardous substance except petroleum in an amount that needs to be removed, cleaned up, or neutralized according to federal, state, or local law. (cdc.gov)
  • Is the industry listed in Question 13 the same as the industry (or entity) that caused the hazardous substance(s) release? (cdc.gov)
  • Larry Erickson, professor of chemical engineering and director of the Center for Hazardous Substance Research, and Gary Brase, professor of psychological sciences, have published "Solar Powered Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles. (ksu.edu)
  • In order to lead to significant changes in HRV among recreational endurance runners, it seems that moderate- and high-intensity training are needed. (nih.gov)
  • This editorial examines drug injecting and sexual activity in recreational settings, the increased risk of HIV and HCV transmission and the opportunities for prevention and treatment. (europa.eu)
  • This is a single-center, single-dose, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled (participants are randomly assigned to a test treatment or to an identical-appearing treatment that does not contain the test drug), randomized (study medication assigned to participants by chance), crossover study in up to 120 men and women self-identifying as current, recreational, nondependent polydrug users. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Clinicians need to be alert to the possibility of such interactions, which can result in diminished efficacy of substance use treatment (e.g., methadone) or ARV treatment, medication toxicity, or both. (hivguidelines.org)
  • such as what is causing the substance abuse, what are the potential treatment programs and methodologies, and what is the success rate for each program. (visitingangels.com)
  • There are numerous professionals who can assist with treatment options for an elder substance abuser, but the first step is to visit the elder's internist or family doctor. (visitingangels.com)
  • You can take part in inpatient or outpatient treatment programs for substance abuse. (ahealthyme.com)
  • and co-chair of the Task Force for Undergraduate Medical Education, Association for Medical Education and Research ing Substance Abuse. (wiley.com)
  • Substance abuse is the medical term used to describe a pattern of using a substance (drug) that causes significant problems or distress. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Given the unprecedented aging of the U.S. population, we are facing a never before seen cohort of older adults who use recreational drugs," says Benjamin Han, MD, MPH, a geriatrician and health services researcher at the Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR) and in the Division of Geriatric Medicine and Palliative Care at NYU Langone Medical Center (NYULMC). (eurekalert.org)