Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Surgery performed on the female genitalia.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.
Surgery performed on the pregnant woman for conditions associated with pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. It does not include surgery of the newborn infant.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Surgery necessary for a denture to rest on a firm base, free from marked osseous protuberances or undercuts, and devoid of interfering muscle attachments, excess mucoperiosteum, hyperplasias, and fibrous or papillary growths.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
The period following a surgical operation.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The use of HIGH-ENERGY SHOCK WAVES, in the frequency range of 20-60 kHz, to cut through or remove tissue. The tissue fragmentation by ultrasonic surgical instruments is caused by mechanical effects not heat as with HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION.
Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Surgery performed on the lung.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
The period during a surgical operation.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.
The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Pain during the period after surgery.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.
Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Excision of the uterus.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Surgery performed to repair or correct the skeletal anomalies of the jaw and its associated dental and facial structures (e.g. CLEFT PALATE).
Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.

Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparison of outside-in and all-inside techniques. (1/1491)

The aim of this prospective study was to compare two arthroscopic techniques for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament, the "outside-in" (two incisions) and the "all-inside" (one incision) techniques. The results obtained for 30 patients operated on using the "outside-in" technique (group I) were compared with those for 29 patients operated on using the "all-inside" technique (group II). Before surgery, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, patellofemoral pain score, or knee laxity. Both groups displayed significant improvements in Lysholm score after 24 months, from 69 (16) to 91 (9) in group I and from 70 (17) to 90 (15) in group II (means (SD)). There were also significant improvements in patellofemoral pain scores in both groups, from 13 (6) to 18 (5) in group I and from 14 (6) to 18 (4) in group II after 24 months. No difference was found between the groups in knee stability at the 24 month follow up. The IKDC score was identical in both groups at follow up. The operation took significantly longer for patients in group I (mean 94 (15)) than for those in group II (mean 86 (20)) (p = 0.03). The mean sick leave was 7.7 (6.2) weeks in group I and 12.3 (9.7) weeks in group II (p = 0.026), indicating that there may be a higher morbidity associated with the "all-inside" technique. It can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the two different techniques in terms of functional results, knee laxity, or postoperative complications. The results were satisfactory and the outcome was similar in both treatment groups.  (+info)

Soft tissue cover for the exposed knee prosthesis. (2/1491)

This study assess the use of muscle flaps to cover exposed knee prostheses and emphasises the need for early plastic surgery consultation. In five of the six patients studied the wound was successfully covered and the knee prosthesis salvaged with a reasonable functional outcome.  (+info)

Permanent implantation of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene is safe for pelvic surgery. United States Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Reproductive Surgery Study Group. (3/1491)

Clinical trials have shown the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane to be a highly effective adhesion barrier in gynaecological reconstructive surgery, but the material has not gained wide acceptance because of uncertainty about long-term safety. We conducted a prospective, observational multicentre study to determine if permanent implantation of the ePTFE membrane in the pelvis caused any adverse effects. The subjects were 146 women in whom the membrane was implanted permanently during peritoneal reconstruction in 1991-1996. Postoperatively, patients were examined at regular intervals. The mean postoperative observation time was 3.5 years. No long-term complications occurred. There were 10 births by Caesarean section and 12 by vaginal delivery. All of the pregnancies before these 22 births were uneventful, including 10 in which the women had uterine implantation sites. There were two ectopic pregnancies and three spontaneous abortions. Since the primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term safety of ePTFE, early second-look laparoscopy was not performed routinely. Nevertheless, 24 women had a subsequent operation. Adhesions were present at 8/21 of the membrane sites in these women, a significant decrease compared with adhesions at 17/21 sites during the initial procedure (P = 0.005). This large, multicentre study confirmed the long-term safety of the ePTFE membrane in pelvic reconstruction. Removal of the barrier is not necessary.  (+info)

Laparoscopically assisted full thickness skin graft for reconstruction in congenital agenesis of vagina and uterine cervix. (4/1491)

In patients with agenesis of the vagina and cervix but with a functional endometrium, the traditional treatment is hysterectomy with construction of a neovagina. We report successful treatment by laparoscopically assisted full thickness skin graft for reconstruction in a patient with congenital agenesis of the vagina and uterine cervix concomitant with haematometra and ovarian endometrioma in a 12 year old girl. Postoperatively, the vaginal skin graft healed well, and menstruation first appeared 4 weeks later. In our opinion, a combined laparoscopic and vaginal procedure with full thickness skin graft is an efficacious alternative in managing such genital defects.  (+info)

Multi-bracket appliance in management of mandibular reconstruction with vascularized bone graft. (5/1491)

BACKGROUND: The most commonly used tool for maxillo-mandibular fixation to the patient who underwent reconstruction using a vascularized bone graft after mandibular resection is a dental arch-bar. However, the occlusal relationship achieved by this method is not ideal. Different from the dental arch-bar, the multi-bracket appliance which is frequently used in orthodontic treatment can control the position of each individual tooth three dimensionally. Thus, this appliance was applied for maxillo-mandibular fixation to patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction using a vascularized bone graft. METHODS: A multi-bracket appliance was applied to three patients. Prior to the surgery, standard edgewise brackets were bonded to the teeth in the maxilla and in the remaining mandible. After mandibular resection, wires for maxillo-mandibular fixation were applied. The harvested bone was then carefully fixed with miniplates to maintain the occlusion. The multi-bracket appliance was worn for 3 months when the wound contraction became mild. RESULTS: All three cases demonstrated stable and good occlusion. They also demonstrated satisfactory post-surgical facial appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional dental arch-bars, a multi-bracket appliance offers improved management of mandibular reconstruction. Firstly, its properties are helpful in maintaining occlusion of the remaining dentition accurately in bone grafting procedure as well as protecting against postsurgical wound contraction. Secondly, the multi-bracket appliance keeps the oral cavity clean without periodontal injury. As a result, stable occlusion of the residual teeth and good facial appearance were obtained.  (+info)

Cervical vertebral and subclavian artery reconstructions. (6/1491)

At our institution, endovascular treatment of subclavian artery (SA) or vertebral artery (VA) occlusive disease has been used as the treatment of first choice during the last years. Open procedures were performed only in cases of failed or unfeasible endovascular treatment or total occlusion of the proximal VA or SA, respectively. Nineteen open procedures were performed between 1992 and 1996. Proximal reconstructions included SA to common carotid artery (CCA) transpositions or bypasses and VA to CCA transpositions. Distal reconstructions included transposition techniques or direct reconstruction in a few cases of traumatic lesions. The operative procedure used two-channel transcranial Doppler monitoring for cases involving simultaneous CCA and SA or VA cross clamping. There was one technical failure of a distal VA reconstruction. No surgical complications occurred. The recent pertinent literature with regard to indications and techniques of SA and VA reconstructions is discussed.  (+info)

New concepts and advances of immobilization of long bones. (7/1491)

OBJECTIVE: To present some new concepts in the treatment of fractures and bone defects of long bones with internal fixation. METHODS: Animal experiments, mechanical tests and clinical analyses were done. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of fracture should be perfect, bone defect can be reconstructed by intramedullary and extramedullary bone graft. Relatively rigid fixation at the early stage and elastic fixation at the later stage are beneficial not only for fracture healing, but also for bone remodeling. In order to avoid complications including non-union, immobilization syndrome of the bone and joint, and implant failure, radiographs should be taken periodically; if there is any bone resorption, weight-bearing should be restricted.  (+info)

A large maxillofacial prosthesis for total mandibular defect: a case report. (8/1491)

We successfully fabricated a large maxillofacial prosthesis for replacement of a total mandibular defect resulting from surgical failure to reconstruct the mandible. Although a number of reports have described procedures for fabricating midfacial prostheses, there is little information on prostheses to compensate for total loss of the mandible. A 54-year-old woman was referred to the Dentistry and Oral Surgery Division of the National Cancer Center Hospital with total loss of the mandible and the surrounding facial soft tissue. The facial prosthesis we used to treat this patient is unique in that it is adequately retained without the use of extraoral implants and conventional adhesives. This prosthesis is retained by the bilateral auricles and the remaining upper front teeth. We present details of the design of this large silicone maxillofacial prosthesis, with which we successfully rehabilitated the patient.  (+info)

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Operative surgical procedures refer to medical interventions that involve manual manipulation of tissues, structures, or organs in the body, typically performed in an operating room setting under sterile conditions. These procedures are carried out with the use of specialized instruments, such as scalpels, forceps, and scissors, and may require regional or general anesthesia to ensure patient comfort and safety.

Operative surgical procedures can range from relatively minor interventions, such as a biopsy or the removal of a small lesion, to more complex and extensive surgeries, such as open heart surgery or total joint replacement. The specific goals of operative surgical procedures may include the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions, the repair or reconstruction of damaged tissues or organs, or the prevention of further disease progression.

Regardless of the type or complexity of the procedure, all operative surgical procedures require careful planning, execution, and postoperative management to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients.

Minor surgical procedures are defined as surgical interventions that are relatively simple, performed using local anesthesia or conscious sedation, and have minimal impact on the patient's overall health. These procedures typically involve a small incision, excision, or removal of tissue, and may be performed in a variety of settings, including physician offices, clinics, or ambulatory surgery centers. Examples of minor surgical procedures include:

1. Excision of skin lesions (e.g., moles, cysts, lipomas)
2. Incision and drainage of abscesses
3. Removal of foreign bodies from the skin or soft tissues
4. Repair of simple lacerations or wounds
5. Insertion of ear tubes for recurrent otitis media (ear infections)
6. Biopsy of superficial tissue or organs
7. Cauterization of bleeding vessels
8. Cryotherapy for the removal of warts or other benign growths
9. Injection of therapeutic agents into joints or soft tissues
10. Placement of peripheral intravenous catheters or central lines in certain cases.

While these procedures are considered minor, they still require careful planning, sterile technique, and postoperative care to minimize complications and ensure optimal outcomes for patients.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Ambulatory surgical procedures, also known as outpatient or same-day surgery, refer to medical operations that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These procedures are typically performed in a specialized ambulatory surgery center (ASC) or in a hospital-based outpatient department. Patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures receive anesthesia, undergo the operation, and recover enough to be discharged home on the same day of the procedure.

Examples of common ambulatory surgical procedures include:

1. Arthroscopy (joint scope examination and repair)
2. Cataract surgery
3. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy
4. Dental surgery, such as wisdom tooth extraction
5. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
6. Hernia repair
7. Hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus)
8. Minor skin procedures, like biopsies and lesion removals
9. Orthopedic procedures, such as carpal tunnel release or joint injections
10. Pain management procedures, including epidural steroid injections and nerve blocks
11. Podiatric (foot and ankle) surgery
12. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

Advancements in medical technology, minimally invasive surgical techniques, and improved anesthesia methods have contributed to the growth of ambulatory surgical procedures, offering patients a more convenient and cost-effective alternative to traditional inpatient surgeries.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Oral surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed in the oral cavity and maxillofacial region, which includes the mouth, jaws, face, and skull. These procedures are typically performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons, who are dental specialists with extensive training in surgical procedures involving the mouth, jaws, and face.

Some common examples of oral surgical procedures include:

1. Tooth extractions: This involves removing a tooth that is damaged beyond repair or causing problems for the surrounding teeth. Wisdom tooth removal is a common type of tooth extraction.
2. Dental implant placement: This procedure involves placing a small titanium post in the jawbone to serve as a replacement root for a missing tooth. A dental crown is then attached to the implant, creating a natural-looking and functional replacement tooth.
3. Jaw surgery: Also known as orthognathic surgery, this procedure involves repositioning the jaws to correct bite problems or facial asymmetry.
4. Biopsy: This procedure involves removing a small sample of tissue from the oral cavity for laboratory analysis, often to diagnose suspicious lesions or growths.
5. Lesion removal: This procedure involves removing benign or malignant growths from the oral cavity, such as tumors or cysts.
6. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery: This procedure involves treating disorders of the TMJ, which connects the jawbone to the skull and allows for movement when eating, speaking, and yawning.
7. Facial reconstruction: This procedure involves rebuilding or reshaping the facial bones after trauma, cancer surgery, or other conditions that affect the face.

Overall, oral surgical procedures are an important part of dental and medical care, helping to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions affecting the mouth, jaws, and face.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

Gynecologic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the female reproductive system and related organs. These surgeries can be either minimally invasive or open procedures, depending on the condition and the patient's health status.

The indications for gynecologic surgical procedures may include but are not limited to:

1. Diagnosis and treatment of various benign and malignant conditions such as uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and cancers of the reproductive organs.
2. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility.
3. Treatment of ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages.
4. Pelvic organ prolapse repair.
5. Sterilization procedures such as tubal ligation.
6. Investigation and treatment of suspicious lesions or abnormal Pap smears.

Some common gynecologic surgical procedures include hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), oophorectomy (removal of the ovary), salpingectomy (removal of the fallopian tube), cystectomy (removal of a cyst), myomectomy (removal of fibroids while preserving the uterus), and endometrial ablation (destruction of the lining of the uterus).

Minimally invasive surgical techniques such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy have gained popularity in recent years due to their advantages over traditional open surgeries, including smaller incisions, less postoperative pain, quicker recovery times, and reduced risk of complications.

The digestive system is a series of organs that work together to convert food into nutrients and energy. Digestive system surgical procedures involve operations on any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These procedures can be performed for a variety of reasons, such as to treat diseases, repair damage, or remove cancerous growths.

Some common digestive system surgical procedures include:

1. Gastric bypass surgery: A procedure in which the stomach is divided into two parts and the smaller part is connected directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper small intestine. This procedure is used to treat severe obesity.
2. Colonoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine the lining for polyps, cancer, or other abnormalities.
3. Colectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the colon is removed, often due to cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis.
4. Gastrostomy: A procedure in which a hole is made through the abdominal wall and into the stomach to create an opening for feeding. This is often done for patients who have difficulty swallowing.
5. Esophagectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the esophagus is removed, often due to cancer. The remaining esophagus is then reconnected to the stomach or small intestine.
6. Liver resection: A procedure in which a portion of the liver is removed, often due to cancer or other diseases.
7. Pancreatectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed, often due to cancer or chronic pancreatitis.
8. Cholecystectomy: A procedure in which the gallbladder is removed, often due to gallstones or inflammation.

These are just a few examples of digestive system surgical procedures. There are many other types of operations that can be performed on the digestive system depending on the specific needs and condition of each patient.

Otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures are surgeries that are performed on the head and neck region, specifically involving the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) regions. This field is also known as otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. The procedures can range from relatively minor ones, such as removing a small nasal polyp or inserting ear tubes, to more complex surgeries like cochlear implantation, endoscopic sinus surgery, or removal of tumors in the head and neck region. These surgical procedures are typically performed by specialized physicians called otorhinolaryngologists (also known as ENT surgeons) who have completed extensive training in this area.

Urologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries that are performed on the urinary system and male reproductive system. These surgeries can be invasive (requiring an incision) or minimally invasive (using small incisions or scopes). They may be performed to treat a range of conditions, including but not limited to:

1. Kidney stones: Procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are used to remove or break up kidney stones.
2. Urinary tract obstructions: Surgeries like pyeloplasty and urethral dilation can be done to correct blockages in the urinary tract.
3. Prostate gland issues: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are some procedures used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer.
4. Bladder problems: Procedures such as cystectomy (removal of the bladder), bladder augmentation, and implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter can be done for conditions like bladder cancer or incontinence.
5. Kidney diseases: Nephrectomy (removal of a kidney) may be necessary for severe kidney damage or cancer.
6. Testicular issues: Orchiectomy (removal of one or both testicles) can be performed for testicular cancer.
7. Pelvic organ prolapse: Surgeries like sacrocolpopexy and vaginal vault suspension can help correct this condition in women.

These are just a few examples; there are many other urologic surgical procedures available to treat various conditions affecting the urinary and reproductive systems.

Obstetric surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the female reproductive system during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or after childbirth to address various medical conditions and complications. Some common obstetric surgical procedures include:

1. Cesarean section (C-section): A surgical delivery of a baby through incisions in the abdomen and uterus.
2. Induction of labor: The use of medication or other methods to stimulate labor.
3. Dilation and curettage (D&C): A procedure to remove tissue from the uterus using a thin, sharp instrument called a curette.
4. Hysterectomy: The surgical removal of the uterus.
5. Myomectomy: The surgical removal of fibroids, which are noncancerous growths in the muscular wall of the uterus.
6. Ovarian cystectomy: The surgical removal of a cyst from the ovary.
7. Tubal ligation: A permanent form of birth control in which the fallopian tubes are tied, cut, or sealed to prevent pregnancy.
8. Ectopic pregnancy surgery: Removal of an ectopic pregnancy, which is a pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube.

These procedures may be necessary to save the life of the mother or baby, to treat medical conditions, or to prevent future complications. They should only be performed by trained medical professionals in a hospital setting.

Ophthalmologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed on the eye and its surrounding structures by trained medical professionals called ophthalmologists. These procedures aim to correct or improve vision, diagnose and treat eye diseases or injuries, and enhance the overall health and functionality of the eye. Some common examples of ophthalmologic surgical procedures include:

1. Cataract Surgery: This procedure involves removing a cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).
2. LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis): A type of refractive surgery that uses a laser to reshape the cornea, correcting nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.
3. Glaucoma Surgery: Several surgical options are available for treating glaucoma, including laser trabeculoplasty, traditional trabeculectomy, and various drainage device implantations. These procedures aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and prevent further optic nerve damage.
4. Corneal Transplant: This procedure involves replacing a damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy donor cornea to restore vision and improve the eye's appearance.
5. Vitreoretinal Surgery: These procedures focus on treating issues within the vitreous humor (gel-like substance filling the eye) and the retina, such as retinal detachment, macular holes, or diabetic retinopathy.
6. Strabismus Surgery: This procedure aims to correct misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) by adjusting the muscles responsible for eye movement.
7. Oculoplastic Surgery: These procedures involve reconstructive, cosmetic, and functional surgeries around the eye, such as eyelid repair, removal of tumors, or orbital fracture repairs.
8. Pediatric Ophthalmologic Procedures: Various surgical interventions are performed on children to treat conditions like congenital cataracts, amblyopia (lazy eye), or blocked tear ducts.

These are just a few examples of ophthalmic surgical procedures. The specific treatment plan will depend on the individual's condition and overall health.

Thoracic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the thorax, which is the part of the body that lies between the neck and the abdomen and includes the chest cage, lungs, heart, great blood vessels, esophagus, diaphragm, and other organs in the chest cavity. These surgical procedures can be either open or minimally invasive (using small incisions and specialized instruments) and are performed to diagnose, treat, or manage various medical conditions affecting the thoracic organs, such as:

1. Lung cancer: Thoracic surgeons perform lung resections (lobectomy, segmentectomy, wedge resection) to remove cancerous lung tissue. They may also perform mediastinal lymph node dissection to assess the spread of the disease.
2. Esophageal surgery: Surgeries like esophagectomy are performed to treat esophageal cancer or other conditions affecting the esophagus, such as severe GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
3. Chest wall surgery: This includes procedures to repair or replace damaged ribs, sternum, or chest wall muscles and treat conditions like pectus excavatum or tumors in the chest wall.
4. Heart surgery: Thoracic surgeons collaborate with cardiac surgeons to perform surgeries on the heart, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve repair/replacement, and procedures for treating aneurysms or dissections of the aorta.
5. Diaphragm surgery: Procedures like diaphragm plication are performed to treat paralysis or weakness of the diaphragm that can lead to respiratory insufficiency.
6. Mediastinal surgery: This involves operating on the mediastinum, the area between the lungs, to remove tumors, cysts, or other abnormal growths.
7. Pleural surgery: Procedures like pleurodesis or decortication are performed to manage conditions affecting the pleura (the membrane surrounding the lungs), such as pleural effusions, pneumothorax, or empyema.
8. Lung surgery: Thoracic surgeons perform procedures on the lungs, including lobectomy, segmentectomy, or pneumonectomy to treat lung cancer, benign tumors, or other lung diseases.
9. Tracheal surgery: This includes procedures to repair or reconstruct damaged trachea or remove tumors and growths in the airway.
10. Esophageal surgery: Collaborating with general surgeons, thoracic surgeons perform esophagectomy and other procedures to treat esophageal cancer, benign tumors, or other conditions affecting the esophagus.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cardiovascular surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the heart and blood vessels to treat or manage various cardiovascular conditions. These surgeries can be open or minimally invasive, and they aim to correct structural abnormalities, improve blood flow, or replace damaged or diseased parts of the cardiovascular system.

Some common types of cardiovascular surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This surgery involves taking a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and using it to create a detour around a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. Heart valve repair or replacement: When one or more heart valves become damaged or diseased, they may not open or close properly, leading to reduced blood flow or leakage of blood backward through the valve. In these cases, surgeons may repair or replace the affected valve with a mechanical or biological prosthetic valve.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge and potentially rupture, causing severe bleeding. Surgeons can repair an aneurysm by reinforcing the weakened area with a graft or by replacing the affected section of the blood vessel.
4. Heart transplant: In cases where heart failure is irreversible and all other treatment options have been exhausted, a heart transplant may be necessary. This procedure involves removing the damaged heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Ventricular assist devices (VADs): These are mechanical pumps that can be implanted to help support heart function in patients with advanced heart failure who are not candidates for heart transplants. VADs can help improve blood flow, reduce symptoms, and increase the patient's quality of life.
6. Minimally invasive procedures: Advances in technology have led to the development of several minimally invasive cardiovascular surgical procedures, such as robotic-assisted heart surgery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). These techniques typically involve smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and faster recovery times compared to traditional open-heart surgeries.

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on the abdominal organs, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. General surgeons may also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. They employ a wide range of surgical procedures, using both traditional and laparoscopic techniques.

This definition is consistent with the guidelines provided by professional medical organizations such as the American College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Surgeons. However, it's important to note that specific practices can vary based on factors like geographical location, training, and individual expertise.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

Dermatologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed by dermatologists, which are aimed at treating and managing conditions related to the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. These procedures can be divided into several categories, including:

1. Excisional surgery: This involves removing a lesion or growth by cutting it out with a scalpel. The resulting wound is then closed with stitches, sutures, or left to heal on its own.
2. Incisional biopsy: This is a type of excisional surgery where only a portion of the lesion is removed for diagnostic purposes.
3. Cryosurgery: This involves using extreme cold (usually liquid nitrogen) to destroy abnormal tissue, such as warts or precancerous growths.
4. Electrosurgical procedures: These use heat generated by an electric current to remove or destroy skin lesions. Examples include electrodessication and curettage (ED&C), which involves scraping away the affected tissue with a sharp instrument and then applying heat to seal the wound.
5. Laser surgery: Dermatologic surgeons use various types of lasers to treat a wide range of conditions, such as removing tattoos, reducing wrinkles, or treating vascular lesions.
6. Mohs micrographic surgery: This is a specialized surgical technique used to treat certain types of skin cancer, particularly basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. It involves removing the tumor in thin layers and examining each layer under a microscope until no cancer cells remain.
7. Scar revision surgery: Dermatologic surgeons can perform procedures to improve the appearance of scars, such as excising the scar and reclosing the wound or using laser therapy to minimize redness and thickness.
8. Hair transplantation: This involves removing hair follicles from one area of the body (usually the back of the head) and transplanting them to another area where hair is thinning or absent, such as the scalp or eyebrows.
9. Flap surgery: In this procedure, a piece of tissue with its own blood supply is moved from one part of the body to another and then reattached. This can be used for reconstructive purposes after skin cancer removal or trauma.
10. Liposuction: Dermatologic surgeons may perform liposuction to remove excess fat from various areas of the body, such as the abdomen, thighs, or chin.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

An operating room, also known as an operating theatre or surgery suite, is a specially equipped and staffed hospital department where surgical procedures are performed. It is a sterile environment with controlled temperature, humidity, and air quality to minimize the risk of infection during surgeries. The room is typically equipped with medical equipment such as an operating table, surgical lights, anesthesia machines, monitoring equipment, and various surgical instruments. Access to the operating room is usually restricted to trained medical personnel to maintain a sterile environment and ensure patient safety.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Preprosthetic oral surgical procedures are dental surgeries performed to prepare the mouth for the placement of dental prostheses such as dentures. These procedures aim to create a smooth, stable, and suitable foundation in the mouth to support the prosthesis and ensure its proper functioning, retention, and comfort.

Common preprosthetic oral surgical procedures include:

1. Alveoloplasty: This procedure involves reshaping the alveolar ridge (the bony ridge that supports the teeth) to create a more uniform and even surface. It helps to eliminate any sharp or irregular bony edges that may interfere with the fit or comfort of the denture.

2. Gingivectomy/Gingivoplasty: These procedures involve removing or reshaping excess gum tissue to improve the fit and appearance of the dental prosthesis. A gingivectomy removes a portion of the gum tissue, while a gingivoplasty sculpts and reshapes the existing gum tissue.

3. Frenectomy: This procedure involves removing or repositioning the frenum, a small fold of tissue that connects the lips, cheeks, or tongue to the jawbone. A lingual frenectomy may be necessary when the frenum restricts tongue movement and interferes with proper denture placement or speech.

4. Maxillary tori reduction: This procedure involves removing or reducing the size of tori, which are bony growths found on the roof of the mouth (maxilla). Large tori can make it difficult to wear a denture, so their removal or reduction can improve the fit and comfort of the prosthesis.

5. Ridge augmentation: This procedure involves adding bone grafting material to the jaw ridge to increase its height, width, or volume. This is often done when there is significant bone loss due to tooth extraction, periodontal disease, or other factors, making it difficult to achieve a secure and comfortable denture fit.

6. Exostectomy: This procedure involves removing small, benign bony growths (exostoses) that may develop on the hard palate or along the jaw ridge. These growths can interfere with the fit and comfort of a denture, so their removal can improve the prosthesis' functionality.

These procedures are typically performed by oral surgeons, periodontists, or prosthodontists who specialize in dental implants, oral surgery, and complex restorative treatments. The specific treatment plan will depend on each patient's individual needs and preferences.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

Ultrasonic surgical procedures, also known as ultrasonic surgery or ultrasonically activated device (USD) surgery, refer to the use of high-frequency sound waves in surgical applications. These procedures typically involve the use of specialized tools called ultrasonic dissectors or harmonic scalpels that cut and coagulate tissue using ultrasonic vibrations.

The ultrasonic dissector consists of a handpiece with a thin, vibrating blade that moves at a frequency of approximately 55,000 Hz. This rapid motion generates friction and heat, which allows the blade to cut through tissue while simultaneously sealing blood vessels up to 3-4 mm in diameter. The harmonic scalpel works on a similar principle but uses a different mechanism for coagulation. It produces a high-frequency vibration that causes the tissue to vibrate, leading to cavitation and the generation of heat. This heat is responsible for sealing blood vessels and cutting through tissues.

Ultrasonic surgical procedures offer several advantages over traditional surgical methods, including reduced blood loss, less thermal damage to surrounding tissues, and potentially shorter recovery times. They are commonly used in various surgical fields, such as general surgery, gynecology, urology, and orthopedics.

The Surgery Department in a hospital is a specialized unit where surgical procedures are performed. It is typically staffed by surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, registered nurses, surgical technologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide surgical care for patients. The department may include various sub-specialties such as cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatric surgery, plastic surgery, and trauma surgery, among others.

The Surgery Department is responsible for the preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients, the performance of surgical procedures, and the postoperative care and management of patients. This includes ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, developing treatment plans, obtaining informed consent from patients, performing surgeries, managing complications, providing postoperative pain control and wound care, and coordinating with other healthcare providers to ensure continuity of care.

The Surgery Department is equipped with operating rooms that contain specialized equipment and instruments necessary for performing surgical procedures. These may include microscopes, endoscopes, imaging equipment, and other technology used to assist in the performance of surgeries. The department may also have dedicated recovery areas, such as post-anesthesia care units (PACUs) or intensive care units (ICUs), where patients can be monitored and cared for immediately after surgery.

Overall, the Surgery Department plays a critical role in the delivery of healthcare services in a hospital setting, providing specialized surgical care to patients with a wide range of medical conditions and injuries.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Pulmonary surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the lungs and the surrounding structures, typically to treat or diagnose various respiratory conditions. These procedures can range from minimally invasive techniques to more complex surgeries, depending on the nature and severity of the condition. Here are some examples of pulmonary surgical procedures:

1. Thoracotomy: This is an open surgical procedure where a surgeon makes a large incision in the chest wall to access the lungs. It's typically used to remove lung tumors, repair damaged lung tissue, or perform a lobectomy (removal of a lobe of the lung).
2. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS): This is a minimally invasive procedure where a surgeon makes several small incisions in the chest wall and uses a camera and special instruments to perform the operation. VATS can be used for lung biopsies, lobectomies, and other procedures.
3. Lung biopsy: This is a procedure where a small piece of lung tissue is removed and examined under a microscope to diagnose various conditions such as infections, interstitial lung diseases, or cancer. A biopsy can be performed through a thoracotomy, VATS, or bronchoscopy (a procedure that involves inserting a thin tube with a camera into the airways).
4. Bullectomy: This is a procedure where a surgeon removes large air-filled sacs in the lungs called bullae, which can cause shortness of breath and other symptoms.
5. Lung transplant: This is a complex surgical procedure where a diseased lung is removed and replaced with a healthy one from a donor. It's typically performed on patients with end-stage lung disease such as cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
6. Pleurodesis: This is a procedure where the space between the lungs and chest wall is irritated to prevent fluid from accumulating in that space, which can cause shortness of breath and other symptoms. It's typically performed on patients with recurrent pleural effusions (fluid buildup in the pleural space).

These are just a few examples of the many procedures that can be performed to treat various lung conditions.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Surgical equipment refers to the specialized tools and instruments used by medical professionals during surgical procedures. These devices are designed to assist in various aspects of surgery, such as cutting, grasping, retraction, clamping, and suturing. Surgical equipment can be categorized into several types based on their function and use:

1. Cutting instruments: These include scalpels, scissors, and surgical blades designed to cut through tissues with precision and minimal trauma.

2. Grasping forceps: Forceps are used to hold, manipulate, or retrieve tissue, organs, or other surgical tools. Examples include Babcock forceps, Kelly forceps, and Allis tissue forceps.

3. Retractors: These devices help to expose deeper structures by holding open body cavities or tissues during surgery. Common retractors include Weitlaner retractors, Army-Navy retractors, and self-retaining retractors like the Bookwalter system.

4. Clamps: Used for occluding blood vessels, controlling bleeding, or approximating tissue edges before suturing. Examples of clamps are hemostats, bulldog clips, and Satinsky clamps.

5. Suction devices: These tools help remove fluids, debris, and smoke from the surgical site, improving visibility for the surgeon. Examples include Yankauer suctions and Frazier tip suctions.

6. Needle holders: Specialized forceps designed to hold suture needles securely during the process of suturing or approximating tissue edges.

7. Surgical staplers: Devices that place linear staple lines in tissues, used for quick and efficient closure of surgical incisions or anastomoses (joining two structures together).

8. Cautery devices: Electrosurgical units that use heat generated by electrical current to cut tissue and coagulate bleeding vessels.

9. Implants and prosthetics: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged body parts, such as artificial joints, heart valves, or orthopedic implants.

10. Monitoring and navigation equipment: Advanced tools that provide real-time feedback on patient physiology, surgical site anatomy, or instrument positioning during minimally invasive procedures.

These are just a few examples of the diverse range of instruments and devices used in modern surgery. The choice of tools depends on various factors, including the type of procedure, patient characteristics, and surgeon preference.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

A surgical flap is a specialized type of surgical procedure where a section of living tissue (including skin, fat, muscle, and/or blood vessels) is lifted from its original site and moved to another location, while still maintaining a blood supply through its attached pedicle. This technique allows the surgeon to cover and reconstruct defects or wounds that cannot be closed easily with simple suturing or stapling.

Surgical flaps can be classified based on their vascularity, type of tissue involved, or method of transfer. The choice of using a specific type of surgical flap depends on the location and size of the defect, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Some common types of surgical flaps include:

1. Random-pattern flaps: These flaps are based on random blood vessels within the tissue and are typically used for smaller defects in areas with good vascularity, such as the face or scalp.
2. Axial pattern flaps: These flaps are designed based on a known major blood vessel and its branches, allowing them to cover larger defects or reach distant sites. Examples include the radial forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap.
3. Local flaps: These flaps involve tissue adjacent to the wound and can be further classified into advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps based on their movement and orientation.
4. Distant flaps: These flaps are harvested from a distant site and then transferred to the defect after being tunneled beneath the skin or through a separate incision. Examples include the groin flap and the latissimus dorsi flap.
5. Free flaps: In these flaps, the tissue is completely detached from its original blood supply and then reattached at the new site using microvascular surgical techniques. This allows for greater flexibility in terms of reach and placement but requires specialized expertise and equipment.

Surgical flaps play a crucial role in reconstructive surgery, helping to restore form and function after trauma, tumor removal, or other conditions that result in tissue loss.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Otologic surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the ear or its related structures. These procedures are typically conducted by otologists, who are specialists trained in diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the ears, balance system, and related nerves. The goal of otologic surgery can vary from repairing damaged bones in the middle ear to managing hearing loss, tumors, or chronic infections. Some common otologic surgical procedures include:

1. Stapedectomy/Stapedotomy: These are procedures used to treat otosclerosis, a condition where the stapes bone in the middle ear becomes fixed and causes conductive hearing loss. The surgeon creates an opening in the stapes footplate (stapedotomy) or removes the entire stapes bone (stapedectomy) and replaces it with a prosthetic device to improve sound conduction.
2. Myringoplasty/Tympanoplasty: These are surgeries aimed at repairing damaged eardrums (tympanic membrane). A myringoplasty involves grafting a piece of tissue over the perforation in the eardrum, while a tympanoplasty includes both eardrum repair and reconstruction of the middle ear bones if necessary.
3. Mastoidectomy: This procedure involves removing the mastoid air cells, which are located in the bony prominence behind the ear. A mastoidectomy is often performed to treat chronic mastoiditis, cholesteatoma, or complications from middle ear infections.
4. Ossiculoplasty: This procedure aims to reconstruct and improve the function of the ossicles (middle ear bones) when they are damaged due to various reasons such as infection, trauma, or congenital conditions. The surgeon uses prosthetic devices made from plastic, metal, or even bone to replace or support the damaged ossicles.
5. Cochlear implantation: This is a surgical procedure that involves placing an electronic device inside the inner ear to help individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant consists of an external processor and internal components that directly stimulate the auditory nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells in the cochlea.
6. Labyrinthectomy: This procedure involves removing the balance-sensing structures (vestibular system) inside the inner ear to treat severe vertigo or dizziness caused by conditions like Meniere's disease when other treatments have failed.
7. Acoustic neuroma removal: An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain. Surgical removal of the tumor is necessary to prevent hearing loss, balance problems, and potential neurological complications.

These are just a few examples of the various surgical procedures performed by otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat specialists) to treat conditions affecting the ear and surrounding structures. Each procedure has its specific indications, benefits, risks, and postoperative care requirements. Patients should consult with their healthcare providers to discuss the most appropriate treatment options for their individual needs.

Plastic surgery is a medical specialty that involves the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two main categories: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery.

Reconstructive surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns, trauma, birth defects, or disease. The goal is to improve function, but may also involve improving appearance.

Cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery is performed to reshape normal structures of the body in order to improve the patient's appearance and self-esteem. This includes procedures such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, facelifts, and tummy tucks.

Plastic surgeons use a variety of techniques, including skin grafts, tissue expansion, flap surgery, and fat grafting, to achieve their goals. They must have a thorough understanding of anatomy, as well as excellent surgical skills and aesthetic judgment.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is often performed to correct deformities or to realign bones that have been damaged by trauma or disease. The bone may be cut straight across (transverse osteotomy) or at an angle (oblique osteotomy). After the bone is cut, it can be realigned and held in place with pins, plates, or screws until it heals. This procedure is commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the femur or tibia, but can also be done on other bones in the body.

Veterinary surgery refers to the surgical procedures performed on animals by trained veterinarians or veterinary surgeons. It involves the use of various surgical techniques and tools to diagnose, treat, or prevent diseases and injuries in animals. This can include soft tissue surgeries such as abdominal or thoracic surgeries, orthopedic surgeries for bone and joint issues, neurological surgeries, oncological surgeries for the removal of tumors, and reconstructive surgeries. Veterinary surgeons must complete extensive education and training in order to provide safe and effective surgical care for animals.

Urogenital surgical procedures refer to surgeries that are performed on the urinary and genital systems. The urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, while the genital system includes the reproductive organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and penis.

Urogenital surgical procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of diseases, injuries, or congenital abnormalities. Some examples of urogenital surgical procedures include:

1. Cystectomy: the removal of the bladder.
2. Nephrectomy: the removal of a kidney.
3. Prostatectomy: the removal of all or part of the prostate gland.
4. Hysterectomy: the removal of the uterus and sometimes the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
5. Vasectomy: a surgical procedure for male sterilization, in which the vas deferens is cut and tied.
6. Vaginoplasty: a surgical procedure to construct or repair a vagina.
7. Urethroplasty: a surgical procedure to reconstruct or repair the urethra.
8. Pyeloplasty: a surgical procedure to correct a congenital or acquired narrowing of the renal pelvis, the area where urine collects before flowing into the ureter.

These procedures can be performed using various surgical techniques, including open surgery, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic-assisted surgery. The choice of technique depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the disease or injury, and the surgeon's expertise.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

Perioperative care is a multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients before, during, and after surgery with the goal of optimizing outcomes and minimizing complications. It encompasses various aspects such as preoperative evaluation and preparation, intraoperative monitoring and management, and postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. The perioperative period begins when a decision is made to pursue surgical intervention and ends when the patient has fully recovered from the procedure. This care is typically provided by a team of healthcare professionals including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, physical therapists, and other specialists as needed.

Oral surgery is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis and surgical treatment of various conditions related to the mouth, teeth, jaws, and facial structures. Some of the common procedures performed by oral surgeons include:

1. Tooth extractions: Removal of severely decayed, damaged, or impacted teeth, such as wisdom teeth.
2. Dental implant placement: Surgical insertion of titanium posts that serve as artificial tooth roots to support dental restorations like crowns, bridges, or dentures.
3. Jaw surgery (orthognathic surgery): Corrective procedures for misaligned jaws, uneven bite, or sleep apnea caused by structural jaw abnormalities.
4. Oral pathology: Diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant growths or lesions in the oral cavity, including biopsies and removal of tumors.
5. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: Surgical intervention for issues related to the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, such as arthroscopy, open joint surgery, or total joint replacement.
6. Facial trauma reconstruction: Repair of fractured facial bones, soft tissue injuries, and lacerations resulting from accidents, sports injuries, or interpersonal violence.
7. Cleft lip and palate repair: Surgical correction of congenital deformities affecting the upper lip and hard/soft palate.
8. Sleep apnea treatment: Surgical reduction or removal of excess tissue in the throat to alleviate airway obstruction and improve breathing during sleep.
9. Cosmetic procedures: Enhancement of facial aesthetics through various techniques, such as chin or cheekbone augmentation, lip reshaping, or scar revision.

Oral surgeons typically complete a four-year dental school program followed by an additional four to six years of specialized surgical training in a hospital-based residency program. They are qualified to administer general anesthesia and often perform procedures in a hospital setting or outpatient surgical center.

Surgical gloves are a form of personal protective equipment (PPE) used by healthcare professionals during medical procedures, particularly surgical procedures. They are designed to provide a barrier between the healthcare professional's hands and the patient's sterile field, helping to prevent contamination and reduce the risk of infection.

Surgical gloves are typically made of latex, nitrile rubber, or vinyl and come in various sizes to fit different hand shapes and sizes. They have a powder-free interior and an exterior that is coated with a substance to make them easier to put on and remove. The gloves are usually sterile and are packaged in pairs, often with a protective covering to maintain their sterility until they are ready to be used.

The use of surgical gloves is a critical component of standard precautions, which are measures taken to prevent the transmission of infectious agents from patients to healthcare professionals or from one patient to another. By wearing surgical gloves, healthcare professionals can protect themselves and their patients from potentially harmful bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that may be present during medical procedures.

Local anesthesia is a type of anesthesia that numbs a specific area of the body, blocking pain signals from that particular region while allowing the person to remain conscious and alert. It is typically achieved through the injection or application of a local anesthetic drug, which works by temporarily inhibiting the function of nerve fibers carrying pain sensations. Common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, and bupivacaine.

Local anesthesia is commonly used for minor surgical procedures, dental work, or other medical interventions where only a small area needs to be numbed. It can also be employed as part of a combined anesthetic technique, such as in conjunction with sedation or regional anesthesia, to provide additional pain relief and increase patient comfort during more extensive surgeries.

The duration of local anesthesia varies depending on the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent used; some last for just a few hours, while others may provide numbness for up to several days. Overall, local anesthesia is considered a safe and effective method for managing pain during various medical procedures.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus (womb). Depending on the specific medical condition and necessity, a hysterectomy may also include the removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissues. There are different types of hysterectomies, including:

1. Total hysterectomy: The uterus and cervix are removed.
2. Supracervical (or subtotal) hysterectomy: Only the upper part of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
3. Radical hysterectomy: This procedure involves removing the uterus, cervix, surrounding tissues, and the upper part of the vagina. It is typically performed in cases of cervical cancer.
4. Oophorectomy: The removal of one or both ovaries can be performed along with a hysterectomy depending on the patient's medical condition and age.
5. Salpingectomy: The removal of one or both fallopian tubes can also be performed along with a hysterectomy if needed.

The reasons for performing a hysterectomy may include but are not limited to: uterine fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, pelvic prolapse, cervical or uterine cancer, and chronic pelvic pain. The choice of the type of hysterectomy depends on the patient's medical condition, age, and personal preferences.

Surgical blood loss is the amount of blood that is lost during a surgical procedure. It can occur through various routes such as incisions, punctures or during the removal of organs or tissues. The amount of blood loss can vary widely depending on the type and complexity of the surgery being performed.

Surgical blood loss can be classified into three categories:

1. Insensible losses: These are small amounts of blood that are lost through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract during surgery. They are not usually significant enough to cause any clinical effects.
2. Visible losses: These are larger amounts of blood that can be seen and measured directly during surgery. They may require transfusion or other interventions to prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) and its complications.
3. Hidden losses: These are internal bleeding that cannot be easily seen or measured during surgery. They can occur in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, or other areas of the body. They may require further exploration or imaging studies to diagnose and manage.

Surgical blood loss can lead to several complications such as hypovolemia, anemia, coagulopathy (disorders of blood clotting), and organ dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage surgical blood loss effectively to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Postoperative hemorrhage is a medical term that refers to bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. This condition can range from minor oozing to severe, life-threatening bleeding. Postoperative hemorrhage can occur soon after surgery or even several days later, as the surgical site begins to heal.

The causes of postoperative hemorrhage can vary, but some common factors include:

1. Inadequate hemostasis during surgery: This means that all bleeding was not properly controlled during the procedure, leading to bleeding after surgery.
2. Blood vessel injury: During surgery, blood vessels may be accidentally cut or damaged, causing bleeding after the procedure.
3. Coagulopathy: This is a condition in which the body has difficulty forming blood clots, increasing the risk of postoperative hemorrhage.
4. Use of anticoagulant medications: Medications that prevent blood clots can increase the risk of bleeding after surgery.
5. Infection: An infection at the surgical site can cause inflammation and bleeding.

Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include swelling, pain, warmth, or discoloration around the surgical site, as well as signs of shock such as rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding and may include medications to control bleeding, transfusions of blood products, or additional surgery to stop the bleeding.

Orthognathic surgical procedures are a type of surgery used to correct jaw misalignments and improve the bite and function of the jaws. The term "orthognathic" comes from the Greek words "orthos," meaning straight or correct, and "gnathos," meaning jaw. These surgeries are typically performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons in conjunction with orthodontic treatment to achieve proper alignment of the teeth and jaws.

Orthognathic surgical procedures may be recommended for patients who have significant discrepancies between the size and position of their upper and lower jaws, which can result in problems with chewing, speaking, breathing, and sleeping. These procedures can also improve facial aesthetics by correcting jaw deformities and imbalances.

The specific surgical procedure used will depend on the nature and extent of the jaw misalignment. Common orthognathic surgical procedures include:

1. Maxillary osteotomy: This procedure involves making cuts in the upper jawbone (maxilla) and moving it forward or backward to correct a misalignment.
2. Mandibular osteotomy: This procedure involves making cuts in the lower jawbone (mandible) and moving it forward or backward to correct a misalignment.
3. Genioplasty: This procedure involves reshaping or repositioning the chin bone (mentum) to improve facial aesthetics and jaw function.
4. Orthognathic surgery for sleep apnea: This procedure involves repositioning the upper and/or lower jaws to open up the airway and improve breathing during sleep.

Orthognathic surgical procedures require careful planning and coordination between the surgeon, orthodontist, and patient. The process typically involves taking detailed measurements and images of the jaw and teeth, creating a surgical plan, and undergoing orthodontic treatment to align the teeth prior to surgery. After surgery, patients may need to wear braces or other appliances to maintain the alignment of their teeth and jaws during healing.

Surgical specialties are branches of medical practice in which surgeons perform surgical procedures to treat various diseases, injuries, or deformities. These specialties require advanced training, knowledge, and skills beyond general surgery. Here are some examples of surgical specialties:

1. Cardiothoracic Surgery: This specialty focuses on the surgical treatment of conditions related to the heart, lungs, and other structures in the chest.
2. Neurosurgery: Neurosurgeons specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
3. Orthopedic Surgery: Orthopedic surgeons treat conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
4. Ophthalmology: Ophthalmologists specialize in medical and surgical treatment of eye disorders and diseases.
5. Otolaryngology (ENT): Otolaryngologists treat conditions related to the ear, nose, throat, head, and neck.
6. Plastic Surgery: Plastic surgeons perform cosmetic and reconstructive procedures to improve the appearance or function of various parts of the body.
7. Urology: Urologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the urinary system and male reproductive organs.
8. Vascular Surgery: Vascular surgeons treat disorders of the circulatory system, including arteries and veins.
9. Pediatric Surgery: Pediatric surgeons specialize in the surgical care of children, from infants to adolescents.
10. Surgical Oncology: Surgical oncologists focus on the surgical removal of tumors and other cancerous growths.

Surgical specialists must complete a residency program in their chosen specialty after completing medical school. Some may also pursue fellowship training to gain further expertise in a subspecialty area.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Anesthesiology is a medical specialty concerned with providing anesthesia, which is the loss of sensation or awareness, to patients undergoing surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures. Anesthesiologists are responsible for administering various types of anesthetics, monitoring the patient's vital signs during the procedure, and managing any complications that may arise. They also play a critical role in pain management before, during, and after surgery, as well as in the treatment of chronic pain conditions.

Anesthesiologists work closely with other medical professionals, including surgeons, anesthetists, nurses, and respiratory therapists, to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. They must have a thorough understanding of human physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy, as well as excellent communication skills and the ability to make quick decisions under high pressure.

The primary goal of anesthesiology is to provide safe and effective anesthesia that minimizes pain and discomfort while maximizing patient safety and comfort. This requires a deep understanding of the risks and benefits associated with different types of anesthetics, as well as the ability to tailor the anesthetic plan to each individual patient's needs and medical history.

In summary, anesthesiology is a critical medical specialty focused on providing safe and effective anesthesia and pain management for patients undergoing surgical or other medical procedures.

A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the large intestine (colon) is removed. This surgery may be performed to treat or prevent various medical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and severe obstructions or injuries of the colon.

There are several types of colectomies, depending on how much of the colon is removed:

* Total colectomy: Removal of the entire colon.
* Partial colectomy: Removal of a portion of the colon.
* Hemicolectomy: Removal of one half of the colon.
* Sigmoidectomy: Removal of the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon that is closest to the rectum.

After the affected portion of the colon is removed, the remaining ends of the intestine are reconnected, allowing stool to pass through the digestive system as usual. In some cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy may be necessary, in which a surgical opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is attached to it, allowing stool to be collected in a pouch outside the body.

Colectomies are major surgeries that require general anesthesia and hospitalization. The recovery time can vary depending on the type of colectomy performed and the individual's overall health, but typically ranges from several weeks to a few months. Complications of colectomy may include bleeding, infection, leakage from the surgical site, bowel obstruction, and changes in bowel habits or function.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Tooth extraction is a dental procedure in which a tooth that is damaged or poses a threat to oral health is removed from its socket in the jawbone. This may be necessary due to various reasons such as severe tooth decay, gum disease, fractured teeth, crowded teeth, or for orthodontic treatment purposes. The procedure is performed by a dentist or an oral surgeon, under local anesthesia to numb the area around the tooth, ensuring minimal discomfort during the extraction process.

A laparotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision in the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal cavity. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various conditions such as abdominal trauma, tumors, infections, or inflammatory diseases. The size of the incision can vary depending on the reason for the surgery and the extent of the condition being treated. Once the procedure is complete, the incision is closed with sutures or staples.

The term "laparotomy" comes from the Greek words "lapara," which means "flank" or "side," and "tome," which means "to cut." Together, they describe the surgical procedure that involves cutting into the abdomen to examine its contents.

Electrocoagulation is a medical procedure that uses heat generated from an electrical current to cause coagulation (clotting) of tissue. This procedure is often used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as:

* Gastrointestinal bleeding: Electrocoagulation can be used to control bleeding in the stomach or intestines by applying an electrical current to the affected blood vessels, causing them to shrink and clot.
* Skin lesions: Electrocoagulation can be used to remove benign or malignant skin lesions, such as warts, moles, or skin tags, by applying an electrical current to the growth, which causes it to dehydrate and eventually fall off.
* Vascular malformations: Electrocoagulation can be used to treat vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels) by applying an electrical current to the affected area, causing the abnormal vessels to shrink and clot.

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized device that delivers an electrical current through a needle or probe. The intensity and duration of the electrical current can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Electrocoagulation may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or medication.

It's important to note that electrocoagulation is not without risks, including burns, infection, and scarring. It should only be performed by a qualified medical professional who has experience with the procedure.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Reconstructive surgical procedures for the treatment of posttraumatic patients; Diagnostics, treatment, and rehabilitation of ... Treatment methods in acute surgical diseases of the thorax, abdominal and pelvic cavities, methods of endoscopic surgery; ...
Free tissue transfer is a surgical reconstructive procedure using microsurgery. A region of "donor" tissue is selected that can ... procedure for many surgical reconstructive applications. Traumatic foot/ankle soft tissue wound from motor vehicle accident ... in the reconstructive site. The procedure was first done in the early 1970s and has become a popular "one-stage" (single ... Contemporary reconstructive microsurgery was introduced by an American plastic surgeon, Dr. Harry J. Buncke. In 1964, Buncke ...
Griggs have been successful in complex surgical procedures such as reconstructive surgery on partial amputations. Their best ... The lab lacks specialized laser treatment surgical equipment for sea turtles and must transfer them from the Panhandle region ...
Weston endured years of reconstructive surgery, including over 96 major operations or surgical procedures. Skin from his ...
Plastic surgeons use cosmetic surgical principles in all reconstructive surgical procedures as well as isolated operations to ... Some other common reconstructive surgical procedures include breast reconstruction after a mastectomy for the treatment of ... Of those, 1,622,290 procedures were surgical (p. 5). They also found that a large majority, 81%, of the procedures were done on ... The goal of reconstructive plastic surgery is to restore both form and function. The most common reconstructive procedures are ...
... as parts of the body are remade or reformed during most reconstructive and cosmetic surgical procedures. Children make up ... aesthetics is also considered by the surgical team. Cosmetic plastic surgery is defined as a surgical procedure undertaken to ... Its procedures are most often conducted for reconstructive or cosmetic purposes. In children, this line is often blurred, as ... While the majority of pediatric plastic surgery procedures done are reconstructive; there are those performed for cosmetic ...
"Familial Aggregation of Plastic Surgical Procedures". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 142 (5): 782e-785e. doi:10.1097/PRS. ... "Derek Steinbacher, MD: Life-changing craniofacial procedures". Yale School of Medicine. "New Haven plastic surgeon uses 3D ... Staff (September 13, 2011). "Derek Steinbacher, MD: Life-changing craniofacial procedures". (Articles with a ... Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 137 (3): 603e-616e. doi:10.1097/01.prs.0000479970.22181.53. ISSN 1529-4242. PMID 26910704. ...
... medical tools for the recovery and processing of cadaveric tissue used for regenerative and reconstructive surgical procedures ... medical tools for the recovery and processing of cadaveric tissue used for regenerative and reconstructive surgical procedures ... to manufacture medical tools for the recovery and processing of cadaveric tissue used in regenerative and reconstructive ...
... it is now successfully treated through reconstructive surgical procedures at an early age. This is the time where such ... procedures are available. Due to the complexity of this birth defect, researchers still do not know exactly what causes the ...
... (FFS) is a set of reconstructive surgical procedures that alter typically male facial features to ... The surgical procedures most frequently performed during FFS include the following. Some studies have shown that the shape of ... In most cases this is performed in an open procedure, but endonasal procedures have been used; in all cases when reducing the ... The Adam's apple can be reduced with a procedure called a chondrolaryngoplasty; the goal of the procedure is to reduce the size ...
... a set of reconstructive surgical procedures that can alter male facial features to bring them closer in shape and size to ... has been described as the oldest surgical procedure for which there is archaeological evidence, found in the forms of cave ... Nowadays this procedure is still used but is normally called a craniectomy. In March 2013, for the first time in the U.S., ... This procedure would begin just after birth and would be carried on for several years.[citation needed] Like the face, the ...
... and board member German Society for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Working Group for Reconstructive Surgical Procedures in ... The focus of his clinical and scientific work encompassed gynecological oncology, surgical techniques, chemotherapy and hormone ...
In this elective and reconstructive surgical procedure a pouch, or intestinal reservoir, made from ileum (small intestine) is ... are Reconstructive procedures. Reconstructive procedures do not cure disease. Since they are not curative, reconstructive ... The surgical procedure for forming an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) was pioneered by Sir Alan Parks at the London ... By the early 1980s, the ileal pouch procedure had become part of specialist colorectal surgical practices not just in the ...
... a set of reconstructive surgical procedures that alter typically male facial features to bring them closer in shape and size to ... surgical procedures to provide physical traits more comfortable and affirming to an individual's gender identity Voice ...
... (also known as FL or FemLar/Femlar) is a reconstructive surgery surgical procedure that results in ... Typically, the surgical procedure could shift the lower limit of the patients' vocal range upward, with little to no effect on ... This procedure remains the most well-known among transgender women seeking surgical voice feminization. However the results are ... It is estimated that about 1% of transgender women have opted for surgical procedure of voice feminization, while a larger ...
Surgical aesthetic procedures account for 10% of the cosmetic procedures in the UK, and non surgical techniques constitute the ... Traditionally, it includes dermatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, reconstructive surgery and plastic surgery, surgical ... non-surgical procedures (radio frequency skin tightening, non- surgical liposuction, chemical peel, high-intensity focused ... In South Korea, the top 5 surgical aesthetic procedures were 1) Blepharoplasty 2) Rhinoplasty 3) Fat Grafting 4) Rhytidectomy 5 ...
March 2009). "Evaluation of surgical procedures for sex reassignment: a systematic review". Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive ... Some satisfactory outcomes were reported, but the magnitude of benefit and harm for individual surgical procedures cannot be ... In 2021, a review published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery found that less than 1% of people who undergo gender- ... In the future, we need more rigorous evaluations of the effectiveness and safety of endocrine and surgical protocols. ...
March 2009). "Evaluation of surgical procedures for sex reassignment: a systematic review". Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive ... Usually after the procedure, people may wear a support garment to limit the movement of the surgical sites to limit the risk of ... surgical goals, which then help determine which procedures are needed. Depending on the purpose of scrotoplasty, whether the ... Tissue expansion, a procedure in which the skin is stretched to regenerate new cells, can also be an option in order to restore ...
"Made drawings in the operating room of surgical procedures, modeling of features for reconstructive surgery, and carving ... cartilage for grafting in plastic surgery, pigmentation of skin in plastic procedures. Had three assistants working under him. ...
Surgical Facial Rejuvenation. Chapter:Facial Aesthetics: Minimally-Invasive Office Procedures. Facial Plastic and ... Reconstructive surgery. Since 2006, she has been appointed director of facial plastic & reconstructive surgery and assistant ... Trados, M.; Pearlman, S. (2007). "Facial Aesthetics: Minimally-Invasive Office Procedures". In Regan, J. Thomas (ed.). Surgical ... Monica Tadros, MD, FACS,(born 1974) is an American plastic and reconstructive surgeon at the Center for Sinus Sleep & Facial ...
Possible reconstruction of the surgical defect (Reconstructive Surgery) The procedure is usually performed in a physician's ... Stain can run from the surgical edge, and stain the surgical margin - giving a false impression that the entire surgical margin ... Mohs surgery can also be more cost effective than other surgical methods, when considering the cost of surgical removal and ... The Mohs procedure is a pathology sectioning method that allows for the complete examination of the surgical margin. It is ...
Non-surgical rhinoplasty is a medical procedure in which injectable fillers, such as collagen or hyaluronic acid, are used to ... In plastic surgical praxis, the term primary rhinoplasty denotes an initial (first-time) reconstructive, functional, or ... Furthermore, regarding plastic surgical scars, the age of the patient is a notable factor in the timely, post-surgical healing ... continuing during the surgical operation procedures, and concluding with the post-operative outcome. To record the "before-and- ...
... procedures include breast implant removal, reduction mammoplasty, breast reconstruction, surgical ... A plastic surgeon can perform both reconstructive and cosmetic procedures. Some procedures, such as a panniculectomy (aka tummy ... "Cosmetic Procedures". "Reconstructive procedures". Retrieved 2019-10-28. "Cleft Lip and Palate Repair". Wanchek T, Wehby G. ... also perform some reconstructive procedures. Reconstructive surgery represents a small but critical component of the ...
This procedure can be used to reconstruct the nasal or oral surfaces by either raising the vomer or creating a flap. Surgical ... Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 11(1), 45-57. Maggiulli F, Hay N, Mars M, Worrell E, Green J, ... Vomer flap surgery was used prior to 1975 as a surgical treatment for children with cleft palate. In this procedure, the vomer ... A follow-up study of cleft children treated with vomer flap as part of a three-stage soft tissue surgical procedure. ...
... is typically used in minor surgical procedures such as endoscopy, vasectomy, or dentistry and for reconstructive ... generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure. Examples of drugs which can be used for sedation include ... This process can also reveal if the sedation period needs to be prolonged or additional therapeutic procedures are required. ... immature individuals Patients unable to provide a suitable escort Difficult oral surgery or prolonged surgical procedure Muscle ...
... any type of surgical procedure to the vagina, vulva or related structures Circumcision, removal of the foreskin from the human ... Genital reconstructive surgery may refer to: Clitoridectomy, any surgery to reduce or remove tissue from the clitoris Foreskin ... a variety of procedures for transgender men Sex reassignment surgery (male-to-female), reshaping male genitals into the ...
Abdominal surgical procedures, Management of obesity, Medical ultrasonography, Plastic surgery, Surgical removal procedures). ... This term emphasizes the uniqueness of the reconstructive procedure versus the cosmetic procedure. Everything about the ... cryolipolyis is not a type of liposuction but rather a non-surgical fat reduction procedure that freezes fat cells; it is an ... ...
A New Surgical Procedure for Phallic Reconstruction: Istanbul Flap by Mutaf, Mehmet (Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive ... The no-touch surgical technique for penile prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure developed by J. Francois Eid for the ... The procedure is performed through a discreet horizontal incision located in the pubic region where the pubic hair will help ... Implantation procedures are usually done in a separate surgery to allow time for proper healing. Sensation is retained through ...
... started a surgical procedure to help relieve women of the excess weight of their breasts, it was only later that it ... Reconstructive mammaplasty is breast reconstruction that is done after mastectomy to give the breasts an appearance that is ... It is a cosmetic surgical procedure aimed at reducing large or sagging breasts to a more comfortable size and shape. Large ... Mammaplasty (also called mammoplasty or mastoplasty) refers to a group of surgical procedures, the goal of which is to reshape ...
Obstetrical and gynaecological procedures, Surgical oncology, Surgical removal procedures). ... Reconstructive breast surgery can be performed in the same surgical setting, added after the mastectomy. Saline or silicone ... The procedure is a surgical option for individuals who are at high risk for the development of breast cancer. High risk women ... The procedure includes the surgical removal of both breasts before any pathologic diagnosis has been made. Women that were ...
Analytical, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Techniques and ...
VSP and reconstructive techniques developed to facilitate implant placement are associated with increased dental rehabilitation ... Keywords: head and neck neoplasms; maxilla; reconstructive surgical procedures/methods; surgical flaps. ... Significant predictors of successful rehabilitation included the use of virtual surgical planning (VSP; 86% vs. 25%, p , 0.001 ... Conclusion: Preoperative prosthodontic evaluation, VSP and reconstructive techniques developed to facilitate implant placement ...
Find Providers by Procedure Find Providers by Condition. Find All Providers. List Your Practice; Find Doctors and Dentists Near ... arthroscopic and reconstructive surgery of the shoulder, knee and elbow.Dr. Crawford enjoys treating patients of all ages with ... Find Providers by Specialty Find Providers by Procedure. Find Providers by Condition. Find All Providers ... Lubbock Sports ... Find Providers by Specialty Find Providers by Procedure. Find Providers by Condition. Find All Providers ... Lubbock Sports ...
Reconstructive surgical procedures for the treatment of posttraumatic patients; Diagnostics, treatment, and rehabilitation of ... Treatment methods in acute surgical diseases of the thorax, abdominal and pelvic cavities, methods of endoscopic surgery; ...
Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. *Cleaning. *Jaw Cancer. *Veneers. *Filling. *Extraction. *Jaw Cysts. *Neck Dissection ... Save up to 10-60% on most dental procedures today. Dental savings plans offer an affordable alternative to traditional dental ...
These reconstructive procedures are large surgical undertakings and, for the most part, are irreversible. Only limited success ... Surgical Therapies. Currently, no specific surgical therapies are directed towards interstitial cystitis. All surgical ... This involves surgical placement of an electrode into the S-3 foramen to provide direct sacral nerve root stimulation. This ... Candidates for these procedures should have exhausted all reasonable and available medical, pharmacologic, and behavioral ...
Our physicians provide a full range of reconstructive surgical procedures including:. *Microvascular free flap surgical ... Reconstructive Surgery of the Head and Neck University of Maryland oral-maxillofacial specialists use state of the art ... These procedures include care of oral tissues, the jaws, cheek and nasal bones, the forehead, and eye sockets. ... Bone grafting procedures (synthetic and autogenous) for oral-maxillofacial defects. *Reconstruction of bone, muscle, skin and ...
Gerrand CH, Rankin K. A system for the functional evaluation of reconstructive procedures after surgical treatment of tumors of ... What Proportion of Patients with Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors Contracted Coronavirus-19 and Died From Surgical Procedures During ... Surgical Advances in Osteosarcoma. Cancers 2021, 13(3), 388. * Baljer BC, Kolhe S, Chan CD, Nicoli F, Ghanbasha A, Brookes MJ, ... World Journal of Surgical Oncology 2022, 20(1), 124. * Brookes MJ, Chan CD, Baljer B, Wimalagunaratna S, Crowley TP, Ragbir M, ...
Skin grafting is one of the most commonly done surgical procedures as a part of reconstructive process. The skin grafts are ... The advances in the ablative surgical techniques have only left with more complexities for the reconstruction procedures. The ... Grabski WJ, Giandoni MB, Anderson LL: Surgical pearl: hydrocolloid dressings for full-thickness skin grafts. J Am Acad Dermatol ... Prolonged intraoperative time and graft healing time, technique sensitive procedure, may hinder inspection and wound care in ...
Lydus Medical has the potential to streamline the anastomosis process in many different surgical procedures, like ... Israels Lydus Medical Raises $2.7M For Its Automated Surgical Device. ...
... leaving women with no option but to seek invasive reconstructive surgical procedures instead." ... Ashouri came up with the idea for the personalized device - called a pessary - as part of her group work in the Surgical ...
Considerations for Elective Facial Plastic Surgical and Reconstructive Procedures during SARS-Cov-2 pandemic Based upon review ... As many state and local authorities are allowing elective surgical procedures to resume, the risk factors that are unique to ... AAFPRS Guidance on Resumption of Elective Facial Plastic Surgical Procedures-Maximizing Safety and Reducing the Risk of COVID- ... The medical community and surgical facility within which you perform procedures will establish policies that will affect your ...
Understanding the soft tissue and skeletal deformity is basic to any reconstructive surgical procedure of the face [2]. There ... A new surgical approach for Tessier no. 4 facial cleft reconstruction: lip-rescue flap. J Craniofac Surg. 2016;27(8):2138-40. ... Surgical treatment for incomplete Tessier no.3 craniofacial cleft: report of three cases and review of literature. Zhonghua Kou ... A surgical conundrum: Tessier number 4 cleft. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal. 2005;42(1):102-6. ...
Find the latest in safe surgical and nonsurgical cosmetic and reconstructive procedures in Bismarck, North Dakota ... offers the latest in safe surgical and nonsurgical cosmetic and reconstructive procedures to help you look and feel your best. ... Sanford Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Sanford Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Bismarck, North Dakota, ... Sanford Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Doctors. Filter By Type of Care. All Types of Care. Plastic Surgery. ...
A glossectomy is a surgical procedure that is done to remove all or part of the tongue for certain medical conditions, ... This type of glossectomy also requires reconstructive surgery.. Note: A temporary or permanent tracheostomy may be needed, ...
However, the condition is treatable and there are several options within common GYN procedures. TVT mid-urethral sling is an ... There are several surgical procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, including reconstructive and obliterative surgeries. ... This procedure is the most common surgical procedure to treat urinary stress incontinence. A victim of this condition releases ... Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments are available for pelvic organ prolapse. The non-surgical options include a pessary, ...
Reconstructive Surgical Procedures [E04.680]. *Arthroplasty [E04.680.101]. *Arthroplasty, Replacement [E04.680.101.110]. *Total ... The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION. ...
Reconstructive Surgical Procedures 12% * Internship and Residency 11% * MEDLINE 9% 6 Scopus citations ... Yao, A., Massenburg, B. B., Silver, L. & Taub, P. J., Sep 2017, In: Journal of Surgical Education. 74, 5, p. 773-779 7 p.. ...
... uc davis department of orthopadic surgery ... Surgical experience includes knee, shoulder and ankle arthroscopy and reconstructive ligament procedures. Participation as a ... Common surgical procedures include total hip replacement, total knee replacement, osteotomy for realignment of extremities and ... The service emphasizes a balanced approach to conservative and surgical management. Residents will gain surgical experience ...
A reconstructive procedure using plastic surgical techniques was performed successfully. Dr. Long was then able to offer his ... A: Please see the Surgical Art Gallery for some examples of this procedure.. ... A: The cosmetic procedure was pioneered by Dr. Long, Professor of Plastic Surgery, Wuhan, China. In 1984, a young man who had ... A: The procedure takes a couple of hours and the patient remains for observation for at least 3 hours prior to discharge. ...
... surgical body sculpting procedures, hair transplantation surgery, genital augmentation surgery, and reconstructive surgical ... The safety and comfort of patients is the primary concern of the surgeon and his team during procedures. Services include the ... Preuss is extraordinarily experienced plastic and reconstructive surgeon. Overseas patients are welcomed and treated at ... surgical reshaping or augmentation of facial features and breasts, ...
... body lift must be performed by a board-certified plastic surgeon who is experienced in body reconstructive surgical Procedures ... The duration for body contouring procedures is dependent on the methods to be applied, the part of the body where the procedure ... Body contouring can be painful in some cases especially with the use of surgical methods. Non surgical methods, which are known ... This allows you the flexibility to choose your physician, service Provider, Procedure, Product purchase or Procedure date with ...
Reconstructive Surgical Procedures Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Oncology *Skin Cancer. *Head and Neck Cancer ...
Reconstructive Surgical Procedures Medicine & Life Sciences 12% * Data Accuracy Medicine & Life Sciences 11% ... however any surgical procedure has the potential risk of infection. Infection rates for surgical treatment of breast cancer are ... however any surgical procedure has the potential risk of infection. Infection rates for surgical treatment of breast cancer are ... however any surgical procedure has the potential risk of infection. Infection rates for surgical treatment of breast cancer are ...
Browsing by Keyword : Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. All A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Optimizing outcome of charles procedure for chronic lower extremity lymphoedema.. 이일재. 2022. Pedicled frontal periosteal rescue ... Reconstructive stent-buttressed coil embolization of a traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery. ... Ankle Plantar-Flexion Contracture Complication After Aesthetic Calf Volume Reduction Procedure.. 정남수. ...
keywords = "Abnormalities, Penis, Reconstructive surgical procedures",. author = "Yosef, {Yuval Bar} and Joseph Binyamini and ... The procedure was successful in all 8 patients who had previously undergone operation for curvature repair. Conclusions: ... The procedure was successful in all 8 patients who had previously undergone operation for curvature repair. Conclusions: ... The procedure was successful in all 8 patients who had previously undergone operation for curvature repair. Conclusions: ...
Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Education and Training. Education History. Graduate. Ohio University Dublin, Dublin, OH. 5/ ... Im a physician assistant in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at The James. I received my masters degree ... Physician assistants work in a variety of settings, including primary care and various other medical and surgical specialties. ... Answered all my questions and explained the procedure she was doing. Very caring. ...
Orthopedic surgical procedures in 3,305 children and young adults with cerebral palsy: a register-based cohort study. Telléus, ... Range of hip abduction after preventive and reconstructive surgery in cerebral palsy: a longitudinal registry study of 307 ...
Reconstructive Surgical Procedure (1999-2001). Public MeSH Note:. 2002. History Note:. 2002. ... Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs. ... Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.. ... An alternative to AMPUTATION, SURGICAL in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. ...
... non-surgical procedure for the vagina that addresses vaginal laxity and other post-childbirth issues using an RF-emitting ... A reconstructive, non-surgical procedure for the vagina that addresses vaginal laxity and other post-childbirth issues. The ...
  • University of Maryland oral-maxillofacial specialists use state of the art reconstructive surgery for post traumatic and cancer related problems of the head and neck. (
  • Lydus Medical has the potential to streamline the anastomosis process in many different surgical procedures, like reconstructive surgery. (
  • And Reconstructive Surgery, Inc. (
  • The American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS) offers the AAFPRS Guidance on Resumption of Elective Facial Plastic Surgical Procedures- Maximizing Safety and Reducing the Risk of COVID-19 Transmission as being a set of practical and sensible protocols for physicians to consider implementing in an effort to attempt to minimize COVID-19 transmission during facial plastic surgical procedures. (
  • 1) Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery involves close contact with the upper respiratory tract and the adjacent facial region. (
  • Sanford Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Bismarck, North Dakota, offers the latest in safe surgical and nonsurgical cosmetic and reconstructive procedures to help you look and feel your best. (
  • This type of glossectomy also requires reconstructive surgery. (
  • Reconstructive surgery will repair the pelvic floor for the organs to be brought back to their original position. (
  • In addition to weekly gross anatomy dissections, residents on the hand service spend one week per rotation in the departmental microvascular surgery laboratory refining their surgical skills. (
  • A: The cosmetic procedure was pioneered by Dr. Long, Professor of Plastic Surgery, Wuhan, China. (
  • Services include the surgical reshaping or augmentation of facial features and breasts, surgical body sculpting procedures, hair transplantation surgery, genital augmentation surgery, and reconstructive surgical procedures. (
  • Pre and peri-operative antibiotics have been found to be useful in lowering infection rates in other surgical groups, yet there is no current consensus on prophylactic antibiotic use in breast cancer surgery. (
  • Objectives: To determine the effects of prophylactic antibiotics on the incidence of surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. (
  • Pooling of the results demonstrated that prophylactic antibiotics significantly reduce the incidence of surgical site infection for patients undergoing breast cancer surgery without reconstruction (pooled RR 0.72, 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.97). (
  • No studies presented separate data for patients who underwent reconstructive surgery at the time of removal of the breast tumour. (
  • Authors' conclusions: Prophylactic antibiotics reduce the risk of surgical site infection in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer. (
  • I'm a physician assistant in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at The James. (
  • Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs. (
  • Published 15 January 2021 Perfusion monitoringFull-thickness eyelid flaps and free skin grafts are frequently used in reconstructive surgery. (
  • In a recent American Society of Reconstructive Microsurgeons survey, respondents reported that about half their procedures lasted 8 hours or longer and 8% had tremor during their surgery. (
  • Soft tissue defects of the knee that require reconstructive surgery occur after trauma or following a surgical procedure. (
  • A common procedure that may require reconstructive surgery to achieve adequate soft tissue coverage of the knee is total knee arthroplasty (TKA). (
  • Nonunion and segmental bone loss after fracture, reconstructive surgery, or lesion excision can present complex orthopedic problems, and the multiple surgical procedures often needed are associated with patient morbidity and reduced quality of life. (
  • His present clinical interests include all areas of head and neck surgical oncology, including major ablative and reconstructive surgery of the head and neck. (
  • This objective description, in terms of the number of non surgical procedures aesthetic surgery procedures per capita, offers (including among the top five: injections of insight into the different degrees of diffusion toxins or neuromodulators - Botox, Dysport -, and familiarization with the phenomenon. (
  • Studies are performed in experimental pigs and in patients going through reconstructive surgery following periorbital tumour excision. (
  • We will study and develop the use of non-invasive imaging techniques including Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) and Photoacoustic Imaging (PAI) in experimental pigs and in patients going through reconstructive surgery. (
  • Through these developments, we believe that it will be possible to optimize surgical techniques, improve the result of surgery and reduce the suffering of the patient. (
  • FastOA Initiative Opens New Paradigm for OA Therapy Trials A new strategy to test investigational treatments for patients with OA is about to begin in patients who are at risk for accelerated development of OA following ACL reconstructive surgery. (
  • 4) In addition to direct contact with contaminated regions of the face, many procedures that we perform as Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons carry the risk of exposure to aerosolized particle generation (APG). (
  • Our surgeons provide consultations, recommendations and the latest in procedures using state-of-the-art technology to help you feel comfortable in your skin. (
  • With this technology, our surgeons create a real 3D image of the patient to demonstrate what is possible through their procedure. (
  • In our Lymphedema Center of Excellence, we utilize physical therapists, dieticians, vascular medicine, research and reconstructive surgeons to help patients improve their quality of life. (
  • These leading physicians and surgeons offer their perspectives on the comparative effectiveness of different surgical approaches, developing technology, and new recommendations for patient care. (
  • In an effort to help plastic surgeons better understand the impact of discrepancies in resection weight measurements used by the surgeon compared with that used by third-party payers, we present a retrospective analysis of 25 RM procedures comparing intraoperative with pathology laboratory resection weights. (
  • Treatment usually includes surgical excision, often with radiation therapy, and with or without adjuvant chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, or both. (
  • Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments are available for pelvic organ prolapse. (
  • Generally, body contouring procedures are safe as they mainly consist of nonsurgical methods. (
  • Results: Of patients with mild to moderate curvature 97% underwent a successful initial procedure. (
  • METHODS: The study comprised 38 patients who underwent surgical extraction of a mandibular impacted third molar. (
  • Penis lengthening is a new cosmetic procedure. (
  • Preoperative prosthodontic evaluation, VSP and reconstructive techniques developed to facilitate implant placement are associated with increased dental rehabilitation rates. (
  • There are several surgical procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, including reconstructive and obliterative surgeries. (
  • The service performs rheumatoid and all other reconstructive surgeries, including complex shoulder reconstruction and joint replacement. (
  • Other authors suggest that this gingival augmentation be accomplished by means of a removable, acrylic-made gingival epithesis or artificial gingiva that can carry out the function of muscular support of the lips, closing interdental cervical spaces and allowing proper hygiene procedures in the prosthesis and implants 7,8 . (
  • Microsurgery is considered one of the most demanding surgical techniques. (
  • This study illustrated how involving the users (microsurgeons) early in the design process provides useful perspectives on design requirements and implementation barrier for a cost-effective ergonom ic microsurgery armrest to foster sound ergonom ic surgical practice and reduce musculoskeletal health risk factors during microsurgery. (
  • Penetrating trauma or surgical wounds both put the knee at risk of exposure. (
  • This facility also houses the US Army's Institute of Surgical Research, which treats both active-duty and civilian trauma patients with burn injuries. (
  • In the case of unintended postoperative admission to your local hospital, it is important to know if the hospital is willing and able to accommodate a patient who has had a surgical procedure in the head and neck especially if there is a risk of AGP. (
  • A: The procedure takes a couple of hours and the patient remains for observation for at least 3 hours prior to discharge. (
  • Most people have both loose skin and areas of stubborn fat on their body that they would love to correct but without an invasive body lift and surgical liposuction. (
  • The Orthopaedic Oncology Service is a regional referral service for the surgical treatment of musculoskeletal neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. (
  • Periorbital tumour reconstruction is very crucial and monitoring of the flap tissue blood flow, composition and function can improve the outcome of the procedure. (
  • If we know how the blood flow and the survival of tissue are affected by these surgical procedures, it will be easier to perform simpler and less invasive reconstructions following tumour removal. (
  • What Proportion of Patients with Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors Contracted Coronavirus-19 and Died From Surgical Procedures During the Initial Period of the COVID-19 Pandemic? (
  • To help patients feel comfortable and confident going into their procedure, we've incorporated the VECTRA XT 3D imaging system that can show patients their anatomy, surgical options and expected outcomes. (
  • This valuable technology helps patients visualize and gain a clearer understanding of potential results following their procedure. (
  • The safety and comfort of patients is the primary concern of the surgeon and his team during procedures. (
  • Materials and Methods: A total of 45 penile plication procedures were performed in 43 pediatric patients, of whom 39 had mild to moderate and 4 had severe curvature. (
  • The procedure was successful in all 8 patients who had previously undergone operation for curvature repair. (
  • Conclusions: Midline dorsal penile plication is a safe, simple to perform procedure that achieves excellent results in patients with mild to moderate curvature. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Trismus after oral cancer is frequent, with scarce evidence of surgical release treatment in these patients. (
  • This procedure is the most common surgical procedure to treat urinary stress incontinence. (
  • TCT 2023 TAVR With LAAO Non-inferior to TAVR Plus Medical Therapy Left atrial appendage occlusion in the same procedure with transcatheter aortic valve replacement proved non-inferior to TAVR plus medical therapy in AF and aortic stenosis, in the WATCH-TAVR study. (
  • Skin grafting is one of the most commonly done surgical procedures as a part of reconstructive process. (
  • Reduction mammoplasty (RM) is a commonly performed surgical procedure to enhance a woman's quality of life, relieve symptoms of macromastia, and improve the aesthetics of large ptotic breasts. (
  • A reconstructive procedure using plastic surgical techniques was performed successfully. (
  • leading edge techniques are used during procedures. (
  • The medical community and surgical facility within which you perform procedures will establish policies that will affect your practice. (
  • Will I be assigned to a medical professional after the procedure? (
  • Physician assistants work in a variety of settings, including primary care and various other medical and surgical specialties. (
  • Her areas of interest are national organ allocation policies, issues of equity and fairness in access to care, and allocation, critical care of transplant recipients and potential organ donors, transplant center formation, governance models in academic medicine, surgical and medical education. (
  • Dr. Simpson specializes in the surgical and non-surgical management of arthritis. (
  • Body contouring can be painful in some cases especially with the use of surgical methods. (
  • Non surgical methods, which are known to be non invasive, are known to have little or no pain at all. (
  • Understanding chest wall anatomy is paramount to any surgical procedure regarding the chest and is vital to any reconstructive intervention. (
  • Rare craniofacial clefts pose the most significant reconstructive challenge to the craniofacial surgeon today because of their variability and complexity [ 6 ]. (
  • Dr. Preuss is extraordinarily experienced plastic and reconstructive surgeon. (
  • Your surgeon will make a surgical cut in the front of your ankle to expose the ankle joint. (
  • So this generally depends on the person though procedures used also matter. (
  • Generally, results from the body contouring procedures take about three to four months to manifest really well. (
  • Infection rates for surgical treatment of breast cancer are documented at between three and 15%, higher than average for a clean surgical procedure. (
  • Quality (IQR) Reporting Program d n a News For hospitals that participate in CMS's Hospital Inpatient Quality (IQR) Reporting Program, reporting of CAUTI l o - data from all adult and pediatric ICU locations and SSI data for inpatient abdominal hysterectomy and colon procedures is required as of January 1, 2012. (
  • Be sure to update your monthly reporting plans for 2012 to include CAUTI surveillance for all adult and pediatric ICU locations and SSI surveillance for inpatient abdominal hysterectomy and colon procedures. (
  • Physicians are routinely underestimating how painful these procedures can be. (
  • Dr. Varvares and his team will contribute their expertise to the clinical procedures section on Medscape Reference. (
  • As many state and local authorities are allowing elective surgical procedures to resume, the risk factors that are unique to performing procedures in the head and neck region must be seriously factored into one's decision to return to elective surgical practice. (
  • What are the protocols if any risk or complication arise during the procedure? (
  • However, the basic principles of the skin graft fixation remains constant and when satisfied leads to the success of the procedure. (
  • These procedures include care of oral tissues, the jaws, cheek and nasal bones, the forehead, and eye sockets. (
  • The non-surgical options include a pessary, biofeedback therapy, and Kegel exercises. (
  • Common surgical procedures include total hip replacement, total knee replacement, osteotomy for realignment of extremities and arthroscopy with chondroplasty. (
  • Prostheses in the knee are particularly at risk because of their superficial location and the location of the surgical access wounds. (
  • However, the condition is treatable and there are several options within common GYN procedures . (
  • however any surgical procedure has the potential risk of infection. (
  • Most of us have completely shuttered or significantly limited our practices to exclude elective visits and procedures. (
  • The service emphasizes a balanced approach to conservative and surgical management. (
  • While some procedures might be painful to some, it might have just minimal or no pain at all to others. (
  • The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION. (