Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The internal fragments of precursor proteins (INternal proTEINS) that are autocatalytically removed by PROTEIN SPLICING. The flanking fragments (EXTEINS) are ligated forming mature proteins. The nucleic acid sequences coding for inteins are considered to be MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Inteins are composed of self-splicing domains and an endonuclease domain which plays a role in the spread of the intein's genomic sequence. Mini-inteins are composed of the self-splicing domains only.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The reconstitution of a protein's activity following denaturation.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (1/70987)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (2/70987)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (3/70987)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Relaxin is a potent renal vasodilator in conscious rats. (4/70987)

The kidneys and other nonreproductive organs vasodilate during early gestation; however, the "pregnancy hormones" responsible for the profound vasodilation of the renal circulation during pregnancy are unknown. We hypothesized that the ovarian hormone relaxin (RLX) contributes. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of RLX elicits renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious adult, intact female rats. After several days of treatment with either purified porcine RLX or recombinant human RLX 2 (rhRLX), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20%-40%. Comparable renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration was also observed in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen and progesterone are unnecessary for the renal response to rhRLX. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester completely abrogated the increase in ERPF and GFR elicited by chronic administration of purified porcine RLX. In contrast, the renal vasoconstrictory response to angiotensin II was attenuated by the RLX treatment. Short-term infusion of purified porcine RLX to conscious rats over several hours failed to increase ERPF and GFR. Plasma osmolality was consistently reduced by the chronic administration of both RLX preparations. In conclusion, the renal and osmoregulatory effects of chronic RLX administration to conscious rats resemble the physiological changes of pregnancy in several respects: (a) marked increases in ERPF and GFR with a mediatory role for nitric oxide; (b) attenuation of the renal circulatory response to angiotensin II; and (c) reduction in plasma osmolality.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (5/70987)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (6/70987)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (7/70987)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (8/70987)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Phase I trial of recombinant human gamma-interferon and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of recombinant human protein C. AU - Lee, Timothy K.. AU - Bangalore, Neelesh. AU - Velander, William. AU - Drohan, William N.. AU - Lubon, Henryk. PY - 1996/5/1. Y1 - 1996/5/1. N2 - We have produced recombinant human Protein C (rHPC) in the milk of transgenic swine. After purification, we have analyzed the interaction of the zymogen with Protac, thrombin/thrombomodulin and thrombin alone. The amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of rAPC after Protac activation were ~80% those of its human plasma counterpart. Upon the excision of the activation peptide by thrombin/thrombomodulin complex, both the natural and recombinant activation products had similar enzymatic and biological activities. This. observation can be attributed to the difference in the mechanism of action between the two activators and structural differences between HPC and rHPC.. AB - We have produced recombinant human Protein C (rHPC) in the milk of transgenic swine. After purification, we have ...
JAK2 [V617F] Recombinant Human Protein, JH1 and JH2 Domains 100μg JAK2 [V617F] Recombinant Human Protein, JH1 and JH2 Domains Proteins J
Sino Biological™ CD22 Recombinant Human Protein, His Tag 5 x 5ug Sino Biological™ CD22 Recombinant Human Protein, His Tag Proteins C
Sino Biological™ PPARG Recombinant Human Protein, N-His.GST tag 50μg Sino Biological™ PPARG Recombinant Human Protein, N-His.GST tag Proteins P
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MICB Recombinant Human Protein, His Tag, Invitrogen™ Sino Biological™ 5 x 50ug MICB Recombinant Human Protein, His Tag, Invitrogen™ Sino...
Shop a large selection of Proteins F products and learn more about FRAP1 (mTOR) Recombinant Human Protein 10μg FRAP1 (mTOR) Recombinant Human Protein 10μg.
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The Global Recombinant Protein Market is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 11.2% during the forecast period. Recombinant proteins are used in designing new treatments for serious chronic disorders such as cancer and other rare diseases. A special technique known as recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology is used for recombinant protein production. Recombinant proteins are categorized into hormones, growth factor, cytokines, plasma protein factor, recombinant metabolic enzymes, and others, depending on the type of protein.. Recombinant technology is the mechanism involved in the production of industrial recombinant proteins. Industrial recombinant proteins and their derivatives have various applications in industries such as food, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, veterinary, agriculture, and detergents. Due to this, the industrial recombinant protein market is gaining a lot of attention worldwide. As a result, the producers of industrial recombinant protein have found great market opportunities.. Countries ...
Recombinant Human Protein SCO1 Homolog Mitochondrial is produced by our E.coli expression system and the target gene encoding Gly132-Ser300 is expressed with a GST tag at the N-terminus. Bon Opus Cat. #C259
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3 (ALDH1A3), recombinant human protein is supplied as a lyophilized powder. In general, recombinant proteins can be used as protein stucture analysis and in cell biology research applications.
This AMPK (A1/B2/G2) recombinant human protein (full length) was expressed in insect cells. AMPK (A1/B2/G2) serine/threonine kinase or AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) exhibits a key role as a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. AMPK exists as a heterotrimeric complex composed of a c
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiviral effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha in combination with natural interferon-beta in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1. AU - Schmitt, David A.. AU - Sasaki, Hidetaka. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 1992/10/1. Y1 - 1992/10/1. N2 - The protective effects of combination therapy utilizing recombinant human TNF-alpha (rTNF-α) and natural murine interferon-beta (IFN-β) in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was investigated. Mice treated with rTNF-α alone at all of the doses tested (a single i.v. administration, 2.3-2,300 μg/kg; multiple i.p. administrations 0.4-250 μg/kg) as well as mice that received IFN-β alone at doses of 16 × 104 U/kg or less resulted in a 0% survival rate. Combination therapy consisting of a single administration of rTNF- α (230 and 23 μg/kg) and multiple administrations of IFN-β (4 × 104 U/kg) resulted in a 40% and 60% survival rate. Multiple treatments of infected mice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiviral effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha in combination with natural interferon-beta in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1. AU - Schmitt, David A.. AU - Sasaki, Hidetaka. AU - Pollard, Richard B. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 1992/10/1. Y1 - 1992/10/1. N2 - The protective effects of combination therapy utilizing recombinant human TNF-alpha (rTNF-α) and natural murine interferon-beta (IFN-β) in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was investigated. Mice treated with rTNF-α alone at all of the doses tested (a single i.v. administration, 2.3-2,300 μg/kg; multiple i.p. administrations 0.4-250 μg/kg) as well as mice that received IFN-β alone at doses of 16 × 104 U/kg or less resulted in a 0% survival rate. Combination therapy consisting of a single administration of rTNF- α (230 and 23 μg/kg) and multiple administrations of IFN-β (4 × 104 U/kg) resulted in a 40% and 60% survival rate. Multiple treatments of infected mice ...
Background: The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine that produced principally by monocyte/macrophages and T lymphocytes, respectively. TNFα is recognized as the primary mediator of immunity in inflammation reaction. One important application of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 (TNFR2) is for the treatment of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the therapeutic trace of the recombinant humanTNFR2 on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Materials and Methods: CIA was created in 20 mice by immunization with bovine type II collagen (CII). After the mice were boosted on day 21, they were injected with the recombinant protein in test group (1 mg.kg-1) and assessed edema in paws and knee joints after two weeks. The quantities of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-β1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10(IL-10) in serum were evaluated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. In
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nutritional parameters observed during 28-day infusion of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α. AU - Hardin, T. C.. AU - Koeller, J. M.. AU - Kuhn, J. G.. AU - Roodman, G. D.. AU - Von Hoff, D. D.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - In conjunction with a Phase I investigation of the antineoplastic activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), administered as a 28- day continuous infusion, selected nutritional parameters were evaluated to identify any effect that might be attributed to the TNF infusion. Seven clinically stable men with a variety of tumor types were studied. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of significant malnutrition before entry into the study. Five patients received 10 μg of recombinant human TNF-α per square meter per day and two patients received 25 μg/m2 per day. Indirect calorimetry assessment of resting energy expenditure, body weight, serum TNF concentration, and laboratory analysis of common nutritional markers ...
A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polype
In the treatment of renal cell carcinoma both complete (CRs) and partial remissions (PRs) have been obtained using recombinant (r) interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), with response rates ranging from 0 to 31% (mean 16%). rIFN-gamma is a potent immunostimulating agent, but the clinical experience of its use is limited and results are conflicting. In a phase II study with the combination of rIFN-alpha(2c) (Boehringer Ingelheim) and rIFN-gamma (Genentech, supplied by Boehringer Ingelheim) in 31 eligible patients, a response rate of 25% was recorded. Based on this observation a randomised phase III study was initiated to investigate the possible advantage of the addition rIFN-gamma to rIFN-alpha(2c) treatment. Treatment consisted of rIFN-alpha(2c) 30 pg m(-2) = 10 x 10(6) IU m(-2) s.c. twice weekly in arm A and the same dose of rIFN-alpha combined with rIFN-gamma 100 mu g m(-2) = 2 x 10(6) IU m(-2) in arm B. Eligibility criteria included documented progression of disease; patients with bone lesions only ...
A number of recombinant plasmids coding for fusion proteins between human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) or beta (TNF beta) were constructed by using site-directed mutagenesis and ligation of the respective genes. In these proteins the whole IFN-gamma sequence of the molecule is linked at the N terminus via a short polypeptide linker to the TNF alpha sequence lacking two N-terminal amino acid residues or to the whole TNF beta sequence. A series of mutants with deletions in the interferon part of the fusion proteins were also produced. All the fusion genes obtained were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of early promoters of bacteriophage T7. The recombinant fusion proteins were found to be unstable inside bacterial cells. Bacterial cell lysates expressing these fusion genes or their deletion mutants showed both biological activities in vitro: the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma and the cytotoxic activity of TNF.
The anti-tumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rHTNF) was examined against four newly induced murine sarcomas (MCA-101, -102, -105, and -106) and a murine adenocarcinoma (MCA-38) transplanted s.c. into C57BL/6 mice. The serum half-life after a single i.v. injection of rHTNF was determined to be 30 +/- 2 min. Tumor-bearing mice were more susceptible to the toxic side effects of rHTNF than were normal mice. Forty-eight percent (41/86) of tumor bearing animals that received 10 micrograms rHTNF died within 48 hr after treatment compared with no deaths in 28 normal animals receiving this dose. Treatment of mice bearing either the MCA-101, -102, -105, or -106 sarcoma or the MCA-38 adenocarcinoma with rHTNF resulted in a marked necrosis of the central portion of each tumor within 24 hr. Animals bearing the weakly immunogenic tumors MCA-105, -106, and -38 experienced a reduction in average tumor area of 47% +/- 5, 46% +/- 6, and 37% +/- 11, respectively, by 3 to 4 days after ...
Project Title: Extended cell-free protein expression system for amino acid labeling and structural biology studies at Miami Universitys Center for Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics (CBFG).. Project Lead: Carole Dabney-Smith. Email: [email protected] Phone: (513) 529-8091. Affiliation: CAS. Other Team Members: Andor Kiss, Gary A. Lorigan. Project Details: This project is a request for a temperature regulated, heating and cooling capable, mixing, dry incubator with accessories capable of handling tube with different volumes and a starter expression kit. This will enable undergraduate and graduate student users to produce microgram to milligram quantities of in vitro expressed protein in a semi-high throughput fashion to aid in the investigation of protein structure/function relationships of any protein. One consistent barrier that impedes the progress of, discovery of structure/function relationships has been the ability to reliably and quickly generate protein, e.g., with single amino ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant human thrombopoietin in combination with granulocyte colony- stimulating factor enhances mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells, increases peripheral blood platelet concentration, and accelerates hematopoietic recovery following high-dose chemotherapy. AU - Somlo, George. AU - Sniecinski, Irena. AU - Ter Veer, Anna. AU - Longmate, Jeffrey. AU - Knutson, Gaylord. AU - Vuk-Pavlovic, Stanimir. AU - Bhatia, Ravi. AU - Chow, Warren. AU - Leong, Lucille. AU - Morgan, Robert. AU - Margolin, Kim. AU - Raschko, James. AU - Shibata, Stephen. AU - Tetef, Merry. AU - Yen, Yun. AU - Forman, Stephen. AU - Jones, Dennie. AU - Ashby, Mark. AU - Fyfe, Gwen. AU - Hellmann, Susan. AU - Doroshow, James H.. PY - 1999/5/1. Y1 - 1999/5/1. N2 - Lineage-specific growth factors mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) and accelerate hematopoietic recovery after high-dose chemotherapy. Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) may further increase the progenitor-cell content ...
This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. We have found that human recombinant IL-1β (a single injection ,0.01 µg per mouse i.v. given before tumor cells) induced an augmentation of experimental lung metastases from the A375M tumor cells in nude mice. This effect was rapidly induced and reversible within 24 h after IL-1 injection. A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1α and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. 5-[125I]Iodo-2′-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. These findings may explain the observation of enhanced secondary localization of tumor cells ...
The human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene is one of the earliest genes transcribed after the stimulation of a B cell through its antigen receptor or via the CD-40 pathway. In both cases, induction of TNF-alpha gene transcription can be blocked by the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and FK506, which suggested a role for the NFAT family of proteins in the regulation of the gene in B cells. Furthermore, in T cells, two molecules of NFATp bind to the TNF-alpha promoter element kappa 3 in association with ATF-2 and Jun proteins bound to an immediately adjacent cyclic AMP response element (CRE) site. Here, using the murine B-cell lymphoma cell line A20, we show that the TNF-alpha gene is regulated in a cell-type-specific manner. In A20 B cells, the TNF-alpha gene is not regulated by NFATp bound to the kappa 3 element. Instead, ATF-2 and Jun proteins bind to the composite kappa 3/CRE site and NFATp binds to a newly identified second NFAT site centered at -76 nucleotides relative to the ...
The mortality rate at eight weeks was similar in the lenograstim and placebo groups (23 and 27 percent, respectively; P = 0.60), as was the incidence of severe infections. The median duration of neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count , or = 1000 per cubic millimeter) was shorter in the lenograstim group (21 days, as compared with 27 days in the placebo group; P , 0.001). Eight percent of the patients in both groups had regrowth of AML cells. The rate of complete remission was significantly higher in the lenograstim group (70 percent, as compared with 47 percent in the placebo group; P = 0.002). Overall survival, however, was similar in the two groups (P = 0.76). Conclusions: ...
Animal Model. Neonatal Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1) no-stroke control, 2) saline control, and 3) rhEPO treatment. The surgical procedure of whisker-barrel cortex ischemia in neonatal rats followed similar methods as described previously (Wei et al., 2006). In brief, postnatal day 7 (P7) pups were anesthetized by hypothermia. Hypothermia anesthesia was chosen because many of the drugs used to anesthetize adult animals provided inadequate anesthesia for neonates or were associated with problems such as excessively high mortality (Danneman and Mandrell, 1997). In this regard, hypothermia (immersion in ice) has been judged as a humane, safe, and effective anesthesia method for survival surgeries of neonatal rats (Danneman and Mandrell, 1997). The hypothermia procedure was kept the same for all pups in different experimental groups. Pups were placed in a noninvasive head-holder to allow for a 2.5- to 3.0-mm-diameter craniectomy through the right parietal skull. The ...
Patients must not have autoimmune disorders or conditions of immunosuppression that require current ongoing treatment with systemic corticosteroids (or other systemic immunosuppressants), including oral steroids (e.g., prednisone, dexamethasone) or continuous use of topical steroid creams or ointments or ophthalmologic steroids; a history of occasional (but not continuous) use of steroid inhalers is allowed; replacement doses of steroids for patients with adrenal insufficiency are allowed; patients who discontinue use of these classes of medication for at least 2 weeks prior to randomization are eligible if, in the judgment of the treating physician investigator, the patient is not likely to require resumption of treatment with these classes of drugs during the study; exclusion from this study also includes patients with a history of symptomatic autoimmune disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic progressive sclerosis [scleroderma], systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogrens syndrome, ...
Unconjugated Whole IgG Rabbit anti-CD3E Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody [BL-298-5D12] suitable for WB, IP, IHC, ICC, IHC-IF, F, mIF applications. Visit Bethyl.com for all your antibody needs.
What is the difference between Parental Type and Recombinant Type Chromosomes? Crossover not occurs in parental type chromosomes; in recombinant type
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Active Recombinant human G-CSF protein is a HEK 293 Protein fragment 31 to 204 aa range, | 95% purity, | 1.000 Eu/µg endotoxin level and validated in FuncS, SDS-PAGE. The bio-activity was determined …
Buy our Recombinant Human G-CSF protein. Ab54137 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free…
Recombinant protein production in mammalian cells is an important topic in biotechnology [1]. One of the critical steps in the production of recombinant proteins is the isolation of stable single cell clones expressing high levels of the protein of interest. Commonly, this is achieved by random genomic integration of a vector containing a promoter, a gene of interest and a selectable marker. Although this method is simple and straight forward, it lacks of reproducibility. Expression from such vectors is substantially influenced by the surrounding chromatin to the integration site and tends to be silenced over time. This makes the selection of suitable clones a tedious and time consuming procedure [1]. Several strategies have been developed to overcome the positional effects of the adjacent chromatin. For example, anti-repressor elements flanking the vectors [2] have been used or vectors have been integrated specifically into chromosomal loci with open chromatin [3]. Ideally, a vector for ...
etc. the cell physiology is affected. Cells are stressed, and this may severely affect growth, by-product accumulation, biomass yield and recombinant product yield. The stress caused by exposure to divergent microenvironments, genetic differences of individual cells, differing cell cycle stage and cell age, all contribute to make a population in a fermenter heterogeneous, resulting in cell-to-cell variation in physiological parameters of the microbial culture. Our study aims at investigating how population heterogeneity and recombinant protein production is affected by environmental gradients in bioreactors. For this purpose, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, that functions as a protein production reporter, has been developed. A heterologous protein has been tagged with a fluorescent protein providing a way to measure the amount of heterologous protein produced by the cells on single cell level. Gradients are simulated in small bioreactors and the population heterogeneity can be visualised by ...
We have used transgenic mouse technology to establish immortalized hepatoma cell lines stably secreting heterologous proteins, such as human α1-antitrypsin and human factor IX. Hepatocyte-specific...
Protein titers, a key bioprocessing metric, depend both on the synthesis of protein and the degradation of protein. Secreted recombinant protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive platform as minimal media can be used for cultivation, thus reducing fermentation costs and simplifying downstream purification, compared to other systems that require complex media. As such, engineering S. cerevisiae to improve titers has been then the subject of significant attention, but the majority of previous efforts have been focused on improving protein synthesis. Here, we characterize the protein uptake and degradation pathways of S. cerevisiae to better understand its impact on protein secretion titers. We do find that S. cerevisiae can consume significant (in the range of 1 g/L/day) quantities of whole proteins. Characterizing the physiological state and combining metabolomics and transcriptomics, we identify metabolic and regulatory markers that are consistent with uptake of whole ...
The following is a list of notable proteins that are generated from recombinant DNA, using biomolecular engineering, focusing on those that are used in human and veterinary medicine. In many cases, recombinant human proteins have replaced the original animal-derived version used in medicine. The prefix rh for recombinant human appears less and less in the literature. A much larger number of recombinant proteins is used in the research laboratory. These include both commercially available proteins (for example most of the enzymes used in the molecular biology laboratory), and those that are generated in the course specific research projects. Human growth hormone (rHGH): Humatrope from Lilly and Serostim from Serono replaced cadaver harvested human growth hormone human insulin (BHI): Humulin from Lilly and Novolin[disambiguation needed] from Novo Nordisk among others largely replaced bovine and porcine insulin for human therapy. Some prefer to continue using the animal-sourced preparations, as ...
Portland, Maine (PRWEB) June 18, 2014 -- Maine Biotechnology Services is announcing the addition of Bacterial Recombinant Protein Expression and Purification
Every kind of biological life process, from small to large, multiply, life and death, metabolism, is related to enzymes. If there is no catalysis of enzymes, the most basic food digestion in life and oxygen breathing can not be carried out. In fact, the various reactions occurring in the body are almost always carried out by the enzyme. It can be said that there is no enzyme, there is no life.. Here are three enzyme catalytic systems, which let us better understand the function and function of the enzyme from Creative Enzymes.. E. coli Enzyme Expression System. To date, a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems have been developed to produce recombinant proteins. Compared with other systems, Escherichia coli expression system has the advantages of clear genetic background, easy operation, large-scale fermentation culture, and is the most commonly used expression system at this stage. However, in the process of exogenous gene expression, there may be problems such as low ...
We have investigated the ability of recombinant TNF (mouse and human) to produce acute inflammatory lesions in an established experimental model of inflammation
Both exposure to oxygen and recombinant protein production are known to have adverse effects on microbial fermentation, including increased proteolytic and oxidative damage to the product. In an effort to characterize the effects of these stresses on the cell, DNA microarrays were used to monitor global gene expression of E. coli producing recombinant human αl-antitrypsin (α₁AT) during exposure to defined aeration conditions. Recombinant α₁AT has been shown to undergo oxygen-dependent degradation during production in E. coli, due in part to activation of the heat-shock response. The goal of this work is to better understand the effects of oxygen in order to improve this recombinant protein production process. In order to study the effects of oxygen extremes, global expression analysis was performed on α₁AT-producing cultures exposed to pure nitrogen, air, and pure oxygen. The most notable effects of oxygen exposure were those of superoxide. This reactive oxygen species is generated ...
Background Although most of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), being relatively short, are produced by chemical synthesis, several AMPs have been produced using recombinant technology. However, AMPs could be cytotoxic to the producer cell, and if small they can be easily degraded. The objective of this study was to produce a multidomain antimicrobial protein based on recombinant protein nanoclusters to increase the yield, stability and effectivity. Results A single antimicrobial polypeptide JAMF1 that combines three functional domains based on human α-defensin-5, human XII-A secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), and a gelsolin-based bacterial-binding domain along with two aggregation-seeding domains based on leucine zippers was successfully produced with no toxic effects for the producer cell and mainly in a nanocluster structure. Both, the nanocluster and solubilized format of the protein showed a clear antimicrobial effect against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, ...
Recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against EGFR. Original antibody is raised against recombinant protein corresponding to extracellular domain of mouse EGFR. (RAB00103) - Products - Abnova
Recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against full length human HSP90B1. Recombinant protein corresponding to full-length human HSP90B1. (RAB00648) - Products - Abnova
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recombinant protein production is a process of great industrial interest, with products that range from pharmaceuticals to bi...
Membrane proteins are some of the most interesting cellular proteins, serving as sensors and transducers of diverse signals, yet they also are the most…
Making Recombinant Proteins - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: My boss wants me to make a recombinant protein and this is something that I have never done before. The protein that I want to make is Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 and the product sheet of this compound where we first purchased the protein states that it is a 28.8 kDa homodimer, each subunit contains 116 amino acid residues (corresponding to amino acid residues 316 to 431 of the full-length...
The use of genetic and protein engineering techniques have led to a significant progress in animal production and it is starting to have a commercial impact in this field. Nowadays it is possible to design tailor-made sequences of enzymes, which in some cases combine specific properties of different enzymes in one molecule to obtain an optimal functional protein [181]. On the other hand, this technology allows the production of recombinant hormones through cost-effective processes using microbial cells as production hosts. In addition to this, novel strategies such as those based on passive immunization are gaining ground due to the broad range of possibilities that recombinant protein production offers. In this context, although important efforts have been done toward the minimization of recombinant protein production costs, currently, much remains still to be achieved. Cost effectiveness is particularly important in the context of animal production, where marginal returns are tight. Currently, ...
The present invention relates to a method of producing a target protein, which method comprises expressing said protein in a host cell which contains a nucleic acid molecule which encodes a chimeric
protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... Recombinant TNF is used as an immunostimulant under the INN tasonermin. TNF can be produced ectopically in the setting of ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • regulation of receptor activity ...
... recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used in cell therapy. Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or ... recombinant protein stimulation of red blood cell production etanercept Enbrel rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ... recombinant human TNF-receptor fusion protein TNF antagonist infliximab Remicade rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ... Produced by recombinant DNA[edit]. See also: Biologics for immunosuppression. As indicated the term "biologics" can be used to ...
... recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used in cell therapy. Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or ... recombinant protein stimulation of red blood cell production etanercept Enbrel rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ... recombinant human TNF-receptor fusion protein TNF antagonist infliximab Remicade rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, ... Host cell protein. References[edit]. *^ "Biological". Oxford Dictionaries.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit ...
Graumann K, Premstaller A (February 2006). "Manufacturing of recombinant therapeutic proteins in microbial systems". ... The bacterial flagellum is made of about 20 proteins, with approximately another 30 proteins required for its regulation and ... The lag phase has high biosynthesis rates, as proteins necessary for rapid growth are produced.[107][108] The second phase of ... These transfer proteins from the cytoplasm into the periplasm or into the environment around the cell. Many types of secretion ...
"Human recombinant activated protein C for severe sepsis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD004388. doi:10.1002/ ... Drotrecogin alfa (activated) (Xigris, marketed by Eli Lilly and Company) is a recombinant form of human activated protein C ... The exact mechanism for this protein is currently not known, but efforts continue to isolate activated protein C mutants that ... In vitro data suggest that activated protein C exerts an antithrombotic effect by inhibiting factors Va and VIIIa, and that it ...
"Efficient agroinfiltration of plants for high-level transient expression of recombinant proteins". Journal of Visualized ... "Optimization and utilization of Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in Nicotiana". Journal of Visualized ...
"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; ... and extensive proteolytic cleavage at sites shown to contain regions of basic protein sequences. However, the proteases that ...
"Laboratory Diagnostic Systems for Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers Developed with Recombinant Proteins". Clinical and ... The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, whose concentration in the cell determines when L switches from gene ... Newly synthesized structural proteins and genomes self-assemble and accumulate near the inside of the cell membrane. Virions ... and are not covalently linked to a protein.[22] Marburgvirus genomes are approximately 19 kb long and contain seven genes in ...
A. John Clark (1998). "The Mammary Gland as a Bioreactor: Expression, Processing, and Production of Recombinant Proteins". ... For example, a gene from a jellyfish, encoding a fluorescent protein called GFP, or green fluorescent protein, can be ... "Recombinant growth hormone for children and adolescents with Turner syndrome". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD003887. PMID ... Gasdaska JR et al. (2003) "Advantages of Therapeutic Protein Production in the Aquatic Plant Lemna". BioProcessing Journal Mar/ ...
Recombinant VAR2CSA proteins detect oncofetal chondroitin modifications • Human cancer can be broadly targeted by malarial ... 7TM protein ,952 ,- , 6TM protein ,16 ,- , 5TM protein ,290 ,- , 4TM protein ,554 ,- , 3TM protein ,558 ,- , 2TM protein ,934 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family which assist in repair of DNA double strand breaks. ... These regulatory genes produce proteins that bind to and affect the activity of other genes. The protein products of these ...
Characterization of the recombinant proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (20): 17022-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100623200. PMID 11279105. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode: ... identification in a genetic screen and effects on catalysis by the recombinant proteins". Adv. Enzyme Regul. 44: 37-49. doi: ... Similarity to an E. coli protein suggests that this enzyme may be a subunit of DNA polymerase III, which does not have ...
Kozasa T, Gilman AG (1995). "Purification of recombinant G proteins from Sf9 cells by hexahistidine tagging of associated ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ... protein heterotrimerization. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • protein folding. • G-protein coupled ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene.[5] ...
De Schutter, K., Lin, Y., Tiels, P. (2009). "Genome sequence of the recombinant protein production host Pichia pastoris". ... As the protein yield from expression system in a microbe is roughly equal to the product of the proteins produced per cell, ... 2000). "Modeling Pichia pastoris growth on methanol and optimizing the production of a recombinant protein, the heavy‐chain ... As some proteins require chaperonin for proper folding, Pichia is unable to produce a number of proteins, since P. pastoris ...
"IFNB1 recombinant protein". مؤرشف من الأصل في 4 مارس 2016.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة). .mw-parser-output cite. ... positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein. • تجلط الدم. • B cell differentiation. • cellular ... 1987). "Structure of the carbohydrate moiety of human interferon-beta secreted by a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line ... 2005). "Immunomodulatory effects of the HIV-1 gp120 protein on antigen presenting cells: implications for AIDS pathogenesis". ...
Weissmann, Charles (2001). "Recombinant interferon - the 20th anniversary". In Buckel, Peter (ed.). Recombinant Protein Drugs. ... It is a recombinant form of the protein Interferon alpha-2 that was originally sequenced and produced recombinantly in E. coli ... It was also produced in 1986 in recombinant human form, in the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology of Havana, Cuba ... but the period of usefulness is limited by the production of antigens against this foreign protein. Interferon Nagata, ...
... recombinant activated protein C or Xigris)[6]然因無證據可支持用以治療敗血症病患,且有出血的高風險,禮來公司已於2011年10月25日宣布不再持續臨床試驗[7]。 ... Human recombinant activated protein C
2010). "Structural and functional characterization of the recombinant human mitochondrial trifunctional protein". Biochemistry ... "Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2015.. ... The encoded protein can also bind RNA and decreases the stability of some mRNAs. The genes of the alpha and beta subunits of ... The HADHB protein catalyzes the final step of beta-oxidation, in which 3-ketoacyl CoA is cleaved by the thiol group of another ...
"Protection against Asiatic Taenia solium induced by a recombinant 45W-4B protein". Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16 (2): 230-2. doi: ... CSF findings include pleocytosis, elevated protein levels and depressed glucose levels; but these may not be always present. ... cyst-infected meat might be considered as wasted since pork can provide high quality protein.[40] At times, infected pigs are ...
Strasser R, Altmann F, Steinkellner H (December 2014). "Controlled glycosylation of plant-produced recombinant proteins". ... A chaperone protein (calnexin/calreticulin) binds to the unfolded or partially folded protein to assist protein folding. The ... The proteins produced in these expression hosts are often not identical to human protein and thus, causes immunogenic reactions ... This initial trimming step is thought to act as a quality control step in the ER to monitor protein folding. Once the protein ...
"Integrated continuous production of recombinant therapeutic proteins". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 109 (12): 3018-3029. ... When purifying antibodies, Protein A is used as affinity matrix. However, periodic counter-current processes can be applied to ... A novel cyclic process for protein A affinity chromatography". Journal of Chromatography A. 1389: 85-95. doi:10.1016/j.chroma. ... "Comparison of batch and continuous multi-column protein A capture processes by optimal design". Biotechnology Journal. 11 (7): ...
In such cases, these proteins must be fermented much like in recombinant protein production, alcohol brewing and the generation ... Wingfield, Paul T. (1 April 2015). "Overview of the Purification of Recombinant Proteins". Current Protocols in Protein Science ... There are a number of organizations working on decreasing the cost of culture media either by scaling recombinant protein ... The current alternative is to generate each of these growth factors individually using recombinant protein production. In this ...
Characterization of cDNAs and recombinant fusion proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. 259 (3): 618-25. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999. ... Plasminogen-related protein B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLGLB2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Recombinant Human SH2D3A Protein". potassium-channel. Potassium Channel. 1 August 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017. "SH2D3A ... SH2 domain-containing protein 3A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SH2D3A gene. The protein may be useful in ... Lu Y, Brush J, Stewart TA (Apr 1999). "NSP1 defines a novel family of adaptor proteins linking integrin and tyrosine kinase ... "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane ...
"Nesfatin-1 Recombinant Protein". Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013. Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, ... Nesfatin-1 is a polypeptide encoded in the N-terminal region of the protein precursor, Nucleobindin2 (NUCB2). Recombinant human ... In addition, the protein stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cells of both rats and mice. ... It is needed to fully activate AKT and consists of two discrete protein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, only one of which, TORC1, ...
Type vaksine: Killed, Attenuated, Live, Toxoid, Subunit, Protein subunit, Conjugate, Recombinant, DNA. ...
Recombinant proteins[edit]. Possibly the most common use of affinity chromatography is for the purification of recombinant ... Proteins with a known affinity are protein tagged in order to aid their purification. The protein may have been genetically ... "Affinity Chromatography of Native and Recombinant Proteins from Receptors for Insulin and IGF-I to Recombinant Single Chain ... Many naturally occurring proteins do not have an affinity for metal ions, therefore recombinant DNA technology can be used to ...
Genetic systems have also been developed which allow the production of recombinant proteins using E. coli. One of the first ... E. coli have been used successfully to produce proteins previously thought difficult or impossible in E. coli, such as those ... Considered a very versatile host for the production of heterologous proteins,[25] researchers can introduce genes into the ... The cellular environment of E. coli is normally too reducing for disulphide bonds to form, proteins with disulphide bonds ...
Su RS, Renner JN, Liu JC (December 2013). "Synthesis and characterization of recombinant abductin-based proteins". ... Abductin is a natural elastic protein that is found in the hinge ligament of bivalve mollusks. It is unique as it is the only ... It has been proposed that the protein could have uses in drug delivery or tissue engineering. Ehrlich H (2010). "Chapter 19: ... Kelly RE, Rice RV (January 1967). "Abductin: a rubber-like protein from the internal triangular hinge ligament of pecten". ...
The products of pharming are recombinant proteins or their metabolic products. Recombinant proteins are most commonly produced ... Blood, for instance, as of 2012 cannot store high levels of stable recombinant proteins, and biologically active proteins in ... Many proteins of interest are too complex to be made by microbial systems or by protein synthesis. These proteins are currently ... substantially reduce the burden of protein purification in preparing recombinant proteins for medical use. In addition, both ...
2010). "Native-sized recombinant spider silk protein produced in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli results in a strong ... It has recently been shown that recombinant spider silk proteins can self-assemble at the liquid air interface of a standing ... Rammensee, S.; Slotta, U.; Scheibel, T. & Bausch, A. R. (2008). "Assembly mechanism of recombinant spider silk proteins ( ... "Recombinant Spider Silk Forms Tough and Elastic Nanomembranes that are Protein‐Permeable and Support Cell Attachment and Growth ...
2002). "Assignment of the complete disulphide bridge pattern in the human recombinant follitropin beta-chain". Biol. Chem. 382 ... J Protein Chem. 7 (4): 325-39. PMID 3151250. doi:10.1007/BF01024882. تحقق من التاريخ في: ,date=. (مساعدة) ...
"Biological effects of recombinant human zona pellucida proteins on sperm function". Biol. Reprod. 74 (4): 760-8. doi:10.1095/ ... GO:0001948 protein binding. • carbohydrate binding. • identical protein binding. • receptor ligand activity. • extracellular ... Zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, also known as zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (Zp-3) or the sperm receptor, is a ZP ... I. Studies with recombinant human ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC". Fertil. Steril. 83 (6): 1780-90. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2004.12.042. ...
"Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) S protein production in plants: development of recombinant vaccine". Proceedings of ... Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... "Fruit Cell Wall Proteins Help Fungus Turn Tomatoes From Ripe To Rotten". Science Daily. Jan 31, 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010. ... This tomato gained the moniker "fish tomato".[16] The antifreeze protein was found to inhibit ice recrystallization in the ...
A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by ... Canine Recombinant Lyme, formulated by Merial, generates antibodies against the OspA protein so a tick feeding on a vaccinated ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ...
The term alpha-1 refers to the protein's behavior on protein electrophoresis. On electrophoresis, the protein component of the ... Recombinant alpha-1 antitrypsin is not yet available for use as a drug but is under investigation as a therapy for alpha-1 ... which could confer this protein particular protein-cell recognition properties. The single cysteine residue of A1AT in position ... As protein electrophoresis is imprecise, the A1AT phenotype is analysed by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the pH range 4.5-5.5, ...
Puia G, Santi MR, Vicini S, Pritchett DB, Purdy RH, Paul SM, Seeburg PH, Costa E (May 1990). "Neurosteroids act on recombinant ... Fig 2. Schematic diagram of a GABAA receptor protein ((α1)2(β2)2(γ2)) which illustrates the five combined subunits that form ... The synaptic anchoring protein Gephyrin is indirectly linked to the GABAA receptors. ... molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system. ...
S. frugiperda cells (Sf9 and Sf21 cell lines) are commonly used in biomedical research for the purpose of recombinant protein ... This protein was found to significantly decrease fall armyworm larva growth.[12] ...
Bacillus subtilis spores are useful for the expression of recombinant proteins and in particular for the surface display of ... Small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) are found in endospores. These proteins tightly bind and condense the DNA, and are in part ... The dipicolinic acid helps stabilize the proteins and DNA in the endospore.[14]:141 Next the peptidoglycan cortex forms between ... In Bacillus subtilus endospores, the spore coat is estimated to contain more than 70 coat proteins, which are organized into an ...
Young's lab is also attributed with the discovery of the timeless and doubletime genes, which makes proteins that are also ... They constructed segments of recombinant Drosophila DNA, amplified them in bacteria, and injected them in per mutant animals. A ... Period and Timeless proteins bind together to form a stabilized dimer, which allows the two to enter the nucleus. ... Later Young and others found that TIM proteins did not accumulate in nuclei in per mutants. They concluded that PER and TIM ...
"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[۲۵] ۱۹۷۲ ویلیام اشتین[۱] United States "for his work on ribonuclease ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[۲۹] ... "for their discovery of جی پروتئینs and the role of these proteins in ورارسانی پیام in cells"[۷۳] ... "for their interpretation of the رمز ژنتیکی and its function in protein synthesis"[۵۷] ...
Recombinant activated protein C. *Sedatives. *Stress ulcer prevention drugs. *Vasopressors. ICU scoring systems. *APACHE II ...
Two mature PDHA proteins come together with two PDHB proteins to form a heterotetrameric E1 subunit. Crystal Structures allowed ... Liu S, Baker JC, Andrews PC, Roche TE (1995). "Recombinant expression and evaluation of the lipoyl domains of the dihydrolipoyl ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1] ... 2001). "Activation and mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase Cdelta are necessary for insulin stimulation of pyruvate ...
Synthetic (recombinant or cell-clone) human immunoglobulins can now be made, and for several reasons (including the risk of ... even death from this procedure because the human body sometimes recognizes antibodies from other animals as foreign proteins.[ ... Guérin, N. (2007). "Histoire de la vaccination: De l'empirisme aux vaccins recombinants" [History of vaccination: from ... empiricism towards recombinant vaccines]. La Revue de Médecine Interne (in French). 28 (1): 3-8. doi:10.1016/j.revmed.2006.09. ...
radiology - randomized trial - rebound - receptor (immunology) - recombinant - recombinant DNA - recombinant DNA technology - ... proteins - protocol - protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified ... core protein - correlates of immunity/correlates of protection - creatinine - cross-resistance - cryotherapy - cryptococcal ...
This matrix is made up of a variety of sugars and proteins and helps to form the architectural framework of the body. The ... Idursulfase, a purified form of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase produced by recombinant DNA technology in a human ...
In APS there are also antibodies binding to Protein S, which is a co-factor of protein C. Thus, anti-protein S antibodies ... that use recombinant antigens will not have a false-positive result. ... Protein C deficiency/Activated protein C resistance/Protein S deficiency/Factor V Leiden ... Levels of protein C, free and total protein S, factor VIII, antithrombin, plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and ...
Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (October 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in ... "Assignment of intrachain disulfide bonds and characterization of potential glycosylation sites of the type 1 recombinant human ... Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[6] ...
Jacob F; Monod J (June 1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". J Mol Biol. 3 (3): 318-56. doi: ... Berg, P.; Mertz, J. E. (2010). "Personal Reflections on the Origins and Emergence of Recombinant DNA Technology". Genetics 184 ... Wu, DD; Irwin, DM; Zhang, YP (November 2011). "De novo origin of human protein-coding genes.". PLOS Genetics 7 (11): e1002379. ... Hershey, AD; Chase, M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal ...
Kirsch T, Nickel J, Sebald W (February 2000). "Isolation of recombinant BMP receptor IA ectodomain and its 2:1 complex with BMP ... Koštani morfogenetički protein 2 ili BMP-2 pripada TGF-β superfamiliji proteina.[1] ... Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233-41. PMID 15621726. doi: ... Kawamura C, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y (2003). "Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells.". Leuk. ...
GO:0001948 protein binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ... In lethal challenges of recombinant H5N1 influenza virus, the CLEC5A deficient mice showed reduced levels of proinflammatory ... Structurally MDL-1 is a type II transmembrane protein with a short cytoplasmic tail and without signaling motifs, therefore it ... Another pathogen is influenza virus and its hemagglutinin protein, which interacts with CLEC5A. Through this interaction is ...
"The Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Amyloid β-Protein Is an Antimicrobial Peptide". PLoS ONE 5 (3): e9505. Bibcode:2010PLoSO... ... finder, v; glockshuber (2009). "The Recombinant Amyloid-β Peptide Aβ1-42 Aggregates Faster and Is More Neurotoxic than ... Shinkai Y, Yoshimura M, Ito Y, Odaka A, Suzuki N, Yanagisawa K, Ihara Y (September 1995). "Amyloid beta-proteins 1-40 and 1-42( ... Zou K, Gong JS, Yanagisawa K, Michikawa M (June 2002). "A novel function of monomeric amyloid beta-protein serving as an ...
In 1997, curculin was expressed in E. coli and yeast, but the recombinant protein did not exhibit "sweet-tasting" or "taste- ... Because curculin is not widely found in nature, efforts are underway to produce a recombinant form of the protein. ... Like most proteins, curculin is susceptible to heat. At a temperature of 50 °C (122 °F) the protein starts to degrade and lose ... Amino acid sequence of sweet protein curculin adapted from Swiss-Prot biological database of protein sequences.[3] ...
"NIH Guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA molecules". Office of Biotechnology Activities. U.S. Department of Health ... Bakteri yang dihasilkan, bernama Mycoplasma laboratorium, dapat mereplikasi dan menghasilkan protein.[40][41] Empat tahun ... Perusahaan pertama yang berfokus pada rekayasa genetika, Genentech, didirikan pada tahun 1976 dan mulai memproduksi protein ... didirikan oleh Herbert Boyer dan Robert Swanson dan setahun kemudian perusahaan itu menghasilkan protein manusia (somatostatin ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Recombinant PDGF is used in medicine to help heal chronic ulcers and in orthopedic surgery and periodontics as an alternative ... a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Recombinant PDGF is used to help heal chronic ulcers and in orthopedic surgery and periodontics to stimulate bone regeneration ...
On December 2, 2005, the United States FDA approved a synthetic (recombinant or rDNA) "human" hyaluronidase, Hylenex (Halozyme ... Available protein structures:. Pfam structures / ECOD PDB. RCSB PDB; PDBe; PDBj. PDBsum. structure summary. ... Sanford M (August 2014). "Human immunoglobulin 10 % with recombinant human hyaluronidase: replacement therapy in patients with ...
... s with recombinant DNA are introduced into the media containing animal cells and are fused by polyethylene glycol ( ... Yeast cells are normally protected by a thick cell wall which makes extraction of cellular proteins difficult. Enzymatic ... Bacterial spheroplasts, with suitable recombinant DNA inserted into it, can be used to transfect animal cells. ...
These media are used for the detection of microorganisms and by molecular biologists to detect recombinant strains of bacteria ... and sulfur to allow the bacteria to synthesize protein and nucleic acids ... Minimal media can also be used to select for or against recombinants or exconjugants. ... This supplementation allows for the culturing of specific lines of auxotrophic recombinants. ...
However, it does inhibit native and recombinant high-voltage-activated calcium channels (N- and P/Q/R-types) at therapeutic ... Protein binding. 55%. Metabolism. Liver (mostly UGT1A4-mediated). Elimination half-life. 29 hours. ...
In Recombinant Proteins from Plants, leading researchers from around the world present the latest molecular and classical ... approaches to the separation, analysis, and characterization of recombinant pl ... and characterization of recombinant plant proteins. Focusing on the large-scale, cost-effective production of such proteins for ... and for exploiting the immunotherapeutic potential of plant-expressed proteins. Recombinant Proteins from Plants provides a ...
Recombinant proteins are formed by transfecting foreign genes into a host cell. They are commonly used in the pharmaceutical ... Recombinant proteins are formed by transfecting foreign genes into a host cell. Recombinant proteins are commonly used to ... How did the idea of recombinant protein emerge?. Recombinant proteins were proposed by Peter Lobban who was the first person to ... Expression of recombinant proteins. The strategy for expressing recombinant protein involves transfecting a particular cell ...
The growing therapeutic use of proteins has created an increasing need for practical and economical processing techniques. As a ... Recombinant Protein Affinity Chromatography Purification Process Downstream Processing Purification Scheme These keywords were ... Celik E, Calik P (2011) Production of recombinant proteins by yeast cells. Biotechnol Adv. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.09. ... Kadir F., Ives P., Luitjens A., van Corven E. (2013) Production and Purification of Recombinant Proteins. In: Crommelin D., ...
The use of the latest advances in recombinant protein expression technology for the production of well-established carrier ... Pseudomonas fluorescens is a useful host for high-level production of recombinant proteins. Utilizing this expression platform ... These antigens are poor immunogens unless conjugated to proteins.. The role of the carrier protein is to enhance immunogenicity ... fluorescens recombinant CRM197 to the protein produced in the native organism, C. diphtheriae. The characteristics of CRM197 ...
Recombinant protein therapy. Definition. A recombinant protein therapy is produced through recombinant DNA technology, which ... The fusion protein Ec-LDP(AE)-DF displays extremely potent cytotoxicity and might be highly effective for non-small cell lung ... In this study, a novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted, human β-defensin 1-tailored fusion protein, Ec-LDP-DF ... A benchtop system for protein synthesis achieves purity and potency comparable to those of marketed drugs. ...
Biosolutions has announced that it will increase its C-Reactive Protein product line to include recombinant C-Reactive Protein ... C-Reactive Protein is a protein found in the bloo... ... Recombinant C-Reactive Protein. Canine C-Reactive Protein. ... recombinant , antigen. c-reactive protein,crp. research , laboratory. human enzyme. diagnostic, clinical. Contact Information. ... r-hCRP is produced into culture medium by DNA recombinant procedure in E. Coli as secretory protein. By expressing kil gene, ...
Maine Biotechnology Services is announcing the addition of Bacterial Recombinant Protein Expression and Purification ... A typical recombinant antigen project at MBS will begin with a careful analysis of the protein sequence and characteristics to ... Bacterial recombinant protein expression is now available as a service at Maine Biotechnology Services. When MBS develops ... Because bacterial recombinant protein expression always possesses the risk of low expression levels or insoluble expression, it ...
Purified recombinant protein of Homo sapiens myosin binding protein C, cardiac (MYBPC3) ... Recombinant protein of human integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) ( ... Recombinant protein of human integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor) (ITGA4) ... Recombinant protein of human integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61) (ITGB3) ...
Recombinant protein of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2A), transcript variant 1 ... Recombinant protein of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2A), transcript variant 2 ... Recombinant protein of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), transcript variant 1 ... Recombinant protein of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta (CAMK2B), transcript variant 5 ...
Recombinant Human Vav proteins is a Baculovirus infected Sf9 Protein fragment 73 to 845 aa range, , 70% purity and validated in ... Signal Transduction Signaling Pathway G Protein Signaling Small G Proteins Other Share by email ... Proteins and Peptides. By product type. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and ... a GTP binding protein. Using a mouse model, Vav expression has been determined to play an essential role in the cyctosketetal, ...
The present invention further relates to process for cloning and expressing modified SAK gene fusion protein which impart ... Recombinant fusion proteins are created artificially by recombinant DNA technology for use in biological research or ... Fusion proteins are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes which originally code for separate proteins. ... Depending upon the molar ration of protein of interest and modified SAK in fusion protein, the yield protein of interest will ...
"A novel recombinant multiepitope protein as a hepatitis C diagnostic intermediate of high sensitivity and specificity," Protein ... A Recombinant Multiepitope Protein for Hepatitis B Diagnosis. Marilen Queiroz de Souza,1 Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino,2 José ... X. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Yan, "Recombinant multiepitope protein for diagnosis of leptospirosis," Clinical and Vaccine Immunology ... "Comparison of recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi peptide mixtures versus multiepitope chimeric proteins as sensitizing antigens for ...
... Since human recombinants have replaced the animal version in human therapeutics, the prefix of rh ... Viral recombinants. *Envelope protein of the hepatitis B virus marketed as Engerix-B® by SmithKline Beecham ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List_of_recombinant_proteins". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ... 1 Human recombinants that replaced animal or harvested from human types. *2 Human recombinants with recombination as only ...
Recombinant Protein Expression Workflow at Sigma-Aldrich , follows your area of interest in Proteomics and Protein Expression ...
Have checked N-end rule for protein , degradation (Varchasky 1992) and protein should be , stable. Besides this the protein is ... Western blot with His antibody shows , intact His-tag but protein protein is getting , degraded. Interestingly when expressed ... N-terminal degradation of Recombinant protein. Russell Wrobel rlwrobel at biochem.wisc.edu Thu Feb 9 10:39:08 EST 2006 * ... Good Luck, Russell kirtan koticha wrote: , I am trying to express a 9 Kd protein in pET vector , with C-terminal Histag. I see ...
... and rat recombinant proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. ... and rat recombinant proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.. Contact our sales team regarding samples, ... Bio-Bit - Recombinant Proteins for Stem Cell Research * Bio-Bit - Sonic Hedgehog and New Recombinant Proteins ...
... and rat recombinant proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. ... We periodically retest our recombinant proteins at later time points and have shown that some recombinant proteins retain their ... Each lot of our bioassay-validated recombinant proteins undergoes quality testing by functional assay to ensure the protein ... and rat recombinant proteins including cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Each of our in-house manufactured proteins ...
SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four ... Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins ... and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera ... structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. ...
Recombinant [Fc Fusion Protein]). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side ... Factor IX (Recombinant [Fc Fusion Protein]). Generic Name: Factor IX (Recombinant [Fc Fusion Protein]) (FAK tor nyne ree KOM be ... If you are allergic to factor IX (recombinant [fc fusion protein]); any part of factor IX (recombinant [fc fusion protein]); or ... fc fusion protein]) come to room temperature before mixing. Do not heat factor IX (recombinant [fc fusion protein]). ...
FACTOR IX Fc FUSION PROTEIN (fak tir nine Fc FYOO zhuh n PROH teen) is used in patients with hemophilia B to help prevent and ... Factor IX Fc Fusion Protein, Recombinant injection. What is this medicine?. FACTOR IX Fc FUSION PROTEIN (fak tir nine Fc FYOO ...
Heterologously expressed proteins in Escherichia coli may undergo unwanted N-terminal processing by methionine and proline ... Expression of recombinant proteins with uniform N-termini Methods Mol Biol. 2011;705:175-94. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61737-967-3_10 ... We describe a protocol using human cationic trypsinogen as an example to demonstrate that recombinant proteins produced in this ... Heterologously expressed proteins in Escherichia coli may undergo unwanted N-terminal processing by methionine and proline ...
Active Recombinant sodA protein is an Escherichia coli Full length protein 1 to 206 aa range, , 95% purity and validated in ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and Lysates. Multiplex ... This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution. ...
Recombinant proteins are made from cloned DNA sequences which usually encode an enzyme or protein with known function. ... Recombinant DNA technology allows for the production of wild type and modified human and mammalian proteins at bulk quantities ... Recombinant proteins are a new combination of genes that forms DNA. ... About Recombinant Proteins:. Recombinant proteins are a new combination of genes that forms DNA. Recombinant DNA technology ...
Recombinant proteins. - Purified recombinant fluorescent proteins. Purified recombinant fluorescent proteins for use as ... Purified recombinant kindling red fluorescent protein. 100 μg. € 130. rPhiYFP. FP651. Purified recombinant bright yellow ... Purified recombinant monomeric green fluorescent protein. 100 μg. € 130. rTagRFP. FP154. Purified recombinant monomeric red ( ... Purified recombinant bright red fluorescent protein. 100 μg. € 130. rTurboGFP. FP552. Purified recombinant bright green ...
Recombinant P. falciparum merozoite proteins recapitulate known biochemical activities. The interactions between recombinant ... A library of recombinant P. falciparum merozoite surface and secreted proteins. A Western blot of the P. falciparum merozoite ... A library of functional recombinant cell-surface and secreted P. falciparum merozoite proteins.. Crosnier C1, Wanaguru M, ... We envisage that this resource of recombinant proteins will make a valuable contribution toward a molecular understanding of ...
Protein, Pseudovirus, Receptor, Recombinant DNA, Recombinant Protein Production, Research, Respiratory, RNA, SARS-CoV-2, Severe ... Moreover, and most significantly, it is easy to purify the recombinant protein from the CHO-K1 cell when the S1 protein is ... Recombinant protein produces neutralizing COVID-19 antibodies in primate model. *Download PDF Copy ... 2020). Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-Fc fusion protein induced high levels of neutralizing responses in non-human primates. ...
... and yield and shields proteins from damaging heat and harsh chemicals ... Scientists have developed a protective bacterial protein exoshell that improves recombinant protein folding, stabilization, ... Home Topics Bioprocessing Protective Thermostable Protein Exoshell Boosts Recombinant Protein Yield 100-Fold ... Protective Thermostable Protein Exoshell Boosts Recombinant Protein Yield 100-Fold. November 14, 2017. 0 ...
Production of Recombinant Proteins in the lon-Deficient BL21(DE3) Strain of Escherichia coli in the Absence of the DnaK ... Enzymology and Protein Engineering. Alleviation of Proteolytic Sensitivity To Enhance Recombinant Lipase Production in ... Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates by Recombinant Aspergillus niger Björn Alriksson, Shaunita H. Rose ... Enzymology and Protein Engineering. Interplay between Clostridium thermocellum Family 48 and Family 9 Cellulases in ...
1.1 Recombinant Proteins Overview. 1.2 History of Recombinant Proteins. 2. Why There Exist Need for Recombinant Proteins?. 3. ... Different Types of Recombinant DNA Technology. 4. Mechanisms of Recombinant Protein Production. 4.1 Recombinant Protein ... 5.2 Recombinant Proteins Clinical Pipeline Overview. 6. Global Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins Market Dynamics. 6.1 Market ... 7. Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins Market Future Growth Outlook. 8. Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins Clinical Pipeline by ...
Here, we describe an industrialized platform to generate antigens and validated recombinant antibodies for 346 transcription ... but commercial sources are rarely recombinant and thus do not provide a permanent and renewable resource. ... A High Through-put Platform for Recombinant Antibodies to Folded Proteins Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015 Oct;14(10):2833-47. doi: ... Antibodies are key reagents in biology and medicine, but commercial sources are rarely recombinant and thus do not provide a ...
  • Benedek K, Swadesh JK (1991) HPLC of proteins and peptides in the pharmaceutical industry. (springer.com)
  • Conjugate vaccines use carrier proteins to increase the immunogenicity of antigens (e.g., peptides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides) and other haptens. (genengnews.com)
  • Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. (mdpi.com)
  • Antibodies generated against the recombinant proteins or immunogenic peptides derived therefrom can be used for cerebral fluid or serum protein diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. (google.com)
  • The tyrosinase‐induced polymerization of peptides offers facile access to artificial mussel foot protein analogues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal peptide peptidases play an important role in the removal of remnant signal peptides in the cell membrane, a critical step for extracellular protein production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peptides and proteins are guaranteed for 3 months from date of receipt. (novusbio.com)
  • Proteins and peptides are key research tools for life scientists. (cellsciences.com)
  • Cell Sciences offers an extensive range of over 7,000 proteins and peptides. (cellsciences.com)
  • Our catalog of proteins and peptides are high purity reagents with validated bioactivity and low endotoxicity. (cellsciences.com)
  • Recombinant proteins are commonly used to produce pharmaceutical products, protein-based polymers for drug delivery, antibodies and enzymes for disease treatment, protein scaffolds for tissue engineering, as well as for a myriad of other uses. (news-medical.net)
  • This system is used to perform structural analysis, functional assays, generation of antibodies, but also to study protein interactions. (news-medical.net)
  • This system is used for producing human antibodies, complex proteins, and other proteins that are used in cell-based assays. (news-medical.net)
  • Many biologics, such as monoclonal antibodies, are recombinant protein therapies. (nature.com)
  • When MBS develops recombinant antigen for a hybridoma development, the end use application of the antibodies is considered during every phase of antigen production. (prweb.com)
  • As a company with rich experience in developing custom antibodies to difficult targets, Maine Biotechnology Services brings the specialized perspective of antibody development professionals to recombinant protein development services. (prweb.com)
  • When protein production is complete, MBS provides a seamless transition to immunizations, shortening the overall timeline to obtain antibodies that meet end use requirements. (prweb.com)
  • Preparation of Antibodies against Soluble Recombinant Dengue E Proteins Fused with Glutathione's Transferase. (who.int)
  • Vectors containing the preprotrypsin leader (PPT) sequence direct secretion of FLAG fusion proteins into the culture medium for purification using ANTI-FLAG antibodies, resins, and plates. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antibodies are key reagents in biology and medicine, but commercial sources are rarely recombinant and thus do not provide a permanent and renewable resource. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe an industrialized platform to generate antigens and validated recombinant antibodies for 346 transcription factors (TFs) and 211 epigenetic antigens. (nih.gov)
  • These cloned antibody reagents are being made available to the academic community through our web site recombinant-antibodies.org to allow a more system-wide analysis of TF and chromatin biology. (nih.gov)
  • There was a statistically significant increase in the levels of antibodies to the fimbriae F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P) and F18 in the sows vaccinated with the recombinant proteins compared with the control group. (scirp.org)
  • Active Motif offers an expanding list of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant antibodies and recombinant proteins that can be developed further for use in diagnostic applications or therapeutic approaches. (activemotif.com)
  • Proteins were probed with anti-Tau (393-411) and phosphospecific anti-Tau(pSer400) antibodies at 0.75 g/ml (AnaSpec Cat#54979 and Cat#54978, respectively). (anaspec.com)
  • MarketResearchReports.Com: 2013 Sales of Recombinant Therapeutic Antibodies and Proteins, New Report Launched: Market Research Reports, Inc. (pitchengine.com)
  • This Competitive Intelligence report prepared by Publisher Business Intelligence provides a compilation of the sales data of recombinant therapeutic proteins and antibodies in the calendar year 2013. (pitchengine.com)
  • Phagocytosis of group A streptococci requires type-specific antibodies directed against the variable determinants of the bacterial surface M protein molecule. (sciencemag.org)
  • Microbial Cell Factories welcomes submissions to this thematic series, covering all aspects of methodologies aimed at analyzing the preservation of the structure, solubility, and functionality of purified proteins and antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cells can then be lyzed or broken to release the formed protein which is then subjected to purification methods. (news-medical.net)
  • Berthold W, Walter J (1994) Protein purification: aspects of processes for pharmaceutical products. (springer.com)
  • Chase HA (1994) Purification of proteins by adsorption chromatography in expanded beds. (springer.com)
  • Chase H, Draeger N (1993) Affinity purification of proteins using expanded beds. (springer.com)
  • Gottschalk U (2006) The renaissance of protein purification. (springer.com)
  • Maine Biotechnology Services is announcing the addition of Bacterial Recombinant Protein Expression and Purification services to compliment our complete antibody service offering, adding value and efficiency to custom antibody development with MBS. (prweb.com)
  • Further the invention relates to process of purification of recombinant heterologous proteins from bacterial inclusion bodies using modified SAK. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Large scale preparation of recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-84 from Escherichia coli", Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 54, 2007, pp. 212-219. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Novel self-cleavage activity of Staphylokinase fusion proteins: An interesting finding and its possible applications", Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 69, 2010, pp. 191-197. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Protocol 8: Purification of Expressed Proteins from Inclusion Bodies", Molcular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 3rd ed., 2002, pp. 15.49-15.54. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Novel preparation protocol for the expression and purification of recombinant staphylokinase", Biotechnol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • tags can usually be cleaved off after protein purification with site specific proteases. (bio.net)
  • Purification and expression of a protein can sometimes be quite complicated & time-consuming, therefore an additional tag is used in addition to the specific DNA sequence which will facilitate the purification & expresion of the recombinant protein. (prospecbio.com)
  • The services provided by the Recombinant Protein Expression Facility include sequencing of the DNA templates, cloning into appropriate expression vectors, expression in the desired expression system(s), analysis of the expression and optionally the purification of the protein / protein complex. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Highdensity fermentation technologies using an engineered recombinant PGproducing bacteria as well as PG separation and purification technologies have a direct impact on the availability and application of PG. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Protein production Gene expression Protein purification Host cell protein Young CL, Britton ZT, Robinson AS (May 2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusion proteins are useful tools for many laboratory techniques, such as protein purification or blocking experiments. (mscience.com.au)
  • No human or animal derived proteins are used in the purification or formulation processes. (rxlist.com)
  • r-hCRP is produced into culture medium by DNA recombinant procedure in E. Coli as secretory protein. (webwire.com)
  • By expressing kil gene, the outer membrane of E. Coli becomes permeable, allowing recombinant C-Reactive Protein to be excreted without cell lysis. (webwire.com)
  • Expression of Human Parathyroid Hormone-(1-84) in Escherichia coli as a Factor X-cleavable Fusion Protein", The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 265, No. 26, 1990, pp. 15854-15859. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • I'm part of a structural genomics group and we do high though put protein production in E. coli. (bio.net)
  • Heterologously expressed proteins in Escherichia coli may undergo unwanted N-terminal processing by methionine and proline aminopeptidases. (nih.gov)
  • Our Recombinant Protein Expression Facility provides support in the production of specific target proteins, especially if they cannot be easily produced in E.coli . (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Through primary and secondary seed cultivation, a recombinant E. coli strain was subjected to highdensity fermentation with controlled feed supplement concentration under stimulation with isopropyl βD1thiogalactopyranoside. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Recombinant mouse IGF-I was expressed in E. coli and is supplied in a lyophilized form. (cellsignal.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that it may be possible to produce recombinant lysosomal proteins with microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description: Staphylococcus aureus alpha hemolysin (Hla), also known as alpha toxin (α-toxin), is expressed in E. coli as a recombinant protein without TAG. (thomassci.com)
  • Recombinant human prion protein is generated in E. coli bacteria and it has the same protein sequence as normal human brain protein. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Escherichia coli-derived recombinant DAP (rDAP, amino acids 1-254) was purified to homogeneity for structural and functional studies. (rcsb.org)
  • I'm trying to express in E. coli a bovine recombinant protein. (protocol-online.org)
  • 2) Probably, the E. coli lineage I'm using wont make pos-translational modifications, so will my protein migrate as 33KDa or 55 Kda? (protocol-online.org)
  • E coli won't glycosylate your protein. (protocol-online.org)
  • Sichwart S, Tozakidis IEP, Teese M, Jose J. Maximized Autotransporter-Mediated Expression (MATE) for Surface Display and Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli. (srce.hr)
  • S. Sichwart, I.E.P. Tozakidis, M. Teese i J. Jose, "Maximized Autotransporter-Mediated Expression (MATE) for Surface Display and Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli", Food Technology and Biotechnology , vol.53, br. (srce.hr)
  • The MATE system enabled the continuous secretion of recombinant passenger mCherry via OmpT-mediated cleavage, using native OmpT protease activity in E. coli when grown at 37 °C. It is the first example to show that native OmpT activity is sufficient to facilitate the secretion of a correctly folded target protein in preparative amounts obtaining 240 μg of purified mCherry from 800 mL of crude culture supernatant. (srce.hr)
  • In conclusion, the MATE system appears to be a versatile tool for the surface display and for the secretion of target proteins in E. coli. (srce.hr)
  • Detection of fusion proteins containing 3xFLAG ® is enhanced up to 200 times more than any other system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our selection of CMV vectors provides options for transient or stable expression of 3xFLAG ® fusion proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The invention relates to novel recombinant fusion proteins comprising two or more erythropoietin molecules. (google.com)
  • The fusion proteins can be linked by a peptide linker. (google.com)
  • The fusion proteins can be used, for example, to treat or prevent anemia in a mammal. (google.com)
  • Also disclosed are nucleotide sequences encoding the fusion proteins vectors comprising the nucleic acid sequences of the fusion proteins and host cells transfected with the vectors. (google.com)
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Recombinant Fusion Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Recombinant Fusion Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Recombinant Fusion Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Proteintech offers a wide range of high-quality fusion proteins. (mscience.com.au)
  • Our customer service provides fusion protein and peptide libraries, that can be used as a standard and a control in cell assay and immunoassay (Please note our fusion proteins are not tested for the activity and are not suitable for in vivo research). (mscience.com.au)
  • In addition to being a leading provider of high quality, affordable reagents for applications such as multicolor flow cytometry, BioLegend also offers an extensive selection of purified human, mouse, and rat recombinant proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. (biolegend.com)
  • The subcategories of PeproTech's protein products have expanded to include Growth Factors and Cytokines, Chemokines, Neurotrophins, Proteases, Animal-Free Recombinant Proteins, and Other Miscellaneous Proteins that do not fall under one of the umbrellas of these other groupings. (peprotech.com)
  • Cytokines are small secreted proteins. (mscience.com.au)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first yeast species that was used for the purpose of making recombinant proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • This species, along with several other yeast species, secrete the newly produced recombinant protein in to the culture media. (news-medical.net)
  • Different species of microorganisms including yeasts, filamentous fungi and bacteria have been used in the past 25 years for the controlled production of foreign proteins of scientific, pharmacological or industrial interest. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of misfolded or folding-reluctant protein species causes considerable stress in host cells. (nih.gov)
  • We also offer animal-free versions of recombinant proteins and native proteins purified from tissues and fluids from multiple species. (cellsciences.com)
  • In Recombinant Proteins from Plants, leading researchers from around the world present the latest molecular and classical approaches to the separation, analysis, and characterization of recombinant plant proteins. (springer.com)
  • To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first structural and functional characterization of recombinant DAP. (rcsb.org)
  • A benchtop system for protein synthesis achieves purity and potency comparable to those of marketed drugs. (nature.com)
  • Prior to performing bioassay validation and stability testing, we test each recombinant protein for product purity and quantification. (biolegend.com)
  • The purity of Mouse IGF-I Recombinant Protein was determined by SDS-PAGE of 1 µg reduced (+) and non-reduced (-) recombinant mIGF-I and staining with Coomassie Blue. (cellsignal.com)
  • These cell extracts contain all the molecules and enzymes that are needed to transcribe, translate, and post-translationally modify the recombinant protein. (news-medical.net)
  • In particular, the researchers were able to deliver the cofactors calcium and heme, and apply oxidizing conditions that ensured the correct folding and functioning of the complex horseradish peroxidase protein.The four pores in the shell gave internalized enzymes access to molecular substrates so that they can continue their catalytic functions. (genengnews.com)
  • Some proteins, such as enzymes, tend to serve as biocatalysts, which help in increasing the rate of metabolic reactions. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • These include both commercially available proteins (for example most of the enzymes used in the molecular biology laboratory), and those that are generated in the course specific research projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide mapping at 97.4% sequence coverage shows high similarity between the two proteins. (genengnews.com)
  • A typical recombinant antigen project at MBS will begin with a careful analysis of the protein sequence and characteristics to assess its suitability for bacterial expression. (prweb.com)
  • After an expression construct has been obtained and the sequence verified, protein production will be evaluated in a small scale trial. (prweb.com)
  • 1. A fusion DNA comprising a first DNA encoding a modified staphylokinase (SAK) protein comprising the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO. 1 and a second DNA fused in frame encoding the heterologous protein of interest. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. (mdpi.com)
  • 7. A nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence which encodes a recombinant fusion protein comprising two or more erythropoietin molecules. (google.com)
  • 4. An analog of human amyloid plaque core protein protease inhibitor wherein the amino acid corresponding to arginine at position 13 in the sequence ##STR7## is substituted with an aromatic amino acid, said analog exhibiting chymotrypsin inhibitory activity. (google.com)
  • More specifically, it relates to the characterization and use of materials related to amyloid protein deposits associated with Alzheimer's disease, and to a specific DNA sequence encoding a novel protease inhibitor. (google.com)
  • Of Osp proteins A through D, OspA shows the least variability between strains in its sequence and in the level of its expression. (prohealth.com)
  • Further, since the recombinant protein has an identical sequence to the brain protein, the application of the recombinant protein is less likely to cause side effects. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • BDD-rFVIIIFc is a recombinant protein consisting of a B-domain deleted analogue of human Coagulation Factor VIII covalently linked to the human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) Fc domain sequence. (rxlist.com)
  • Focusing on the large-scale, cost-effective production of such proteins for use as specialist industrial or therapeutic biomolecules, these authoritative scientists also include promising experimental techniques that will become increasingly important in the future-such techniques as those for the efficient transformation of monocots with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, for optimizing the stability of recombinant proteins, and for exploiting the immunotherapeutic potential of plant-expressed proteins. (springer.com)
  • Within the rapidly growing vaccine space, conjugate vaccines-polysaccharide antigens covalently linked to carrier proteins-have been shown to be effective against several bacterial pathogens. (genengnews.com)
  • CRM 197 , which has a single amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for glycine, is a well-characterized carrier protein and is utilized in a number of approved conjugate vaccines for diseases such as meningitis and pneumococcal bacterial infection. (genengnews.com)
  • Bacterial cells can also yield high levels of recombinant protein. (news-medical.net)
  • A recombinant protein therapy is produced through recombinant DNA technology, which involves inserting the DNA encoding the protein into bacterial or mammalian cells, expressing the protein in these cells and then purifying it from them. (nature.com)
  • Bacterial recombinant protein expression is now available as a service at Maine Biotechnology Services. (prweb.com)
  • Because bacterial recombinant protein expression always possesses the risk of low expression levels or insoluble expression, it is important to have a thorough evaluation process that saves time while also increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes. (prweb.com)
  • Scientists in Singapore have developed a bacterial protein nanoparticle that correctly folds recombinant proteins, increases functional expression yields up to 100-fold, and shields the internalized proteins from damage by heat, chemicals, and proteolysis. (genengnews.com)
  • Our portfolio includes recombinant proteins produced in mammalian, insect and bacterial cell expression systems. (cellsciences.com)
  • PeproTech's Product Catalog has grown to encompass an extensive selection of recombinant proteins primarily, but not exclusively, of human, murine, and rat origin. (peprotech.com)
  • MBS brings the specialized perspective of antibody development professionals to recombinant protein development. (prweb.com)
  • This challenge is particularly acute for extracellular proteins, which are the likely targets of host antibody responses, because they contain structurally critical post-translational modifications that are not added by some recombinant expression systems. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant Streptococcus Protein G (PG) is a cell wall protein, which, when combined with mammal immunoglobulin, is used in separating antibody technology. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Another ranking list was prepared for companies according to biologics sales in 2013 and the percentage of antibody sales vs protein sales. (pitchengine.com)
  • BDD-rFVIIIFc is purified using a series of chromatography steps, including affinity capture with a recombinant, single chain antibody fragment produced in a yeast expression system. (rxlist.com)
  • The present invention further relates to process for cloning and expressing modified SAK gene fusion protein which imparts improved stability to the heterologous protein of interest. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Recombinant proteins are made through genetic engineering, also called gene splicing or recombinant DNA technology. (prospecbio.com)
  • The designated gene must not contain human introns since the bacteria does not recognize it and this results in premature termination, and the recombinant protein may not be processed correctly, be folded correctly, or may even be degraded. (prospecbio.com)
  • Recombinant protein is a modified version of protein which is produced through different methods in order to further generate large quantities of proteins, modify gene sequences and eventually manufactures commercial products. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the FGF-2 gene. (thomassci.com)
  • Recombinant proteins are proteins encoded by a gene - recombinant DNA - that has previously been cloned in a system that supports the gene expression and translation of messenger RNA. (mscience.com.au)
  • Then, using rDNA technology, scientists can transfer the gene that produces the said protein to bacteria. (mega-search.net)
  • Hi everybody, I have expressed a recombinant mouse protein, p97, in High Five insect cells using Gibco's baculovirus protocol. (bio.net)
  • Recently, Dr. Ciaran Cronin and his team at Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development Medicine demonstrated a more cost-efficient method for scaling up recombinant protein production in the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) using large Erlenmeyer flasks and standard laboratory equipment. (corning.com)
  • However, some mammalian proteins may be difficult to express in this case. (news-medical.net)
  • Mammalian systems are often used to express mammalian proteins, since they represent a physiologically relevant environment. (news-medical.net)
  • Insect cells provide many advantages, the main benefit of which is that the system can be scaled up and adapted for large scale expression of proteins that are functionally similar to mammalian proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Yeast cells can also perform correct folding and post-translational modifications of mammalian proteins in contrast to the prokaryotic systems. (news-medical.net)
  • The main disadvantage of this system is the expression of non-functional proteins, as bacteria do not posses the internal machinery to achieve the folding or post-translational modifications of mammalian proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Recombinant DNA technology allows for the production of wild type and modified human and mammalian proteins at bulk quantities. (prospecbio.com)
  • Cumming DA (1991) Glycosylation of recombinant protein therapeutics: Control and functional implications. (springer.com)
  • One disadvantage of this system is the difference in glycosylation of proteins expressed in yeast cells when compared to mammalian cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Yeast systems may be used to generate proteins that do not require glycosylation. (news-medical.net)
  • Addition of an exogenous signal peptide and mutation of potential N -linked glycosylation sites contribute to increased expression of recombinant full-length PfRH5 using a mammalian expression system. (nih.gov)
  • Folding of these proteins in the ER can be disturbed by environmental factors or it can be inhibited experimentally by agents inhibiting protein folding like dithiothreitol (DTT) and Ca-ionophores or agents inhibiting glycosylation like tunicamycin. (nih.gov)
  • Lysosomal proteins: Lysosomal proteins are difficult to produce recombinantly due to the number and type of post-translational modifications that they have (e.g. glycosylation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins coexpressed in bacteria will not possess post-translational modifications, e.g., phosphorylation or glycosylation. (mscience.com.au)
  • For activity, many proteins require glycosylation and processing only available in eukaryotic systems. (mscience.com.au)
  • Four novel recombinant protein constructs were designed to improve the delivery of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). (mit.edu)
  • Also, producing the recombinant vectors is time-consuming in insect systems. (news-medical.net)
  • Insect cells are another option for generating recombinant proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • One is my recombinant fusion protein, MBP-p97, the other is the native p97 from the insect cells. (bio.net)
  • Since p97 forms normally forms homohexamers, I assume the insect p97 is similar enough to complex with the overexpressed recombinant p97. (bio.net)
  • These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. (mdpi.com)
  • Using insect cells, Pfizer was able to effectively maximize the fill volume and produce recombinant proteins at 90% fill volume for the Corning 5L Erlenmeyer flask, making it a "high-volume" Erlenmeyer Flask. (corning.com)
  • As stated in Dr. Cronin's report, "the adoption of high-volume shake flasks for recombinant protein production in insect cells has a number of advantages over other disposables in terms of equipment and disposables costs. (corning.com)
  • Moreover, in 2013, domestic rhG-CSF, rhEPO and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) with price advantage took a respective share of 82.1%, 88.5% and 90.2% in Chinese sample hospitals, and recombinant human interleukin-2/11(rhIL-2/11) was fully localized. (prweb.com)
  • Rational design and evaluation of a multiepitope chimeric fusion protein with the potential for leprosy diagnosis," Clinical and Vaccine Immunology , vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 298-303, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Comparison of recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi peptide mixtures versus multiepitope chimeric proteins as sensitizing antigens for immunodiagnosis," Clinical and Vaccine Immunology , vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 899-905, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • We envisage that this resource of recombinant proteins will make a valuable contribution toward a molecular understanding of the blood stage of P. falciparum infections and facilitate the comparative screening of antigens as blood-stage vaccine candidates. (nih.gov)
  • The immune response of the sows immunized with the recombinant proteins was compared with a commercial vaccine containing ETEC bacterins. (scirp.org)
  • Envelope protein of the hepatitis B virus marketed as Engerix-B by SmithKline Beecham HPV Vaccine proteins Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs): These include both catechol oxidases and tyrosinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recombinant OspA-based vaccine is already in clinical trials. (prohealth.com)
  • Mammalian expression system can also be used for the transient or stable expression of proteins within cell lines. (news-medical.net)
  • We describe a protocol using human cationic trypsinogen as an example to demonstrate that recombinant proteins produced in this expression system contain homogeneous, unprocessed N-termini. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report the development of a method that uses a mammalian expression system to compile a protein resource containing the entire ectodomains of 42 P. falciparum merozoite secreted and cell surface proteins, many of which have not previously been characterized. (nih.gov)
  • Our human expression system ensures that proteins have native conformation and post-translational modifications to optimize biological activity. (mscience.com.au)
  • The recombinant DNA is inserted into expression vectors which contain the promoter, ribosome binding site, and terminator. (prospecbio.com)
  • The recombinant protein is formed with the help of specialized vehicles which are called vectors. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The fusion protein Ec-LDP(AE)-DF displays extremely potent cytotoxicity and might be highly effective for non-small cell lung cancer therapy and useful for other EGFR-targeted therapeutics. (nature.com)
  • Schematic representation of secretion stress responses in eukaryotes Secretory proteins are translocated to the ER either during their translation or post-translationally. (nih.gov)
  • Secretion of cytoplasmic expressed proteins into growth media has significant advantages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Maximized Autotransporter-Mediated Expression (MATE) for Surface Display and Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in. (srce.hr)
  • A new optimized system for the surface display and secretion of recombinant proteins is described, termed MATE (maximized autotransporter-mediated expression). (srce.hr)
  • As a result, recombinant lysosomal proteins are usually produced in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells containing the template are then cultured, so that they can transcribe and translate the protein of interest. (news-medical.net)
  • Celik E, Calik P (2011) Production of recombinant proteins by yeast cells. (springer.com)
  • The role of the carrier protein is to enhance immunogenicity by providing T-cell epitopes via MHC Class II presentation to T-helper cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Recombinant proteins are conventionally generated by transfecting the recombinant DNA into a host cell, following which the host cells are cultured and the transfected DNA transcribed and translated. (news-medical.net)
  • Different host cells can be chosen for recombinant protein production, the choice of which depends on the type of protein that needs to be generated, its functional activity and requisite yield. (news-medical.net)
  • In cell-free systems, synthesis of the protein can be carried out in vitro using extracts of whole cells that are compatible with translation. (news-medical.net)
  • By putting human, animal or plant genes into the genetic material of bacteria, mammalian or yeast cells, these microorganisms can be used as factories or producers to make proteins for medical, academic and research uses. (prospecbio.com)
  • B , Schematic representation of the merozoite protein constructs and procedure to produce soluble recombinant monobiotinylated Cd4d3 + 4-tagged proteins in mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • The strong human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter regulatory region drives constitutive protein expression levels as high as 1 mG/L in COS cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For less potent cell lines, protein levels are typically ~0.1 mG/L. The presence of the SV40 replication origin will result in high levels of DNA replication in SV40 replication permissive COS cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Protein folding and conformational stress in microbial cells producing recombinant proteins: a host comparative overview. (nih.gov)
  • Kim YB, Zhao KT, Thompson DB, Liu DR. An anionic human protein mediates cationic liposome delivery of genome editing proteins into mammalian cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Serial dilutions of Mouse IGF-I Recombinant Protein were added to FDC-P1 cells. (cellsignal.com)
  • MCP2 and CCL7 are two monocyte chemotactic proteins produced by human MG63 osteosarcoma cells. (thomassci.com)
  • Proteins resulting from expression of recombinant DNA (rDNA), within living cells, are known as recombinant proteins. (express-press-release.net)
  • Rockville , USA, 2019-Feb-25 - /EPR Network/ -Proteins resulting from expression of recombinant DNA (rDNA), within living cells, are known as recombinant proteins. (express-press-release.net)
  • They demonstrated that the recombinant protein works not only in the cell-free model but also in cultured cells, which are the first steps of translational research. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Zou, who also serves as the associate director of the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center at Case Western Reserve, and collaborators hope to extend their finding using transgenic mice expressing the human prion protein and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived neurons because they are made from human cells, offering an additional level of authenticity. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses Coding Transgenes of Apoptosis-Inducing Proteins Enhance Apoptosis But Not Immunogenicity of Infected Tumor Cells," BioMed Research International , vol. 2017, Article ID 3620510, 14 pages, 2017. (hindawi.com)
  • We are a global provider of human and animal biospecimens: including frozen & FFPE tissue, DNA, RNA, total proteins, blood products and primary cells. (amsbio.com)
  • Humankine recombinant proteins are created in HEK293 cells using animal-free components. (mscience.com.au)
  • Dianthin antiviral protein (DAP) is a naturally occurring antiviral protein from the leaves of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) capable of depurinating HIV-1 RNA and inhibiting HIV-1 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (rcsb.org)
  • The researchers found that the inhibition is dose-dependent and highly specific in responding to the human-form of the recombinant protein, as compared to recombinant mouse and bovine prion proteins. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The crystal structure of diphtheria toxin (DT) reveals that the molecule consists of three domains: a catalytic domain (fragment A), a transmembrane domain, and a receptor-binding domain (both in fragment B). Mild trypsinization and reduction of the native molecule in vitro results in two fragments, A and B. Fragment A is a NAD+ binding enzyme that inhibits protein synthesis. (genengnews.com)
  • DNA from 2 or more sources which is incorporated into a single recombinant molecule. (prospecbio.com)
  • DNA ligase covalently links the two strands into 1 recombinant DNA molecule. (prospecbio.com)
  • Recombinant DNA molecule must be replicated many times to provide material for analysis & sequencing. (prospecbio.com)
  • Producing many identical copies of the same recombinant DNA molecule is called cloning. (prospecbio.com)
  • The insert contains a selectable marker which allows for identification of recombinant molecules. (prospecbio.com)
  • 1. A recombinant fusion protein comprising two or more erythropoietin molecules. (google.com)
  • 2. The recombinant fusion protein of claim 1 , wherein said erythropoietin molecules are linked by a peptide linker. (google.com)
  • 3. The recombinant fusion protein of claim 2 , wherein said peptide linker allows the erythropoietin molecules to rotate freely relative to each other. (google.com)
  • Recombinant IL1A is a bioactive protein intended for use in cell culture applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP) is the adipocyte member of an intracellular hydrophobic ligand-binding protein family. (rcsb.org)
  • Recombinant proteins are formed by transfecting foreign genes into a host cell. (news-medical.net)
  • Recombinant proteins are a new combination of genes that forms DNA. (prospecbio.com)
  • Significant amounts of recombinant protein are produced by the host only when expression genes are added. (prospecbio.com)
  • Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. (mdpi.com)
  • Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes. (harvard.edu)
  • However, fungi also produce proteases which limits their use to generate recombinant proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Cystatins are proteins that inhibit cysteine proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate of protein kinase PTK6. (abcam.com)
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. (abcam.com)
  • STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (abcam.com)
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain. (abcam.com)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take factor IX (recombinant [fc fusion protein]) with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)
  • Use factor IX (recombinant [fc fusion protein]) as ordered by your doctor. (drugs.com)
  • If stored in a refrigerator, let factor IX (recombinant [fc fusion protein]) come to room temperature before mixing. (drugs.com)
  • FACTOR IX Fc FUSION PROTEIN (fak tir nine Fc FYOO zhuh n PROH teen) is used in patients with hemophilia B to help prevent and control bleeding. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • 1 16 18 156 the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MASAC) of the National Hemophilia Foundation recommends preferential use of recombinant factor IX preparations because of their potentially superior safety profile with respect to pathogen transmission. (drugs.com)
  • Consult manufacturer's labeling for specific instructions on reconstitution and preparation of factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein. (drugs.com)
  • Factor IX Fc fusion protein recombinant injection is used as an on-demand treatment to control or prevent bleeding episodes, prevent bleeding during surgery, or reduce the frequency of bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia B (congenital Factor IX deficiency). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Factor IX is a protein that is produced naturally in the body. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Alprolix® is a man-made protein produced to replicate the naturally occurring factor IX in the body. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, scaling the production of recombinant protein above multi-milligram quantities may be expensive and cumbersome. (news-medical.net)
  • Transient expression can generate large quantities of proteins within one to two weeks, while cell lines with stable expression can be used over several experiments. (news-medical.net)
  • As far as researchers or scientists are concerned, they often need to produce and clean large quantities of protein for learning purposes. (mega-search.net)
  • Insulin is one notable example, hence yeast systems have been extensively used to produce this protein. (news-medical.net)
  • This system is used to study toxic proteins, incorporation of unnatural amino acids, screening of translational inhibitors etc. (news-medical.net)
  • Evaluation of a novel fusion protein antigen for rapid serodiagnosis of tuberculosis," Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis , vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 344-349, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • A recombinant protein antigen with a N-terminal His6-ABP tag corresponding to human FAM168A. (novusbio.com)
  • This method is used for synthesis of recombinant proteins that have unnatural amino acids or proteins that are toxic in nature. (news-medical.net)
  • Often this choice is based on the protein type, functional activity, as well as the required yield that is required. (news-medical.net)
  • This system is used to perform functional assays, structural analysis, expressing intracellular proteins and protein complexes, production of viruses, etc. (news-medical.net)
  • functional end of the protein. (bio.net)
  • Each lot of our bioassay-validated recombinant proteins undergoes quality testing by functional assay to ensure the protein exhibits appropriate activity within a biologically relevant system. (biolegend.com)
  • A library of functional recombinant cell-surface and secreted P. falciparum merozoite proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Progress in the functional and molecular characterization of P. falciparum merozoite proteins, however, has been hampered by the technical challenges associated with expressing these proteins in a biochemically active recombinant form. (nih.gov)
  • Expressing and stabilizing functional recombinant proteins remains a key challenge for both basic and industrial biology, the authors note. (genengnews.com)
  • We hypothesize that the significant increase in functional protein yield may be due to the complementation between the negatively charged proteins and the positively charged exoshell internal surface," Drum suggests. (genengnews.com)
  • Although this method provides a way to generate pure proteins, the quantity of the product is limited. (news-medical.net)
  • Lee Biosolutions has announced that it will increase its C-Reactive Protein product line to include recombinant C-Reactive Protein. (webwire.com)
  • Each recombinant protein released undergoes extensive stability testing to ensure product performance over the reagent's entire shelf life. (biolegend.com)
  • This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution. (abcam.com)
  • In contrast with existing approaches, Dr. Drum's team aimed to develop a single technology that could both improve recombinant protein expression and product stabilization. (genengnews.com)
  • By using 23 copies of a single thermostable subunit to form a protective shell around internalized proteins, we report that tES can improve expression, in vitro folding, and product stabilization," they conclude. (genengnews.com)
  • Explore pathways + proteins related to this product. (cellsignal.com)
  • Related Product:Recombinant Human Tau (Tau - 441) Protein, 100 μg, Cat# 55556-100Recombinant Human Tau (Tau - 441) Protein GST tagged, 50 μg, Cat# 55557-50Recombinant Human Tau (Tau - 441) Protein GST tagged, 100 μg, Cat# 55557-100Figure 1. (anaspec.com)
  • MINNEAPOLIS--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Medtronic, Inc. [NYSE: MDT] announced today that it has provided a grant to Yale University to conduct two fully independent, third-party systematic reviews of the safety and effectiveness of its recombinant bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) product, which stimulates bone formation. (businesswire.com)
  • The researchers engineered the AfFtn into a tES that can hold foreign proteins inside an 8-nm aqueous cavity. (genengnews.com)
  • 4. The recombinant fusion protein of claim 2 , wherein said peptide linker is from about 10 amino acids to about 20 amino acids in length. (google.com)
  • 5. The recombinant fusion protein of claim 3 , wherein said peptide linker is about 15 amino acids in length. (google.com)
  • NGR-hTNF is a recombinant protein derived from the fusion between peptide CNGRCG and human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). (wikipedia.org)
  • The recombinant DNA is created by fusing sequences that may not be normally present in an organism. (news-medical.net)
  • In many cases, additional sequences (such as promoter or translation initiation signals) may be required to induce the expression of recombinant DNA. (news-medical.net)
  • A vector is simply a tool for manipulating DNA and can be viewed as a "transport vehicle" for the production of proteins from specific DNA sequences cloned into them. (prospecbio.com)
  • DNA sequences encoding β-amyloid-related proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease are disclosed. (google.com)
  • These sequences are used in producing or constructing recombinant β-amyloid core protein, β-amyloid-related proteins and. (google.com)
  • The processing methods in this case are similar to the methods to process proteins in mammalian systems. (news-medical.net)
  • When combining two or more different strands of DNA.There are 3 different methods by which Recombinant DNA is made. (prospecbio.com)
  • These phages produce plaques which contain recombinant proteins which can be easily distinguished from the non-recombinant proteins by various selection methods. (prospecbio.com)
  • Methods for stabilizing protein products, including chemical cross-linking, rational mutagenesis, and directed evolution approaches, have also been applied both for basic and industrial applications. (genengnews.com)
  • In this video, learn how BioLegend creates recombinant proteins, with insight into our rigorous research and development process, protein production in multiple expression systems, and bioassay validation methods. (biolegend.com)
  • Several methods have been employed to increase the biological activity of therapeutic proteins. (google.com)
  • In this paper we provide details for the methods of production and quality control of an IL4-10 recombinant fusion protein. (jove.com)
  • Rockville USA, 2019-May-06 - /EPR Network/ - Recombinant proteins play an imperative role in treating various diseases, such as hemophilia. (express-press-release.net)
  • The systems that are used to express the recombinant DNA include both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. (news-medical.net)
  • IGF-I activity is regulated by one or more of the six extracellular IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). (cellsignal.com)
  • The crystal structure of recombinant murine ALBP has been determined and refined to 2.5 A. The final R factor for the model is 0.18 with good canonical properties. (rcsb.org)
  • Secretory proteins are transported into the ER through the Sec61 translocon complex of the ER membrane either co-translationally or post-translationally. (nih.gov)
  • The bioactivity of recombinant mIGF-I was determined in an FDC-P1 cell proliferation assay. (cellsignal.com)