Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mice, Inbred BALB CTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Sf9 Cells: Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Inteins: The internal fragments of precursor proteins (INternal proTEINS) that are autocatalytically removed by PROTEIN SPLICING. The flanking fragments (EXTEINS) are ligated forming mature proteins. The nucleic acid sequences coding for inteins are considered to be MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Inteins are composed of self-splicing domains and an endonuclease domain which plays a role in the spread of the intein's genomic sequence. Mini-inteins are composed of the self-splicing domains only.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Protein Refolding: Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Mice, Inbred C57BLVaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Genes, Synthetic: Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Protein PrecursorsAdhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Merozoite Surface Protein 1: A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Protein Renaturation: The reconstitution of a protein's activity following denaturation.

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (1/70987)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (2/70987)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (3/70987)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Relaxin is a potent renal vasodilator in conscious rats. (4/70987)

The kidneys and other nonreproductive organs vasodilate during early gestation; however, the "pregnancy hormones" responsible for the profound vasodilation of the renal circulation during pregnancy are unknown. We hypothesized that the ovarian hormone relaxin (RLX) contributes. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of RLX elicits renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration in conscious adult, intact female rats. After several days of treatment with either purified porcine RLX or recombinant human RLX 2 (rhRLX), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 20%-40%. Comparable renal vasodilation and hyperfiltration was also observed in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen and progesterone are unnecessary for the renal response to rhRLX. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester completely abrogated the increase in ERPF and GFR elicited by chronic administration of purified porcine RLX. In contrast, the renal vasoconstrictory response to angiotensin II was attenuated by the RLX treatment. Short-term infusion of purified porcine RLX to conscious rats over several hours failed to increase ERPF and GFR. Plasma osmolality was consistently reduced by the chronic administration of both RLX preparations. In conclusion, the renal and osmoregulatory effects of chronic RLX administration to conscious rats resemble the physiological changes of pregnancy in several respects: (a) marked increases in ERPF and GFR with a mediatory role for nitric oxide; (b) attenuation of the renal circulatory response to angiotensin II; and (c) reduction in plasma osmolality.  (+info)

Caspase-mediated cleavage of p21Waf1/Cip1 converts cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis. (5/70987)

The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf1/Cip1 is a downstream effector of the p53-dependent cell growth arrest. We report herein that p21 was cleaved by caspase-3/CPP32 at the site of DHVD112L during the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. The cleaved p21 fragment could no more arrest the cells in G1 phase nor suppress the cells undergoing apoptosis because it failed to bind to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and lost its capability to localize in the nucleus. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cleavage and inactivation of p21 protein may convert cancer cells from growth arrest to undergoing apoptosis, leading to the acceleration of chemotherapy-induced apoptotic process in cancer cells.  (+info)

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (6/70987)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (7/70987)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (8/70987)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

*BacMam

"BacMam Recombinant Baculoviruses in G Protein?Coupled Receptor Drug Discovery". Receptors and Channels. 10 (3-4): 99-107. doi: ... "BacMam system for high-level expression of recombinant soluble and membrane glycoproteins for structural studies". Protein Expr ... Baculoviruses are Risk Group 1 agents that have been widely used for over 25 years for insect cell protein production ... Bioproduction BacMam has been used to produce proteins in large quantities using HEK293 cells in a hollow fiber bioreactor ...

*Fed-batch culture

Production of heterologous proteins by fed-batch cultures of recombinant microorganisms have been extensively studied. The ... Eds). Recombinant Protein Production with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. A comparative view on host physiology. 2001, Kluwer ... L. Yee, Harvey W. Blanch: Recombinant protein expression in high cell density fed-batch cultures of Escherichia coli. Bio/ ... Neubauer P, Winter J: Expression and fermentation strategies for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. In: Merten ...

*Baculoviridae

Baculovirus expression in insect cells represents a robust method for producing recombinant glycoproteins or membrane proteins ... These recombinant proteins have been used in research and as vaccines in both human and veterinary medical treatments (for ... The major capsid protein VP39 together with some minor proteins forms the nucleocapsid (21 nm x 260 nm) that encloses the DNA ... This protein forms structures called peplomers on one end of the budded virus particle but is not found on ODV (although ...

*Molecular cloning

Many useful proteins are currently available as recombinant products. These include--(1) medically useful proteins whose ... In practice, it is frequently more difficult to develop an organism that produces an active form of the recombinant protein in ... For example, if the experimentalists wish to harvest a particular protein from the recombinant organism, then an expression ... To improve the ratio of recombinant to non-recombinant organisms, the cleaved vector may be treated with an enzyme (alkaline ...

*List of recombinant proteins

The prefix "rh" for "recombinant human" appears less and less in the literature. A much larger number of recombinant proteins ... In many cases, recombinant human proteins have replaced the original animal-derived version used in medicine. ... The following is a list of notable proteins that are generated from recombinant DNA, using biomolecular engineering, focusing ... Bovine Chymosin Envelope protein of the hepatitis B virus marketed as Engerix-B by SmithKline Beecham HPV Vaccine proteins ...

*NGR-hTNF (antitumor recombinant protein)

NGR-hTNF is a recombinant protein derived from the fusion between peptide CNGRCG and human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). ...

*Factor VIII (medication)

Buckel, P. (2012). Recombinant Protein Drugs. Birkhäuser. p. 79. ISBN 9783034883467. Archived from the original on 2017-01-09. ... Recombinant factor VIII was first made in 1984 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1992. It is on the World ... A recombinant version is also available. People may develop antibodies to factor VIII such that this medication becomes less ... In the early 1990s, pharmaceutical companies began to produce recombinant synthesized factor products, which now prevent nearly ...

*IFNB1

Interferon beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNB1 gene. The natural and recombinant protein forms have ... "IFNB1 recombinant protein". Biron CA, Nguyen KB, Pien GC (2002). "Innate immune responses to LCMV infections: natural killer ... 1982). "Secretory proteins induced in human fibroblasts under conditions used for the production of interferon beta". Proc. ... 1987). "Structure of the carbohydrate moiety of human interferon-beta secreted by a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line ...

*TREX2

Characterization of the recombinant proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (20): 17022-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M100623200. PMID 11279105. ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... identification in a genetic screen and effects on catalysis by the recombinant proteins". Adv. Enzyme Regul. 44: 37-49. doi: ... Similarity to an E. coli protein suggests that this enzyme may be a subunit of DNA polymerase III, which does not have ...

*Nesfatin-1

"Nesfatin-1 Recombinant Protein". Retrieved 21 March 2013. Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J. (2007). "Nesfatin-1 ... Nesfatin-1 is a polypeptide encoded in the N-terminal region of the protein precursor, Nucleobindin2 (NUCB2). Recombinant human ... In addition, the protein stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cells of both rats and mice. ... It is needed to fully activate AKT and consists of two discrete protein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, only one of which, TORC1, ...

*Immunogenicity

recombinant protein, or monoclonal antibody). This reaction leads to production of anti-drug-antibodies (ADAs) inactivating the ... Proteins or polysaccharides are used for studies of humoral immune response. Only proteins can serve as immunogens for cell- ... By calculating the density of high-scoring frames within a protein, it is possible to estimate a protein's overall " ... The prediction of the immunogenic potential of novel protein therapeutics is thus a challenge in biotherapy. Proteins are ...

*N-linked glycosylation

Strasser R, Altmann F, Steinkellner H (December 2014). "Controlled glycosylation of plant-produced recombinant proteins". ... A chaperone protein (calnexin/calreticulin) binds to the unfolded or partially folded protein to assist protein folding. The ... The proteins produced in these expression hosts are often not identical to human protein and thus, causes immunogenic reactions ... This initial trimming step is thought to act as a quality control step in the ER to monitor protein folding. Once the protein ...

*Thrombospondin 1

Characterization of these motifs has led to the use of recombinant proteins that contain these motifs; these recombinant ... This protein is an adhesive glycoprotein that mediates cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions. This protein can bind to ... "Differential roles of protein kinase C and pertussis toxin-sensitive G-binding proteins in modulation of melanoma cell ... Bound protein fragments of the type I repeats have been shown to serve as attachment factors for both ECs and melanoma cells. ...

*Induced stem cells

... using the genetic material encoding reprogramming protein factors, recombinant proteins; microRNA, a synthetic, self- ... "Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Recombinant Proteins". Cell Stem Cell. 4 (5): 381-4. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) induces transdifferentiation of B cells into macrophages at high efficiencies and ... Cell adhesion protein E-cadherin is indispensable for a robust pluripotent phenotype. During reprogramming for iPS cell ...

*Induced pluripotent stem cell

A non-genetic method of producing iPSCs has been demonstrated using recombinant proteins, but its efficiency was quite low. ... May 2009). "Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Recombinant Proteins". Cell Stem Cell. 4 (5): 381-4. doi:10.1016 ... LIN28: LIN28 is an mRNA binding protein expressed in embryonic stem cells and embryonic carcinoma cells associated with ... The acronym given for those iPSCs is piPSCs (protein-induced pluripotent stem cells). Another key strategy for avoiding ...

*Genetically modified bacterium

These recombinant proteins are safer than the products they replaced. Prior to recombinant protein products, several treatments ... Bryant J, Baxter L, Cave CB, Milne R (July 2007). "Recombinant growth hormone for idiopathic short stature in children and ... Baxter L, Bryant J, Cave CB, Milne R (January 2007). "Recombinant growth hormone for children and adolescents with Turner ... Pipe SW (May 2008). "Recombinant clotting factors". Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 99 (5): 840-50. doi:10.1160/TH07-10-0593. PMID ...

*L-form bacteria

These strains are being examined for possible uses in biotechnology as host strains for recombinant protein production. Here, ... Choi JH, Lee SY (June 2004). "Secretory and extracellular production of recombinant proteins using Escherichia coli". Appl. ... the absence of a cell wall can allow production of large amounts of secreted proteins that would otherwise accumulate in the ...

*Elastin like polypeptides

"Elastin-like polypeptides as a purification tag for recombinant proteins". Current Protocols in Protein Science. doi:10.1002/ ... ELPs can be engineered to recognize specific proteins in solution. The protein purification aspect of ELPs is supported by the ... In this linear state, the ELP-protein complex cannot easily be distinguished from the extraneous proteins in the solution. ... Tt is altered by the addition of unique proteins to the free ELPs. Tropoelastin is a protein, of size 72kDa, that comes ...

*Ogataea polymorpha

2005). Production of recombinant proteins - novel microbial and eukaryotic expression systems. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527- ... Strains CBS4732 and DL-1 are employed for recombinant protein production, strain NCYC495 is mainly used for the study of ... They exhibit different features and are used in basic research and to recombinant protein production: strain CBS4732 (CCY38-22- ... O. polymorpha produces glycoproteins with two types of sugar chains, N- and O-linked glycans are attached to protein. Studies ...

*FlAsH-EDT2

Griffin, B. Albert; Adams, Stephen R.; Jones, Jay; Tsien, Roger Y. (2000). "Fluorescent labeling of recombinant proteins in ... from fluorescent proteins, such as from enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). FlAsH-EDT2 ... Griffin, B. Albert; Adams, Stephen R.; Tsien, Roger Y. (1998). "Specific Covalent Labeling of Recombinant Protein Molecules ... Ebola virus matrix protein, and protein misfolding. With the electron microscopic imaging, FlAsH-EDT2 is also used to study the ...

*Pichia pastoris

Pichia is widely used for protein production using recombinant DNA techniques. Hence it is used in biochemical and genetic ... As the protein yield from expression in a microbe is roughly equal to the product of the protein produced per cell and the ... These media significantly increase the cost of producing recombinant proteins. Additionally, since Pichia can grow in media ... Brondyk WH (2009). "Selecting an appropriate method for expressing a recombinant protein". Meth. Enzymol. Methods in Enzymology ...

*In vivo

Compounds that bind to isolated recombinant proteins are one thing; chemical tools that can perturb cell function another; and ...

*Vaccine

Recombinant proteins need many operations involving ultrafiltration and column chromatography. Finally, the vaccine is ... Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines as they are prepared using chicken eggs. Other proteins may be ... Some cells of the immune system that recognize the proteins expressed will mount an attack against these proteins and cells ... a recombinant protein derived from the viruses or bacteria can be generated in yeast, bacteria, or cell cultures. After the ...

*C8orf48

Recombinant Protein Collection". rProtein. Lupo A, Cesaro E, Montano G, Zurlo D, Izzo P, Costanzo P (2013). "KRAB-Zinc Finger ... The C8orf48 protein is predicted to be a nuclear protein particularly located in the nuclear lamina. This protein does not ... C8orf48 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C8orf48 gene. C8orf48 is a nuclear protein specifically predicted to be ... The protein C8orf48 is 319 amino acids in length. The molecular weight of this protein is 36.9 kDa and the isoelectric point is ...

*Affimer

Due to Affimer proteins being generated using recombinant systems, their generation is significantly more rapid and ... Affimer binders are recombinant proteins. They display the robust characteristics of high thermostability, with melting ... "ALS applications data - Protein-protein interactions". Kyle H.F.; Wickson K.F.; Stott J.; Burslem G.M.; Breeze A.L.; Tiede C.; ... "ALS application data protein-protein interactions". Fisher MJ, Williamson DJ, Burslem GM, Plante JP, Manfield IM, Tiede C, Ault ...

*Phage display

... is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... "Recombinant human Fab fragments neutralize human type 1 immunodeficiency virus in vitro". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (19 ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. Users can use three dimensional ...

*NS0 cell

The GS-NS0 is a heterologous mammalian expression system that allows for the rapid expression of recombinant proteins. Several ... M. Barnes, Louise; Bentley, Catherine M.; Dickson, Alan J. (2000). "Advances in animal cell recombinant protein production: GS- ... Barnes, LM; Bentley, CM; Dickson, AJ (February 2000). "Advances in animal cell recombinant protein production: GS-NS0 ... Wurm, Florian M (November 2004). "Production of recombinant protein therapeutics in cultivated mammalian cells". Nature ...
Phase I trial of recombinant human gamma-interferon and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.
Ephrin-A3 (EFNA3), recombinant human protein is supplied as a lyophilized powder. In general, recombinant proteins can be used as protein standard and in cell biology research applications.This recombinant protein was expressed from a DNA sequence encoding the mature form of human EphrinA3 (NP_00494
Interleukin 17 receptor C (IL17RC), recombinant human protein is supplied as a lyophilized powder. This recombinant protein was expressed from a DNA sequence encoding the extracellular domain of human IL17RC isoform 3 (NP_116121.2) (Met 1- Ala 454) fused to the Fc region of human IgG1 at the C-termi
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Active Caspase-1, rat recombinant protein , Interleukin-1 beta convertase, Interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme, IL-1BC, p45. validated in (PBV11136r-25), Abgent
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BioAssay record AID 759286 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of mouse recombinant N-terminal GST-tagged TTLL7-mediated Ac-DATAEEEGEFEEEAEEEVA glutamylation expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta2 DE3 after 16 hrs by LC-MS analysis.
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BioAssay record AID 568008 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human recombinant His-tagged glyoxalase 1 expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) preincubated for 20 mins by Dixon plot analysis.
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* found in: Recombinant Human Protein IL-2, Recombinant Mouse Protein B7-H2, Recombinant Mouse Protein M-CSF, Recombinant Human Protein April, The..
The versatile Escherichia coli facilitates protein expression with relative simplicity, high cell density on inexpensive substrates, well known genetics, variety of expression vectors, mutant strains, co-overexpression technology, extracytoplasmic secretion systems, and recombinant protein fusion partners. Although, the protocol is rather simple for soluble proteins, heterologous protein expression is frequently encountered by major technical limitations including inefficient translation, formation of insoluble inclusion bodies, lack of posttranslational modification mechanisms, degradation by host proteases, and impaired cell physiology due to host/protein toxicity, in achieving functional expression of stable, soluble, and bioactive protein.. In this thesis, model protein expression systems are used to address the technical issues for enhancing recombinant protein expression in E. coli. When yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) was displayed on E. coli cell surface, the integrity of the cell ...
PDIA3 Mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 505 amino acids (25-505 a.a).
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PSPN Mouse Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a disulfide-linked homodimer containing 2x96 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 20.7kDa.
Given that we have these two excellent systems that together over the last 15 years have been used to express up to 80% of all reported recombinant genes, what else is still needed? Imagine setting up a laboratory working to express recombinant eukaryotic genes for biochemical and structural analysis. Which recombinant expression systems need to be implemented? Numerous important factors must be considered before expression of a recombinant gene is attempted. What is the mass of the polypeptide? Multi domain proteins are typically more difficult to produce than the alternative single domain deletion mutants. Does the protein contain any disulfide bonds? Proteins with disulfide bonds would most likely not be correctly folded in E. coli [11]. Are any PTMs required for protein folding, stability, or function, and what is the final destination of the protein--secreted, in the cytoplasm, or incorporated into the membrane?. Based on published studies, E. coli and P. pastoris enable the expression of ...
Mammalian cells are useful for stably expressing recombinant proteins for use in structural and functional studies, as well as for the industrial production of, e.g., therapeutic antibodies and cytokines [1-3]. Mammalian cell-based expression systems are essential when the protein of interest cannot be expressed in bacterial- or yeast-based systems and/or when conventional glycosylation is needed for the folding or stability of the protein (reviewed in [4]). Establishing stable cell lines expressing a given protein typically involves transfection with plasmid vectors carrying the gene of interest and a selection marker [5-7]. Large numbers of resistant clones, often isolated in a multi-well plate format, are then screened to identify high expressers. This process is labor-intensive, time-consuming and limited by the number of clones that can feasibly be screened.. Considerable effort has therefore gone into developing selection strategies requiring reduced screening effort [8-10]. In particular, ...
Since recombinant proteins are widely used in industry and in research, the need for their low-cost production is increasing. Escherichia coli is one of the best known and most often used host organisms for economical protein production. However, upon over-expression, protein aggregates called inclusion bodies (IBs) are often formed. Until recently IBs formation represented a bottleneck in protein production as they were considered as deposits of inactive proteins. However, recent studies show that by choosing the appropriate host strain and designing an optimal production process, IBs composed from properly folded and biologically active recombinant proteins can be prepared. Such active protein particles can be further used for the isolation of pure proteins or as whole active protein particles in various biomedical and other applications. Therefore interest in understanding the mechanisms of their formation as well as their properties is increasing.
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Tuning recombinant protein expression is an approach which can be successfully employed for increasing the yield of recombinant protein production in high cell density cultures. On the other hand, most of the previous results reported the optimization induction conditions during batch and continuous culture of recombinant E. coli, and consequently fed-batch culture have received less attention. Hence, in this research induction conditions for the over-production of recombinant interferon-γ including the amount of inducer, induction time and post-induction duration during chemical induction were optimized. E. coli BL21 (DE3) (pET3a-hifnγ) was used to over-express human interferon-gamma (hIFN-γ) in an exponential fed-batch procedure with a maximum attainable specific growth rate of 0.55 h-1 at the beginning of feeding and 0.4 h-1 in induction time. The factors were considered as the amount of inducer (IPTG) in the range of 0.565- 22 mg g-1 L-1 at seven levels, cell density at induction time as 53, 65
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human Interleukin 34 protein (ab109933). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Note for Reviewers This work has been submitted for open review as an iGEM Report. Reviewers, please consider the following questions when reviewing the
The production of recombinant protein is an important step in several academic, industrial and pharmaceutical processes. Several heterologous protein expression systems are available, including bacterial (1), mammalian cell-culture (2) and plant (3, 4) systems. Although these comprise the main production systems, the search for novel methods to increase protein yield, facilitate manipulation and reduce cost continues. Seeds are a vital alternative for recombinant protein production for several reasons: they can undergo long-term storage at ambient temperatures (5, 6), they can provide an appropriate biochemical environment for protein stability through the creation of specialised storage compartments (6, 7), they are not contaminated by human or animal pathogens (8), they do not undergo non-enzymatic hydrolysis or protease degradation owing to their desiccation characteristics (5, 8) and they do not carry the phenolic substances that are present in tobacco leaves, which is important for ...
IL-13 is an immunoregulatory cytokine produced primarily by activated Th2 cells, and also by mast cells and NK cells. Targeted deletion of IL-13 in mice resulted in impaired Th2 cell development and indicated an important role for IL-13 in the expulsion of gastrointestinal parasites. IL-13 exerts anti-inflammatory effects on monocytes and macrophages and it inhibits the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8. IL-13 has also been shown to enhance B cell proliferation and to induce isotype switching resulting in increased production of IgE. Blocking of IL-13 activity inhibits the pathophysiology of asthma. Human and murine IL-13 is cross-species reactive. Recombinant murine IL-13 is a 12.3 kDa protein consisting of 111 amino acid residues. ...
Buy HA1 recombinant protein, HA1 (H1N1) (A/Brisbane/59/2007) Recombinant Protein (MBS434097) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins. Application: Western Blot standard(WB), ELISA (EIA), antigen, etc.
Recombinant protein expression is critical for functionally studying proteins, preparing antigens, providing tissue culture growth supplement, and producing certain therapeutic compounds. Like many molecular biology labs, we have used several heterologous protein expression systems over the last decade including E. coli, yeasts, insect cells and mammalian cells from various species. It is widely accepted that these systems present increasing functional relevance from bacteria to mammalian cells, with accompanying increase in difficulty and cost. The benefits of using cells from higher species are often reflected in post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, etc.. There is yet another system that could be easy to handle while maintaining mammalian-like PTMs-parasitic protozoan Leishmania tarentolae. L. tarenolae is a unicellular organism, its host is lizard. Even though its a vertebrate parasite, this species poses no risk to humans. Amazingly, L. tarenolae ...
Recombinant protein expression is critical for functionally studying proteins, preparing antigens, providing tissue culture growth supplement, and producing certain therapeutic compounds. Like many molecular biology labs, we have used several heterologous protein expression systems over the last decade including E. coli, yeasts, insect cells and mammalian cells from various species. It is widely accepted that these systems present increasing functional relevance from bacteria to mammalian cells, with accompanying increase in difficulty and cost. The benefits of using cells from higher species are often reflected in post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, etc.. There is yet another system that could be easy to handle while maintaining mammalian-like PTMs-parasitic protozoan Leishmania tarentolae. L. tarenolae is a unicellular organism, its host is lizard. Even though its a vertebrate parasite, this species poses no risk to humans. Amazingly, L. tarenolae ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-P0083, PRMT1 from rat for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Methodology provided: Flow cytometry analysis; analysis of protein-protein interaction by methods like NMR and co-immunoprecipitation; recombinant protein expression using pro- as well as eukaryotic expression systems; protein purification and characterisation by FPLC, HPLC, CD-spectroscopy, DLS, NMR; cell culture and functional studies of cytokines, cytokine-receptors and membrane-bound ...
IL-2 is a secreted cytokine that is important for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. The receptor of this cytokine is a heterotrimeric protein complex whose gamma chain is also shared by interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 7 (IL-7). The expression of this gene in mature thymocytes is monoallelic, which represents an unusual regulatory mode for controlling the precise expression of a single gene. The targeted disruption of a similar gene in mice leads to ulcerative colitis-like disease, which suggests an essential role of this gene in the immune response to antigenic stimuli. Recombinant Human Interleukin-2 (rHu IL-2) produced in HEK cells is a glycosylated monomer, having a total molecular weight of 15 kDa. It has been purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques ...
Large quantities of highly purified recombinant proteins are often required for pharmaceutical development, industrial processes, and other applications.
A murine cell line (IxN/2b) absolutely dependent upon exogenous IL-7 for continued growth has been obtained that expresses lymphoid precursor and class I MHC antigens and also contains a rearranged mu heavy chain. This cell line has been used to define the binding and structural characteristics of the murine IL-7 receptor using 125I-labeled recombinant murine IL-7. 125I-IL-7 binding to IxN/2b cell was rapid and saturable at both 4 degrees and 37 degrees C. Equilibrium binding studies produced curvilinear Scatchard plots at both temperatures with high and low affinity Ka values of approximately 1 x 10(10) M-1 and 4 x 10(8) M-1, respectively, and a total of 2,000-2,500 IL-7 binding sites expressed per cell. Experiments measuring inhibition of binding of 125I-IL-7 by unlabeled IL-7 also produced data consistent with the existence of two classes of IL-7 receptors. Evidence concerning the possible molecular nature of two classes of IL-7 receptors was provided by dissociation kinetics and affinity ...
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Dr Walls research focus is on the expression in E. coli and engineering of recombinant proteins for applications is disease detection and diagnosis, drug delivery, and biomaterials functionalisation.. ...
Active Motif offers a number of active recombinant proteins involved in ubiqutination pathways (ubiquitylation), a post-translational modification in which ubiquitin is conjugated to a lysine residue of target proteins.
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Barstad, P A.; Weinheimer, P F.; and Acton, R T., "Large scale production of h-2 antigens for structural determination. Abstr." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 1232 ...
Addition of an affinity tag is a useful method for differentiating recombinant proteins expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic expression systems from the background of total cellular proteins, as well as for detecting protein‐protein interactions
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Human CCL11 (P51671, 1 a.a. - 97 a.a.) full-length recombinant protein. expressed in Escherichia coli. (P3603) - Products - Abnova
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We offer a plethora of recombinant proteins expressed in systems other than E.coli, human, and CHO cells that fit your research needs. Buy your recombinant proteins online from ProSci today.
R Mouse TRANCE/TNFSF11/RANK L Recombinant Protein, (E. coli-expressed) 10ug; Carrier Free Life Sciences:Protein Biology:Proteins:Proteins A-Z:Proteins T
In this application note Maxcyte review the rapid development of a high titer protein expression system in CHO suspension cells using a proprietary scalable electroporation technology. Optimised protein expression protocols provide the ability to load cells with greater quantities of DNA relative to the standard CHO protocol. As a result, average protein expression per cell is increased.
Human RPS6KA4 (NP_003933.1, 1 a.a. - 772 a.a.) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag co-expressed with His-tagged MAPK1 (NP_002736.3, 1 a.a. - 360 a.a.) expressed in baculovirus infected Sf21 cells. (P5604) - Products - Abnova
Our expertise in cloning and expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems, construction of reporter gene assay, RNA interference and gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR will accelerate your drug discovery.
Active Recombinant Human Secreted FRP-1 protein, SFRP1 Recombinant Protein (Active), GTX48140-PRO, Applications: ELISA, WB, Functional Assay; ELISA, Western Blot (WB), Functional Assay; CrossReactivity: Human
I have tried to express a trucated recombinant cytochrome P450 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3) using Prset as Expression vector. And I have tried to purify this trauncated form by denaturing methods for polyclonal antibodies production. However, both 8M urea or guanidine hydrochloride cannot solubilize the recombinant protein. I have either used sodium phosphate or Tris in my lysis buffer (mainly follow the protocol provided by Qiagen). No matter how long was the incubation time of the lysis process. The recombinant protein keep fall in the pellet fraction ...
The recombinant Protein A/G/L is a genetically engineered protein containing 5 IgG-binding regions of protein A, 2 of protein G and 5 of Protein L. Cell wall binding region, cell membrane binding region and albumin binding region have been removed from the recombinant Protein A/G/L to ensure the maximum specific IgG binding. The recombinant Protein A/G/L is ideal for purification of polyclonal or monoclonal IgG antibodies. Protein A/G/L binds to human, mouse, rat cow, goat, sheep, rabbit, guinea pig, pig, dog and cat IgG ...
CD112R (mouse):Fc (human) (rec.) (AG-40B-0170) (PVRIG) is a low endotoxin and high purity recombinant protein produced in HEK 293 cells. Important for T Cell, NK Biology and endothelial cells proliferation research.
Purified Recombinant H3N2 (A/Wisconsin/67/2005) HA Protein, His-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant H3N2 (A/Wisconsin/67/2005) HA Protein, His-tagged can be used for research.
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How to distinguis soluble from insoluble recombinant proteins produced in E. col - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: Hii! I am gonna transform E.coli with a plasmid to express the protein and I need to know whether it is soluble or insoluble. I know that I should open the cells, separate soluble and insoluble fractions by centrifigation and load each on the SDS polyacrylamide gel. But I would truly appreciate if anyone could give me an effective protocol to do that. Thank...
Abnova provide an extensive range of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, recombinant proteins, siRNA/Chimera RNA and assay kits for diagnosis and research. Research applications include apoptosis, cancer research, epigenetics, neuroscience, Caltag Medystems are the abnova UK and Ireland distributor. Call us on +44 (0)1280 827460 to enquire.
V5-Tag antibody, clone SV5-Pk1 recognizes the sequence, IPNPLLGL, on recombinant proteins, including transmembrane and secreted proteins tagged with IPNPLLGL.
... CD1B protein solution (0.5mg/ml) containing 20mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0), 0.2M NaCl, 20% glycerol and 1mM DTT.
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human P70 S6 Kinase beta protein (ab84721). Please download our general protocols booklet
RANTES is a protein which has been shown to be a chemoattractant for peripheral blood monocytes. It appears to selectively attract T cells of the CD4+/CD45RO+ phenotype in vitro. Recombinant Rat RANTES is a 7.9 kDa protein containing 68 amino acid residues. ...
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Reagents - Supplies , Recombinant Mouse TIMP1, fused to His-tag at C-terminus, was expressed in insect cell and purified by using conventional...
Reagents - Supplies , Recombinant mouse DLL4, fused to His-tag at C-terminus, was expressed in insect cell and purified by using conventional ...
By the way, the extra step Jack was referring to above was probably mRNA or protein processing. Splicing is one example of this, but there are many other types of modifications as well - glycosylation and phosphorylation, for example, which occur after translation. There is no guarantee that the enzymes that do this for the protein in the original species are also present in the expression system, even if the expression system is another eukaryote. For prokaryotes (bacteria), this is even more unlikely since they very rarely have such modifications ...
By the way, the extra step Jack was referring to above was probably mRNA or protein processing. Splicing is one example of this, but there are many other types of modifications as well - glycosylation and phosphorylation, for example, which occur after translation. There is no guarantee that the enzymes that do this for the protein in the original species are also present in the expression system, even if the expression system is another eukaryote. For prokaryotes (bacteria), this is even more unlikely since they very rarely have such modifications ...
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I have been in the distinctive business of making proteins, looking at proteins, or finding proteins that have special properties. I mostly try to make them myself, and over the years Ive had lots of success-and many failures. Its part of research. We all know, from DNA we get transcribed RNA, which is translated into a strand…
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CD73 Protein, Cynomolgus, Recombinant (His Tag) | SinoBiological, 90192-C08H is produced in HEK293 Cells, with high purity. Animal free. Produced in house. Bulk in stock.
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Recombinant protein of human aarF domain containing kinase 4 (ADCK4), transcript variant 1, full length, with N-terminal HIS tag, expressed in E.Coli, 50ug ...
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Recombinant protein of human TBC1 domain family, member 20 (TBC1D20), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Maintaining a stable fold for recombinant proteins is challenging, especially when working with highly purified and concentrated samples at temperatures >20 °C. Therefore, it is worthwhile to screen f
Immunogen was a recombinant protein containing a sequence corresponding to a region within amino acids 253 and 432 of col1a1a according to NP_954684. (ZFIN Staff ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiviral effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha in combination with natural interferon-beta in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1. AU - Schmitt, David A.. AU - Sasaki, Hidetaka. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 1992/10/1. Y1 - 1992/10/1. N2 - The protective effects of combination therapy utilizing recombinant human TNF-alpha (rTNF-α) and natural murine interferon-beta (IFN-β) in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was investigated. Mice treated with rTNF-α alone at all of the doses tested (a single i.v. administration, 2.3-2,300 μg/kg; multiple i.p. administrations 0.4-250 μg/kg) as well as mice that received IFN-β alone at doses of 16 × 104 U/kg or less resulted in a 0% survival rate. Combination therapy consisting of a single administration of rTNF- α (230 and 23 μg/kg) and multiple administrations of IFN-β (4 × 104 U/kg) resulted in a 40% and 60% survival rate. Multiple treatments of infected mice ...
The Pichia pastoris expression system is being used successfully for the production of various recombinant heterologous proteins. Recent developments with respect to the Pichia expression system have had an impact on not only the expression levels that can be achieved, but also the bioactivity of various heterologous proteins. We review here some of these recent developments, as well as strategies for reducing proteolytic degradation of the expressed recombinant protein at cultivation, cellular and protein levels. The problems associated with post-translational modifications performed on recombinant proteins by P. pastoris are discussed, including the effects on bioactivity and function of these proteins, and some engineering strategies for minimizing unwanted glycosylations. We pay particular attention to the importance of optimizing the physicochemical environment for efficient and maximal recombinant protein production in bioreactors and the role of process control in optimizing protein ...
In the treatment of renal cell carcinoma both complete (CRs) and partial remissions (PRs) have been obtained using recombinant (r) interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), with response rates ranging from 0 to 31% (mean 16%). rIFN-gamma is a potent immunostimulating agent, but the clinical experience of its use is limited and results are conflicting. In a phase II study with the combination of rIFN-alpha(2c) (Boehringer Ingelheim) and rIFN-gamma (Genentech, supplied by Boehringer Ingelheim) in 31 eligible patients, a response rate of 25% was recorded. Based on this observation a randomised phase III study was initiated to investigate the possible advantage of the addition rIFN-gamma to rIFN-alpha(2c) treatment. Treatment consisted of rIFN-alpha(2c) 30 pg m(-2) = 10 x 10(6) IU m(-2) s.c. twice weekly in arm A and the same dose of rIFN-alpha combined with rIFN-gamma 100 mu g m(-2) = 2 x 10(6) IU m(-2) in arm B. Eligibility criteria included documented progression of disease; patients with bone lesions only ...
A number of recombinant plasmids coding for fusion proteins between human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) or beta (TNF beta) were constructed by using site-directed mutagenesis and ligation of the respective genes. In these proteins the whole IFN-gamma sequence of the molecule is linked at the N terminus via a short polypeptide linker to the TNF alpha sequence lacking two N-terminal amino acid residues or to the whole TNF beta sequence. A series of mutants with deletions in the interferon part of the fusion proteins were also produced. All the fusion genes obtained were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of early promoters of bacteriophage T7. The recombinant fusion proteins were found to be unstable inside bacterial cells. Bacterial cell lysates expressing these fusion genes or their deletion mutants showed both biological activities in vitro: the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma and the cytotoxic activity of TNF.
The anti-tumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rHTNF) was examined against four newly induced murine sarcomas (MCA-101, -102, -105, and -106) and a murine adenocarcinoma (MCA-38) transplanted s.c. into C57BL/6 mice. The serum half-life after a single i.v. injection of rHTNF was determined to be 30 +/- 2 min. Tumor-bearing mice were more susceptible to the toxic side effects of rHTNF than were normal mice. Forty-eight percent (41/86) of tumor bearing animals that received 10 micrograms rHTNF died within 48 hr after treatment compared with no deaths in 28 normal animals receiving this dose. Treatment of mice bearing either the MCA-101, -102, -105, or -106 sarcoma or the MCA-38 adenocarcinoma with rHTNF resulted in a marked necrosis of the central portion of each tumor within 24 hr. Animals bearing the weakly immunogenic tumors MCA-105, -106, and -38 experienced a reduction in average tumor area of 47% +/- 5, 46% +/- 6, and 37% +/- 11, respectively, by 3 to 4 days after ...
This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. We have found that human recombinant IL-1β (a single injection ,0.01 µg per mouse i.v. given before tumor cells) induced an augmentation of experimental lung metastases from the A375M tumor cells in nude mice. This effect was rapidly induced and reversible within 24 h after IL-1 injection. A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1α and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. 5-[125I]Iodo-2′-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. These findings may explain the observation of enhanced secondary localization of tumor cells ...
The human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene is one of the earliest genes transcribed after the stimulation of a B cell through its antigen receptor or via the CD-40 pathway. In both cases, induction of TNF-alpha gene transcription can be blocked by the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and FK506, which suggested a role for the NFAT family of proteins in the regulation of the gene in B cells. Furthermore, in T cells, two molecules of NFATp bind to the TNF-alpha promoter element kappa 3 in association with ATF-2 and Jun proteins bound to an immediately adjacent cyclic AMP response element (CRE) site. Here, using the murine B-cell lymphoma cell line A20, we show that the TNF-alpha gene is regulated in a cell-type-specific manner. In A20 B cells, the TNF-alpha gene is not regulated by NFATp bound to the kappa 3 element. Instead, ATF-2 and Jun proteins bind to the composite kappa 3/CRE site and NFATp binds to a newly identified second NFAT site centered at -76 nucleotides relative to the ...
The mortality rate at eight weeks was similar in the lenograstim and placebo groups (23 and 27 percent, respectively; P = 0.60), as was the incidence of severe infections. The median duration of neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count , or = 1000 per cubic millimeter) was shorter in the lenograstim group (21 days, as compared with 27 days in the placebo group; P , 0.001). Eight percent of the patients in both groups had regrowth of AML cells. The rate of complete remission was significantly higher in the lenograstim group (70 percent, as compared with 47 percent in the placebo group; P = 0.002). Overall survival, however, was similar in the two groups (P = 0.76). Conclusions: ...
Animal Model. Neonatal Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1) no-stroke control, 2) saline control, and 3) rhEPO treatment. The surgical procedure of whisker-barrel cortex ischemia in neonatal rats followed similar methods as described previously (Wei et al., 2006). In brief, postnatal day 7 (P7) pups were anesthetized by hypothermia. Hypothermia anesthesia was chosen because many of the drugs used to anesthetize adult animals provided inadequate anesthesia for neonates or were associated with problems such as excessively high mortality (Danneman and Mandrell, 1997). In this regard, hypothermia (immersion in ice) has been judged as a humane, safe, and effective anesthesia method for survival surgeries of neonatal rats (Danneman and Mandrell, 1997). The hypothermia procedure was kept the same for all pups in different experimental groups. Pups were placed in a noninvasive head-holder to allow for a 2.5- to 3.0-mm-diameter craniectomy through the right parietal skull. The ...
Patients must not have autoimmune disorders or conditions of immunosuppression that require current ongoing treatment with systemic corticosteroids (or other systemic immunosuppressants), including oral steroids (e.g., prednisone, dexamethasone) or continuous use of topical steroid creams or ointments or ophthalmologic steroids; a history of occasional (but not continuous) use of steroid inhalers is allowed; replacement doses of steroids for patients with adrenal insufficiency are allowed; patients who discontinue use of these classes of medication for at least 2 weeks prior to randomization are eligible if, in the judgment of the treating physician investigator, the patient is not likely to require resumption of treatment with these classes of drugs during the study; exclusion from this study also includes patients with a history of symptomatic autoimmune disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, systemic progressive sclerosis [scleroderma], systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogrens syndrome, ...
Before Its News). Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) Market research report provides granular analysis of the market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) market report 2016-2020 focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. The Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) Industry.. Analysts forecast the global Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) market to grow at a CAGR of 16.89% during the period 2016-2020.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Global Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) market research report @ http://www.marketreportsworld.com/10279169. The research report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) industry for 2016-2020.. Erythropoietin (EPO), ...
Study Objective: To determine whether recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is effective in increasing neutrophil counts in patients with hairy cell leukemia and neutropenia.. Design: Open label, phase I/II study of G-CSF, given by daily subcutaneous injection for up to 7 weeks.. Setting: Outpatient oncology clinic of a university medical center.. Patients: A consecutive sample of four patients with hairy cell leukemia complicated by severe neutropenia. Three patients completed the study; one patient was removed after 2 weeks of therapy.. Interventions: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was given by daily subcutaneous injection. Each patient began therapy with 1 µg/kg body weight ·d; after 1 week the dose was increased to 3 µg/kg ·d, and 1 week later to 6 µg/ kg ·d. Therapy was continued for 5 to 6 weeks. Patients were taught self-injection, and administered treatment at home.. Measurements and main results: In three patients, an increase in absolute ...
The chromatographic behaviour of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor beta (rhTNF-β) (pI ~9.0) during cation-exchange chromatography at pH 7.5 is investigated. Without prior treatment of the Escherichia coli cell extract with polyethyleneimine (PEI), very little rhTNF-β was bound to the column. However, upon addition of 5% PEI (100 μl ml-1) to the cell lysate, rhTNF-β was shown to bind to cation-exchange columns normally. TNF-β was readily precipitated from the clarified cell extract by 20% ammonium sulphate, but only ca. 25% of this precipitate could be re-solubilized for further purification. However, when 5% PEI was included in the solubilization buffer, the balance of the rhTNF-β could be recovered. It is proposed that charge interaction between rhTNF-β and nucleic acids in the cell extract is responsible for both of these anomalous phenomena, and that PEI (a cationic polyelectrolyte) was able to disrupt this interaction by displacing rhTNF-β from the charge complex ...
Pegylated interferon alpha 2b is used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection,chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection,multiple myeloma(blood cancer),follicular lymphoma,hairy cell leukemia.get complete information about pegylated interferon alpha 2b including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with pegylated interferon alpha 2b at 1mg.com
Looking for online definition of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone in the Medical Dictionary? Recombinant Human Growth Hormone explanation free. What is Recombinant Human Growth Hormone? Meaning of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone medical term. What does Recombinant Human Growth Hormone mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alveolar ridge augmentation using implants coated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. T2 - Histologic observations. AU - Wikesjö, Ulf M E. AU - Qahash, Mohammed. AU - Polimeni, Giuseppe. AU - Susin, Cristiano. AU - Shanaman, Richard H.. AU - Rohrer, Michael D.. AU - Wozney, John M.. AU - Hall, Jan. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - Background: Studies using ectopic rodent, orthotopic canine, and non-human primate models show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) coated onto titanium surfaces induce local bone formation. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) coated onto a titanium porous oxide implant surface to stimulate local bone formation including osseointegration and vertical augmentation of the alveolar ridge. Material and Methods: Bilateral, critical-size, 5 mm, supra-alveolar, peri-implant defects were created in 12 young adult Hound Labrador mongrel dogs. Six animals received implants coated ...
This study investigated the effect of pegylated interferon (alfa 2a and alfa 2b) plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients with mixed genotype 1 and 2.
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.3543 To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients ...

High Yield Protein Production from Pichia pastoris Yeast: A Protocol for Benchtop Fermentation (         By Julia Cino PhD     ...High Yield Protein Production from Pichia pastoris Yeast: A Protocol for Benchtop Fermentation ( By Julia Cino PhD ...

Protein,Production,from,Pichia,pastoris,Yeast:,A,Protocol,for,Benchtop,Fermentation,biological,advanced biology technology, ... By Julia Cino PhD ... Introduction Over th...The production of a functional protein is intimately related to the ce... Pichia ... A major use for many of these recombinant organisms is to produce proteins. Since many proteins are of immense commercial value ... Optimization of a cultivation process for recombinant protein production by Escherichia coli . J. Biotechnol. 23, 271-289 "/> ...
more infohttp://bio-medicine.org/biology-technology/High-Yield-Protein-Production-from-Pichia-pastoris-Yeast-3A-A-Protocol-for-Benchtop-Fermentation-1536-1/

What are Recombinant Proteins?What are Recombinant Proteins?

Recombinant proteins are formed by transfecting foreign genes into a host cell. They are commonly used in the pharmaceutical ... Recombinant proteins are formed by transfecting foreign genes into a host cell. Recombinant proteins are commonly used to ... How did the idea of recombinant protein emerge?. Recombinant proteins were proposed by Peter Lobban who was the first person to ... Expression of recombinant proteins. The strategy for expressing recombinant protein involves transfecting a particular cell ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/What-are-Recombinant-Proteins.aspx

Recombinant Proteins from Plants | SpringerLinkRecombinant Proteins from Plants | SpringerLink

In Recombinant Proteins from Plants, leading researchers from around the world present the latest molecular and classical ... approaches to the separation, analysis, and characterization of recombinant pl ... and characterization of recombinant plant proteins. Focusing on the large-scale, cost-effective production of such proteins for ... and for exploiting the immunotherapeutic potential of plant-expressed proteins. Recombinant Proteins from Plants provides a ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-60327-260-5

Recombinant Protein Protocols | SpringerLinkRecombinant Protein Protocols | SpringerLink

Current applications of recombinant gene products cover a wide spectrum, includ ... Applications of Recombinant Gene Expression. * Transgenic Animals as Bioreactors for Expression of Recombinant Proteins ... Detection and Isolation of Recombinant Proteins Based on Binding Affinity of Reporter: Protein A ... mit the ready and specific detection and isolation of the defined recombinant gene products. Recombinant Protein Protocols ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1385%2F089603481X

Recombinant Protein Production News, ResearchRecombinant Protein Production News, Research

Purifying Proteins from Mammalian Cell Culture In many cases mammalian cells are the only option to produce recombinant ... ProteoNic Biotechnology BV today announced that it has licensed its 2G UNic technology for boosting recombinant protein ... a global biotech company specializing in recombinant protein technology jointly announced the signing of a preferred vendor ... Researchers reveal molecular structure of anti-aging protein Researchers from UT Southwesterns Charles and Jane Pak Center ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Recombinant-Protein-Production

Recombinant Proteins | OriGeneRecombinant Proteins | OriGene

Purified recombinant protein of Homo sapiens myosin binding protein C, cardiac (MYBPC3) ... Recombinant protein of human integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12) ( ... Recombinant protein of human integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor) (ITGA4) ... Recombinant protein of human integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61) (ITGB3) ...
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Recombinant Proteins | OriGeneRecombinant Proteins | OriGene

Recombinant protein of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2A), transcript variant 1 ... Recombinant protein of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2A), transcript variant 2 ... Recombinant protein of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), transcript variant 1 ... Recombinant protein of human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta (CAMK2B), transcript variant 5 ...
more infohttps://www.origene.com/category/proteins/recombinant-proteins?availabilities_filter=In+Stock&pathways_filter=Olfactory+transduction

Recombinant ProteinsRecombinant Proteins

... and rat recombinant proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. ... and rat recombinant proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.. Contact our sales team regarding samples, ... Bio-Bit - Recombinant Proteins for Stem Cell Research * Bio-Bit - Sonic Hedgehog and New Recombinant Proteins ...
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Recombinant ProteinsRecombinant Proteins

... and rat recombinant proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. ... We periodically retest our recombinant proteins at later time points and have shown that some recombinant proteins retain their ... Each lot of our bioassay-validated recombinant proteins undergoes quality testing by functional assay to ensure the protein ... and rat recombinant proteins including cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Each of our in-house manufactured proteins ...
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Recombinant protein therapy - Latest research and news | NatureRecombinant protein therapy - Latest research and news | Nature

Recombinant protein therapy. Definition. A recombinant protein therapy is produced through recombinant DNA technology, which ... The fusion protein Ec-LDP(AE)-DF displays extremely potent cytotoxicity and might be highly effective for non-small cell lung ... In this study, a novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted, human β-defensin 1-tailored fusion protein, Ec-LDP-DF ... A benchtop system for protein synthesis achieves purity and potency comparable to those of marketed drugs. ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/subjects/recombinant-protein-therapy?error=cookies_not_supported&code=2b2c832d-c6bd-476a-a4d5-8a5161827472

CiteSeerX - mansoni recombinant proteins in human cytokine analysisCiteSeerX - mansoni recombinant proteins in human cytokine analysis

CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Polymyxin B as inhibitor of LPS contamination of Schistosoma
more infohttp://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.279.5093

Recombinant Proteins | ProSpecRecombinant Proteins | ProSpec

Recombinant proteins are made from cloned DNA sequences which usually encode an enzyme or protein with known function. ... Recombinant DNA technology allows for the production of wild type and modified human and mammalian proteins at bulk quantities ... Recombinant proteins are a new combination of genes that forms DNA. ... About Recombinant Proteins:. Recombinant proteins are a new combination of genes that forms DNA. Recombinant DNA technology ...
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Recombinant Protein Expression Now Available at Maine Biotechnology ServicesRecombinant Protein Expression Now Available at Maine Biotechnology Services

Maine Biotechnology Services is announcing the addition of Bacterial Recombinant Protein Expression and Purification ... A typical recombinant antigen project at MBS will begin with a careful analysis of the protein sequence and characteristics to ... Bacterial recombinant protein expression is now available as a service at Maine Biotechnology Services. When MBS develops ... Because bacterial recombinant protein expression always possesses the risk of low expression levels or insoluble expression, it ...
more infohttp://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/06/prweb11947271.htm

N-terminal degradation of Recombinant proteinN-terminal degradation of Recombinant protein

Have checked N-end rule for protein , degradation (Varchasky 1992) and protein should be , stable. Besides this the protein is ... Western blot with His antibody shows , intact His-tag but protein protein is getting , degraded. Interestingly when expressed ... N-terminal degradation of Recombinant protein. Russell Wrobel rlwrobel at biochem.wisc.edu Thu Feb 9 10:39:08 EST 2006 * ... Good Luck, Russell kirtan koticha wrote: , I am trying to express a 9 Kd protein in pET vector , with C-terminal Histag. I see ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2006-February/100059.html

Recombinant ProteinsRecombinant Proteins

... recombinant proteins & enzymes, and other innovative research tools for studying Apoptosis, Metabolism, Cell Proliferation, ... BioVision develops and offers a wide variety of products including assay kits, antibodies, recombinant proteins & enzymes, and ... TAF1 bromodomain 1 (1371-1496 aa) (GST-tagged), Human recombinant. Catalog #: 7660 , Datasheet ... BPTF bromodomain (2796-2907 aa) (GST-tagged), Human recombinant. Catalog #: 7662 , Datasheet ...
more infohttps://www.biovision.com/products/epigenetics/other-epigenetics-products/recombinant-proteins.html

Recombinant ProteinsRecombinant Proteins

Caltag Medsystems supply a wide range of recombinant proteins for cancer research, neurobiology, metabolism, apoptosis, cell ... Recombinant Titin (TTN). Recombinant Protein (50ug) Alternative pack sizes available. RPB667Hu01. Cloud-Clone Corp.. £278.00. ... Recombinant TNF Receptor Associated Factor 1 (TRAF1). Recombinant Protein (50ug) Alternative pack sizes available. RPG070Mu01. ... Recombinant TNF Receptor Associated Factor 2 (TRAF2). Recombinant Protein (50ug) Alternative pack sizes available. RPG752Mu01. ...
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Recombinant ProteinsRecombinant Proteins

Caltag Medsystems supply a wide range of recombinant proteins for cancer research, neurobiology, metabolism, apoptosis, cell ... protein (2 ug). H00080196-P01. Abnova Corporation. £198.00. order. RNF36 Recombinant Protein (P01). AP,Array,ELISA,WB-Re (10 ug ... RNF32 Recombinant Protein (Q01). recomb. protein (10 ug) Alternative pack sizes available. H00140545-Q01. Abnova Corporation. £ ... RNF36 Recombinant Protein (Q01). recomb. protein (10 ug) Alternative pack sizes available. H00140691-Q01. Abnova Corporation. £ ...
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Recombinant ProteinsRecombinant Proteins

Caltag Medsystems supply a wide range of recombinant proteins for cancer research, neurobiology, metabolism, apoptosis, cell ... RNF150 Recombinant Protein (Q01). recomb. protein (10ug) Alternative pack sizes available. H00057484-Q01. Abnova Corporation. £ ... RNF151 Recombinant Protein (Q01). recomb. protein (10ug) Alternative pack sizes available. H00146310-Q01. Abnova Corporation. £ ... RNF157 Recombinant Protein (Q01). recomb. protein (10ug) Alternative pack sizes available. H00114804-Q01. Abnova Corporation. £ ...
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Recombinant Protein G (ab49807) | AbcamRecombinant Protein G (ab49807) | Abcam

Ab49807 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli. Abcam provides free protocols, tips and expert support for WB and a ... protein G (full length). - protein G (full length) + His tag ....... ab7458.. - protein A (full length) ....... ab117657.. - ... Most importantly, is there no function testing? How do you verify that the product is recombinant Protein G? Can you provide ... Protein G is a bacterial protein derived from the cell wall of certain strains of b-hemolytic Streptococcci. It binds with high ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/recombinant-protein-g-ab49807.html

Mouse Recombinant Proteins | ProSciMouse Recombinant Proteins | ProSci

Buy your recombinant proteins online from ProSci today. ... We offer a plethora of recombinant proteins against mouse ...
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Neurobiology Recombinant Proteins | ProSciNeurobiology Recombinant Proteins | ProSci

Buy your recombinant proteins online from ProSci today. ... We offer a plethora of neurobiology recombinant proteins to fit ...
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Cytokine Recombinant ProteinsCytokine Recombinant Proteins

... of recombinant cytokines in a carrier-free formulation to avoid the interference on you research results caused by protein ... Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines include chemokines, ... think proteins! think G-Biosciences! © 2019 Geno Technology Inc., USA. All Rights Reserved. ... collection of cytokines in a carrier-free formulation to avoid the interference on you research results caused by protein ...
more infohttps://www.gbiosciences.com/Bioassays/Recombinant_Proteins/Cytokine_recombinant_proteins

Recombinant Protein G (HRP) (ab7460) | AbcamRecombinant Protein G (HRP) (ab7460) | Abcam

Ab7460 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, ELISA, IHC-P, Dot. Abcam… ... Dot Blot analysis of ab7460 Protein G protein (HRP). Load: 200ng of ab7460 followed by a 3-fold serial dilution. Antigens:. Row ... Western blot - Recombinant Protein G (HRP) (ab7460)Image courtesy of an anonymous Abreview. ... Protein G is a bacterial protein derived from the cell wall of certain strains of b-hemolytic Streptococcci. It binds with high ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/recombinant-protein-g-hrp-ab7460.html

Recombinant Protein ExpressionRecombinant Protein Expression

... Please note our rules of use. ... Our Recombinant Protein Expression Facility provides support in the production of specific target proteins, especially if they ... The services provided by the Recombinant Protein Expression Facility include sequencing of the DNA templates, cloning into ... Research on proteins and protein complexes, as well as the analysis of their functions and possibly also malfunctions, is ...
more infohttps://www.uni-wuerzburg.de/en/rvz/research/technologies/recombinant-protein-expression/

Recombinant Proteins - 2B ScientificRecombinant Proteins - 2B Scientific

10 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial (HSPE1) recombinant protein. £409.00 SKU:. ATMP00087HU. Size:. 50ug. Suppl:. AtaGenix ... 4-1BB Ligand/TNFSF9 (mouse) recombinant protein. £409.00 SKU:. ATMP00584MO. Size:. 50ug. Suppl:. AtaGenix. Appli:. SDS-PAGE, ... 2B4/SLAMF4/CD244 (mouse) recombinant protein. £409.00 SKU:. ATMP00583MO. Size:. 50ug. Suppl:. AtaGenix. Appli:. SDS-PAGE, ... Recombinant Proteins. We have a wide selection of products in this field of study, if you do not see something that suits your ...
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  • In addition to being a leading provider of high quality, affordable reagents for applications such as multicolor flow cytometry, BioLegend also offers an extensive selection of purified human, mouse, and rat recombinant proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. (biolegend.com)
  • Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signaling. (gbiosciences.com)
  • G-Biosicences produces a comprehensive collection of cytokines in a carrier-free formulation to avoid the interference on you research results caused by protein carriers such as BSA. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Recombinant proteins are formed by transfecting foreign genes into a host cell. (news-medical.net)
  • Recombinant proteins are a new combination of genes that forms DNA. (prospecbio.com)
  • By putting human, animal or plant genes into the genetic material of bacteria, mammalian or yeast cells, these microorganisms can be used as factories or producers to make proteins for medical, academic and research uses. (prospecbio.com)
  • Each lot of our bioassay-validated recombinant proteins undergoes quality testing by functional assay to ensure the protein exhibits appropriate activity within a biologically relevant system. (biolegend.com)
  • Focusing on the large-scale, cost-effective production of such proteins for use as specialist industrial or therapeutic biomolecules, these authoritative scientists also include promising experimental techniques that will become increasingly important in the future-such techniques as those for the efficient transformation of monocots with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, for optimizing the stability of recombinant proteins, and for exploiting the immunotherapeutic potential of plant-expressed proteins. (springer.com)
  • Prior to performing bioassay validation and stability testing, we test each recombinant protein for product purity and quantification. (biolegend.com)
  • We perform extensive stability testing to ensure that each of our proteins is stable in a liquid format when handled and stored properly. (biolegend.com)
  • If extended storage is desired, our proteins typically possess comparable long-term stability to competitors when stored at -80°C. (biolegend.com)
  • Each recombinant protein released undergoes extensive stability testing to ensure product performance over the reagent's entire shelf life. (biolegend.com)
  • The present invention further relates to process for cloning and expressing modified SAK gene fusion protein which imparts improved stability to the heterologous protein of interest. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A glycosylated recombinant subunit candidate vaccine consisting of Ehrlichia ruminantium major antigenic protein1 induces specific humoral and Th1 type cell responses in sheep. (abcam.com)
  • Current applications of recombinant gene products cover a wide spectrum, including gene therapy, production of bioactive pharmaceuticals, synthesis of novel biopolymers, agriculture and animal husbandry, and so on. (springer.com)
  • A main advantage of this system is either transient or stable production of proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • This system is used to perform functional assays, structural analysis, expressing intracellular proteins and protein complexes, production of viruses, etc. (news-medical.net)
  • However, scaling the production of recombinant protein above multi-milligram quantities may be expensive and cumbersome. (news-medical.net)
  • ProteoNic Biotechnology BV today announced that it has licensed its 2G UNic technology for boosting recombinant protein production to the pharmaceutical company Bayer. (news-medical.net)
  • A vector is simply a tool for manipulating DNA and can be viewed as a "transport vehicle" for the production of proteins from specific DNA sequences cloned into them. (prospecbio.com)
  • Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS), and the Nanyang Technological University, who developed the thermostable exoshell (tES), hope that the technology could help to address some of the problems with recombinant protein production, both for research and industrial applications. (genengnews.com)
  • The ability to stabilize thermolabile substrates within tES may be helpful for a variety of applications in bionanotechnology and synthetic biology, including the production of difficult-to-fold proteins, using the shell as a mediator of cellular enzyme uptake, and exploiting the stabilized qualities of tES substrates in industrial settings. (genengnews.com)
  • The processing methods in this case are similar to the methods to process proteins in mammalian systems. (news-medical.net)
  • When combining two or more different strands of DNA.There are 3 different methods by which Recombinant DNA is made. (prospecbio.com)
  • These phages produce plaques which contain recombinant proteins which can be easily distinguished from the non-recombinant proteins by various selection methods. (prospecbio.com)
  • Methods for stabilizing protein products, including chemical cross-linking, rational mutagenesis, and directed evolution approaches, have also been applied both for basic and industrial applications. (genengnews.com)
  • Due to it's affinity for the Fc region of many mammalian immunoglobulins, protein G is considered a universal reagent in biochemistry and immunology. (abcam.com)
  • A benchtop system for protein synthesis achieves purity and potency comparable to those of marketed drugs. (nature.com)
  • This system is used to study toxic proteins, incorporation of unnatural amino acids, screening of translational inhibitors etc. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers from UT Southwestern's Charles and Jane Pak Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research and Internal Medicine's Division of Nephrology recently published work in Nature that reveals the molecular structure of the so-called "anti-aging" protein alpha Klotho (a-Klotho) and how it transmits a hormonal signal that controls a variety of biologic processes. (news-medical.net)
  • The theoretical molecular weight of the protein is 35.4 kDa Size: 100 ug of protein is supplied in PBS at a concentration of 2.444 mg/mL. (thomassci.com)
  • The theoretical molecular weight of the protein is approximately 33 kDa. (thomassci.com)
  • In this case, IP was with goat anti HP1-alpha ab77256 on Protein G beads, and detection was with goat anti HP1-alpha ab77256 , and Protein G HRP ab7460. (abcam.com)
  • Description: Mature, recombinant, His-tagged Angola marburgvirus Glycoprotein minus the transmembrane domain (MARV-Angola rGPdTM) is supplied as purified protein. (thomassci.com)
  • Often this choice is based on the protein type, functional activity, as well as the required yield that is required. (news-medical.net)
  • functional end of the protein. (bio.net)
  • Expressing and stabilizing functional recombinant proteins remains a key challenge for both basic and industrial biology, the authors note. (genengnews.com)
  • We hypothesize that the significant increase in functional protein yield may be due to the complementation between the negatively charged proteins and the positively charged exoshell internal surface," Drum suggests. (genengnews.com)
  • They prepared genetic fusions (tES-POI) between a tES monomer and one of three proteins of interest (POIs): green fluorescent protein (GFP), Renilla luciferase (rLuc), and a truncated version of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). (genengnews.com)
  • The fusion protein Ec-LDP(AE)-DF displays extremely potent cytotoxicity and might be highly effective for non-small cell lung cancer therapy and useful for other EGFR-targeted therapeutics. (nature.com)
  • A fusion protein composed of a cellulose binding domain from Neocallimastix patriciarum cellulase A and Candida antarctica lipase B (CBD-lipase) was produced by Pichia pastoris methanol utilization plus phenotype in high cell-density cultures. (diva-portal.org)
  • A much larger number of recombinant proteins is used in the research laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers from the University of Jyväskylä in Finland have found that continued treatment of muscle wasting with a soluble growth factor receptor protein, produced at the University of Helsinki, improved survival in a pre-clinical cancer model without affecting the tumor size. (news-medical.net)