Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An allergic response is induced when T lymphocytes recognize these haptens and recruit professional antigen-presenting cells. ... These agents have also been known to kill or damage immune cells and cells in the bone marrow, resulting in difficulty ... T regulatory cells, which are critical to maintaining the correct level of response in the immune system, also appear to be ... recognizing antigens and create novel immune responses. This can be measured by decreased IgM and IgG antibody levels which ...
Recognizing the potential for antigen-presenting dendritic cells, that startup changed its name to Dendreon. Its major investor ... IRC described the vaccination treatment as utilizing antigen-presenting dendritic cells to stimulate responses to tumor ... "Vaccination of patients with B-cell lymphoma using autologous antigen-pulsed dendritic cells". Nature Medicine. 2 (1): 52-58. ... The end point was slowing the progression to AIDS or death for patients having CD4 T-cells between 300 and 549 cells/mm. Bruce ...
The MHC Class II antigens are found on antigen presenting cells (APC)(macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes). ... A few TCR variants that recognize these DQ/antigen complexes are on CD4 positive T-cells. These T-cells, called T-helper (Th) ... cells, can promote the amplification of B-cells that recognize a different portion of the same antigen. Alternatively, ... HLA DP functions as a cell surface receptor for foreign or self antigens. The immune system surveys antigens for foreign ...
These antigens can be recognized and processed by antigen-presenting cells within the tumor (dendritic cells and macrophages). ... Cytotoxic T cells which recognize these tumor antigens may in turn be primed by the tumor antigen-presenting cells. In contrast ... Similar to immune reactions against antigens from bacteria or viruses, the abscopal effect requires priming of immune cells ... irradiation of a tumor nodule may lead to immunogenic forms of tumor cell death and liberation of tumor cell-derived antigens. ...
... natural killer cells, and other antigen presenting cells. TLR9 preferentially binds DNA present in bacteria and viruses, and ... TLRs are transmembrane proteins, expressed on the cell surface and the endocytic compartment and recognize pathogen-associated ... Autoimmune diseases can also be triggered by activated cells undergoing apoptosis and being engulfed by antigen-presenting ... TLR9 is expressed by numerous cells of the immune system such as B lymphocytes, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, ...
... that antigen must be presented to the T cell by an antigen-presenting cell (APC). That activation requires two signals (one of ... Simple signaling without co-stimulation allows the cell to recognize the primary signal as "self" and not ramp-up responses for ... Abatacept prevents antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from delivering the co-stimulatory signal. This prevents the T cells from ... an antigen-presenting cell must present two signals to the T cell. One of those signals is the major histocompatibility complex ...
Nanobody conjugates recognizing antigen presenting cells have been successfully used for tumor detection or targeted antigen ... Chromobodies can be used to recognize and trace targets in different compartments of living cells. They can therefore increase ... November 2006). "Targeting and tracing antigens in live cells with fluorescent nanobodies". Nature Methods. 3 (11): 887-9. doi: ... "Structural Basis for Potent Neutralization of Betacoronaviruses by Single-Domain Camelid Antibodies". Cell. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
The main targets of the virus are antigen-presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells) and endothelial cells. In 2012 it was ... Generally, when a pathogen enters into a host, innate defense system recognizes the pathogen-associated molecular patterns ( ... Lassa mammarenavirus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG), a ... The receptor used for cell entry is alpha-dystroglycan, a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed cell surface receptor for ...
Myeloid antigen presenting cells and dendritic cells in particular are one of the major exosome producers. There are known ... Donor specific antigens are recognized by recipient's T lymphocytes and triggers adaptive pro-inflammatory response which ... Population of antigen presenting cells (APCs) is localized inside donor's tissues and is co-transferred from donor to recipient ... to different cells population including other dendritic cells. In consequence these dendritic cells which acquired new pMHC, ...
... recognize antigen directly and instead required an interaction with another specialized cell known as the Antigen-presenting ... that the ability of a T cell to recognize foreign antigen also required that it recognize "self." With Paul M. Allen, Ph.D., ... showed that this recognition also required the antigen-presenting cell to be from the same genetic background as the T-cell. ... Unanue is internationally recognized as an expert on immunological function, vis-a-vis the identification and T-cell response ...
... microglia must be able to recognize foreign bodies, swallow them, and act as antigen-presenting cells activating T-cells. ... T-helper cell) response. As mentioned above, resident non-activated microglia act as poor antigen presenting cells due to their ... Microglia and macrophages both contribute to the immune response by acting as antigen presenting cells, as well as promoting ... While moving through its set region, if the microglial cell finds any foreign material, damaged cells, apoptotic cells, ...
... antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as a B cell or Dendritic Cell, will present these substances as peptides, which T cells ... Because a T cell's T cell receptor recognizes a specific epitope, only certain T cells are able to respond to a certain peptide ... Porcelli, Steven A.; Modlin, Robert L. (April 1999). "THE CD1 SYSTEM: Antigen-Presenting Molecules for T Cell Recognition of ... Likewise, T Cell epitopes can cause unwanted immunogenicity, including the development of ADAs. A key determinant in T cell ...
The idea of harnessing the antigen presenting cells (APC)'s to recognize cancer and target tumor cells for apoptosis (cell ... including antigen presenting cells, which are cultured ex vivo with BA7072, a recombinant fusion antigen consisting of portions ... EGFR and other cell products and attaching their antigens to the CD64 receptor cells also using GM-CSF to grow more cells. The ... BRMs alter the interaction between the body's immune defenses and cancer cells to boost, direct, or restore the body's ability ...
... is expressed by antigen presenting cells including macrophages, B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells and microglia. ... While a role in antigen presentation has long been recognized, it is now understood that cathepsin S has a role in itch and ... complex can load the selected antigen. After loading the antigen, MHC II molecule moves to the cell surface. Thus, we can ... class II molecules interact with small peptide fragments for presentation on the surface of antigen-presenting immune cells. ...
... of other dendritic cells in presenting pathogen-derived antigens in order to activate specific anti-pathogen T-cell and B-cell ... He is recognized for his "pioneering work" on the modulation of the adaptive immune response by sub-populations of antigen- ... Liu, L.M., MacPherson, G.G. "Antigen acquisition by dendritic cells: Intestinal dendritic cells acquire antigen administered ... presenting dendritic cells, including a sub-population of dendritic cells which presents self-antigens derived from apoptotic ...
... phenotyping and functionally characterizing resident bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (APC) of the cornea, (ii) ... Dana is an internationally recognized expert in the field of corneal disorders and ocular inflammation. He is best known for ... "Corneal immunity is mediated by heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 74 (2): ... Fuchsluger, Thomas A.; Jurkunas, Ula; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Dana, Reza (2011). "Corneal endothelial cells are protected from ...
... with T-cell receptors, on T cells. In typical T-cell recognition, an antigen is taken up by an antigen-presenting cell, ... and recognized by an antigen-specific T-cell receptor. This results in polyclonal T-cell activation. Superantigens do not ... The toxin causes the non-specific binding of MHC II, on professional antigen presenting cells, ... require processing by antigen-presenting cells but instead, interact directly with the invariant region[citation needed] of the ...
T cells producing receptors recognizing MBP fragments presented by the MHC molecules of antigen presenting cells seem to play a ...
Antigens are delivered to antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. M cells express the protease ... Antigens are recognized via expression of cell surface receptors such as glycoprotein-2 (GP2) that detect and specifically bind ... some antigens are able to infiltrate the M cell barrier and infect the nearby epithelial cells or enter the gut. M cells are ... However, in females that are lactating, M cells recognize antigen and IgA is directed from the gut to the mammary gland. IgA ...
The MHC Class II antigens are found on antigen presenting cells (APC) (macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes). ... T-cells. These T-cells, called T-helper cells, can promote the amplification of B-cells which, in turn recognize a different ... HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen-presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC class II ... As a variable cell surface receptor on immune cells, these D antigens, originally HL-A4 antigens, are involved in graft-versus- ...
... -presenting cells present antigens in the form of peptides on histocompatibility molecules. The T cells selectively ... whereas B cells can be activated by native ones. Antigenic specificity is the ability of the host cells to recognize an antigen ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly. Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
... that recognize a specific MHC-peptide complex displayed on the surface of antigen presenting cells allowing for detection, ... "Genetic engineering of virus-specific T cells with T-cell receptors recognizing minor histocompatibility antigens for clinical ... which are used to detect antigen-specific T-cells in fluid cells and solid tissue samples using flow cytometry. These T-cells ... designed to identify and isolate T-cells with high affinity to specific antigens amid a large group of unrelated T-cells. ...
T-helper cells, cytotoxic T-cells, and many others. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) are capable of internalizing pathogens and ... on the cell surface. T-cell response is initiated when T-cells recognize these displayed epitopes. Only specific peptide ... rather than an intermediary cell-type between T cells and natural killer cells. Additionally, DCs, natural killer cells, and B ... When comparing gene expression profiles from cells of the blood system, T-cell and B-cell subsets tightly group with their ...
Helper T cells can recognize exogenous antigen presented on MHC class II; cytotoxic T cells can recognize endogenous antigen ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ... B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ...
NKT cells recognize protected microbial lipid agents which are presented by CD1d-expressing antigen presenting cells. This ... Many of these cells recognize the non-polymorphic CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that binds self and foreign ... semi-invariant T-cell receptor and NK cell markers. NKT cells are a subset of T cells that coexpress an αβ T-cell receptor, but ... iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d, a non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen ...
... molecule by an antigen presenting cell. This recognition is accomplished by the T cell receptors expressed on the cell surface ... Thus AIRE drives negative selection of self-recognizing T cells. When AIRE is defective, T cells that recognize antigens ... and T cells that react to those proteins are destroyed. Each T cell recognizes a specific antigen when it is presented in ... each with a unique antigen specificity. Subsequently, T cells with receptors that recognize the body's own proteins need to be ...
Immunotherapy aims to utilize the body's own defense mechanism-the immune system-to recognize mutated cancer cells and to kill ... When they encounter foreign pathogens, the antigen presenting cells alert the T cells-"the soldiers of the immune system"-that ... CD8 cells), and MHC class II are found on APCs and stimulate helper T cells (CD4 cells). It is the specific antigen or epitope ... "Nanoscale artificial antigen presenting cells for T cell immunotherapy". Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine. 10 ...
The assay required, in addition to the thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes, also "macrophages" or antigen-presenting cells (APCs) ... The receptors of the T lymphocytes recognize an antigen in association with their own Mhc molecules. The different ... The class I genes were discovered in 1936 (the year Jan Klein was born) as coding for blood group (red blood cell) antigens, ... The eliminated Tcrs might, however, by chance have had the capability of recognizing certain foreign antigens (nonself) in ...
Dendritic cells displaying co-stimulatory molecules while presenting antigen are able to activate T cells. In contrast, T cells ... that recognize antigen presented by a dendritic cell not displaying co-stimulatory molecules are generally driven to apoptosis ... The latter case induces recognition by antigen-specific Th2 cells or Tfh cells, leading to activation of the B cell through ... which binds to CD40 on the B cell, thus the Th2 cell can co-stimulate the B cell. Without this co-stimulation the B cell cannot ...
Antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, can have up to six different types of MHC molecules for antigen presentation ... Yet, the effector cell population that is reactive against the pathogen is dominated by cells that recognize only a certain ... Immunodominant T cells also curtail subdominant T cells by outcompeting them for cytokine sources from antigen-presenting cells ... Insufficient T cell stimulation by these B cells also leads to suppression of these B cells by the T cells. The immunodominant ...
Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... As a general rule, candidiasis presenting with white lesions is mainly caused by Candida species in the hyphal form and red ... Three main clinical appearances of candidiasis are generally recognized: pseudomembranous, erythematous (atrophic) and ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ...
The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... Amblyomma americanum, known commonly as the lone-star tick, is recognized as the primary vector for STARI. In some parts of the ... "Borrelia burgdorferi central nervous system infection presenting as an organic schizophrenialike disorder". Biological ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ...
These tests include cell cultures, PCR, ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. ... Transmission from person to person has been established, presenting a disease risk for healthcare workers. The virus is present ... "Rodent-borne hemorrhagic fevers: under-recognized, widely spread and preventable - epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment" ... However, immunofluorescence essays provide less definitive proof of Lassa infection.[7] An ELISA test for antigen and ...
... class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate ... they present pieces of pathogens to T cells so that the pathogens may be recognized again and killed. This causes an antibody ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD8 are known as CD8+ T cells. These cells bind antigens presented on ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... although milder forms may not be recognized until adulthood. While there are over 100 recognized PIDs, most are very rare. ... cell responses to mitogens and allogeneic cells, cytokine production by cells Tests for B cell function: antibodies to routine ... natural killer cells and monocytes (CD15+), as well as activation markers (HLA-DR, CD25, CD80 (B cells). Tests for T cell ...
... proteins on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These peptides are products of proteasomal degradation of proteins ... After a protein has been ubiquitinated, it is recognized by the 19S regulatory particle in an ATP-dependent binding step.[15][ ... "Cell. 137 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.041. PMC 2668214. PMID 19345192.. ... Cell cycle controlEdit. Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Rather, NK cells destroy compromised host cells, such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells, recognizing such cells by a ... Mast cells[edit]. Main article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of innate immune cell that reside in connective tissue and in ... Natural killer cells[edit]. Main article: Natural killer cell. Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a component of the innate ...
... clonal TCRs which recognize specific peptide/MHC complex during physical contact between T cell and antigen-presenting cell-APC ... The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen-experienced T cells than in naive T cells. Naive T cells pass through the process ... binding affinity of TCR to MHC to prolong the cell-cell interaction between the antigen-presenting cell and the T cell. ... Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ...
CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ... antigen-presenting cells. These can be macrophages that secrete IL-12, which stimulates the proliferation of further CD4+ Th1 ... Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis[1]. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... These cells differentiate into epithelioid cells which wall off the infected cells, but results in significant inflammation and ...
T-cells and B-cells) and antigen presenting cells. These cells coordinate an immune response upon the detection of foreign ... "Scl 70 autoantibodies from scleroderma patients recognize a 95 kDa protein identified as DNA topoisomerase I". Chromosoma. 94 ( ... the cell line was contaminated and displaced by HeLa cells, and has now been identified as actually HeLa cells.[54] ... Hargraves M, Richmond H, Morton R. Presentation of two bone marrow components, the tart cell and the LE cell. Mayo Clin Proc ...
Cell signaling and ligand binding. Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ... Proteins were recognized as a distinct class of biological molecules in the eighteenth century by Antoine Fourcroy and others, ... Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (see also Molecule of the Month, presenting short accounts on selected ... Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are ...
In veterinary medicine, it is a well-recognized cause of bovine mastitis, hence the name dys-galactiae. In some geographic ... Lancefield group C and G carbohydrate antigens are predominantly expressed, but group A and L have been documented. However, ... DrsG, a virulence protein abrogating the effect of antimicrobial peptides secreted by human immune cells, is also harboured by ... including a small subset of patients presenting with severe necrotizing fasciitis. Moreover, it is an important cause of bone ...
There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and ... People with non-celiac gluten sensitivity remain habitually in a "no man's land", without being recognized by the specialists ... Genuis SJ, Lobo RA (2014). "Gluten Sensitivity Presenting as a Neuropsychiatric Disorder". Gastroenterology Research and ... a high count of celiac disease cells (or CD/CD3 ratio) in immunohistochemical assessment of biopsies, or the presence of IgA ...
... they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B ... as well as damaged cells or cellular debris. The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for ... Mast cells[edit]. See article: Mast cell. Mast cells are a type of granulocyte that are present in tissues;[3] they mediate ... cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil functions),[20] they are involved in the destruction of tumor cells,[16] and they ...
In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune ... a case report of Neuroendocrine Small Cell Carcinoma of the Endometrium presenting as Paraneoplastic Cushing's Syndrome". Facts ... Doukhopelnikoff, A; Debrock, G; Steelandt, T; De Jonge, ETM (2017). "The importance of recognizing paraneoplastic symptoms: ... which are cell-cell adhesion molecules found in desmosomes). Underlying cancer or irreversible system impairment, seen in acute ...
Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognise pathogen- ... These PAMPs are recognized by the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system, which may be membrane-bound ... Fever is the most common presenting symptom in sepsis, but fever may be absent in some people such as the elderly or those who ... Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, and B cells all undergo apoptosis, whereas regulatory T ...
Immune resistance to an infectious disease requires a critical level of either antigen-specific antibodies and/or T cells when ... One of the ways to prevent or slow down the transmission of infectious diseases is to recognize the different characteristics ... The diagnosis is aided by the presenting symptoms in any individual with an infectious disease, yet it usually needs additional ... A cell is normally transparent under a microscope, and using a stain increases the contrast of a cell with its background. ...
Antigens presented on MHC 1 molecules activates CD8+ T cells on keratinocytes or by encounters with activated CD4+ helper T ... The second most common form and the most advance form of oral lichen planus,[39][1] is characterised by oral ulcers presenting ... Six clinical forms of oral lichen planus (OLP) are recognized:[38] Lesion morphology Description ... An immune-mediated mechanism where basal keratinocytes are being targeted as foreign antigens by activated T cells, especially ...
The main targets of the virus are antigen-presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells) and endothelial cells.[25][26][27] In 2012 ... Generally, when a pathogen enters into a host, innate defense system recognizes the Pathogen-associated molecular patterns ( ... The Lassa virus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG),[18] a ... Rojek JM, Kunz S (April 2008). "Cell Entry by Human Pathogenic Arenaviruses". Cell Microbiol. 10 (4): 828-35. doi:10.1111/j. ...
... glutamine residues creating epitopes that increase the binding affinity of the gluten peptide to the antigen presenting T cells ... It was first associated with celiac disease in 1997 when the enzyme was found to be the antigen recognized by the antibodies ... cell membrane. • extracellular matrix. • collagen-containing extracellular matrix. Biological process. • apoptotic cell ... as well as differentiation and cell adhesion.[14] It has been noted that tTG may have very different activity in different cell ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • regulation of dendritic cell differentiation. • ... 1zsd: Crystal Structure Of HLA-B*3501 Presenting an 11-Mer EBV Antigen EPLPQGQLTAY ... If the immune system recognizes the peptides as foreign (such as viral or bacterial peptides), it responds by destroying the ... positive regulation of T cell mediated cytotoxicity. • antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via ...
... ligands recognized by co-stimulatory receptors on T cells, and are termed professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). ... A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... T cells are useless without antigen-presenting cells to activate them, and B cells are crippled without T cell help. On the ... Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ...
"Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ... The virus is foreign to the body, and therefore expresses antigens that the immune system can recognize. Furthermore, viruses ... A tumour can have many cell types of cells, each with different cell-surface antigens. Those cells are derived from each ... Tumor antigens have been divided into two categories: shared tumor antigens; and unique tumor antigens. Shared antigens are ...
In direct xenorecognition, antigen presenting cells from the xenograft present peptides to recipient CD4+ T cells via ... This leads to more antigens potentially recognized as foreign, thus eliciting a greater indirect xenogenic response.[1] ... T cells. Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells.[1][29] ... Indirect xenorecognition involves the presentation of antigens from the xenograft by recipient antigen presenting cells to CD4+ ...
Dendritic cells (DCs), which are the primary antigen-presenting cells (APCs), of the donor tissue migrate to the recipient's ... the memory helper T cells' T cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize their target antigen that is presented by the MHC class II ... Lymphocytes of specific immunity T cells-including the subclasses helper T cells and killer T cells-and B cells. ... the T cell receptors (TCRs) of the killer T cells recognize their matching epitope, and trigger the target cell's programmed ...
When apoptotic material is not removed correctly by phagocytes, they are captured instead by antigen-presenting cells, which ... The classical period began when the disease was first recognized in the Middle Ages. The term lupus is attributed to 12th- ... Cell death signaling. *Apoptosis is increased in monocytes and keratinocytes. *Expression of Fas by B cells and T cells is ... This material may present a threat to the tolerization of B cells and T cells. Dendritic cells in the germinal center may ...
A broad antigen serotype is a crude measure of identity of cells. For example, HLA A9 serotype recognizes cells of A23- and A24 ... When a foreign pathogen enters the body, specific cells called antigen-presenting cells (APCs) engulf the pathogen through a ... it can stimulate B-cells that also recognize the same molecule in their B cell receptors. Thus, T cells help B cells make ... When bound, peptides are presented to T cells. T cells require presentation via MHC molecules to recognize foreign antigens - a ...
Dendritic cells, a type of antigen presenting cell, are harvested from the person needing the immunotherapy. These cells are ... The final result should be a production of equipped T-cells that can recognize and fight the infected cancer cells in the body ... these activated cells present the antigen to the effector lymphocytes (CD4+ helper T cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and B cells ... Immune effector cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T ...
Serotyping is done by mixing cells with antibodies for a particular antigen. It can give some idea about risk. A 2014 study ... Currently, the two recognized species are S. enterica, and S. bongori. In 2005, a third species, Salmonella subterranean, was ... and are the most commonly isolated bacteria from the blood of those presenting with fever. Bloodstream infections caused by ... including epithelial cells, M cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells.[48] As facultative anaerobic organism, Salmonella uses ...
... recognize antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-like molecules. We describe a diverse ... population of human γδ T cells isolated from peripheral blood and tissues that exhibit autoreactivity to the monomorphic MHC- ... A class of γδ T cell receptors recognize the underside of the antigen-presenting molecule MR1 Science. 2019 Dec 20;366(6472): ... T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-like molecules. ...
... cells (APCs), which trigger T-cell ... T cells recognize antigens at the two-dimensional (2D) interface with antigen-presenting Published by sunolmolecular UnderOther ... Perturbation of T cells with pharmaceutical brokers severely suppressed 2D affinity and on-rate, but not off-rates under either ... These data suggest that the on-rate of pMHC association to native TCR is usually regulated by the T cell but the Torisel off- ...
The vaccine is composed of a pharmaceutically acceptable medium and a segment of the T cell receptor (TCR) present on the ... This immune response down regulates or deletes the pathogenic T cells, thus ablating the disease pathogenesis. Means of ... vaccine is administered to the host in a manner that induces an immune response directed against the TCR of a pathologic T cell ... The present invention provides vaccines and a means vaccinating a host so as to prevent or control specific T cell medicated ...
and Langerhans cells. Such cells, termed antigen-presenting cells (APCs), .... Page 128. The parasites produce exoantigens, ... These antigens are recognized by various serologic techniques (e.g., IFA). Soluble antigens are also found in ... ... abundance acaricide adult ticks Africa Amblyomma americanum andersoni animals antibodies antigens appendiculatus areas Argas ... that they collect antigens in the vicinity of the wound site and present them to T-. helper lymphocytes in the regional lymph ...
It is recognized that adoptive cell therapy using less differentiated CD8+ cells is more efficacious (45), a finding that may ... Combined with the antigen-presenting function of γδT cells, this may prove to be an optimal adoptive cell therapy approach for ... Cell lines. K562 artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC) engineered to express CD86, CD137L, and IL15 (clone 4) were ... Neuroblastoma Killing Properties of Vδ2 and Vδ2-Negative γδT Cells Following Expansion by Artificial Antigen-Presenting Cells. ...
A substantial body of recent evidence demonstrates that granulocytes can acquire the function as antigen-presenting cells (APC ... In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen-presenting capacity of granulocyte subsets (neutrophils ... In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen-presenting capacity of granulocyte subsets (neutrophils ... In addition, they can acquire surface expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules as well as T cell stimulatory ...
A vaccine approach based on cell-mediated immunity that avoids some of these drawbacks is discussed here. Specifically, cell- ... We review the literature on the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity in influenza infection and the available data on ... We discuss the advantages of developing a vaccine based on cell-mediated immune responses toward highly pathogenic influenza ... Influenza-specific CD8+ T cells recognize multiple viral epitopes on target cells and antigen-presenting cells. The HKx31 and ...
... act as antigen presenting cells (APCs), and provide regulatory molecules. B cells recognize antigens through the B cell ... B cells also facilitate CD4+ T cell memory function and CD8+ T cells proliferation. High activity of B cells and better ... antigen-experienced T and B cells within the microenvironment of oral squamous cell carcinoma," International Journal of Cancer ... but it plays the role of a tumor specific antigen which is highly immunogenic. It promotes cell surface antigen peptides ...
... cell surfaces where can interact with membrane receptors and with extracellular matrix on the surface of plant and animal cells ... cell surfaces where can interact with membrane receptors and with extracellular matrix on the surface of plant and animal cells ... EF-Tu has evolved the capacity to execute diverse functions on the extracellular surface of both eukaryote and prokaryote cells ... EF-Tu has evolved the capacity to execute diverse functions on the extracellular surface of both eukaryote and prokaryote cells ...
s, perform the role of antigen-presenting cell. Antigen-presenting cell. An antigen-presenting cell or accessory cell is a cell ... Recognition of antigen by B cells. A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each lymphocyte recognizes its ... is ingested by an antigen-presenting cell. Antigen-presenting cell. An antigen-presenting cell or accessory cell is a cell that ... B cell types. *Plasma B cells (also known as plasma cells, plasmocytes, and effector B cells) are large B cells that have been ...
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) processes and displays an antigen on its surface. A T cell recognizes and targets that antigen ... Psoriasis is frequently referred to as a "T-cell mediated disease." T cells are a type of immune system cell (white blood cell) ... the antigen to the T cell, other receptors on the APC and T cell must also interact like a lock and key for the T cell to ... T cells naturally circulate throughout the body looking for foreign substances. These foreign substances, called antigens, are ...
Helper T cells can recognize exogenous antigen presented on MHC class II; cytotoxic T cells can recognize endogenous antigen ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility ... Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T ... B cells can internalize antigen that binds to their B cell receptor and present it to helper T cells. Unlike T cells, B cells ...
Antigen presentation An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen ... The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen presenting ... See also: Antigen presentation An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen ... Immune cells. White blood cells (T cell, B cell, NK cell, Mast cell, Basophil, Eosinophil) • Phagocyte (Neutrophil, Macrophage ...
... are immune cells that specialize in presenting an antigen to a T-cell. The main types of professional APCs are dendritic cells ... DC), macrophages, and B cells. A professional APC takes up an antigen, processes it, and returns part of it to its surface, ... along with a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The T-cell is activated when it interacts with the formed complex ... In both cases, whether were talking about B cells that recognize a very specific pathogen-- and it could be a specific virus, ...
This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen ... Display of Native Antigen on cDC1 That Have Spatial Access to Both T and B Cells Underlies Efficient Humoral Vaccination. J ... Human ?d T cells recognize CD1b by two distinct mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 09 15; 117(37):22944-22952. ... Polyglutamine-Related Aggregates Can Serve as a Potent Antigen Source for Cross-Presentation by Dendritic Cells. J Immunol. ...
Transferred DO11.10 CD4+ T cells were uniquely recognized by PE-anti-KJ1-26 mAb. For DO11.10 CD4+ T cell activation, pLN cells ... Eosinophil as antigen-presenting cell: activation of T cell clones and T cell hybridoma by eosinophils after antigen processing ... 5⇓D) images confirmed the intimate cell-cell interactions of OVA-presenting eosinophil APCs with OVA-specific CD4+ T cells. ... dendritic cells and antigen-specific CD4 T cells after subcutaneous injection of antigen. J. Immunol. 169: 2247-2252. ...
What is neurosecretory cell? Meaning of neurosecretory cell medical term. What does neurosecretory cell mean? ... Looking for online definition of neurosecretory cell in the Medical Dictionary? neurosecretory cell explanation free. ... delta cell. Pancreatic D cell.. dendritic cell. One type of antigen-presenting cell that helps T cells respond to foreign ... memory cell. A cell derived from B or T lymphocytes that can quickly recognize a foreign antigen to which the body has been ...
What is an antigen presenting cell? displays antigen to helper t cells until it finds one that has matching receptor for ... each antibody recognizes a different part of the protein, called an epitope ... 2nd time an antigen is encountered, Td cell produces several cytokines that attract and activate macrophages, resulting in an ... largest of the lymph organs, the spleen has white pulp-mostly b cells (islands) and red pulp-venous sinuses ...
A biodegradable NeuraGen® tube was infused with pure DRG neurons or Schwann cells cultured from a rat strain differing from the ... Our results confirmed previous studies that have reported Schwann cells as being immunogenic, likely due to MHC I expression. ... We observed enhanced regeneration with allogeneic cells compared to empty conduits 16 weeks post-surgery, but morphological ... The degree of regeneration was indistinguishable between DRG and Schwann cell allografts although immunogenicity assessments ...
doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.016. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review ... Naive T cells recognize myelin-derived antigen presented in the context of MHC molecules by antigen-presenting cells. In the ... Regulatory T cells (Treg) that express Foxp3 suppress the activity of Th17 cells and thus help to suppress inflammation. ... Activated astrocytes produce BAFF, a survival factor for autoreactive B cells, which differentiate into plasma cells and ...
Intestinal professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) recognize and respond to the gut microbiota through multiple pattern- ... gp96 from CD11c+ cells in mice results in alteration of dendritic cell and T cell subsets in the gut as well as loss of antigen ... Our findings for the first time demonstrate that gp96 is essential for CD11c+ cells to induce regulatory T cells and maintain ... regulatory T cell induction in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Strikingly, these conditional gp96-null mice developed spontaneous ...
... but usually macrophages and T cell lymphocytes (helper T cells) interact with B cells as Antigen Presenting Cells to bring ... and T cells mature in the thymus gland. In comparison, both B and T cells can recognize and target antigen-bearing cells, ... A portion of the T cells become T helper cells (TH) or T suppressor cells (Ts). TH cell stimulate other T cells and B cells by ... Dendritic Cells Dendritic cells activate lymphocytes. They are antigen-presenting cells characterized by long, thin processes ...
Lectins are sugar-binding proteins that recognize complex carbohydrate structures on the cell surface and have been used ... Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish. Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Keir M. Balla, David L. ... Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish. Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Keir M. Balla, David L. ... Identification of dendritic antigen-presenting cells in the zebrafish Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Can act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for T cells specific for CNS antigens ... We think they are involved after the initial phases mediated by CD4 cells. Frequency of CD8+ T cells recognizing myelin ... In MS 80% of total CSF cells are T-cells (45% in blood), mainly memory T cells (up to 30% of CSF cells during inflammation), 5 ... B cells differentiate into plasma cells and secrete antibodies that can bind to their target antigen and bind complement, ...
... could help the dissection of the sequential steps by which the TCR reads the peptide/MHC complex in order to control T cell ... 2011) Single cell force spectroscopy of T cells recognizing a myelin-derived peptide on antigen presenting cells. Immunol Lett ... Antigen-presenting cells Is the Subject Area "Antigen-presenting cells" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Bongrand P, Malissen B (1998) Quantitative aspects of T cell recognition: from within the antigen-presenting cell to within the ...
Cathelicidins are recognized as an important class of host defense peptides that includes many arginine-rich peptides [49]. ... Since these peptides activate APCs, we call these peptides as A-cell epitopes (antigen presenting cell epitopes). The A-cell ... Immunomodulatory peptide Antigen presenting cells A-cell epitopes Support vector machine Adjuvants ... expressed on major immune cells like activated T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, macrophages and epithelial cells. With two major ...
Following reconstitution, the chimeric mice have CD4+ T cells that potentially recognize I-Ak and/or I-Ad-restricted Ag, but ... Tumor Cells Present MHC Class II-Restricted Nuclear and Mitochondrial Antigens and Are the Predominant Antigen Presenting Cells ... Tumor Cells Present MHC Class II-Restricted Nuclear and Mitochondrial Antigens and Are the Predominant Antigen Presenting Cells ... Tumor Cells Present MHC Class II-Restricted Nuclear and Mitochondrial Antigens and Are the Predominant Antigen Presenting Cells ...
... antigen-presenting cells (APCs) (8, 9). How myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells recognize their target organ and become reactivated to ... 2009) Localizing central nervous system immune surveillance: Meningeal antigen-presenting cells activate T cells during ... CD11chiMHCIIhi dendritic cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells, and CD19+MHCII+ B cells. Cells were exposed to increasing amounts of ... 2016) Gatekeeper role of brain antigen-presenting CD11c+ cells in neuroinflammation. EMBO J 35:89-101. ...
Antigen-presenting cell (APC): B cells, macrophages, and various other body cells that "present" antigens in a form that T ... Antigen: Any substance that, when introduced into the body, is recognized by the immune system. ... B cells: Immune cells that produce antibodies.. B lymphocytes; B cells: Small white blood cells crucial to the immune defenses ... Cytotoxic: Toxic to cells.. Cytotoxic T cell, suppressor T cell: A subset of T lymphocytes that can kill body cells infected by ...
T cells recognize protein antigens as short peptides processed and displayed by antigen-presenting cells. However, the ... Differential lysosomal proteolysis in antigen-presenting cells determines antigen fate. Science. 307:1630-1634. ... Distinct dendritic cell populations sequentially present antigen to CD4 T cells and stimulate different aspects of cell- ... How the T cell receptor sees antigen - a structural view. Cell. 122:333-336. ...
  • T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-like molecules. (
  • Previous studies have used aminobisphosphonates or functional equivalents to expand the Vγ9Vδ2 lineage, but strategies to expand γδT cells bearing other receptors have not been developed as clinical applications. (
  • and signal 2 is thus required, which is delivered through interactions between costimulatory receptors and complementary ligands on T cells. (
  • Antigen-specific ligation of T-cell receptors induces effector mechanisms that either directly or indirectly promote lysis of infected cells. (
  • B cells recognize antigens through the B cell receptors complex on their cell membrane [ 6 ]. (
  • EF-Tu can traffic to, and is retained on, cell surfaces where can interact with membrane receptors and with extracellular matrix on the surface of plant and animal cells. (
  • T-cells may recognize these complexes using their T-cell receptors. (
  • When the APC "shows" the antigen to the T cell, other receptors on the APC and T cell must also interact like a lock and key for the T cell to become activated. (
  • Those that express MHC class II molecules along with co-stimulatory molecules and pattern recognition receptors are often called professional antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Once a dendritic cell's pattern-recognition receptors recognize a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antigen is phagocytosed and the dendritic cell becomes activated, upregulating the expression of MHC class II molecules. (
  • Intestinal professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) recognize and respond to the gut microbiota through multiple pattern-recognition receptors, including TLRs and NLRs. (
  • In 1868, Paul Langerhans made the first description of dendritic cells (DCs) found in human skin that he regarded as "intraepidermal receptors for extracutaneous signals of the nervous system" ( 1 ). (
  • In evolutionary terms, teleosts possess one of the earliest recognizable adaptive immune systems, containing B and T lymphocytes with somatically rearranged antigen receptors, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and immunological memory ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • However, it is well recognized that molecular interactions between surface-bound, especially cell membrane bound, receptors are influenced by several parameters, e.g. force sensitivity, molecular flexibility or steric effects, that are not accounted for by measurements made in solution [19] and that may be profoundly influenced by active cellular processes [20] . (
  • One of these mechanisms is the activation of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on the APCs that recognize conserved microbial molecular signatures. (
  • Although the interaction between peptides and MHC class II molecules and the ability of the T cell repertoire to generate antigen receptors of cognate specificity have been extensively studied, it remains difficult to predict or to manipulate the extraction of peptide ligands from protein antigens ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Forms activation clusters composed of several receptors depending on the ligand, these clusters trigger signaling from the cell surface and subsequently are targeted to the Golgi in a lipid-raft dependent pathway. (
  • Dendritic cells can then stimulate T cells that have the receptors to recognize those particular peptides. (
  • They depend on pattern recognition receptors that recognize patterns of pathogen -associated molecules (immunostimulants) that are not present in the host organism, including microbial DNA , lipids, and polysaccharides, and proteins that form bacterial flagella. (
  • Some of these receptors are present on the surface of professional phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils, where they mediate the uptake of pathogens, which are then delivered to lysosomes for destruction. (
  • After engulfing the antigens, phagocytes then present with specific receptors in their cell membranes which specific T lymphocytes are capable of recognizing. (
  • When T lymphocytes recognize and bind to the receptors of the antigen-presenting cells, cell-mediated immunity then occurs inside the body. (
  • pAPCs express toll-like receptors on their surfaces that recognize and trap molecular patterns called antigens on bacteria, food and our own cells. (
  • Liu and her team found that without gp96-a molecule inside most cells that helps Toll-like receptors and integrins fold and function properly-pAPCs in the gut were more inflammatory. (
  • Without gp96, pAPCs were less able to travel to lymph nodes, for which they need integrins, and less able to respond to bacterial antigens, for which they need functioning toll-like receptors. (
  • Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the viral replication levels in APCs critically affect the induction of protective versus pathogenic Th cell types via the signaling of pattern recognition receptors for innate immune responses. (
  • They display these antigens on their cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) receptors. (
  • As a consequence, for a given autoimmune disorder, pathogenic T cell clones express T cell receptors with a limited number of variable regions that define antigenic specificity. (
  • ChemR23 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor related to chemokine receptors, which is expressed specifically in these cell types. (
  • One of these functional differences is the expression of differential sets of chemoattractant receptors, which is responsible for the selective recruitment of specific cell subpopulations according to their lineage, origin, and maturation state ( 2 ). (
  • So, just to remind you, B cells have these receptors that later on will be their antibodies. (
  • And we remember that these receptors actually find antigens, so pieces of these criminals that are presented to them by antigen presenting cells and we'll revisit that in a second. (
  • We're especially interested in determining the roles of different immune cells and their surface receptors in infections or autoimmune conditions that affect the nervous system. (
  • Alpha-beta T cell receptors are antigen specific receptors which are essential to the immune response and are present on the cell surface of T lymphocytes. (
  • Innate immunity includes the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in improving antitumor and vaccine responses, muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE) in osteosarcoma, and natural killer (NK) cell-killer immunoglobulinlike receptor (KIR) mismatch. (
  • In our immune system, there are different classes of carbohydrate-binding receptors (so-called lectins) that recognize specific carbohydrate structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids. (
  • Simultaneously, they upregulate cell-surface receptors that act as co-receptors in T-cell activation such as CD80 , CD86 , and CD40 greatly enhancing their ability to activate T-cells. (
  • T cells can recognize their target antigen only if that antigen is bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein, a set of proteins that presents antigens on the surface of cells to support recognition by antigen receptors. (
  • T cells are generated in the bone marrow, develop their specific receptors in the thymus, and are activated by antigen-presenting cells, such as B cells and macrophages. (
  • B) Nuclear particles resemble viral particles and activate the same viral nucleic acid recognition receptors on antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Specifically, we discovered a cycle of recruitment, activation and release for Zap70 kinases at phosphorylated T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). (
  • T4-lymphocytes are then able to recognize peptide/MHC-II complexes by means of their T-cell receptors (TCRs) and CD4 molecules. (
  • The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) serves as a paradigm for how membrane receptors transmit signals to the cytoplasm because it controls many aspects of T cell differentiation and function by detecting atom-sized variations in the quality of the ligand that is recognized. (
  • Mature T cells with an αβ TCR are classified according to two major distinct subsets based on the mutually exclusive presence of the co-receptors CD4 and CD8, which play essential roles in recognition of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and I ligands, respectively, and in the recruitment of the tyrosine kinase Lck to the TCR complex. (
  • Mature CD4 + and CD8 + T cells derive from a common precursor in the thymus, a double-positive (DP) thymocyte, which has both co-receptors. (
  • In the case of many viruses, resistance is related to the presence on the cell surface of protein receptors that bind to the virus , allowing it to gain entry into the cell and thus cause infection. (
  • This chapter discusses selected scavenger and lectinlike antigen-presenting cell (APC) receptors in relation to innate immunity to illustrate principles and provide questions for further study. (
  • Genes for the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system have become fixed in the germ line during evolution, unlike the recombinant genes generated in somatic cells, which determine clonotypic recognition by T and B lymphocytes in the acquired immune response. (
  • T cells recognize antigens at the two-dimensional (2D) interface with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which trigger T-cell effector functions. (
  • The increasingly recognized antigen-presenting function of granulocytes has led to the suggestion that they should be referred to as atypical antigen-presenting cells (APCs) ( 3 ). (
  • In addition, activated APCs can secrete various cytokines as signal 3 that drive the polarization of T cells into different effector cells. (
  • Typical APCs need to have at least signal 1 and 2 to have the capacity to stimulate T cells. (
  • In addition, B cells secrete cytokines, act as antigen presenting cells (APCs), and provide regulatory molecules. (
  • s (APCs) and eventually develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction. (
  • APCs process antigens and present them to T-cells. (
  • In addition to the MHC family of proteins, antigen presentation relies on other specialized signaling molecules on the surfaces of both APCs and T cells. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells are vital for effective adaptive immune response, as the functioning of both cytotoxic and helper T cells is dependent on APCs. (
  • Some cancer therapies involve the creation of artificial APCs to prime the adaptive immune system to target malignant cells. (
  • however, the term "antigen-presenting cell" is often used specifically to describe professional APCs. (
  • APCs can also present foreign and self lipids to T cells and NK cells by using the CD1 family of proteins, which are structurally similar to the MHC class I family. (
  • Professional APCs specialize in presenting antigens to T cells. (
  • To help distinguish between the two types of APCs, those that express MHC class II molecules are often called professional antigen-presenting cells . (
  • These professional APCs are very efficient at internalizing antigen, either by phagocytosis or by endocytosis , and then display a fragment of the antigen, bound to a class II MHC molecule, on their membrane. (
  • As well, there are specialized cells in particular organs (e.g., microglia in the brain, Kupffer cells in the liver) derived from macrophages that are also effective APCs. (
  • This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • The capacity of airway eosinophils, potentially pertinent to allergic diseases of the upper and lower airways, to function as professional APCs, those specifically able to elicit responses from unprimed, Ag-naive CD4 + T cells has been uncertain. (
  • By three-color fluorescence microscopy, OVA Ag-loaded eosinophil APCs were physically interacting with naive OVA-specific CD4 + T cells in paratracheal LN after eosinophil airway instillation. (
  • Thus, recruited luminal airway eosinophils are distinct allergic "inflammatory" professional APCs able to activate primary CD4 + T cell responses in regional LNs. (
  • In this regard, DCs are well established as APCs for their roles in initiating primary T cell-mediated immune responses ( 10 ). (
  • DCs exhibit the three requisite attributes of "professional" APCs in that DCs can: 1) process and present MHC class II restricted Ags, 2) provide required second-signal costimulation of T cells, and 3) initiate T lymphocyte responses among Ag-naive T cells ( 11 ). (
  • Because teleosts possess one of the earliest recognizable adaptive immune systems, we sought to identify antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the zebrafish to better understand the potential origins of DCs and their evolutionary relationship to lymphocytes. (
  • Seminal studies using purified DCs demonstrated their ability to induce T-cell activation and proliferation, establishing their role as "professional" APCs ( 6 ). (
  • A key step of the immune response is the detection by T lymphocytes, thanks to their T cell receptor (TCR), of foreign peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC) on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • All the mechanisms of vaccine adjuvants ensuing immunostimulatory effects directly or indirectly stimulate antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • We named the peptides that can activate APCs as A-cell epitopes and developed methods for their prediction in this study. (
  • Keeping in view the role of peptide ligands of PRRs in the activation of APCs, we introduce the term 'A-cell epitopes' for these immunomodulatory peptides. (
  • Naive CD8 + and CD4 + T cells are activated by APCs that deliver an Ag-specific signal plus a costimulatory signal to the responding T cells ( 8 ). (
  • To be recognized by T lymphocytes, protein antigens must be converted into short peptides bound to MHC molecules, which are displayed on the surface of APCs. (
  • Formulations comprising combinations of APCs and tumor cells and APCs and virally infected cells are disclosed. (
  • Notably, lower levels of viral infectivity in B6.S antigen-presenting cells (APCs) correlated with the disease resistance and T-cell-type response. (
  • In vitro studies using APCs from B6.S and SJL mice show that TLR2, -3, -4, and -7, but not TLR9, signaling can replace viral infection and augment the effect of viral infection in the differentiation of the pathogenic Th17 cell type. (
  • Dendritic Cells (DCs) are widely distributed in tissues and organs and they are the body's most efficient Antigen- Presenting Cells (APCs) [ 1 ]. (
  • Antigen presenting cells (APCs) ingest pathogens and digest their proteins into antigens. (
  • Pathogen engulfment activates professional APCs, causing the cells to migrate to lymph nodes where they encounter T cells. (
  • Additional professional APC classes include macrophages and B cells, whereas fibroblasts and certain epithelial cell subtypes become non-professional APCs under the appropriate conditions. (
  • A full description of APC mechanism and function remains incomplete due to the difficulty of isolating the small percentage of APCs from other cell types. (
  • Most nanoscale vaccines deliver antigens the molecules that the immune system recognizes - to antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Once a nanomaterial vaccine is internalized within APCs, it is usually sequestered within small vesicles called endosomes If the nanomaterial remains within the endosome, the antigen is typically processed in such a way that the immune system generates antibodies against it. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play key roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • These cell populations also constitute the professional APCs, which are responsible for the mounting of adaptive immune responses ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The development of sipuleucel-T vaccine was based on the concept of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • APCs are a group of white blood cells (WBCs) that include dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes (B cells). (
  • Among the APCs, dendritic cells are considered the most potent antigen presenters, capable of initiating antitumor responses from both naive and memory T cells. (
  • Using this information, scientists were able to make sipuleucel-T by harvesting APCs and dendritic cells from humans. (
  • Sipuleucel-T, an autologous cellular immunological agent, is thought to work through APCs to stimulate T-cell immune response targeted against prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), an antigen that is highly expressed in most prostate cancer cells. (
  • Sipuleucel-T is composed of recombinant antigen protein, which must be incubated with the patient's isolated APCs ex vivo . (
  • At the facility, the harvested APCs are incubated with recombinant fusion protein antigen, which contains both PAP and GM-CSF. (
  • This process activates the APCs, which are now ready to fight the cancerous prostate cells. (
  • A major obstacle to the success of this objective derives from our inability to simply and rapidly isolate and/or expand large numbers of highly efficient antigen presenting cells (APCs) for repetitive stimulations of antigen-specific T cells in vitro. (
  • We, therefore, contend that CD40-activated B cells are an alternative source of highly efficient APCs with which to generate antigen-specific T cells ex vivo for autologous adoptive immunotherapy. (
  • In the PLAT-03 trial, patients will receive booster infusions of a second T-cell product called T antigen-presenting cells (T-APCs). (
  • The T-APCs have been genetically modified to express the CD19 target for the cancer-fighting CAR T cells to recognize. (
  • B cells are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that generate antibodies in response to a foreign antigen. (
  • After an infection, cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors proliferate and become effector cells by recognizing foreign peptides in the groove of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) 1 . (
  • Professional APCs specialized for T-cell activation acquire viral antigen either by becoming infected themselves (direct presentation) or by phagocytosis of infected cells, followed by transfer of antigen to the cytosol, processing and MHC class I loading in a process referred to as cross-presentation 2 . (
  • Our in vitro experiments demonstrate that cross-dressing APCs do not acquire peptide-MHC complexes in the form of exosomes released by donor cells. (
  • Rather, the APCs and donor cells have to contact each other for the transfer to occur. (
  • After a viral infection, we could isolate cross-dressed APCs able to present viral antigen in vitro . (
  • Furthermore, using the diphtheria toxin system to selectively eliminate APCs that could only acquire viral peptide-MHC complexes by cross-dressing, we show that such presentation can promote the expansion of resting memory T cells. (
  • Qu, C., Nguyen, V. A., Merad, M. & Randolph, G. J. MHC class I/peptide transfer between dendritic cells overcomes poor cross-presentation by monocyte-derived APCs that engulf dying cells. (
  • 1. HSP delivers antigens from diseased cells to the immune system's antigen-presenting cells (APCs), via a surface receptor known as CD91. (
  • The ligand of the TCR for the majority of T cells (called αβ T cells) is another membrane protein found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • This induces presentation of the TB antigen on tumor cell surfaces, which can be recognized by antigen presenting cells (APCs) as a "danger signal" to stimulate antitumor immune response. (
  • Professional antigen-presenting cells, including macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells, present foreign antigens to helper T cells, while virus-infected cells (or cancer cells) can present antigens originating inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells. (
  • The main types of professional antigen-presenting cells are dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. (
  • T cells are trained by professional antigen-presenting cells (pAPCs) in the gut. (
  • Only professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, B lymphocytes, and dendritic cells) are able to activate a helper T-cell which has never encountered its antigen before. (
  • CD40-activated B cells (CD40-B) are professional antigen-presenting cells comparable to dendritic cells (DC) exhibiting a high expression of costimulatory and MHC molecules. (
  • They are believed to function in a manner similar to the tissue macrophages in that they collect antigens in the vicinity of the wound site and present them to T- helper lymphocytes in the regional lymph nodes (see below). (
  • The majority of circulating human γδT lymphocytes are of the Vγ9Vδ2 lineage, and have T-cell receptor (TCR) specificity for nonpeptide phosphoantigens. (
  • γδT cells comprise less than 5% of peripheral blood T lymphocytes in most populations. (
  • Gamma delta T (γδT) lymphocytes have both cytotoxic and professional antigen-presenting capacity ( 1-4 ), but have been relatively overlooked in terms of their potential role as mediators of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), particularly in the context of mAb treatments of cancer. (
  • The cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) typically express CD8 and induce apoptosis of cells on which they recognize foreign antigens presented by MHC class I molecules, providing a defense against intracellular pathogens such as viruses. (
  • B lymphocytes, also known as B cells developed from hematopoietic stem cells, are derived from bone marrow. (
  • A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system.Under the microscope, lymphocytes can be divided into large lymphocytes and small lymphocytes. (
  • Large granular lymphocytes include natural killer cells. (
  • Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells , antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. (
  • T cells or T lymphocytes belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. (
  • They can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells , by the presence of a T cell receptor on the cell surface. (
  • After reaching the IgM+ immature stage in the bone marrow, these immature B cells migrate to the spleen, where they are called transitional B cells, and some of these cells differentiate into mature B lymphocytes. (
  • The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. (
  • B cells B lymphocytes . (
  • DCs act as immune sentries in various tissues and, upon encountering pathogen, engulf and traffic foreign antigen to secondary lymphoid tissues, stimulating antigen-specific T lymphocytes. (
  • Importantly, we show that PNA hi cells can activate T lymphocytes in an antigen-dependent manner. (
  • The nelipepimut-S sequence stimulates specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) following binding to HLA-A2/A3 molecules on antigen presenting cells (APC). (
  • 1999) The telomerase catalytic subunit is a widely expressed tumor-associated antigen recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (
  • 2001) Characterization of HLA-A3-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes reactive against the widely expressed tumor antigen telomerase. (
  • In this section , we discuss the general properties of lymphocytes that apply to both B cells and T cells. (
  • We consider how lymphocytes avoid responding to self antigens and how they continuously recirculate between the blood and lymphoid organs, ensuring that a lymphocyte will find its specific foreign antigen no matter where the anitgen enters the body. (
  • There are about 2 × 10 12 lymphocytes in the human body, making the immune system comparable in cell mass to the liver or brain. (
  • The crucial experiments were performed in mice and rats that were heavily irradiated to kill most of their white blood cells, including lymphocytes. (
  • A classic experiment showing that lymphocytes are required for adaptive immune responses to foreign antigens. (
  • As mentioned earlier, lymphocytes usually respond to foreign antigens only if the innate immune system is first activated. (
  • The T lymphocytes, or thymus-derived lymphocytes, are a key part of cell-mediated immunity. (
  • Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell produced by the immune system. (
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and macrophages , which are capable of destroying infected cells, are also activated. (
  • T lymphocytes of donor cells often play a role in the development of graft-versus-host disease in many patients. (
  • T lymphocytes are a key part of cell-mediated immunity, and about 30 to 40 percent of them are found in the lymph nodes and spleen. (
  • Most of the T-cell responses appeared to reflect a low affinity for antigen, which could be the result of immune tolerance because HER2/neu is expressed in low levels in normal cells and possibly including lymphocytes and monocytes. (
  • There are 2 principal types: B lymphocytes (B cells), which mature in the bone marrow, and T lymphocytes (T cells), which mature in the thymus. (
  • These lymphocytes include killer (cytotoxic) T cells , which detect and kill cells that are abnormal (such as cancer cells), and helper T cells , which help other lymphocytes mount an immune response. (
  • Specialized cells that engulf antigens and process them so that they can be recognized by lymphocytes. (
  • He followed up with an anti-idiotype tumor vaccine against lymphocytes "not normally recognized" by the immune system. (
  • Immature DCs uptake antigens and mature DCs present antigens to naive T-lymphocytes, then stimulate naive T cells to differentiate to be effector T cells [ 2 ], thus, DCs are important key mediators between innate and acquired immune responses [ 3 ]. (
  • Peripheral tolerance occurs at mature lymphocytes encounter self-antigens in peripheral tissues. (
  • 16809620 ). Receptor or ligand for TNF superfamily member TNFRSF14, participating in bidirectional cell-cell contact signaling between antigen presenting cells and lymphocytes. (
  • 12 Dendritic cells can internalize, process, and subsequently display foreign antigens to B and T lymphocytes and are critical for priming a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response. (
  • In humans, lymphocytes are small cells (6 µm in diameter), columnar epithelial cells (10 µm x 20 µm) are medium-size cells, and mature ova (120 to 150 µm) are some of the largest cells. (
  • It was then widely believed that LCMV meningitis is caused when cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, or CD8 T cells, or "killer T cells") attack virus-infected cells in the meningeal membranes surrounding the brain. (
  • Class I MHC molecules are found in most nucleated cells and present antigens originating intracellularly, such as virus fragments, to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (
  • Boon T, Cerottini JC, Van den Eynde B, van der Bruggen P, Van Pel A. Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes. (
  • Murine dendritic cells loaded in vitro with soluble protein prime cytotoxic T lymphocytes against tumor antigen in vivo. (
  • Control of the immune response at the level of antigen-presenting cells: a comparison of the function of dendritic cells and B lymphocytes. (
  • To help protect the body from disease, small immune cells called T lymphocytes move rapidly, searching for signs of infection. (
  • The new drug delivery technology for nucleic acids encoding protective antigens allows for in vivo expression of corresponding proteins in target tissues, facilitating antigen presentation that is required for the induction of optimal quantitative and qualitative levels of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). (
  • The bacterium may be killed, but its products pass into the bloodstream, where they come in contact with other circulating white blood cells called lymphocytes . (
  • Two general types of lymphocytes-T cells and B cells-are of great importance in protecting the human host. (
  • In addition, they can acquire surface expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules as well as T cell stimulatory behavior when cultured with selected cytokines. (
  • To be classified as a professional APC, a cell should have the ability of antigen acquisition and processing as well as exhibit accessory molecules allowing them to interact with T cells. (
  • The CD4+ T helper cells are primarily responsible for helping other immune cells through direct cell-cell interactions or by secreting cytokines after recognizing viral peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. (
  • This poses a challenge as signal secretion motifs are absent in this highly structured protein, and motifs required for binding diverse host cell surface receptor and matrix molecules must evolve without jeopardizing structural constraints needed to execute canonical function as a G protein. (
  • They can only recognize and respond to antigen that has been processed and presented by cells via carrier molecules like MHC molecules. (
  • Such cells express MHC class I and MHC class II molecules and can stimulate CD4+ helper T cells as well as cytotoxic T cells. (
  • They can also perform cross-presentation, a process by which they present exogenous antigen on MHC class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells. (
  • Prior to encountering foreign antigen, dendritic cells express very low levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules on their cell surface. (
  • It also upregulates several co-stimulatory molecules required for T cell activation, including CD40 and B7. (
  • Although almost every cell in the body is technically an APC, since it can present antigen to CD8 + T cells via MHC class I molecules, the term is often limited to those specialized cells that can prime T cells (i.e., activate a T cell that has not been exposed to antigen, termed a naive T cell ). (
  • Activated DCs are especially potent T H cell activators because, as part of their composition, they express co-stimulatory molecules such as B7 . (
  • Major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) molecules were present in significantly increased levels in the DRG and Schwann cell allograft groups compared to the hollow NG conduit and the Sham healthy nerve. (
  • In contrast, many fewer MHC class II-restricted tumor Ags have been identified, and these molecules are derived from proteins restricted to the cytoplasm ( 18 ) or plasma membrane ( 19 ) of tumor cells. (
  • After immunizing mice with each of the proteins adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant, we measured serum IgG responses as a physiological measure of the antigen's ability to be presented on major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and to prime CD4 + T cells in vivo. (
  • Fig. 1, B and C ). We next asked if the differential susceptibilities to proteolysis of these model antigens affected their capacity to induce IgG responses as a physiological in vivo measure of their ability to be presented on MHC class II molecules and to prime CD4 + T cells in vivo. (
  • For instance, Paneth cells at the base of the crypts are specialized cells that produce and secrete multiple antibacterial molecules, including α -defensins C-type lectins, lysozyme, and phospholipase A2 [ 7 ]. (
  • As Dr. Disis explained, tumor cells express specific antigens on the cell surface, usually within the MHC molecules. (
  • The problem with tumor cells is that they cannot stimulate a T cell response by na ve T cells, in part because they lack necessary co-stimulatory molecules. (
  • The dendritic cell can then present the tumor antigens on their surface within MHC molecules, ready to activate T cells. (
  • Monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and T cells are all recruited to the site of the inflammation where adjuvant is used, but it is believed that in situ dendritic cells ultimately take up the proteins and peptides, process them if necessary, and present them on the cell surface as peptides capable of binding to the MHC molecules. (
  • To accomplish that, tumor cells may be infected with various types of viruses so that viral proteins are expressed on the surface, and transduced with genes expressing cytokines such as IL-2 and GM-CSF, or genes for HLA molecules or co-stimulatory molecules. (
  • Tolerogenic pAPCs train tolerant T cells to accept harmless antigens, while inflammatory pAPCs train inflammatory T cells to attack harmful antigens on microbes or molecules that may enter the gut. (
  • Priming DCs with microbial compounds up-regulates the expression of costimulatory molecules and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which drives T-helper (Th) cells to differentiate to Th1 or Th2 cells [ 4 ]. (
  • Class I MHC molecules include HLA-A, HLA-B, or HLA-C and serve as the antigen-presenting platform for CD8 or suppressor T cells. (
  • Class I molecules are present on all nucleated cells. (
  • Class II MHC molecules, the HLA-D region, serve as the antigen-presenting cells for CD4 or helper T cells. (
  • Class I and class II molecules allow antigen presentation to the specific T-cell receptor via a specific structural groove in its tertiary structure. (
  • Because cancer cells typically fail to express the repertoire of costimulatory molecules required for stimulating T cells directly, adaptive immune recognition is likely accomplished through an indirect mechanism that exploits the capture of dying tumor cells by host mononuclear phagocytes ( 6 ). (
  • CD19) as well as the T cell costimulatory molecules CD86, CD137L, a membrane-bound version of interleukin (IL)-15 (peptide fused to modified IgG4 Fc region) and CD64 (Fc-γ receptor 1) for the loading of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) 12 . (
  • These cells express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and MHC class I molecules, which can stimulate CD4+ T-helper cells and CD8+ T cytotoxic cells, respectively. (
  • Other key reactions move molecules and molecular complexes within the cell, sometimes changing the shape of the cell. (
  • Class II MHC molecules are found in dendritic cells, macrophages, and other antigen-presenting cells and present antigens from extracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and parasites, to helper T cells. (
  • MHC Class I molecules present peptides derived from endogenous protein onto the surface of antigen-presenting cells whereas MHC Class II molecules is responsible for processing the exogenous antigens. (
  • 6] The antigens presented by MHC molecules can be recognized by T cells, thus initiating adaptive immune responses. (
  • Rock KL, Rothstein L, Gamble S, Fleischacker C. Characterization of antigen-presenting cells that present exogenous antigens in association with class I MHC molecules. (
  • T cells are potent tumor cell killers that recognize peptides derived from the target cell (extracellular or intracellular) but must be presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (
  • Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. (
  • Transfer of peptide-loaded class I molecules between dendritic cells in vitro . (
  • Immature dendritic cells phagocytose pathogens and degrade its proteins into small pieces and upon maturation present those fragments at their cell surface using MHC molecules. (
  • MHC molecules signal to the immune system whether a cell is healthy or has been infected through presentation of pathogenic antigens on the cell surface. (
  • MHC I molecules preferentially activate CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, which engage in direct killing of infected cells, while MHC II molecules activate CD4+ helper T cells, which secrete cytokines. (
  • Both MHC I and MHC II molecules can exist in several different forms, which differ in the amino acids in a specific part of the MHC protein responsible for antigen binding. (
  • All MHC molecules can bind antigens derived from any protein, but the individual short peptide sequences that result from protein degradation will bind with differential strength to different MHC subtypes. (
  • First, positive selection identifies T cells that are capable of binding to MHC molecules. (
  • T cells that are unable to bind to MHC molecules die as a result of not receiving a signal during positive selection. (
  • Once only T cells that can bind to MHC molecules remain, the next step in the life cycle of a T cell is negative selection. (
  • This means that all T cells are to a certain extent self-reactive-that is, they react to MHC molecules found on cells of the same individual. (
  • Mature αβ T cells belong to two major types: CD4 + T cells, which recognize antigenic peptides presented by MHC class II molecules, and CD8 + T cells, which recognize antigenic peptides presented by MHC class I molecules. (
  • The vaccine is composed of a pharmaceutically acceptable medium and a segment of the T cell receptor (TCR) present on the surface of the T cells mediating. (
  • 2. The composition of claim 1, wherein said peptide has an amino acid sequence derived from a variable region sequence of a T cell receptor polypeptide chain. (
  • 3. The composition of claim 1, wherein said peptide has an amino acid sequence derived from the V(D)J junction of a T cell receptor polypeptide chain. (
  • 4. The composition of claim 1, comprising more than one substantially pure, immunogenic single chain peptide derived from the non-constant regions of different T cell receptor polypeptide chains. (
  • 5. A method of reducing the severity of a T cell proliferative disease mediated by unregulated T cell clonal replication of T cells having restricted T cell receptor heterogeneity in a mammal, comprising administering the composition of claim 1. (
  • Previous attempts to stimulate and expand these cells have therefore focused on stimulation using ligands of the Vγ9Vδ2 receptor, whereas relatively little is known about variant blood γδT subsets and their potential role in cancer immunotherapy. (
  • This stems from their capacity to be specifically activated and expanded by potent but nontoxic small-molecule ligands of the gamma-delta T-cell receptor (γδTCR) Vγ9Vδ2. (
  • Engagement between the MHC-peptide complex and T cell receptor provides signal 1 . (
  • The influenza A viruses infect host epithelial cells by attaching to a cellular receptor (sialic acid) by the viral surface protein hemagglutinin (HA). (
  • This is achieved by interacting with a professional APC which presents an antigen recognized by their T cell receptor. (
  • They are very efficient at internalizing antigens, either by phagocytosis (e.g. macrophages), or by receptor-mediated endocytosis (B cells), processing the antigen into peptide fragments and then displaying those peptides (bound to a class II MHC molecule) on their membrane. (
  • T-cells may recognize this complex using their T-cell receptor (TCR). (
  • After its U.S. market introduction, the process and facility that produced this immunotherapeutic became the key to the approval of Kymriah was the first CAR-T immunotherapy (chimeric antibody receptor T-Cell). (
  • T cell receptor complexes recognize these antigen-MHC complexes and other necessary stimulatory macromolecules, inducing them to promote the appropriate immunological responses. (
  • Negative selection, regulatory T cells, anergy, activation-induced cell death, immune suppression, receptor editing are examples of important steps of immune tolerance. (
  • Ovalbumin conjugates are internalized via the mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway and are recognized by antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Although gene-modification of T cells to express tumor-related antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has clinically proved promise, there still remains room to improve the clinical efficacy of re-directed T-cell based antitumor adoptive therapy. (
  • Receptor on immune cells capable to deliver stimulatory or inhibitory signals that regulate cell activation and differentiation. (
  • But each daughter cell of this original B cell will have a different receptor. (
  • And that's because, in the process of being made, these daughter B cells will have a slight shuffling, a slight changing in their DNA, but specifically for this receptor, and so by the time they're created, they have a unique receptor that will identify a unique criminal, a unique bacterium or virus or something in the body. (
  • And, very similar to B cells, they have a unique receptor. (
  • They have a unique receptor and, while these T cells are dividing and creating millions of daughter T cells, each of these daughter T cells will have its own unique receptor that will also identify a unique criminal or bacterium in the human body. (
  • The Chemoattractant Receptor Ebi2 Drives Intranodal Naive CD4+ T Cell Peripheralization to Promote Effective Adaptive Immunity. (
  • If an antigen receptor on a B-cell binds to a molecule on an antigen, the antigen will be internalized and a segment of the protein antigen will be presented by an MHC molecule to a T-helper cell. (
  • V region of the variable domain of T cell receptor (TR) beta chain that participates in the antigen recognition (PubMed:24600447). (
  • The dendritic cell takes up the allergen, process it, and then present its epitopes through its MHC II receptor on its cell surface. (
  • Exogenous antigens gain access to the major histocompatibility complex class I processing pathway in B cells by receptor-mediated uptake. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy is now reaching a pivotal point where researchers hope to determine if they can extend its benefits. (
  • Only those T cells that bear an αβT-cell receptor (TCR) recognizing self-MHC with a relatively low affinity will differentiate and exit into the systemic circulation as self-MHC restricted T cells. (
  • CLRs represent a large lectin receptor superfamily predominantly expressed by cells of the innate immune system. (
  • They also upregulate CCR7 , a chemotactic receptor that induces the dendritic cell to travel through the blood stream to the spleen or through the lymphatic system to a lymph node . (
  • Protein kinase C-θ (PKCθ) is an important component of proximal T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. (
  • Cell-surface-receptor pathways amplify weak, rare and local stimuli to induce cellular responses. (
  • Antigen presentation by B cells is characterised by their ability to take-up, process and present antigen via MHC-II in a B cell receptor dependent and independent fashion. (
  • The recognition of ligand by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the activation of intracellular signaling pathways have led to the coining of such terms as "positive selection," "negative selection," "serial triggering," "instructive process," and "kinetic signaling. (
  • No other receptor, apart from the B cell antigen receptor, is confronted by such an intense scrutiny for fitness and signaling capabilities during cell differentiation. (
  • The APC involved in activating T cells is usually a dendritic cell. (
  • The dendritic cell is then a fully mature professional APC. (
  • And we learned there's different types of phagocytes-- could be a macrophage, could be a neutrophil, could be a dendritic cell-- and we have it like this and then we also saw in that video, it's not just done-- the macrophage doesn't just digest this thing. (
  • By a genetic strategy, we report here that selective deletion of gp96 from CD11c + cells in mice results in alteration of dendritic cell and T cell subsets in the gut as well as loss of antigen-specific regulatory T cell induction in the mesenteric lymph nodes. (
  • We can take a dendritic cell and import tumor antigens into it by a variety of mechanisms. (
  • The 'Global Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccine Immunotherapy Market, Dosage, Price & Clinical Trials Insight 2026' report has been added to's offering. (
  • The introduction of dendritic cell vaccine immunotherapy into the cancer therapeutics has caused several scientific and medical hurdles to overcome as the opportunities linked with dendritic cells treatment for the cancer patients are huge. (
  • Dendritic cell vaccine immunotherapy among all the immunotherapy treatments is considered as the most potent antigen presenting cells for the proliferation of the T-cells. (
  • In addition, some of the factors that are leading to the exponential growth of the market in terms of revenue and size are increasing cancer cases, awareness about the advantages of the dendritic cell vaccine immunotherapy, technology advancement and many more. (
  • The dendritic cell vaccine immunotherapy market is catalyzed by a completely and exciting novel range of disruptive technologies required for the re-definition of cancer therapeutics market. (
  • In the new world, dendritic cell vaccine immunotherapy is estimated to be conquering all the challenges that were challenging to conquer before the arrival of the therapy. (
  • Dr. Urbain's idiotypic research showed a "dramatic enhancement of an antiviral immune response by dendritic cells," thus demonstrating the principle of a dendritic cell-enhanced immunity by means of anti-idiotype antibodies. (
  • After incubation and pre-clinical validation by IRC, the dendritic cell product was licensed to a startup in exchange for founders stock, $500,000 in cash and royalties. (
  • However, the known roles of dendritic cell dysregulation in allergy and autoimmune diseases make these cells an important target for research. (
  • The Human Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 genes focused on dendritic cell activation and maturation. (
  • Genes important for dendritic cell. (
  • In summary, the entry of an allergen into the body triggers an antigen-presenting cell, such as a dendritic cell . (
  • The dendritic cell near the blood vessel takes up the blood-borne allergen. (
  • Cedars-Sinai researchers have studied dendritic cell immunotherapy since 1997, with the first patient human clinical trial launched in 1998. (
  • The dendritic cell vaccines are produced by the biotechnology company ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Ltd., which funded this study. (
  • The relative efficiency of acquisition of MHC:peptide complexes and cross-presentation depends on dendritic cell type. (
  • Indirect activation of naive CD4 + T cells by dendritic cell-derived exosomes. (
  • They can produce high amounts of interferon-alpha and thus became known as IPC (interferon-producing cells) before their dendritic cell nature was revealed. (
  • Despite their T-cell stimulatory capacity in vitro being inferior to murine dendritic cell (mDC) subsets, we demonstrated that vaccination with antigen-loaded mCD40B effectively induces specifc CTL responses against viral and model peptide antigen in vivo. (
  • The classic view of granulocytes as terminally differentiated, short-lived phagocytes is therefore changing to phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous cells that are engaged in cross-talk with other leukocyte populations and provide an additional link between innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • A vaccine approach based on cell-mediated immunity that avoids some of these drawbacks is discussed here. (
  • We review the literature on the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity in influenza infection and the available data on the role of these responses in protection from highly pathogenic influenza infection. (
  • Greater understanding of how each subset contributes to protective immunity and how T-cell memory is maintained and recalled in a secondary infection would contribute to development of effective vaccines that use these basic features of the immune response. (
  • Mouse models of influenza A virus pneumonia provide a well-developed experimental system to analyze T cell-mediated immunity. (
  • Antigen presentation allows for specificity of adaptive immunity and can contribute to immune responses against both intracellular and extracellular pathogens. (
  • The lymphatic system is comprised of three interrelated functions: (1) Removal of excess fluids, lymph, from body tissues, (2) Absorption of fatty acids and subsequent transport of fat, chyle, to the circulatory system and (3) Formation of white blood cells (WBCs), and initiation of immunity through the formation of antibodies, lending specific resistance to pathogens. (
  • Various proteins in the blood that are generated in reaction to antigens, which they neutralize, and which produce immunity against certain microorganisms or their toxins. (
  • As a consequence, the differences in immunogenicity between protein antigens are poorly understood and, therefore, approaches to induce antigen-specific immunity remain largely empirical ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • We decided to take a direct and physiological approach to investigating the relationship between antigen proteolysis and immunity in vivo. (
  • 2000) Cytotoxic T cell immunity against telomerase reverse transcriptase in humans. (
  • What is a Cell-Mediated Immunity? (
  • Cell-mediated immunity , also known as cellular immunity, is one of the two types of the adoptive immune system inside the body. (
  • Delayed hypersensitivity is the negative effect of cell-mediated immunity inside the body. (
  • I am trying to understand this topic, but i end up getting more confused the difference between cell mediated and humoral immunity. (
  • Would you say that cell mediated immunity is an acquired immunity, or is it a passive immunity, like those that children get from their parents? (
  • Could you help me to understand more about the status of cell mediated immunity, i.e., it is active or passive, or an innate immunity or an acquired immunity? (
  • I have a question -- so I was looking up the difference between cell mediated immunity and humoral immunity, and I was confused about the role of B cells. (
  • I know that B cells are crucial for working with the cytokine in humoral immunity, but I then I read about something called B cell mediated immunity. (
  • The HLA system is genetically encoded in humans by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is found on chromosome 6, and plays a determining role in immunity and in self-recognition in virtually all cells and tissues, with the exception of erythrocytes. (
  • Recent insights into the immunologic consequences of cancer cell death have begun to elucidate the ways in which host antitumor immunity is shaped during cancer pathogenesis and then modulated by therapeutic intervention. (
  • Nanowerk Spotlight ) Reporting in the journal ACS Nano ( 'pH-Responsive Nanoparticle Vaccines for Dual-Delivery of Antigens and Immunostimulatory Oligonucleotides' ), researchers have developed nanoscale polymer micelles that elicit both humoral and cellular immunity. (
  • Yet, while many nanoscale vaccines promote humoral immunity, few can prime the immune system to search for and destroy infected cells directly. (
  • Humoral immunity refers to the production of antibodies by specialized immune cells. (
  • Nanoparticle vaccines based on pH-responsive polymers deliver antigen to the cytoplasm to enhance cellular immunity. (
  • Human Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells Display Phagocytic and Antigen-Presenting Functions to Contribute to Intraperitoneal Immunity. (
  • Behar SM, Carpenter SM, Booty MG, Barber DL, Jayaraman P. Orchestration of pulmonary T cell immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: immunity interruptus. (
  • If there is an adverse indirect effect on cell-mediated immunity due to PRN exposure, it could result from altered antigen processing and presentation characteristics of the APC. (
  • Recognize peptide-major histocompatibility (MH) (pMH) complexes that are displayed by antigen presenting cells ( APC ), a prerequisite for efficient T cell adaptive immunity against pathogens (PubMed:25493333). (
  • Jr Peptide-pulsed dendritic cells induce antigen-specific CTL-mediated protective tumor immunity. (
  • The cells that have the inherent property of innate and adaptive immunity within the body are present at different sites including the blood, lymphatic system (lymph, lymphoid nodules and lymphoid organs), epithelium, and connective tissues. (
  • Adaptive immunity induces immunologic memory and can directly kill tumor cells or recruit other effectors through cytokine production. (
  • T cells mediate cell-mediated immunity , an immune reaction that utilizes the ability of T cells to kill other cells without the involvement of antibodies, proteins that can be secreted from or bound to the surface of B cells and recognize antigens. (
  • In summary, highly activated mCD40B cells indeed exhibit antigen-presenting capacity sufficient to induce protective anti-tumour immunity in B16 melanoma. (
  • Our work solves a 30-year-old problem of cellular immunity, in particular how antigens associated with tumors or pathogens are selected through processes of editing and quality control in order to generate a specific immune response" explains Prof. Robert Tampé the significance of the publication. (
  • and the native proteins Rabbit polyclonal to SZT2 expressed on cell surface, or biomechanical rules by pressure. (
  • A major factor in this recognition is the binding of antigenic proteins secreted in the tick's saliva by certain resident cell types, especially the tissue macrophages and Langerhans cells. (
  • Specifically, cell-mediated responses typically focus on peptides from internal influenza proteins, which are far less susceptible to antigenic variation. (
  • In contrast, T cells, which mediate cellular immune responses, can target internal proteins common to heterologous viral strains. (
  • In the very first immunology video, where we talked about nonspecific defense mechanisms, we said if we had some type of a pathogen-- let's say it's a bacteria-- that our phagocytes can recognize either proteins on the bacteria or maybe it was some other type of pathogen-- some other marker on the pathogen. (
  • And then those proteins get transported or get to the membrane or the outer surface of the cell and they present themselves along with the piece of the pathogen. (
  • So the end product after phagocytozed this pathogen is that the phagocyte will look something like this and it will have these antigen presenting proteins, I guess we can call them, that had bound to parts of that original pathogen. (
  • It might seem like I'm really going into the minutiae of what these proteins are, but we're going to see this is key for activating other parts of the immune system, especially the cell mediated parts of the immune system. (
  • They engulf something, they chew it all up, and then parts of the chewed up thing that they ate, they attach to these MHC II proteins and these MHC proteins go to the surface of the cell. (
  • Traditionally, functions of eosinophils focused singularly on their roles as end-stage "effector" cells, e.g., releasing their four granule cationic proteins and generating paracrine mediators of inflammation, including eicosanoids. (
  • Cells are highly variable and specialized in both structure and function, although all must at some stage replicate proteins and nucleic acids, use energy, and reproduce themselves. (
  • MHC class II-restricted tumor Ags presented by class II + tumor cells identified to date are derived from proteins expressed in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of tumor cells. (
  • We compared the immunogenicity of proteins with the same sequence (same T cell epitopes) and structure (same B cell epitopes) but with different susceptibilities to lysosomal proteolysis. (
  • Enhancing lysosomal proteolysis by the presence of protease-specific cleavage sites ( 12 ) or by destabilizing proteins also favored presentation to T cell hybridomas ( 13 - 15 ). (
  • My research focuses on initial "seed and soil" mechanisms during lymph node metastases and the characterization of novel marker proteins of blood and lymph endothelial cells. (
  • The body's antigen-presenting cells normally do this by collecting and displaying fragments of tumor proteins, showing other immune cells what to hunt down. (
  • The immune system's messengers, typically small proteins, which help regulate an immune response by delivering signals from one cell to another. (
  • Also called immunoglobulins , antibodies are proteins produced by B cells that interact with specific antigens. (
  • This group of genes code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells that help the immune system recognize foreign substances. (
  • 18193050 ). In the context of bacterial infection, acts as a ligand for TNFRSF14 on epithelial cells, triggering the production of antimicrobial proteins and proinflammatory cytokines (By similarity). (
  • either antigens or MHC proteins. (
  • neither antigens nor MHC proteins. (
  • Helper T-cells interact with Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. (
  • Any of various polymorphic transmembrane proteins that are coded for by the genes of the major histocompatibility complex and that function in the immune system to present foreign antigens to T cells. (
  • These signs are antigens - processed pieces of proteins from invading microbes - that are displayed on the surface of so-called antigen-presenting cells.Before it encounters its specific antigen, a T cell is called naive. (
  • In addition to foreign antigens from microbes, antigen-presenting cells display fragments of the body's own proteins too. (
  • In the laboratory, they cultured the proteins with dendritic cells, the immune system's most powerful antigen-presenting cells, which are responsible for helping the immune system recognize and attack invaders. (
  • Studies in lab mice showed that the resulting vaccine was able to stimulate an immune response against the CD133 proteins without causing side effects such as an autoimmune reaction against normal cells or organs. (
  • CD133 is one of several proteins made at high levels in the cancer stem cells of glioblastoma multiforme. (
  • All cells in the body except for red blood cells express MHC proteins on their cell surface. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) is a set of proteins found on all nucleated cell types that are derived from intracellular proteins and present antigens on the cell's surface, which are recognized by CD8+ T cells. (
  • This can include antigens derived from a pathogen or self-antigens, antigens derived from normal cell proteins that indicate that a cell is healthy. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) is only found on antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells, and is used by these cells to present antigens picked up from extracellular sources, such as other dying cells or proteins secreted from other cells, which are recognized by CD4+ T cells. (
  • MHC I and MHC II present different antigens because the proteins that the antigens are derived from differ. (
  • In each cell, proteins are processed by the proteasome, which breaks a full protein into many peptides, protein strands of up to 20 amino acids in length. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex proteins present antigens to activate T cells. (
  • The GAS cell surface M proteins contain antigenic targets of the major serological typing scheme (Figure 3). (
  • PKCθ-expressing CD4 T cells displayed defects not only in known PKCθ-dependent signaling events, such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and T2 cell differentiation, but also in full activation of Zap70 itself and in the activating phosphorylation of linker of activation of T cells (LAT) and phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1), signaling proteins that are traditionally considered to be activated independently of PKC. (
  • When a cell is cancerous or infected by a pathogen, it generates proteins not found in normal cells. (
  • Fragments of such proteins can then potentially act as antigens, substances that provoke an immune response. (
  • This ligand is a molecule of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that bears an elongated cavity through which peptides, of some 8 to 14 amino acid residues that result from the degradation of self proteins and antigens, are presented to the TCR. (
  • An antigen-presenting cell or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen complexes with major histocompatibility complex on their surfaces. (
  • An antigen-presenting cell ( APC ) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen complexed with MHC on its surface. (
  • This association of phenotype and function is not absolute, since CD4+ cells may exhibit lytic activity, while CD8+ cells secrete antiviral cytokines, notably interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor. (
  • In psoriasis, cytokines tell skin cells to reproduce and mature at an accelerated rate. (
  • They also set off other reactions, including inflammation , the activation of additional T cells, the recruiting of T cells into the skin and the release or "cascade" of more cytokines. (
  • They are also considered a form of specific immunotherapy because they attempt to stimulate an immune response that can directly target the tumor antigens, in contrast to non-specific approaches such as cytokines that broadly stimulate the immune system. (
  • These adjuvants might be compounds such as bacterial cell wall components that incite an inflammatory response or cytokines such as IL-12 or GM-CSF, as Dr. Weber described. (
  • As part of the immune response, various cytokines are created, which are important in further activation of other cells of the immune system such as the interleukins, tumor necrosis factor, and interferons. (
  • IMPORTANCE This study indicates that innate immune cytokines produced in antigen-presenting cells stimulating the T cell immune responses during early viral infection play a critical role in determining the susceptibility of mice to the development of demyelinating disease. (
  • The level of innate immune cytokines reflects the level of initial viral infection in the antigen-presenting cells, and the level determines the development of T cell types, which are either protective or pathogenic. (
  • The ability of MDP to promote DCs secreting cytokines was far below P. gingivalis- LPS but MDP could promote the functions of Th2 cell-promoting DCs induced by P. gingivalis -LPS. (
  • When there is a match between the T cell and the antigen, the T cell is stimulated and starts to produce several cytokines and other chemical messengers that include, but are not limited to, interleukin-12 (IL-12), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cytotoxic T cells, and B cells. (
  • In effect, this activates the mast cell or basophil to release inflammatory substances (e.g. histamine, cytokines, proteases, chemotactic factors) into the bloodstream. (
  • In contrast, only low levels of the cytokines were detected in response to the virus that had been inactivated at 65°C, which further denatures hemagglutinin and prevents cell attachment ( 12 ) ( Fig. 1A ). (
  • 2D lifetimes under tensile causes are much longer for native than recombinant TCRs We recently reported that low causes prolong TCRCagonist bond lifetime on live OT1 and 2C T cells, that is usually, the counterintuitive behavior. (
  • Determining the amino acid sequence of non-constant regions of TCRs from said obtained T cell clone. (
  • To expand the full repertoire of γδT without bias toward specific TCRs, we made use of artificial antigen-presenting cells loaded with an anti γδTCR antibody that promoted unbiased expansion of the γδT repertoire. (
  • Therefore, the use of powerful biophysical tools such as atomic force microscopy applied to molecular studies is warranted to provide an accurate characterization of molecular interactions between TCRs and pMHCs on the cell surface. (
  • Qa-1, a MHC class I-like molecule, presents peptides from the variable region of TCRs to Qa-1-restricted CD8+ T cells. (
  • How autoreactive CD4 + T cells recognize their target antigen and induce sustained inflammation in organ-specific autoimmune diseases is incompletely understood. (
  • T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases are characterized by the expansion of T cell clones that recognize immunodominant epitopes on the target antigen. (
  • We intend to identify novel carbohydrate ligands of CLRs and utilize CLRs to target antigen-presenting cells. (
  • 3. Thus primed to recognize the target antigen, the T cell proliferates and with its brethren seeks out diseased cells to destroy. (
  • Accordingly, we simultaneously report MR1 as a ligand for human γδ T cells and redefine the parameters for TCR recognition. (
  • Puech P-H, Nevoltris D, Robert P, Limozin L, Boyer C, Bongrand P (2011) Force Measurements of TCR/pMHC Recognition at T Cell Surface. (
  • iv) Recognition is not an all-or-none event since it may generate widely different outcomes, ranging from full lymphocyte activation to anergy following minute variations of the peptide antigen sequence [4] . (
  • pathway allows recognition and elimination of dysfunctional cells by T-cells (killer cells). (
  • The potency of clinical-grade T cells can be improved by combining gene therapy with immunotherapy to engineer a biologic product with the potential for superior (i) recognition of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), (ii) persistence after infusion, (iii) potential for migration to tumor sites, and (iv) ability to recycle effector functions within the tumor microenvironment. (
  • However, many pathogens avoid immune recognition by residing within cells. (
  • Additional reported applications (for the relevant formats) include: ELISA 1 , immunofluorescence 2 to detect CD1d in the lipid rafts on the cell membrane, and block 1 CD1d recognition of an i NKT cell hybridoma. (
  • Here we show the process of intravascular antigen recognition using intravital multiphoton microscopy of glomeruli. (
  • Following intravascular deposition of antigen in glomeruli, effector CD4+ T-cell responses, including NFAT1 nuclear translocation and decreased migration, are consistent with antigen recognition. (
  • Usually their recognition of viral antigens on the surface of an infected cell acts as a 'stop' signal and makes them stick to the cell and kill it. (
  • Upon recognition, the T lymphocyte may differentiate into a Th2 cell (type 2 helper T cells ), which is capable of activating B lymphocyte. (
  • Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. (
  • CTL are T cells that have been differentiated and activated through the recognition of antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Vaccine approaches against respiratory virus infections such as influenza have relied on inducing antibodies that protect against viral infection by neutralizing virions or blocking the virus's entry into cells. (
  • B cells can identify tumor associated antigens and secrete specific antitumor antibodies [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • B Cells transform into plasma cells which secrete antibodies. (
  • So all of the membrane bound antibodies, all 10,000 or so of them on this B cell, they all expressed the same variable part. (
  • The third line of defense is mounted against specific pathogens that are causing disease (B cells produce antibodies against bacteria or viruses in the extracellular fluid, while T cells kill cells that have become infected). (
  • They are mostly responsible in producing antibodies which are important in fighting against microbes and antigens outside the cells. (
  • Antibodies mark foreign or pathogenic material so it can be more easily recognized by the immune system. (
  • While antibodies are a key component of the immune response, they can only act on targets that are outside of cells. (
  • Plasma cells are B cells that produce antibodies. (
  • After dendritic cells or macrophages swallow pathogens, they usually migrate to the lymph nodes , where most T cells are. (
  • In essence, they lose most of their ability to further swallow pathogens, and they develop an increased ability to communicate with T cells. (
  • This is a difficult task, since pathogens range from viruses to parasitic worms and must be detected with absolute specificity as they are "hidden" amongst normal cells and tissues. (
  • In patients with colitis, inflammatory T cells in the lower intestines mistake the molecular structures of food or healthy gut bacteria for dangerous pathogens that must be destroyed. (
  • As part of their natural infection cycle, certain pathogens, including the influenza virus, can escape from endosomes and enter the cell cytoplasm. (
  • They can directly recognize host cells latently or can recognize cells chronically infected with intracellular parasite pathogens and cancer cells and eliminate them. (
  • CLRs recognize conserved glycan structures on pathogens and play a crucial role in the initiation of immune responses. (
  • Immature dendritic cells constantly sample the surrounding environment for pathogens such as viruses and bacteria . (
  • TLRs recognize specific chemical signatures found on subsets of pathogens. (
  • Enzymes within the cell digest the swallowed pathogen into smaller pieces containing epitopes, which are then presented to T cells using MHC. (
  • the lipoproteins act as agonists to modulate antigen presenting cell functions in response to the pathogen (PubMed:19362712). (
  • Once they have come into contact with such a pathogen, they become activated into mature dendritic cells. (
  • they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting them with antigens derived from the pathogen, alongside non-antigen specific costimulatory signals. (
  • In the intestine, pAPCs including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are strategically positioned to protect the gut while maintaining mucosal tolerance to food, self-antigens and microbiota. (
  • Self-antigens are either tolerogenic or ignored. (
  • Pathogenic autoantibodies can protect or cause diseases via neutralization of self-antigens, opsonization, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, activation of the complement system, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effect. (
  • The self-antigens may be found in all cell types (e.g. chromatin, centromeres) and those autoimmune diseases is systemic or be highly specific for a specific cell type in one organ of the body (e.g. thyroglobulin in cells of the thyroid gland) and those autoimmune diseases is organ-specific. (
  • All naive T cells recognize some "Self-antigens", but not as strongly as they recognize foreign antigens. (
  • As a naive T cell travels around the body, it repeatedly interacts with antigen-presenting cells that display Self-antigens, which triggers a low level of signaling in the T cell. (
  • For example, the naive T cells that respond the most to Self-antigens were seen to be much more likely to become pTreg cells when activated than other T cells. (
  • propose that the continuous interactions with Self-antigens trigger waves of calcium ions in a naive T cell that shapes its behavior and future development. (
  • This process removes T cells that react too strongly with self-antigens, antigens that are present on normal, healthy cells in the body. (
  • To this end, T cell responses orchestrated by granulocytes via antigen presentation have been described and received considerable attention. (
  • this process is known as antigen presentation. (
  • Dendritic cells have the broadest range of antigen presentation and are necessary for activation of naive T cells. (
  • Cross-presentation allows for the activation of these T cells. (
  • Dendritic cells have the broadest range of antigen presentation, and are probably the most important APC. (
  • Antigen Presentation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigen Presentation" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigen Presentation" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigen Presentation" by people in Profiles. (
  • Polyglutamine-Related Aggregates Can Serve as a Potent Antigen Source for Cross-Presentation by Dendritic Cells. (
  • Latency reversal agents modulate HIV antigen processing and presentation to CD8 T cells. (
  • accessory cells macrophages involved in the processing and presentation of antigens, making them more immunogenic. (
  • We show that PNA hi myeloid cells possess the classical morphological features of mammalian DCs as revealed by histochemical and ultrastructural analyses, phagocytose-labeled bacterial preparations in vivo, and exhibit expression of genes associated with DC function and antigen presentation, including il12 , MHC class II invariant chain iclp1 , and csf1r . (
  • Together, these studies suggest that the cellular constituents responsible for antigen presentation are remarkably conserved from teleosts to mammals, and indicate that the zebrafish may serve as a unique model to study the origin of APC subsets and their evolutionary role as the link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. (
  • Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the adaptive immune cell activation by a coordination of antigen presentation to the naïve adaptive immune cell with the release of cytokine milieu mediated by PRR activation. (
  • To address these questions, a model Ag, hen egg lysozyme, was targeted to various subcellular compartments of mouse sarcoma cells, and the resulting cells were tested for presentation of three lysozyme epitopes in vitro and for presentation of nuclear Ag in vivo. (
  • Tumor Ags are either presented by tumor cells themselves (direct Ag presentation) ( 9 , 10 , 11 ) or by professional, host-derived APC, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, or B cells (indirect Ag presentation or cross-priming) ( 9 , 12 , 13 , 14 ). (
  • Absence of ATG-dependent phagocytosis in DCs abrogates myelin presentation to CD4 + T cells following phagocytosis of oligodendroglial cells, and its pharmacological inhibition delays the onset and reduces the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (
  • For instance, blocking lysosomal function with protease or acidification inhibitors decreased antigen presentation ( 7 - 11 ). (
  • We have found our highly quenched DQ ovalbumin ( D12053 ) to be particularly useful for antigen processing and presentation studies. (
  • Beta cells transfer vesicles containing insulin to phagocytes for presentation to T cells. (
  • Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A. Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. (
  • Steinman RM, Witmer-Pack M, Inaba K. Dendritic cells: antigen presentation, accessory function and clinical relevance. (
  • Presentation of exogenous protein antigens by dendritic cells to T cell clones. (
  • Processing of urushiol (poison ivy) hapten by both endogenous and exogenous pathways for presentation to T cells in vitro. (
  • The antigen processing requirements for urushiol, the immunogen of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), were tested by presentation of urushiol to cultured human urushiol-responsive T cells. (
  • Processing of urushiol for presentation to CD8+ T cells was inhibited by azide, monensin, and brefeldin A. This suggests that urushiol was processed by the endogenous pathway. (
  • In contrast, presentation of urushiol to CD4+ T cells was inhibited by monensin but not by brefeldin A. This was compatible with antigen processing by the endosomal (exogenous) pathway. (
  • Cross-dressing is a mechanism of antigen presentation used by dendritic cells that may have a significant role in activating previously primed CD8 + T cells. (
  • Vyas, J. M., Van der Veen, A. G. & Ploegh, H. L. The known unknowns of antigen processing and presentation. (
  • In that context, it has become clear that antigen presentation by B cells is critically involved in both physiologic immune responses as well as pathologic immune reaction such as autoimmune diseases. (
  • When a T cell encounters bacterial products, either directly or via presentation by a special antigen-presenting cell, it is sensitized to recognize the material as foreign, and, once sensitized, it possesses an immunologic memory. (
  • Dr. Christoph Thomas and Prof. Robert Tampé from the Institute of Biochemistry at Goethe University have now unraveled on a molecular level how antigens are selected in the cell for presentation on the cell surface. (
  • Numerous approaches to stimulate the immune system to recognize tumors have been tried over the years. (
  • White blood cells that stimulate healing and remove antigens, injured cells, and neutrophils from tissue. (
  • IRC described the vaccination treatment as utilizing antigen-presenting dendritic cells to stimulate responses to tumor antigens. (
  • Helper T-cells secrete ________ to stimulate the proliferation of B-cells. (
  • Exogenous antigens are those from outside cells of the body. (
  • These exogenous antigens enter antigen-presenting dendritic cells through phagocytosis. (
  • The level of initial viral infection to the cells is controlled by a gene or genes that are not associated with the major histocompatibility antigen complex genes. (
  • This finding has an important implication in controlling not only chronic viral infections but also infection-induced autoimmune-like diseases, which are closely associated with the pathogenic type of T cell responses. (
  • Multiple clinical trials have shown the efficacy of adoptively transferred allogeneic antigen-specific T cells for the treatment of viral infections and relapsed hematologic malignancies. (
  • Principles for adoptive T cell therapy of human viral diseases. (
  • Conventional dendritic cells (DC) produce high levels of IFN-α in response to cytosolic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) made during viral replication ( 3 ). (
  • Expanded cells were largely of an effector memory phenotype, although there were higher numbers of less differentiated cells in the Vδ1 + and Vδ1 neg Vδ2 neg populations. (
  • In conclusion, we have demonstrated that polyclonal-expanded populations of γδT cells are capable of both antibody-dependent and -independent effector functions in neuroblastoma. (
  • To evaluate whether peripheral induction contributed to regulatory T-cell predominance, we adoptively transferred Tbx21 −/− T cells that consisted of fate mapping for FoxP3: recipients of flow-purified effector cells that were Foxp3 − and Tbx21 −/− had enhanced T-regulatory-cell predominance during autoimmune graft- versus -host disease. (
  • Finally, Tbx21 −/− T-regulatory cells cross-regulated autoimmune wild-type T-effector-cell cytokine production in vivo . (
  • Under steady-state conditions, the capture of apoptotic cells serves as an immunoregulatory event that helps maintain tolerance, whereas the detection of necrotic cells evokes an inflammatory cascade that mobilizes effector responses. (
  • The concurrent acquisition of apoptotic and necrotic cells by dendritic cells and macrophages in the tumor microenvironment, however, might result in a set of conflicting signals that drive tolerance and effector responses in parallel. (
  • The combination of brisk intratumoral CD8 + T cells and rare FoxP3 + Tregs connotes a particularly favorable prognostic index, suggesting that the balance of effector and regulatory cells might modulate disease course in some patients. (
  • Hickey, Michael 2018-02-21 00:00:00 Although effector CD4+ T cells readily respond to antigen outside the vasculature, how they respond to intravascular antigens is unknown. (
  • Collectively, our findings demonstrate that calcium-mediated activation of the calcineurin pathway acts as a rheostat to shape both the phenotype and effector potential of naive CD4 T cells in the steady-state. (
  • DCs present antigen to both helper and cytotoxic T cells. (
  • A complete tumor response was observed in one patient who developed GV1001-specific cytotoxic T cells that could be cloned from peripheral blood. (
  • To fight these infections, the immune system generates specialized cells, known as cytotoxic T-cells , which recognize and eliminate infected cells. (
  • To generate cytotoxic T cells, the nanomaterial must escape from the endosome and deliver the antigen into the cell cytoplasm. (
  • Cytotoxic T cells are especially effective in destroying abnormal body cells, including cancerous cells. (
  • I have started my PhD in the laboratory of Prof. Hannes Stockinger at the Institute of Hygiene and Applied Immunology mainly focussing on T-cell signal transduction. (
  • Ovalbumin is a protein with a relatively low molecular weight (~45,000 daltons) that is primarily useful as an antigen for activation of dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells. (
  • Here, we show that artificial antigen-presenting cells that can be used within good manufacturing practice (GMP) protocols can result in the unbiased expansion of a wide range of repertoires. (
  • Refers to tissue damage caused by an overreaction of the body's immune system to antigens that are usually harmless to most people. (
  • The presence of microbes and antigens inside of the body usually triggers the body's immune response. (
  • In mammals, all new cells arise from existing cells through cell division, and an animal's growth results largely from increases in the number of its cells, most of which differentiate into specialized cell types to form the body's various tissues. (
  • We describe a diverse population of human γδ T cells isolated from peripheral blood and tissues that exhibit autoreactivity to the monomorphic MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). (
  • The IgA pools are antigen-specific [ 8 ] and are produced by plasma cells that migrate from Peyer's patches or other mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, in response to epithelial signals. (
  • The cells that do this most efficiently are called dendritic cells, which are present in most vertebrate tissues. (
  • Small white blood cells found in all organs and tissues. (
  • Dendritic cells, one major class of professional APC, reside in tissues exposed to the external environment and represent the first line of defense against invading pathogenic organisms. (
  • A spectrum of host responses to cell death empowers the immune system with the dual abilities to monitor the integrity of healthy tissues and to respond rapidly to tissue injury ( 4 ). (
  • Specifically, they plan to develop biologically functional artificial urinary tubes by seeding the scaffolds with stem cells derived from human fat tissue that can result in the formation of cell layers normally seen in urinary tissues. (
  • Mast cells, unlike basophils that are in the bloodstream, are located in tissues, such as connective tissue. (
  • Dendritic cells are present in small quantities in tissues that are in contact with the external environment, mainly the skin (where they are often called Langerhans cells ) and the inner lining of the nose , lungs , stomach and intestines . (
  • Once activated, they migrate to the lymphoid tissues where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. (
  • Immunologists study the tissues and organs of the immune system ( bone marrow , spleen , tonsils , thymus, lymphatic system ), its specialized cells (e.g. (
  • We discuss the advantages of developing a vaccine based on cell-mediated immune responses toward highly pathogenic influenza virus and potential problems arising from immune pressure. (
  • We investigated whether airway eosinophils are capable of initiating naive T cell responses in vivo. (
  • OVA-exposed eosinophils elicited activation (CD69 expression), proliferation (BrdU incorporation), and IL-4, but not IFN-γ, cytokine production by OVA-specific CD4 + T cells in paratracheal lymph nodes (LN). Exposure of eosinophils to lysosomotropic NH 4 Cl, which inhibits Ag processing, blocked each of these eosinophil-mediated activation responses of CD4 + T cells. (
  • Dysregulation of interactions between the gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system causes development of chronic intestinal inflammation, which is mediated by DCs through their unique role in priming T-cell responses 31 . (
  • Our third line of defense is specific immune responses - T Cells and B Cells. (
  • For two unrelated model antigens (RNase and horseradish peroxidase), we found that only the less digestible forms were immunogenic, inducing far more efficient T cell priming and antibody responses. (
  • We found that less digestible forms of otherwise identical antigens are more immunogenic, inducing more efficient T cell priming and antibody responses. (
  • Immune responses were measured as delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reaction and in vitro T cell proliferation. (
  • Thus, the design of effective immune-based therapies for cancer relies in the identification of relevant tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) capable of eliciting strong helper and cytotoxic T-cell responses against tumor cells. (
  • Regulatory T cells on the other hand can inhibit T-helper type 1 cell-mediated responses. (
  • Dying tumor cells evoke a range of host responses, dependent in part upon the mode of cell death, which may either impede or foster additional immune-mediated cancer destruction. (
  • In order to achieve more objective clinical responses using ex vivo-expanded tumor-responsive T cells, the infused T cells need to show adequate localized infiltration into the tumor. (
  • By delivering antigen by both the cytosolic and endosomal pathways, these vaccines allow immune responses to be tuned. (
  • Physiological induction of regulatory Qa-1-restricted CD8+ T cells triggered by endogenous CD4+ T cell responses. (
  • We hypothesized that Qa-1-restricted CD8+ regulatory T cells could also constitute a physiologic regulatory arm of lymphocyte responses upon expansion of endogenous CD4+ T cells, in the absence of deliberate exogenous T cell vaccination. (
  • We show that regulatory Vß-specific Qa-1-restricted CD8+ T cells induced during the first endogenous CD4+ T cell responses are able to control the expansion of subsequently mobilized pathogenic autoreactive CD4+ T cells. (
  • In conclusion, apart from the immunotherapeutic TCV, Qa-1-restricted specialized CD8+ regulatory T cells can also be induced during endogenous CD4+ T cell responses. (
  • Peyer's patches: organizing B-cell responses at the intestinal frontier. (
  • Merchant and colleagues also suggest that T-cell-depleting cancer therapies may eliminate beneficial immune responses and that immune reconstitution of patients with lymphopenic cancer could prevent metastatic recurrence of solid tumors. (
  • In summary, current models hold that tumor antigens are present and induce immune reactivity during incipient tumor growth and that tumors subsequently develop properties to evade these immune responses. (
  • Vaccines have been designed as a means of providing a targeted tumor antigen with an appropriate costimulatory signal to enhance T-cell responses. (
  • B cells have mainly been recognized for their antibody-secreting function in humoral immune responses. (
  • Furthermore, during immune responses armed helper T cells interact with B cells by expression of CD40 Ligand (CD40L), which thereby become activated and in turn start to proliferate and differentiate. (
  • This model is indeed suitable to study the ability of mCD40B cells to induce protective anti-tumour responses in vivo. (
  • We clearly identifed injection route, cell dose and vaccination repetitions as parameters exerting dominant infuence on the effective induction of specifc T cell responses by mCD40B. (
  • A dataset of experimentally validated A-cell epitopes was collected and compiled from various resources. (
  • To predict A-cell epitopes, we developed support vector machine-based machine learning models using different sequence-based features. (
  • The models developed in this study were implemented in a web-based platform VaxinPAD to predict and design immunomodulatory peptides or A-cell epitopes. (
  • It is unclear whether MHC class II + tumor cells present class II-restricted epitopes derived from other intracellular compartments, such as nuclei and/or mitochondria, and whether class II + tumor cells directly present Ag in vivo. (
  • Because class II + tumor cells are effective APC in vivo and probably present novel tumor Ag epitopes not presented by host-derived APC, their inclusion in cancer vaccines may enhance activation of tumor-reactive CD4 + T cells. (
  • Whether MHC class II + tumor cells directly present class II-restricted epitopes from diverse subcellular compartments or are APC in vivo remains unknown. (
  • The resulting cells were tested as APC for three HEL epitopes in vitro. (
  • Several cytotoxic T-cell epitopes for HER2/neu have been identified that enable the design of peptide-based therapeutic vaccines for tumors expressing this TAA. (
  • We describe here a strategy to identify helper T-cell epitopes for HER2/neu that focuses on peptides predicted to bind to numerous histocompatibility alleles (promiscuous epitopes), which would encourage their use in therapeutic vaccines for the general cancer patient population. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Defining promiscuous MHC class II helper T-cell epitopes for the HER2/neu tumor antigen. (
  • Stem Cells Translational Medicine , "Identification of novel HLA-A*0201-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes on CD133 for cancer stem cell immunotherapy," Available online 12/27/13. (
  • The amino acid differences between these subtypes mean that each differs slightly in the specific antigens it is able to bind. (
  • In vivo studies demonstrate that class II + tumor cells, and not host-derived cells, are the predominant APC for class II-restricted nuclear Ags. (
  • In vivo immunization experiments, using the class II + tumor cells containing HEL localized to the nucleus, demonstrated that the tumor cells are the predominant APC in vivo for priming naive CD4 + T cells. (
  • In this paper we show that the susceptibility of protein antigens to lysosomal proteolysis plays an important role in determining immunogenicity in vivo. (
  • The in vivo -jetRNA injectable mRNA transfection reagent has been presented at the European Society of Cell and Gene Therapy 27th Annual Congress in Barcelona, Spain, 22-25 October, 2019. (
  • APC recruitment is expected to contribute to the development of an antitumoral immune response, and such an effect has been demonstrated in a number of animal studies in which the forced expression of chemokines, such as RANTES, by tumor cell lines resulted in a decreased pathogenicity of these cells in vivo. (
  • In contrast, the therapeutic potential of autologous antigen-specific T cells has yet to be established since it has been technically difficult to generate sufficient numbers of these T cells, ex vivo. (
  • Dendritic cells as antigen presenting cells in vivo. (
  • Accordingly, in vivo calcineurin inhibition leads the most self-reactive naive CD4 T cells to adopt the phenotype of their less self-reactive cell-counterparts. (
  • In some respects, dendritic cells cultured in vitro do not show the same behaviour or capability as dendritic cells isolated ex vivo . (
  • Recently, we demonstrated that murine CD40B cells (mCD40B) specifically migrate to secondary lymphoid organs in vivo. (
  • However, most B cell-based vaccines tested so far failed to induce functional and protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) re- sponses in animal models in vivo. (
  • Incorporating these parameters into the vaccination algorithm, I showed that mCD40B induce in vivo cytolysis of antigen-specific target cells comparable to mDC. (
  • We developed a novel strategy to block immune escape by transfecting tumor cells in vivo with genes of pathogenic antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). (
  • T cells recognize protein antigens as short peptides processed and displayed by antigen-presenting cells. (
  • However, the mechanism of peptide selection is incompletely understood, and, consequently, the differences in the immunogenicity of protein antigens remain largely unpredictable and difficult to manipulate. (
  • Dendritic cells pulsed with protein antigens in vitro can prime antigen-specific, MHC-restricted T cells in situ. (
  • After lysosomes fuse with the phagosome, protein antigens are degraded by proteases into a series of peptides. (
  • In mammals, dendritic cells (DCs) form the key link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. (
  • Cooperates with LY96 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipoproteins and other microbial cell wall components. (
  • Some cells of the innate immune system directly present microbial antigens to T cells to initiate an adaptive immune response . (
  • These results identify ssRNA as a ligand for TLR7 and suggest that cells of the innate immune system sense endosomal ssRNA to detect infection by RNA viruses. (
  • These immature dendritic cells are ineffective at presenting antigen to T helper cells. (
  • T-helper type 1 cells are one of the major disease-mediating T-cell subsets and require interferon-γ signaling and Tbet expression for their function. (
  • Using an established murine model that isolates the autoimmune component of graft- versus -host disease, we hypothesized that T-helper type 1 cells would restrict FoxP3-driven regulatory T cells. (
  • T-helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17 cells mediate distinct acute graft- versus -host disease (GvHD) syndromes. (
  • Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. (
  • As such, dendritic cells, T helper cells, B cells, and plasma cells all contribute to the aberrant polyclonal autoimmunity. (
  • C) Polyclonal lymphocyte expansion has multiple effects on the disease process and genetic variants further affect the differentiation of T helper cells. (
  • Vitamin D Regulates MerTK-Dependent Phagocytosis in Human Myeloid Cells. (
  • In an experimental model of multiple sclerosis, we show that accumulation of myelin-specific CD4 + T cells within the CNS and subsequent clinical disease development requires autophagy protein (ATG)-dependent phagocytosis in dendritic cells (DCs). (
  • Tumor cell-based vaccines are another vital area of research. (
  • These formulations generally comprise hybridoma of at least one antigen presenting cell fused to either at least one tumor cell or at least one virally infected cell, or the products of co-cultures of antigen presenting cells and either tumor cells or virally infected cells. (
  • Notwithstanding the intense effort directed toward unraveling the mechanisms underlying cancer cell death, much less attention have been devoted to understanding the host response to tumor cell demise. (
  • However, a number of studies have demonstrated that the infiltration of tumors by macrophages and DCs contributed to their aggressive phenotype by supplying different classes of factors necessary for tumor cell proliferation and invasiveness, such as growth and angiogenic factors, as well as proteolytic enzymes ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • And when we're talking about phagocytes or macrophages or dendritic cells that are particular cases of phagocytes, the major histocompatibility complexes that they present after they've digested this molecule-- this is an MHC class II. (
  • protein complexes are expressed, and act as antigens, on the surface of every cell that is involved in immunological functions. (
  • They can form immune complexes, label antigens for removal by other cells, or block the ability of a virus to enter its target cell. (
  • antigen-MHC protein complexes. (
  • An alternative way, referred to as 'cross-dressing', by which an uninfected APC could present antigen was postulated to be by the transfer of preformed peptide-MHC complexes from the surface of an infected cell to the APC without the need of further processing 3 . (
  • Dolan, B. P., Gibbs, K. D., Jr & Ostrand-Rosenberg, S. Dendritic cells cross-dressed with peptide MHC class I complexes prime CD8 + T cells. (
  • Dolan, B. P., Gibbs, K. D., Jr & Ostrand-Rosenberg, S. Tumor-specific CD4 + T cells are activated by "cross-dressed" dendritic cells presenting peptide-MHC class II complexes acquired from cell-based cancer vaccines. (
  • Indeed, during differentiation, those immature T cells (thymocytes) that do not have an appropriate TCR capable of recognizing MHC that presents self peptides die in the thymus by apoptosis because the TCR transmits survival signals to the T cell only if it binds to self peptide-MHC complexes with sufficient affinity. (
  • The natural ligands of Vγ9Vδ2 are phosphoantigen by-products of the non-mevalonate pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis produced in bacteria and some cancer cells. (
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for dendritic and antigen presenting cell research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (
  • The Tbet pathway therefore directly impairs T-regulatory-cell reconstitution and is consequently a feasible target in efforts to prevent autoimmune graft- versus -host disease. (
  • Classification of contact allergens by antigen processing pathway may predict the relative roles of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the immunopathogensis of allergic contact dermatitis. (
  • Blocking this pathway caused the most Self-reactive T cells to lose their bias, and instead develop in the same way as the least Self-reactive T cells. (
  • This observation, and evidence that they also respond to the inactivated nonreplicating virus ( 10 ), suggests that PDC possess a dsRNA-independent pathway for recognizing influenza. (
  • They recognize and phagocytose invading microbes or their products at a site of infection and then migrate with their prey to a nearby peripheral lymphoid organ . (
  • Once activated, some of the T cells then migrate to the site of infection, where they help other phagocytic cells, mainly macrophages, destroy the microbes ( Figure 24-5 ). (
  • It is mostly responsible for fighting microbes and antigens or foreign substances inside the cells. (
  • Phagocytes , cells capable of engulfing microbes, are often the first to approach these substances. (
  • The end result of these various events is the destruction of cells infected with the antigen or the destruction of engulfed microbes such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi . (
  • Eosinophils, incubated with OVA Ag in vitro, were instilled intratracheally into wild-type recipient mice that adoptively received i.v. infusions of OVA Ag-specific CD4 + T cells from OVA TCR transgenic mice. (
  • 14. The formulation of claim 13, wherein said dendritic cells are selected from the group consisting of cutaneous epidermal Langerhans cells, dermal dendritic cells, lymph node dendritic cells, spleen dendritic cells and dendritic cells derived through in vitro culture of precursors. (
  • These cells can also induce T-cell proliferation in vitro. (
  • CD40-B cells were shown to not only prime naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells effciently, but also expand memory T cells in vitro. (
  • Furthermore they express the full lymph node homing triad (CD62L, CCR7/CXCR4 and LFA-1) and were shown to induce T-cell chemotaxis in vitro. (
  • regulatory T cells from lung cancer patients directly inhibit autologous T cell proliferation. (
  • CCK8 was used to assess CD4+ T cells proliferation after co-cultured with DCs stimulated by MDP and P. gingivalis -LPS, respectively or in synergism and ELISA was used to detect IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-13 secreted by these T cells. (
  • MDP could promote CD4+T cells proliferation primed by DCs exposed to P. gingivalis -LPS and elevate the ability of DCs exposed to P. gingivalis -LPS to prime Th0 cells to Th2 cells. (
  • Although the economies of cell proliferation and accumulation dominate cell demise during disease progression, pathologic examination of established cancers typically reveals evidence for both single cell and zonal areas of tumor death. (
  • Using a mutant form of PKCθ that cannot bind pTyr (PKCθ), we showed that pTyr binding by PKCθ was required for TCR-induced T cell activation, proliferation, and T2 cell differentiation but not for T cell development. (
  • These cells, if released into circulation, could cause autoimmune diseases . (
  • Sometimes cells present the wrong passport, which can lead to autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, or cancer. (
  • Presenting the wrong antigens leads to either healthy cells being attacked by the immune system - causing autoimmune diseases or chronic inflammation - or to diseased cells not being recognized, allowing cancer cells or virus-infected cells to escape immune surveillance. (
  • In the case of tumor-specific CD8 + and CD4 + T cell activation, the Ag-specific signal consists of an epitope derived from a tumor-associated Ag bound to an MHC class I or II molecule, respectively. (
  • 7] The differences of MHC molecule amino acid sequence result in distinct host epitope preference and response magnitude to the same antigen. (
  • Thus, re-entry of such allergen could incite the IgE on mast cells and basophils to recognize its epitope. (
  • Rather than initially processing it, and then presenting the epitope on its surface, it hands over the allergen inside a micro-vesicle to the adjacent mast cells. (
  • The antibody MEM-12 recognizes common epitope on human HLA-DR which is dependent on the association of alpha and beta chains. (
  • T cells naturally circulate throughout the body looking for foreign substances. (
  • These foreign substances, called antigens , are usually an outside invader like a bacterium or virus, that activates the T cell, which then initiates an immune response to neutralize the antigen. (
  • Cells that release histamine and other substances involved in allergic reactions. (
  • The immune system protects the body from foreign substances (generally referred to as antigens ) that could pose a threat to our well-being. (
  • It occurs as a result of the release of inflammatory substances from mast cells and basophils upon exposure to an allergen. (
  • Furthermore, this approach can be harnessed to generate T cells to diverse tumor types by pairing the specificity of the introduced CAR with expression of the TAA, recognized by the CAR, on the aAPC. (
  • T cell specificity is determined in the thymus, an immune organ that is specialized for the production of T cells. (
  • With the increasing prevalence of asthma and related allergic disorders ( 9 ), attention has focused on cells that mediate or modulate ongoing Ag-dependent allergic airways inflammation in response to inhaled Ags. (
  • They have the ability to deliver cargo to specific immune cells and modulate the resulting immune response. (
  • To decipher the molecular mechanisms governing this process, we here focus on the TCR signaling cascade and demonstrate that a rise in intracellular calcium levels is sufficient to modulate the phenotype of mouse naive CD4 T cells and to increase their sensitivity to regulatory T-cell polarization signals, both processes relying on calcineurin activation. (
  • Activation of T cells also requires a second signal provided by a costimulatory molecule. (
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) consists of over 90% of oral cancer characterized by local invasion, aggressive growth pattern, cervical lymph node spread, and high mortality rate [ 1 ]. (
  • It moves from the tissue to lymph nodes, where it encounters and activates T cells. (
  • Airway DCs can capture inhaled Ag, migrate to regional paratracheal lymph nodes (pLNs), and present Ag to naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells ( 10 ). (
  • The lymphatic system acts as a secondary circulatory system, except it collaborates with white blood cells in lymph nodes to protect the body from being infected by cancer cells, fungi, viruses or bacteria. (
  • Lymph originates as blood plasma that leaks from the capillaries of the circulatory system, becoming interstitial fluid, filling the space between individual cells of tissue. (
  • A pAPC that has trapped a specific antigen will travel to a lymph node and display that antigen to a naive, untrained T cell. (
  • Now, the next thing that happens is that these B cells and T cells, once they're ready, are going to migrate to a lymph node, and you have lymph nodes all over your body, about 600 of them. (
  • So here's the lymph node, and you're going to have your B and T cells, all the different kinds of them, lying in wait there. (
  • And so, the way that they do that is that they come here into these lymphatic vessels, which start here in the tissue, and they go up to the lymph node where they're going to present these bacteria to these cells. (
  • It, then, migrates to a nearby lymph node, waiting for a T lymphocyte to recognize it. (
  • In cancer, IDO expression in tumor cells and antigen-presenting cells present in tumor-draining lymph nodes mediates an important mechanism of immune escape ( 6 ). (
  • An antigen is a foreign molecule that, when introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system. (
  • The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen-presenting cell. (
  • The TCR recognizes the surface created by the MHC molecule and the presented peptide, which is sometimes antigenic. (
  • Most of the interacting surface of the antigen-MHC complex is contributed by amino acid residues of the MHC molecule. (
  • However, like most cells, Schwann cells express major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I), which occupy the most gene-dense region of the mammalian genome and play an important role in the immune system and autoimmunity. (
  • Interestingly, one of these peptides, HER2(883), was recognized by T cells in the context of either HLA-DR1, HLA-DR4, HLA-DR52, and HLA-DR53, indicating a high degree of histocompatibility promiscuity. (
  • Continuous contact with self-major histocompatibility complex ligands is essential for the survival of naive CD4 T cells. (
  • The researchers identified certain fragments of a protein - CD133 - that is found on cancer stem cells of some brain tumors and other cancers. (
  • We have found at least two fragments of the protein that can be targeted to trigger an immune response to kill tumor cells. (
  • If these components include fragments of viruses or altered cell components, the affected cell is eliminated by the T cells. (
  • The immune system will then kill or neutralize the antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invader. (
  • These activated specific CTLs recognize, neutralize and destroy, through cell lysis, HER2 expressing cancer cells, including occult cancer cells and micrometastatic foci. (
  • A substantial body of recent evidence demonstrates that granulocytes can acquire the function as antigen-presenting cells under pathological or inflammatory conditions. (
  • CCDC88B is required for mobility and inflammatory functions of dendritic cells. (
  • During inflammation and infection, "inflammatory" Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) 3 active at mucosal sites may derive from Gr1 + monocytes ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Anichkov's cell a plump modified histiocyte in the inflammatory lesions of the heart (Aschoff bodies) characteristic of rheumatic fever. (
  • A healthy gut depends on a balance of inflammatory and tolerant T cells, which make up part of the adaptive immune system. (
  • More inflammatory-type T cells and less tolerant-type T cells were found in the colon of mice without gp96 as compared to wild-type mice. (
  • The first human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype association with human inflammatory disease was discovered in 1972, correlating HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis. (
  • Within the tumor microenvironment, the capture of apoptotic tumor cells by macrophages and dendritic cells may trigger tolerance networks that contribute to immune suppression, whereas the uptake of necrotic cancer cells may engender inflammatory pathways that fuel antitumor cytotoxicity. (
  • 2. After internalizing the antigen, the APC releases inflammatory signals to recruit other immune cells and presents the antigen on its surface to a T cell. (
  • In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen-presenting capacity of granulocyte subsets (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils). (
  • Functionally distinct T-cell subsets are broadly identified according to their differential expression of CD4 and CD8 coreceptors. (
  • At variance with other regulatory T cell subsets, the action of these Qa-1-restricted T cells seems to be restricted to the immediate re-activation of CD4+ T cells. (
  • Thus, PRRs and their ligands have important roles in DCs maturation and antigen-presenting function. (
  • 1. any of the protoplasmic masses making up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm enclosed in a cell or plasma membrane. (
  • Arias-Stella cells columnar cells in the endometrial epithelium which have a hyperchromatic enlarged nucleus and which appear to be associated with chorionic tissue in an intrauterine or extrauterine site. (
  • It was not until the 1970s that Steinman and Cohn clearly identified the DC as a distinct cell type with unique morphology, tissue distribution, cell-surface phenotype, and function ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • The problem arises when tumors sometimes resemble healthy tissue, escaping the antigen-presenting drag-net. (
  • As plasmid DNA, mRNA can be used to transiently express a specific antigen into an organism or tissue. (
  • And now these guys are ready, and so the next step is really infection, so let's look at a tissue in your body with some cells. (
  • Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Human HLA-DR. (
  • The Vδ1 lineage and the Vδ1 neg Vδ2 neg lineage in the expanded populations are less differentiated and show potent antibody-independent cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma cells. (
  • The professional APC family consists of dendritic cells (DCs), B cells, and monocytes/macrophages, among which DCs are the most potent due to their superior ability to prime naïve T cells. (
  • T cells used in a donor lymphocyte infusion or as part of a stem cell transplant can have potent graft-versus-leukemia effects. (
  • Dendritic cells are the most potent of all the antigen-presenting cells. (
  • We established a murine B-cell stimulation system based on potent B-cell activation maintained by co-cultivation with membrane-bound CD40 ligand and interleukin-4. (
  • After encountering its antigen, the naive T cell activates and then develops into a variety of immune cells, each with a specific activity. (
  • Since MHCI and MHCII present different antigens, each activates a different subset of T cells. (
  • The vaccine is administered to the host in a manner that induces an immune response directed against the TCR of a pathologic T cell. (
  • In humans, bone marrow in large bones produces new blood cells. (
  • So, here's a bone and inside it we have some bone marrow, and it's from there that B cells come from. (
  • But the process by which the B cells are prepared in the bone marrow is actually very interesting and unique in terms of the human body. (
  • But, for B cells there's something very different from other parts of your body, and that is that each daughter cell that grows up in the bone marrow is different from its parent and is also different from all of its siblings. (
  • And, basically the same exact thing is happening for T cells, except it's not happening in the bone marrow, that's happening here. (
  • Equivalent results were obtained with Flt3L expanded cells from bone marrow ( Fig. 1B ) ( 13 ). (
  • Dendritic cells are derived from hemopoietic bone marrow progenitor cells. (
  • T cells begin their life cycle in the bone marrow, where, like B cells, they are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. (
  • These events are described in detail in the article immune system , but they can be summarized as follows: special types of white blood cells called polymorphonuclear leukocytes or granulocytes , which are normally manufactured in the bone marrow and which circulate in the blood, move to the site of the infection. (